Document Sample
Instructor_s_ Powered By Docstoc

Roger Spicer

Roger Spicer writes and instructs online courses on a variety of wireless technology topics, from wireless
home networking to implementing the wireless mobile office. A writer and trainer in the computer networking
field for more than 15 years, Roger has written and presented numerous courses for instructor-led CBT and
Web-based training and seminars. He's also managed, developed, or provided technical review for several
industry certification exams. Other projects have included magazine articles, white papers, and two books
on networking, including Novell's Guide to Multiprotocol Internetworking. When he is not banging the
keyboard, Roger can often be found hiking through the redwoods of central California or sleeping on his


Lesson 1: Plan for Data Protection

In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of preparing your computer for a disaster. You'll learn how your data is
vulnerable to loss, find out how to select the appropriate data to protect, and get basic backup strategy tips.

Lesson 2: Select Backup Media and Use Backup Software

After you've decided on a solid backup strategy, you need to select the appropriate backup media. This
lesson explores various types of backup media and software, and shows you how to perform a backup using
Microsoft® Backup.

Lesson 3: Restore Your Data

In this lesson, you'll learn the steps to take when your system fails and how to retrieve data from a backup.
You'll see how your backup media and strategy choices impact the data restoration process and learn how
to get back on your feet quickly.

Lesson 4: Protect Against Data Loss

Data protection isn't all about backups. You should also protect yourself from data loss in the first place. In
this lesson, you'll learn about viruses, spyware, power surges, and other threats to your system, and ways
you can keep your data safe.

Page 1: Introduction

Have you ever lost everything on your hard drive? Just about everyone has experienced the devastation of
losing data; if you haven't, it's only a matter of time. This course will help you prepare for such disasters by
teaching you how to back up your data securely. You'll also learn about the threat viruses and spyware pose
to your data and how you can keep your computer free of these types of malware.

This course is aimed at anyone who stores information on their computer that they can't afford to lose.

Here's what to expect in the lessons:
        Lesson 1 covers the basics of preparing your computer for a disaster. You'll learn how your data is
         vulnerable to loss, find out how to select the appropriate data to protect, and get basic backup
         strategy tips.
        Lesson 2 explores backup media, including online storage, and helps you decide which type or
         combination is right for you. You'll also learn how to use Microsoft® Backup to back up your files,
         and take a look at third-party software.
        Lesson 3 discusses the steps you should take when your system fails and how to retrieve data
         from a backup. You'll see how your backup media and strategy choices impact the data restoration
         process and learn how to get back on your feet quickly.
        Lesson 4 explores how to protect your data by running antivirus and antispyware software. You'll
         learn about viruses, spyware, power surges, and other threats to your system, and ways you can
         keep your data safe.

Beyond the lessons, be sure to complete the assignments and quizzes. When you're done with those, visit
the Message Board. It's the perfect place to discuss course topics and swap questions and comments with
other students and your instructor.

Take a few moments to meet your instructor and fellow students on the course Message Board, and let
them know a little about you.

Let's get started with the topics in Lesson 1.

Page 2: Disasters Happen

It's a simple question: Why should you spend your valuable time and effort backing up your data? There's an
equally simple answer: Sooner or later, you're going to lose that data.

How Can You Lose Data?

There are innumerable types of disasters that may strike your data -- some are natural and some are
manmade. Let's take a look at a few of the common reasons computers lose stored data:

        Hardware failure: Hard disks can have mechanical failures, develop bad sectors, or just
         completely stop working one day, all of which can cause your data to disappear.
        Software failure: Operating system crashes, software application errors, and lockups can all
         cause data to become damaged or corrupted, not to mention the destruction that may occur if your
         computer becomes infected with a computer virus.
        Natural disasters: Floods, fires, tornadoes, and hurricanes don't occur every day, but when they
         do, they tend to have quite an impact on computer components involved and the data stored within
        Human error: A roommate, spouse, parent, or child with good intentions may inadvertently change
         or delete important data. You may even accidentally slip with the mouse yourself, permanently
         deleting a document when you shouldn't have. Spilled coffee on a computer poses a big hazard,

Although these occurrences may seem very remote to you at the moment, chances are one of these
situations will occur. If you place any value on your data, spending a small amount of time making backups
will be well rewarded when you encounter one of these situations.

If your data is not backed up, you risk losing e-mail correspondence, address book information, Web site
favorites, tax records, banking information, and documents and photos. Much of that information is difficult
or impossible to replace.

The most important thing to remember about disasters is that they occur with very little warning. You may be
able to spot a hurricane coming but you probably won't have time to run a system backup before you're
evacuated. Therefore, it's critical that you develop a backup plan to protect your data and stick to it
religiously. Murphy's Law applies to computing -- if you fail to back up your data one week, that's the week
that your system will fail.

Now that you've given some thought to the worst-case scenarios that could occur, move on to the first step
in protecting yourself: the vulnerability assessment.

Page 3: Assess Vulnerability

So far, you've thought about the disasters that are likely and not so likely to occur. Now it's time to look at
your risks and decide how you will mitigate them.

Computer security professionals who are responsible for protecting a large organization's data use a
technique known as vulnerability assessment to evaluate the risks facing their environment. This is a
formal process that involves a good deal of documentation and structured risk analysis. You're obviously not
going to conduct weeks of meetings and formal analysis to protect your home computer, but you can
certainly take a few lessons from the professionals. The following sections describe a simplified vulnerability
assessment that you might want to perform for your home system.

Determine the Risks

It's important for you to take the time to seriously think about the potential risks in your environment. For
example, if you're on the top floor of a building, the impact of a leaky roof bears consideration. Many types of
risks are environment-specific. For example, if you live in North Dakota, there isn't much chance that you're
going to experience a tropical storm. On the other hand, residents of Florida probably don't need to worry
about the effect a blizzard might have on their data.

Evaluate the Likelihood

Some disasters are more likely to occur than others. Review your list of risks and determine which ones are
likely to happen in your environment.

For example, your city or county may be prone to flooding in the spring or in times of heavy rain, yet your
home may always be "high and dry." If the worst flooding in the past 30 years has not come near your home,
your risk of flood damage is low. On the other hand, if the area in which you live has its fair share of
thunderstorms and rainy, windy weather, and the electric power to your house usually flickers or goes out
during these events, the likelihood that you could lose some data when power suddenly goes out is fair to

If you use e-mail and have access to the Internet, the likelihood that your computer is at risk from any
number of viruses, some of which can be devastating to your data, is fairly high.

