How to Score in Formative Assessments

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					              Wethersfield Public Schools
                          Michael Kohlhagen
                          Superintendent of Schools




        A Guide to Developing


               Common
              Formative
             Assessments

             A Work in Progress




A Guide to Developing Common Formative Assessments
                                   Index


Part I
What are Common Formative Assessments?                                                   3

What are the Benefits of Using Common Formative Assessments?                             3

What are the Guidelines for Designing Common Formative Assessments?                      4



Part II                                                                                  5
Purpose of Assessment                                                                    5

Item Writing Guidelines                                                                  5-6

Two Major Assessment Item Types                                                          6-7
  • Selected-Response and Constructed-Response

Part III                                                                                 8-11
Writing First Draft Common Formative Assessment Items

Part IV                                                                                  12-14
Creating Scoring Instruments

Part V                                                                                   15-30
Common Formative Assessment Exemplars
   • Grade K – Math Planning Template                                                    16-21
   • Grade 2 – Math Planning Template                                                    22-24
   • Grade 5 – Reading Planning Template                                                 25-28

Common Formative Assessment Template                                                     29-30

APPENDIX                                                                                 31

   •   The New Bloom’s Taxonomy
   •   Making Standards Work Process
   •   Performance Assessment Scoring Guide
   •   Data Driven Decision Making Process
   •   The Grade Level Data Team Process
                                                          2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 2
                                   Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                                       PART I
                 What are Common Formative Assessments?

•   Periodic or interim assessments collaboratively designed by grade level or
    course teams of teachers
•   Designed as matching pre- and post- assessments to ensure same-assessment to
    same-assessment comparison of student growth
•   Similar in design and format to district and state assessments
•   Items should represent essential standards only
•   A blend of item types, including selected-response (multiple choice, true/false,
    matching, fill-in) and constructed-response (short- or extended)
•   Administered to all students in grade level or course several times during the
    semester, trimester, or entire school year
•   Student results analyzed in grade level (PLC) teams to guide instructional
    planning an delivery

    What are the Benefits of Using Common Formative Assessments?

•   Regular and timely feedback regarding student attainment of most critical
    standards in order to better meet diverse learning needs of all students
•   Multiple-measure assessments that allow students to demonstrate their
    understanding in a variety of formats
•   Ongoing collaboration opportunities for grade-level, course, and department
    teachers
•   Consistent expectations within a grade level, course and department regarding
    standards, instruction, and assessment priorities
•   Agreed-upon criteria for proficiency to be met within each individual classroom,
    grade level, school, and district
•   Deliberate alignment of classroom, school, district, and state assessments to
    better prepare students for success on state assessments
•   Results provide predictive value as to how students are likely to on each
    succeeding assessment in time to make instructional modifications




                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 3
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                    What are the Guidelines for Designing
                     Common Formative Assessments?

•   Identify and vertically align standards in content areas for each grade level and
    course, PreK-12

•   Determine important topic to assess with common formative assessment; locate
    standard and match standard to topic
       o Choose an important topic your students need to understand
       o Review your standards and identify those that directly match
       o Record your topic and selected standards on the DFA Planning Template

•   Pinpoint important concepts and skills students need to know and be able to do
       o Identify the key concepts (important nouns or noun phrases) by
           underlining them
       o Identify the skills (verbs) by circling them

•   Determine Big Ideas from those standards that represent the integrated
    understanding students need to gain
       o Big Ideas are what you want our students to discover on their own as a
          result of instruction and learning activities
       o Big Ideas represent the main ideas, conclusions, or generalizations about
          the concepts and skills in a focused instructional unit of study
       o Big Idea is an open-ended, enduring idea that may apply to more than one
          area of study
       o Big Idea is student-worded statement arising from an integrated
          understanding of the concepts and skills just studied

•   Write Essential Questions matched to Big Ideas to focus instruction and
    assessment
       o Teachers post in the classroom the Essential Questions and share them
          with students at the beginning of an instructional unit
       o Establish student learning goal – to be able to answer or respond to the
          Essential Questions with student worded Big Ideas by end of
          instructional unit
       o What questions could you ask students that would lead them to discover
          your Big Ideas?
       o Work on “one-two punch” questions: do your Big Ideas answer or respond
          to your Essential Questions?

                                                              2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 4
                                       Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                                     Part II
                  Item Writing Guidelines and Item Types

Assessment Is “Inference Making”
“Teachers use test (results) in order to make inferences about their students’
cognitive status. Once those score-based inferences jave bee made, the teacher
then reaches instructional decisions based (at least in part) on those inferences.
Educational assessment revolves around inference making.” W. James Popham,
Test Better, Teach Better, ASCE, 2003, p. 60
       • The purpose of assessment, in general, is to find out what your students
          know and are able to do with regard to the standards you are teaching
       • The purpose of Common Formative Assessments, in particular, is to
          evaluate your students’ understanding of the standards

Evidence
   • Once the essential purpose of assessment is identified, educators must ask
      the critical question:
   • “What kinds of assessments will provide the best evidence as to whether
      students have met this singular purpose?”

General Guidelines for Effective Item Writing
   • Reflect higher-order instructional objectives
   • Students should not be able to answer solely from memory-must apply their
     knowledge, not just recall it. (Popham, 2003)
   • Questions should be based – in part – on new material (i.e. be able to read or
     interpret a graph they have never seen before)
   • Be brief and clear – goal is to “test mastery of material, not students’ ability
     to figure out what you are asking.” (Richard J. Stiggins)

Important Considerations
  • Design fair and bias-free items (no bias toward gender, ethnicity, and
     language).
  • Student ability to respond should not depend on reading ability.
  • Format items to match district benchmark assessments, end-of-course
     assessments, and sate tests.
  • Include correct standards terminology, not simplified terms.



                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 5
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Five Roadblocks to Effective Item-Writing
1.   Unclear directions
2.   Ambiguous statements
3.   Unintentional clues
4.   Complex phrasing
5.   Difficult vocabulary


                     Two Major Assessment Item Types

Selected-Response
   • Requires students to select one response from a provided list or to provide a
      very brief answer
   • Types include: multiple-choice, true-false, matching, short answer/fill in
   • Can be used to efficiently assess students’ knowledge of factual information,
      main concepts, and basic skills

                              SELECTED     RESPONSE
Benefit: Student answers can be quickly     Drawback: Tends to promote
and objectively scored as correct or        memorization of factual information,
incorrect.                                  rather than evidence of higher-level
                                            understanding-unless items are
                                            deliberately designed to do so
Better content domain sampling              Emphasis on learning isolated facts
Higher reliability                          Inappropriate for some purposes e.g.
                                            writing or creative thinking
Greater efficiency                          Lack of student writing (unless part of
                                            assessment design
Objectivity
Measurability for higher level thinking
Mechanical scoring

Multiple Choice Questions and Higher Level Thinking

Myth: Multiple Choice items ONLY assess lower-level thinking skills (recall of
information, etc.) and therefore will not be appropriate for evaluating students’
higher-level thinking skills
Dispelling the Myth: Multiple choice formats can be written to measure higher
level thinking behaviors effectively. (Thomas Haladya)
                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 6
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Challenge: To write selected response items to match identified rigor of skills.

Criteria for Writing Selected-Response Items*
   • Write clearly in a “sharply” focused manner.
   • Ask a question with only one best answer.
   • Write items consistent with grade level reading expectations.
   • Eliminate clues leading to correct answer.
   • Make response options brief.
                                      *Adapted from Richard J. Stiggins
                                      Student Centered Assessment, 2001


Constructed Response
   • Includes short and extended response (i.e. short answer prompts, essays,
      and problem solving requiring writing)
   • Requires students to organize and use knowledge and skills to answer a
      question or complete a task
   • More likely to reveal whether or not students have gained integrated
      understanding with regard to standards they are learning
   • Requires scoring guide (rubric) to evaluate degree of student proficiency

                              Constructed Response
                Benefits                                   Drawbacks
Provide teachers with more valid            Take longer to score; can have errors in
inferences about student understanding      design; dependent on student writing
than those derived from selected-           proficiency; challenge to score
response items                              accurately