Assess the Potential Damage

Some disasters cause more damage than others. The theft of your entire computer system might cause
complete data loss (absent a backup, of course). On the other hand, a hardware failure or power outage
might cause you to lose only small amounts of data.

At the conclusion of this process, analyze your findings. Compare the likelihood of a disaster with the impact
it could have on your system. When both of these elements are high, you need to take action to manage that
risk. When only one is high, consider the level of effort that's appropriate. You shouldn't spend thousands of
dollars to protect yourself against a disaster that might never occur. Neither should you spend thousands of
dollars to protect against an anticipated loss of $200 or $300.

Much of the data stored on home computers can't be measured by a simple dollar value. How much are the
digital photos of your family reunion worth? Very little in terms of monetary value, but to you and your family,
they are priceless.
Once you've determined the vulnerabilities that pose the greatest threats to your system, you have several
options for managing those risks, as described in the next two sections.

Risk Acceptance

Perhaps the simplest option, it means you do absolutely nothing. You acknowledge that the risk is present
but choose not to take any action to reduce the impact that risk might have on your data. People commonly
choose this option when the likelihood of a specific disaster occurring is extremely low -- a major earthquake
happening in central Ohio, for example.

Risk Mitigation

The most common option, risk mitigation seeks to minimize the impact that a disaster might have on your
data. The most common risk mitigation techniques used to prevent data loss are solid backup strategies
(used to restore data in the event of loss) and security programs such as antivirus packages (used to reduce
the risk in the first place). Properly managed risk mitigation techniques can greatly reduce the threats facing
your data.

Performing a risk assessment is important, even for home users. After all, you need to know what the
greatest risks to your data are before you can protect against them. A good risk assessment will also keep
you from going overboard and spending far too much money on an enterprise-level data protection system,
when a simpler one would serve your needs just as well.

Now that you've decided the level of risk that you're willing to accept and what you'll do to mitigate the rest,
read on to learn what types of data you should back up.

Page 4: What Should You Back Up?

So far, you've thought about the disasters that can occur and conducted a vulnerability assessment for your
data as a whole. Next let's go a bit deeper and decide which data you really need to back up and what you
can safely ignore.

Ideally, you should back up all data. However, depending on the speed of your computer, the size of your
hard disk, and the type of backup hardware you want to use, backing up every file each time you do a
backup may not be the most practical approach to take. Although you should initially perform a full backup of
all your data, the regular backups you perform from that point on should focus on the data that matters most
to you.

In most situations, it isn't necessary for you to back up the programs you have installed on your computer.
The applications, games, or utilities you currently have, as well as the operating system, most likely can be
reinstalled using the original disks or downloaded again.

The following sections offer recommendations regarding specific data you may want to back up.

Depending on the specific system configuration, the locations may vary slightly. However, you can always
search for the file name.

My Documents

Usually located on the C drive, My Documents is where many applications save your data by default. Back
up this and any other folder you normally use to store data, including all subfolders.

My Pictures

Usually located on the C drive, My Picture is where many applications save your digital images by default.
Back up this and any other folder you normally use to store your photos, including all subfolders. With more
and more photos being stored digitally, it's wise to keep current backups of all those precious moments -- or
risk losing them forever.


These are personal information files, such as bank account or tax information, stored by programs such as
Intuit Quicken® or TurboTax®. These files are often stored in their corresponding program folders.


This is an important collection of data that many people forget to back up. It includes all of your e-mail
correspondence and your address book. The location where e-mail is stored may vary, depending on the e-
mail program you use. For Microsoft® Outlook Express, e-mail should be located at
C:\Windows\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook Express, and your address book should be located at
C:\Windows\Application Data\Microsoft\Address Book. If you're using Microsoft® Outlook, you should
search for the personal folders file named outlook.pst.


If you're using Microsoft Internet Explorer®, your Web favorites can be found at C:\ Docum e nts and
Settings\ user name \Favorites. If you're using Netscape, select Start > Find, and then search your C
drive for a file named bookmark.htm -- this file contains all of your bookmarks.

The items in the preceding list are not, by any means, meant to constitute a complete list. If you have data
you believe to be important, then you should certainly back it up as well.

So far, you've thought about what could happen to your data, decided how vulnerable you are to losing data,
and decided what you need to back up. The next section discusses some backup strategies.

Page 5: Explore Types of Backups

By now, you probably have a fairly long list of data that you need to back up. You could simply back all of it
up every day, but that would be time-consuming and cumbersome.

There are a number of different types of backups you can perform on your system. Each backs up a
different subset of files and enables you to minimize the amount of media required to protect your data and
the amount of time required to complete the backup.

The three main types of backups examined in this lesson are:

       Full
       Differential
       Incremental
       Daily
Full Backup

A full backup creates a backup of all of the data you've decided to protect. The major advantage to full
backups is that a single backup contains all of the protected data that you'd need to restore. The
disadvantage is that a full backup requires an extremely large amount of space available on the storage
media. For example, if you're backing up 30 GB (gigabytes) of data, each full backup requires 30 GB of
storage space.

Despite this disadvantage, full backups must be a component of every backup strategy. At the very least,
you need to complete one full backup at the beginning of your backup program to set a baseline.
Differential Backups

When you initiate a differential backup, the backup software scans the full list of protected files and searches
for any file that has been modified or created since the time of the last full backup. Differential backups back
up only a small portion of the total protected data, so they take significantly less time and space than a full
backup, making them an ideal solution for cases where these resources are scarce. Differential backups
take more time to restore data because you may need to use several differential backups to fully restore
your data.

Incremental Backups

Incremental backups provide more performance enhancements over differential backups by further reducing
the amount of data stored on each set of backup media. They accomplish this by eliminating the duplication
of information that occurs between differential backups.

Here's an example. Suppose you conduct a full backup of your system every Sunday and then capture
changed files with a differential backup every weekday. Now, imagine that you record a new song that
you've written on Monday afternoon and that audio file contains 150 MB (megabytes) of data. When you
conduct differential backups, they back up all of the files that have been created or modified since the most
recent full backup. In this case, the only full backup was on Sunday, so the new audio file is backed up every
day in the differential backup. This results in the differential backup growing in size every day until the next
full backup takes place.

Incremental backups, on the other hand, back up all files that have been created or modified since the time
of the last full backup or the last incremental backup. So if you did a full backup on Monday and conducted
incremental instead of differential backups every weekday, the 150 MB audio file is stored only in Monday's
incremental backup.

Daily Backups

The daily backup captures all of the files created or modified during a specific calendar day. For example, if
you conduct a daily backup on Monday afternoon, it backs up all of the files that were created or modified on
Monday up until that time.

Microsoft Backup supports this type of backup, although it's not commonly used. There really aren't many
situations where you'd want to incorporate daily backups into your backup strategy. As you learn on the next
page of this lesson, you can develop a suitable backup strategy through the use of full backups in
conjunction with differential backups and/or incremental backups. The calendar-oriented nature of daily
backups limits their usefulness. For example, what happens if the daily backup runs a little early? It might
miss important data that was created at the end of the day.

Microsoft Backup supports one more type of backup -- the copy backup. This strategy backs up all of the
protected files and produces the same output as a full backup. However, it does not alter the system backup
records so it will not affect future differential backups or incremental backups. This type of backup is
sometimes used when you want to create a stand-alone backup set, perhaps for offsite storage.

After you've analyzed risk, determined which data you should protect, and decided on a backup strategy, the
next step is to develop a backup plan.

Page 6: Create a Strategic Backup Plan

Your backup plan should include the following elements:

        The types of protective measures that you're planning to take. This should include data backups
         and virus and spyware protection. (You'll learn about antivirus and antispyware software in Lesson
        The specific data that will be protected.
        The type of backup media that you'll use to store your data. Your plan should also include the way
         this media will be stored. Lesson 2 discusses various types of backup media.
        The backup strategy you'll use to protect your data.

A good backup strategy should include the following:

        Full b ackup schedule: You need at least one full backup to develop a baseline for your system.
         After that, you should do this on a recurring basis to reduce the number of backup sets to maintain.
         Most home users conduct a full backup on a weekly or monthly basis, depending on the amount of
         data they back up and how often it changes.
        Type of regular backup: This is the type of backup that occurs at more frequent intervals -- either
         differential or incremental. To reduce the time required to restore data, choose differential backups.
         To minimize the time required to conduct the periodic backup, chose incremental backups.
        Regular backup schedule: This schedule is the frequency with which you conduct periodic
         backups. The choice of frequency depends on how much data you consider to be an acceptable
         loss. If you decide that you can't afford to lose more than a day's worth of work, you need to
         conduct a full backup once a week with either differential or incremental backups on a daily basis.

Creating a backup plan is a relatively simple task -- sticking to it is a bit more difficult. Don't fall into the trap
of letting the backup go unperformed for another day (or week, or month) until you have some free time -- it's
important to back up data regularly.

Moving On

In this lesson, you learned a bit about data protection and backup techniques. Lesson 2 delves into the
various types of backup media that you may want to use. Before you move on to Lesson 2, be sure to
complete the assignment for this lesson and take the quiz. Don't forget to stop by the course Message Board
to see what your fellow students have to say.

Page 1: Explore Types of Media

Almost every computer user is familiar with the use of CDs to transfer data. In fact, when you purchase new
software from a store, it most likely comes on a CD-R or DVD-R. (The "R" part means you can't change the
contents of the media.) You can also use CDs and DVDs for backup purposes.

Media refers to the type of storage, such as a removable USB (universal serial bus) drive or DVD, on which
you store your backup data.

Most computers now have the capability to burn (record) data on CDs and DVDs. If your computer doesn't
have this capability, you can add it by buying and installing a combo CD/DVD drive with writing capabilities.

CDs and DVDs are known as optical media because they use laser light to record and read data.
Traditional tape backup media -- and hard disk drives -- use magnetism for the same purpose and are
therefore referred to as magnetic media. Optical media comes in several forms:

        Recordable (R) format: CD-Rs and DVD-Rs are purchased blank, and users with CD or DVD
         burners can write data to them. However, this process is permanent. Once data is written to a CD-
         R or DVD-R, it can't be deleted or modified. Recordable CDs can store about 640 MB of data.
         DVD-Rs, on the other hand, store up to 4.7 GB -- that's approximately 4,700 MB -- on each disc.

You'll also see CD+R and DVD+R formats. These are similar to "-R" formats but require a different burning
process. Most media burners manufactured today can burn both formats without error.

        Rewritable (RW) format: CD-RWs and DVD-RWs function in the same manner as recordable CDs
         and DVDs; however, users may erase and modify data stored on them. Their capacities are the
         same as recordable CDs and DVDs.
        Double -l ayer (dual-l ayer) DVD format: The newest DVD burners have faster data burn rates
         and can burn two layers of data onto a single DVD disc. Double-layer DVDs store up to 8.5 GB per

Speed and layering come with a significant disadvantage: reliability. Any increase in speed also increases
the likelihood of a flawed burn. This is compounded by the double layer of data being burned onto the disc.
Expect this new technology to improve rather quickly.

        Blu -ray Disc ™ and HD-DVD formats: These cutting-edge technologies can burn 15 to 50 GB of
         data to a special disc. HD-DVD stores up to about 30 GB, Blu-ray Disc can store up to 50 GB.

The tradeoff between the various types of optical media occurs with cost. You can buy blank CD-Rs and
DVD-Rs for mere pennies each if you shop around; double-layer DVD-Rs cost just over $1 each, but the
price continues to decrease. Blu-ray Disc and HD-DVD drives cost between $700 and $2,000, and the discs
run about $25.

It's likely that you already have a CD or DVD burner -- or a combo drive -- installed on your computer. If
you're storing data in the low-gigabyte range, optical media may be the most effective solution for your
backup strategy.

Use a Removable Drive

USB (universal serial bus) flash drives, also called thumb or jump drives, are another good option for backup
media. They're about the size of a keychain, plug directly into your PC's USB port, and act like a second
hard drive. Many manufacturers offer USB flash drives, which range in capacity from 128 MB to 4 GB and
cost $20 to $200.

The advantage of using a USB drive as your backup media is durability. CDs and DVDs are relatively easy
to damage, but a USB thumb drive is designed to be tossed around on your keychain.

Much like USB flash drives, you can get pocket or personal media drives that plug into a USB 2.0 port or into
a chassis on special PCs, respectively. Ranging in capacity from 80 to 750 GB, these drives are popular
with digital photo and music enthusiasts. The drives cost $80 to $500.
Use Remote Storage

With the widespread adoption of high-speed networking and broadband Internet connections, it's become
possible to transfer previously inconceivable amounts of data over a network at rapid speeds. Today's basic
LAN (local area network) technology can transmit data at speeds of 100 megabits per second. That means
transferring gigabytes of data takes only minutes instead of days.