Resources for Common Formative Assessment Items
   • Textbook questions that meet the criteria of well written times
   • Assessment or evaluation components of text series
   • State websites for released state exam questions
   • Check for permission to duplicate copyrighted material




                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 7
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                                   PART III:
                   CREATING SCORING INSTRUMENTS

Creating Answer Keys and Scoring Guides
• Review the answer keys in the common formative assessment grade-level
   examples.
• Answers have been provided for each grade-level set of selected-response
   items (multiple choice, true false, short answer fill in).
• Create the answer key for your selected response items.

      o Student Guessing Game:
                                                          Do you want us to write what we
                                                          think, or what we think how you
                                                          want us to write????



Terminology
• A set of general and/or specific criteria used to evaluate student performance
   on a given task.
• Descriptions of competence or proficiency
• Identifies degree of proficiency student has reached in relation to the
   particular standards in focus.
• Proficiency-the level of performance students must meet to demonstrate
   attainment of particular standards
• Anchor Papers - Student produced work samples at exemplary and proficient
   levels of performance on the scoring guide.

Scoring Guides – Help ALL Students Succeed!
   • Share performance criteria before students begin work
   • Use specific language understood by all: students, teachers, parents
   • Refer to frequently during the course of the unit/task
   • Use to assess completed task
   • Use rubrics to expedite giving timely feedback on student performance.




                                                           2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 8
                                    Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Practical Scoring Guide Strategies
   •   Specificity is critical!
   •   Reliability comes from consistency in wording and format
   •   Clearly link to standards and assessment items/tasks
   •   Scoring guide and task requirements should fit “hand-to-glove.”

Two Kinds of Criteria
  • Quantitative criteria
         o Proficient = 3 supporting details
         o Exemplary = 4 or more supporting details
  • Qualitative criteria
         o Proficient = identifies main character
         o Exemplary = relates main character to self or another character in
            story, noting similarities and differences

Two Formats
Holistic Scoring Guide
   • Looks at whole piece of student work for overall quality
   • One score assigned for entire product or performance
Analytic Scoring Guide
   • Focuses on individual categories within product or performance
   • Scores each category separately

Avoid Subjective Language
   •   4 Demonstrates Complete Understanding
          o Demonstrates internalized understanding of major content and
            concepts
          o Communicates clearly and with originality
   •   3 Demonstrates Adequate Understanding
          o Demonstrates general understanding of most major content and
            concepts
          o Communicates successfully

Strive for Objective Language
   • Language that is specific
   • Language that is measurable
   • Language that is observable
   • Language that is understandable
   • Language that is matched to task directions

                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 9
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Begin with Proficient Level
   • Because the goal for students is to demonstrate proficiency, first decide
      criteria for that level.
   • Review the task requirements and list those criteria under “Proficient” on
      the scoring guide.
   • Rubric criteria should mirror what the task requires (hand-to-glove fit).
   • For your extended response item, write or describe a proficient student
      response, or list what students would need to do to demonstrate competency
      in the given task.
   • Double check to make sure you have addressed all instructions included in
      the task.
   • Referring to your extended response, task instruction; write the specific
      criteria for “proficient” in the planning template.

Exemplary Level
   • Start the first line with: “All Proficient criteria met PLUS:”
   • Then look at each of the Proficient level criteria
   • Consider how each one could be enhanced so students understand how to go
     ”above and beyond” Proficient level
   • Referring to your Proficient criteria and sample proficient student response,
     consider how to enhance those criteria quantitatively and qualitatively
   • Write the specific criteria for “exemplary” or “advanced” in the planning
     template

Important Benefit of Exemplary Level
  • A great tool for differentiating instruction
  • Exemplary level criteria invite students who need a challenge deeper into the
     task
  • Enable students to show “all that they know” relative to the given task

“Progressing” and “Beginning” Proficient Categories
   • Since the goal is proficiency as defined by the extended response scoring
      guide criteria, design the criteria for the remaining two categories in
       relation to proficiency.
   •   This keeps student attention focused on the Proficiency criteria, not the
       minimum they must do!
   •   Write specific criteria of what student performance would look like at each
       level OR
   •   Write numerical criteria:
          o Progressing meets 4