Online Services

A number of commercial services, such as MediaNet, @backup, and ExaVault, provide secure servers on
the Internet where you can store your data. Many services provide up to 1 GB of storage free of charge,
charging a monthly fee for higher capacities.

Online data storage services used to be popular mainly for businesses. With the proliferation of consumer
digital photography, these services have captured a relatively large percentage of home users.
Before you sign up, remember you are trusting this company with your data. Read the terms of service
carefully so you know what they're doing with your information. A few online backup services have been
criticized for using their customers' stored data for research and marketing purposes.

Saving Copies to Another Computer

High-speed data transfer capability has led many users to back up their computers by transferring the data
to another computer, either in the same building or across the Internet.

Many homes now have multiple computers, and many people transfer data over a home network to back up
one computer to the other. In fact, many two-computer households have mutual backup scenarios where
both computers store their backups on the other.

Try a Hybrid Approach

You don't have to select a single type of backup media for your personal data protection solution. As with
many computing solutions, a hybrid approach -- that is, one that makes use of two or more backup
mechanisms -- often offers the most effective solution. Here are a few examples:

       Run a full backup of your system to DVD-RW media every week but save extremely important files
        to a CD-RW or USB drive each time you modify them, just to be on the safe side.
     Back up data to magnetic tape or DVD once or twice a week, and upload a full backup to an online
        data storage service every few weeks. If you travel frequently and still use your desktop as your
        primary computer, reverse it -- upload once or more each week (so you always have access to the
        most current data, wherever you are) and burn to DVD every other week.
Store Your Backups Safely

No matter what type of media you use for your backups, they must be stored carefully -- after all, if the
media is damaged, the backup is worthless. When storing media, use some commonsense rules: Store
them away from extreme heat, cold, and dampness; away from electrical or magnetic devices; and, if
possible, at a different location than your computer. Keeping backups in your desk drawer may be handy,
but it doesn't protect them from fire, floods, theft, or other dangers.

You should also think carefully about any other threats that the backups might face while in storage or in
transit to storage. For example, the heating coils in cars with heated seats generate a magnetic field that can
destroy backups on their way to a remote storage location.

Some safe ideas for storage places include a friend's home (the further away from your house, the better), a
fireproof container stored in an environmentally controlled location or a bank safe deposit box.

Now that you understand the various types of backup media, let's take a look at how to select the media that
suits your needs.

Page 2: Select Media

One of the most important decisions you'll make during the backup planning process is the choice of backup
media. As you learned in the last section, you have a wide variety to choose from: optical media (CDs and
DVDs), removable drives, magnetic tapes, and remote backup, among other solutions.

Your choice of backup media can influence the entire backup planning process. An easy way to remember
these influences is through the three Cs of data protection, as described in the following sections.


Different types of media have a wide range of capacities to store data. For example, a DVD stores just under
5 GB of data, whereas magnetic tapes are capable of storing hundreds of gigabytes of data.

     Costs are variable. Ordinary CD-Rs and DVD-Rs are fairly close in price, ranging from a few cents to about
     30 cents each. Double-layer DVDs cost about $1 each. Magnetic tape media generally ranges from $10 to
     $50 per tape. When considering cost, it's important to take into account two separate components: the cost
     of the media and the cost of the equipment necessary to read and write that media.

     Although the equipment is usually a one-time fixed cost, the media represents a variable cost. You need to
     purchase media as time goes on to build an archive of old backups and replace worn media.

     Remote storage solutions have become very affordable -- free in many cases. Many companies offer up to 1
     GB of storage capacity free of charge and provide service plans starting at $5 per month for higher


     A backup solution serves no purpose if you're not willing to keep your backups current. Some backup
     solutions are completely automated, requiring no operator intervention, whereas others may require a
     significant investment of your time to change media, initiate backups, and perform other administrative

     When you select media, you need to balance these three concerns based on your personal needs. If cost is
     not an issue, you can choose the solution that maximizes capacity and convenience. However, most people
     have cost limitations and must strive to seek some balance.

     Now that you know how to select media, find out how to use Microsoft Backup to perform your first full

     Page 3: Use Microsoft Backup

     It's no secret that the vast majority of computers in use today -- especially in home environments -- run some
     version of the Microsoft® Windows® operating system. Fortunately, Microsoft has included a versatile
     backup software package with Windows. If you're looking for a package that will get the job done, and you
     don't want to spend money on a third-party solution, chances are that Microsoft Backup is more than
     adequate for your needs.

     Microsoft Backup provides built-in support for all of the backup strategies discussed in Lesson 1.

     Creating a Full Backup

     To create a full backup with Microsoft Backup:

1.           In Microsoft® Windows® XP, select Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools >
     Backup. The Backup or Restore Wizard starts and asks if you want to start in wizard mode. Leave the
     Always start in wizard mode checkbox selected for now, and then click Next.

             Microsoft Backup refers to the full backup as a normal backup.

2.             The Backup or Restore screen asks if you want to back up files and settings or restore files and
     settings. The Back up files and settings option is selected by default, so click Next.
3.             In the What to Back Up screen, shown in Figure 2-1, you have several options. Select the Let me
     choose what to back up option, and then click Next.
     Figure 2-1: Selecting what to back up.

4.            In the Items to Back Up screen, place a check mark in the left pane next to the folders and files you
     want to back up. When you click any folder in the left pane, its contents are displayed on the right, as shown
     in Figure 2-2. When you're ready, click Next.

     Figure 2-2: Selecting files and folders to include in the backup.

     In the Backup Type, Destination, and Name screen, choose where to save your backup. If you're using a
     removable drive as your backup media, click the Browse button and navigate to the appropriate drive. If
     you're saving your backup to a location on your network or hard disk, navigate to that location instead, as
     shown in Figure 2-3. You need to click Open after selecting a location, and then click Save.

     Include the backup date in the file name for version control.
     Figure 2-3: Selecting a location and name for your backup.

     If you're burning your backup to a CD or DVD, you may need to create a folder on the blank media first, and
     then save the backup to that folder. To continue, click Next.

5.             The Completing the Backup or Restore Wizard screen shows you the options you've chosen. Click
     Back if you need to make any changes, or click Finish to start your backup. Depending on the size of the
     files and folders you're backing up, it may take some time.
6.             When the backup completes, click Close.

     Creating an Incremental or Differential Backup

     To create an incremental backup:

1.           Start the Backup or Restore Wizard again, click the Advanced Mode link on the welcome screen,
     and then click Next.
2.           In the Welcome to the Backup Utility Advanced Mode screen, shown in Figure 2-4, click Backup
     Wizard (Advanced).

     Figure 2-4: Selecting the advanced Backup Wizard.
3.           In the Welcome to the Backup Wizard screen, click Next.
4.           Select the same settings in the next few screens as you did when performing a full backup. In the
     Completing the Backup or Restore Wizard screen, click Advanced.
5.           In the Type of Backup screen, select the type of backup you want to perform, as shown in Figure 2-
     5. The default option is Normal. Use the drop-down menu to select an Incremental or Differential backup,
     and then click Next.

     Figure 2-5: Selecting an incremental backup.

6.            The How to Back Up screen presents with options to verify your backup, compress the data, and
     disable shadow volume copy. You should select to verify the backup and compress the data (if the option is
     available for this particular backup session), as shown in Figure 2-6. If you're running the backup while you
     work, choose all three options, and then click Next.

     Figure 2-6: Selecting advanced options.

7.           In the Backup Options screen, you can decide to append this backup to others stored on the same
     media or to replace them. Select whichever option you prefer, and then click Next.
8.           The software prompts you to enter when you want to run the backup. Leave the default set to Now.
     Click Next and then Finish.
9.           When the backup completes, click Close.

     Scheduling Backups

     One of the most important tasks in a backup plan is creating scheduled backups to automatically carry out
     your backups on a recurring basis. This way, you don't have to remember to start the backup -- Windows
     does it for you. Access the backup scheduling screen, as shown in Figure 2-7, by moving through the
     advanced options wizard that you used to set the type of backup. When you're asked whether to run the
     backup now or later, select Later. In the Schedule Job dialog box, select the day and time to run the backup

     The middle of the night is often a good time to schedule backups.

     Figure 2-7: Schedule Job dialog box.

     You have to remember to insert the proper media before the backup runs, if you don't back up to your hard
     disk or to a USB drive that's always plugged in.

     Next, learn how to back up files the old-fashioned way -- manually.

     Page 4: Perform a Manual Backup

     Manual backup is the most straightforward and also the most time-consuming backup method. Quite simply,
     it requires you to manually copy files that you want to protect from their primary location -- most likely your
     hard disk -- to the backup media, another computer, or a different location on your hard disk. You can copy
     entire folders at a time, up to the maximum capacity of your backup media.
     To store your backup on another computer on your home network, follow these steps:

1.            Open Windows Explorer. Right-click the My Documents folder, and then click Copy, as shown in
     Figure 2-8.

     Figure 2-8: Copying the My Documents folder.

2.             Click My Network Places, and open the other computer on your home network.
3.             Create a folder named Remote Backups or whatever you like on the remote computer. Highlight
     that folder and paste the My Documents folder into it, as shown in Figure 2-9.

     Figure 2-9: Paste the folder.

     Using Windows Explorer, you can also just drag and drop files and folders from one computer to another.
The Practicality of Manual Backups

Figure 2-10 shows an example of a manual backup -- the Tax Data folder from a popular tax return package
has been backed up to the folder Backup, which is presumably located on a backup device (such as a CD-

Figure 2-10: Backup of the TaxData folder.

This scenario illustrates the type of situation where a manual backup is most often appropriate: the
protection of critical data that is generated once and not frequently modified. However, tax return files
represent important financial data that you want to preserve for a long period of time, so it's prudent to
create a backup of your tax return on a removable backup media (such as a CD or DVD) and store it in a
safe place. For data of this significance, you may want to consider storing it in a safe deposit box or similar
remote location.

On the other hand, a manual backup probably isn't appropriate for backing up your word-processing
documents, especially if you create many of these and modify them often. It simply takes too much time and
effort to back up that many files manually, but it's also hard to keep track of the files that you've modified
since your most recent backup. For this reason, you should consider using specialized backup software to
help keep tabs on the process.

Now that you've looked at the free software you already have access to, the next section highlights a few of
the third-party options available.

Page 5: Explore Third-Party Software

If you're not happy with the functionality of Microsoft Backup, you might want to consider a backup solution
offered by a reputable third-party software vendor. These packages offer a range of features, such as full
and partial backups, the ability to perform a backup while you're working on files, disk space optimization,
encrypted backups for added security, and complete restoration services.

Here are a few applications to consider:

        Norton ™ Save & Restore: Symantec, the maker of Norton Antivirus, offers the backup solution,
         which is compatible with the Norton PC security and antivirus packages.
        NovaBACKUP : From NovaStor, this PC World "Best Buy" award-winning application includes
         built-in disaster recovery and open file backup, so you can back up files even if you're currently
         working on them.

If you're interested in using a third-party application to conduct your backups, you can find many solutions on
the Web (search for backup software) or at your local software store. Compare products and costs
carefully to find the solution with the right mix of features for your needs.

Many Web-based companies offer free trials or online demos. This is the best way to evaluate software of
any kind.
Another type of backup solution is called imaging, in which a special software application, such as Norton
Ghost, creates an exact image of your hard disk. You can save this image to removable media, and use it to
re-create the contents of the entire hard disk -- operating system, software, and data -- if you experience a
severe computer crash.

You've learned a lot in this lesson. You're well on your way to creating a smooth running system of data

Moving On

In this lesson you've learned about the various types of backup media and how they fit into the three Cs of
backups: capacity, cost, and convenience. You also walked through the process of using Microsoft Backup,
the most common backup software. Lesson 3 explores data recovery. Before you move on, be sure to
complete the assignment for this lesson and take the quiz. And don't forget to stop by the Message Board to
share questions, answers, comments, and experiences with your fellow students.

Page 1: Restore from Backup

Unfortunately, you can count on disaster eventually striking your system. It may come in any of the forms
you learned about in Lesson 1 of this course: a fire, a hurricane, or a simple power surge that causes you to
lose critical data.

Fortunately, the material you learned in the first two lessons of the course provides you with the knowledge
you need to implement a sound data backup strategy. That strategy will be your life preserver when disaster
strikes -- you'll simply fix whatever went wrong with your computer and restore your vital data from backup.
This knowledge should help you sleep better at night.

In this lesson, you'll take a brief look at the techniques used to restore data from backup. The process is
similar to the process used to back up data, but takes place in the reverse order. Before you begin the data
restoration process, consider the factors described in the following sections.

Data to be Restored

Did the emergency event destroy all of the data on your computer? If so, you need to conduct a full
restoration. Was it a localized problem, such as someone accidentally deleting a file? If this is the case, you
may have to restore only one or two files.

Location of Backup Data

Determine the set(s) of backup media that contain the data to be restored. If your most recent backup was a
full backup, you'll need only that set of media. However, if you've done incremental or differential backups,
you'll need multiple sets of media. Differential backups require the most recent full backup along with the
most recent differential backup. Incremental backups require the most recent full backup along with all
intervening incremental backups.

Where to Restore Data

Do you want to restore the data to its original location on the disk? If you're rebuilding your system, you
probably do. However, if you're hoping to access an older version of data and need to reconcile the files
manually, restore data to a different location so you can work with both copies simultaneously.

Required Software

If your entire system failed, you need to install software as well as data. In this case, you need to reinstall
the operating system and any necessary applications prior to restoring data from backup.
     If you used an imaging program to create an exact copy of your entire hard disk, just follow the instructions
     with the imaging application to restore your system.

     After you address these issues, you're ready to begin the data restoration process. If you use Microsoft
     Backup to back up your files, follow the steps outlined in the next section. If you use third-party software, the
     process is similar, but you should consult the manufacturer's documentation for further details.

     Page 2: Restore with Microsoft Backup

     The steps for restoring data with Microsoft Backup are similar to the steps you learned in Lesson 2 to create
     the backup in the first place:

1.            Start the Backup or Restore Wizard by selecting Start > All Programs > Accessories > System
     Tools > Backup. The same wizard that you used to create the backup walks you through the process of
     restoring data from backup.
2.            Working in wizard mode, click Next to bypass the wizard's welcome screen.
3.            Select Restore files and settings, and then click Next. This is where the restore process diverges
     from the backup process.
4.            In the What to Restore screen, the wizard presents a directory structure obtained from the backup
     media with a checkbox appearing to the left of each file and folder, as shown in Figure 3-1.

     Figure 3-1: Files selected to restore.

     You can check the checkbox next to the top-level node to restore all of the data in the backup, or you can
     navigate through the directory structure and select specific files or folders you'd like to restore. Selecting a
     folder automatically selects all of the files and subfolders contained within it; however, you can subsequently
     navigate through those subfolders and deselect files that you don't want to restore.

5.             After you've selected the data you'd like to restore, click Next. The wizard displays a summary
     screen for your restoration that's similar to the summary screen you reviewed during the backup process.
6.             If the options are adequate, click Finish to start the actual restoration process. However, you can
     click the Advanced button to customize certain aspects of the recovery process. Let's take a few minutes to
     walk through the advanced options, so click Advanced. The Where to Restore screen appears.
7.             For whatever reason, you might not want to restore data to its original location. Select an option
     from the Restore files to drop-down list -- Original location, Alternate location, or Single folder, as
     shown in Figure 3-2. Click Next.
      If you choose to restore the data to a single folder or to an alternate location, the wizard displays an
      Alternate location text box with a Browse button. Just click Browse, select a location, click OK, and then
      click Next.

      Figure 3-2: Where to Restore screen.

8.              In the How to Restore screen, select the way you'd like to deal with existing files. Basically, you're
      telling Microsoft Backup what it should do if, during restore, it encounters a copy of the same file already on
      your hard disk. Click Next after you select one of the three options:
9.              Leave existing files (Recommended)
10.             Replace existing files if they are older than the backup files
11.             Replace existing files
12.             The Advanced Restore Options screen appears, asking you to specify how Microsoft Backup
      should deal with security settings, junction points, and volume mount points, as shown in Figure 3-3. Click
      Next after you select or deselect one or more of the three options:
13.             Restore security settings (selected by default)
14.             Restore junction points but not the folders and file data they reference
15.             Preserve existing volume mount points (selected by default)
      Figure 3-3: Advanced Restore Options screen.

16.            The wizard displays a new summary screen that reflects your updates. Confirm your settings, click
      Back if you need to make any changes, and then click Finish to initiate the restore.

      That's it -- you've just successfully restored data from a backup. However, it's not enough just to restore your
      data and get on with life. You should also take a few moments to consider how you may have been able to
      prevent a crisis situation in the first place. Read on for some suggestions.

      Page 3: Learn Lessons

      Don't wait until disaster strikes to test your data restoration process. You don't want to be in a critical
      situation when you discover that you can't restore from your backup files, for example. Practice restoring a
      full backup, as well as single files from a backup, on a periodic basis for two reasons:

              It reassures you that everything is functioning properly.
              It ensures that you have the knowledge necessary to restore a backup if disaster does strike.

      Any loss of data should be regarded as a learning experience. If you had to restore data from backup,
      something went wrong and necessitated the restoration, and you should learn what you can from that

      Granted, some disasters are unavoidable. If a tornado comes along and blows your house down, for
      example, there probably wasn't much you could do to prevent it. However, if you take a few minutes after
      completing the data restoration process and think about what worked well and what went wrong, chances
      are you'll learn something that can help you protect your data even more effectively in the future.

      Here are some questions you might want to ask yourself in the wake of a data disaster:

              What caused the data loss? If you were the victim of a natural disaster, the answer to this
               question is obvious. On the other hand, if you suffered a hardware or software failure, it might take
               a little detective work to get to the bottom of the disaster.
              C ould you have prevent ed the data loss? Perhaps some control that would have protected
               your system wasn't in place. If you can determine the source of the problem, correct it.
              If you could have prevented the data loss , should you implement the solution now? If it's
               cost-effective and there's a reasonable chance the same disaster might recur, you should
               implement those protective measures to further strengthen your system's defenses against
              Did the data restoration process proceed smoothly? Were there any glitches encountered
               when you attempted to restore your data? Did you have all of the data that you needed when you
               completed the restoration? Did the restoration process succeed without any technical failures?
              Should you revise your backup plan? Perhaps you need to include previously unprotected data
               in the plan. Would it be wise to conduct backups on a more frequent basis? Are you keeping
               backup media long enough?

      In any event, you should pat yourself on the back whenever you successfully survive a data emergency and
      your backup plan saves your critical data.

      Moving On

      In this lesson, you learned how to restore your system from a backup in the event of a disaster. This wraps
      up our discussion of data backup and recovery. Lesson 4 provides an overview of the threats posed by
      viruses and spyware, along with the measures you can take to protect your system from them. Before you
      move on to Lesson 4, be sure to complete the assignment for this lesson, take the quiz, and stop by the
      Message Board to see what your fellow students have to say about restoring data from
Page 1: Why Should You Protect Yourself from Viruses?

Welcome back. In previous lessons, you learned about backing up and restoring files. Part of the process of
protecting your data also involves preventing catastrophes in the first place. Because viruses can do
considerable damage, you need to know how to stop them from infecting your computer. In this lesson, you'll
do just that. Along the way, you'll learn about spyware, too. Although spyware doesn't usually damage a
system, it can leave an "electronic door" open that invites malicious hackers to use your personal
information inappropriately.

So, why should you protect your computer from viruses? If you're asking this question, you've probably
never experienced first-hand the damage a computer virus can cause. Almost any information that you put
on your computer -- whether it comes from the Internet via e-mail, downloaded software, instant messaging,
or malicious Web pages, or even in software on a CD-ROM you purchased at a store -- can carry a
destructive virus.

With the amount of Windows-based viruses roaming around in the wild, the chances of infection are
increasing all the time. When it comes to viruses, you want to take the same stance as you did with backing
up data -- why spend hours upon hours recovering from a virus infection when you could spend a half-hour
to prevent it?

What Is a Virus?

Simply put, a computer virus is a program designed to copy itself and spread on its own, preferably without
the user's knowledge. In 1990, there were a total of 80 known viruses, and new viruses were being
discovered at the rate of one per week. At the end of 1999, the total number of known viruses exceeded
40,000, with 10 to 15 new viruses found each day. As of fall 2006, there were approximately 73,000 viruses
actively spreading around the Internet.

Some viruses are benign -- they exist only to copy themselves from one place to another, moving from
computer to computer without causing any harm. Still other viruses are designed to display a message at a
specific time, such as on a holiday or birthday, causing perhaps a slight annoyance, or even amusement,
but no actual damage to data.

Malignant viruses, however, are the kind you most often hear about in the news. They're designed to cause
damage to data, by deleting files or overwriting them with new data. Obviously, these are the viruses you
have to worry about.

Worms and Trojan Horses

You've probably heard a lot in the news recently about some of the computer worms that have affected
computers around the world. Worms are similar to viruses in the way that they spread from system to
system and may have a malicious payload, but they differ in one important respect: worms don't require any
user intervention to wreak havoc on your system. They spread under their own power, exploiting
vulnerabilities in unsecure computer systems.

Trojan horses are another form of malicious software. These programs appear to be legitimate. They might
be disguised as games, utilities, or other beneficial software and will actually function properly in their
disguised role. However, when you run them, they perform some sort of malicious activity in the background.
This may be a destructive action, such as deleting data from your hard drive, or may be simply the
mechanism the Trojan horse uses to spread a worm or other malicious code to other systems.

How Can a Virus Infect Your Computer?

By now, you're wondering how you can get infected by a virus. This could happen a few different ways, as
described in the following section.

Obtaining Corrupted Software
Software you download from the Internet can be infected by a virus. This might be the case if you download
a Trojan horse program. There have also been cases where an infected computer at the manufacturer
actually spreads viruses via commercially purchased software or on factory installed hard drives.

Running an Infected Program

One of the most common ways to get infected by a virus is by running a program that is attached to an e-
mail. Because infected programs can do so much damage to your data, the general rule is: Never open an
e-mail attachment unless you know what it is -- even if it's from someone you know and trust.

Opening a Document Containing a Macro Virus

Most other viruses infect executable programs (files ending in .exe and .com, for example) or specific
locations on a hard disk or removable media. Macro viruses, however, infect particular types of documents,
such as Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel documents. By using an application's built-in macro language,
the viruses embed themselves in those documents, executing themselves each time the documents are
opened. When the document is opened, they deliver their payload. Like any other virus, this may be as
simple as infecting the host system and spreading itself to all other Microsoft Office documents, or it may
have malicious intent such as altering data or deleting files from the system.

Can You Get a Virus Just from Reading an E-mail?

Depending on the program you use to read your e-mail, the answer may be yes. If you use Microsoft
Outlook or another program that displays HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) e-mail, that e-mail could
have an embedded virus. However, the most common infections still occur when there is a file attached to
the e-mail message, and you choose to open or run that file.

When you receive an attachment, even if it's from a trusted source, take 30 seconds to scan it for viruses
and prevent the possibility of spending hours dealing with a disaster. Better yet, configure your antivirus
software to scan attachments automatically.

However, you must keep in mind the fact that some e-mail programs read messages for you. Messages can
sometimes contain scripts (miniature programs) that your e-mail program could execute without asking your
permission. Modern e-mail programs protect against this type of attack, but older ones may not. Therefore,
it's extremely important that you keep up to date on security patches for your e-mail program and operating

Next, learn about spyware -- what it is and how it gets on your system.

Page 2: What Is Spyware?

Spyware is an application that runs on your computer without your knowledge or permission. The
application monitors your activity, recording keystrokes and actions, and then sends that information back to
the spyware creator. Most forms of spyware are created by data mining companies to garner information
about your Web-browsing habits. That information is added to the data mining company's database, and
then sold to companies for marketing purposes.

However, other forms of spyware are simply malicious. For example, a spyware writer can create an
application that records your keystrokes while you enter your online bank account number, user ID, and
password. After the writer has your personal information, he can access your account and take whatever he
wants. The same applies to credit card accounts, and even life insurance, medical records, and so on.

Some poorly written spyware is so "top heavy" that it consumes a lot of system resources and can crash
your computer. Usually, this doesn't happen. Instead, the spyware sits silently in the background without you
ever noticing it.

How Spyware Gets on Your Computer
There are three primary ways in which spyware infects your computer:

        Hidden download s : Web sites that offer free games or videos are fraught with spyware. The
         spyware applications are built into the game programs and video files. When you download and
         install the game or run the video, you install the spyware. This is especially true of adult Web sites.
        Cookies: When you visit Web sites, many of them install a small program, called a cookie, on your
         hard disk. Legitimate Web sites use the cookies to remember who you are, when you visited the
         site last, and other benign information. Some non-reputable Web sites use cookies that contain
        Your approval: You can actually invite spyware, unknowingly, by clicking I Accept or something
         similar on a Web site when you think you're agreeing to licensing terms, signing up for a free
         service, and so on.

You can also get spyware just by browsing to a Web site, without clicking anything on the page. Many Web
browsers have security holes that the spyware writers learned about as soon as the browser was released
to the public. Browser developers release patches and updates as soon as a security hole is uncovered by
hackers. However, if you don't install the patch or update, you're vulnerable to more spyware.

Next, find out how to protect against viruses and spyware with protection tools.

Page 3: Use Antivirus and Antispyware Software

Virus Hoaxes?
Not all viruses you read about actually exist. On a regular basis, e-mails are circulated around the globe
containing "warnings" about viruses that could cause you all sorts of damage, when in reality those viruses
don't exist. If you get an e-mail about a new virus that urges you to forward it to everyone in your address
book, you can bet that it's a hoax. You can check it against the list of virus hoaxes posted by the US
Department of Energy's Office of Cyber Security, which helps combat such misinformation.

The most effective way to protect your computer from viruses and spyware is to use antivirus and
antispyware software. You can obtain these programs individually, but most developers sell them in
packages collectively referred to as protection software. The software examines files, disks, and memory,
searching for known viruses and spyware. In addition, most protection software gives the option of repairing
an infection, deleting or quarantining an infected file, or letting you deal with the problem on your own. Many
protection programs run all the time, checking any files that are currently in use, as well as automatically
scanning data downloaded from the Internet, including e-mail attachments.

Which Program Is the Best?

With so many different protection programs available, the choices can be overwhelming. Ultimately, the
decision is based on your personal preferences. The bottom line, however, is that any protection software is
better than none.

The Microsoft® Windows® operating system does not come with any sort of antivirus software. This, of
course, means you have to purchase software to do the job. You can visit the Google, Yahoo!,, or Tucows Web sites, for example, and perform a search for antivirus. You'll come up with
numerous programs, most enabling you to download a trial version.

Microsoft does offer antispyware software -- Windows Defender. You can download this program, free of
charge, from the Microsoft Web site.

The next two sections briefly describe the features of two of the most popular antivirus software packages,
McAfee VirusScan and Norton AntiVirus.

What Is McAfee VirusScan® Software?
Having offered its antivirus software for many years, McAfee is one of the best-known names in the world of
virus and spyware protection. The most current version of its security suite -- called McAfee VirusScan®
Plus AntiVirus, Firewall & AntiSpyware -- runs on Windows 2000 and higher.

With the release of Windows Vista™, all reputable protection software companies now provide products that
run on Vista. This also means that most companies are ceasing to support applications for Windows 98, Me,
and perhaps NT.

VirusScan is extremely easy to install and use. It can scan files, floppy diskettes, e-mail attachments,
networks, and CD-ROMs, among other things. One of the most appealing features of the software is its
ability to automatically scan data acquired from the Internet -- e-mail, e-mail attachments, software
downloads -- all on-the-fly and in the background. If the program encounters a problem, it lets you know and
walks you through a solution.

VirusScan can (and should) be configured to automatically update itself over the Internet. In addition, the
latest version offers hacker protection by concealing your computer's identity on the Internet so you can
browse safely.

In addition to its standalone antivirus software, McAfee also offers users online options for virus protection.
McAfee has created an area of its Web site called SecurityCenter, where it offers online, real-time services,
all performed over your Internet connection. These services include free vulnerability scans, free security
alerts, and free Web content filters, along with trial subscriptions to antivirus and other security software.

All of this software is available for a free trial period. You should visit the McAfee Web site to at least see,
first-hand, the convenient, reliable, and easily managed options it offers.

What Is the Norton AntiVirus® Program?

Another very well-known name in antivirus software is Symantec, maker of the suite of Norton applications,
including Norton AntiVirus 2007 for Windows.

Like McAfee's VirusScan, Norton AntiVirus can scan floppy disks, hard drives, and CD-ROMs and disinfect
files. It also offers protection for data acquired on the Internet -- downloads, e-mail, e-mail attachments --
again, giving you the option to automatically scan everything for maximum protection. Norton AntiVirus also
offers LiveUpdate, a way to update the antivirus software easily and automatically.

Think Security

With the ever-increasing popularity of networking and the Internet, the threat of virus infection has become
more apparent. In addition to using antivirus software, there are a few simple tips that can go a long way
toward protecting your computer from viruses.

Adjust Internet Security Options

Set Internet security options on your PC to at least the Medium-high setting. To do this in Windows XP,
select Start > Control Panel, and then open Internet Options (in Classic View). Click the Security tab, and
then make sure the security levels for the Internet and local intranet are set to at least Medium-high, as
shown in Figure 4-1. This helps protect your system from potentially unsafe content on the Internet, such as
viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.

There are additional options available under the preferences of your Web browser. For further details
regarding security settings, check the help files or Web site for your program.
Figure 4-1: Internet Options dialog box.

Treat E-mail Attachments with Caution

Be very careful with e-mail attachments. The best way to treat attachments is to actually scan them for
viruses before opening or running them. Most antivirus programs automatically scan attachments for viruses
as you receive them, preventing infection.

Don't rely upon the From field in an e-mail message to make you feel comfortable about the source of a
message. Many viruses that spread via e-mail steal a user's address book and then send themselves to
everyone in the address book. If you're on the receiving end of one of these nasty-grams, it will look like a
message from your acquaintance.

Keep Protection Software Up to Date

Antivirus and antispyware programs are only effective if they're kept up to date. The manufacturers of
protection programs release updates, called definitions, for their software at least monthly. These updates
tell your software how to identify and eradicate the latest viruses and spyware.

An antivirus program last updated one year ago -- or even one week ago -- is certainly not providing much
protection today. Therefore, you should update daily, or configure your protection software to automatically
check for updates once a day, at a minimum.

And, as always, back up your data.
Moving On

In this course, you learned quite a bit about data protection. You learned how to develop a sound backup
strategy for your system and the techniques necessary to implement it. Now it's time to put your plan into
action. As you worked your way through the various exercises in this course, you developed a strong data
protection policy for your personal use; now is the time to use it. If you don't take the time to implement
some of the things you've learned in this course, you might as well have spent your time watching reruns of
The Simpsons. You now have the tools and knowledge necessary to ensure that you're prepared when
disaster strikes.

As soon as you complete the assignment and take the quiz for this lesson, you've completed the course.
Don't forget to visit the Message Board one last time to ask any last-minute questions you have and to share
your experiences with data protection topics with your fellow students.

Shared By: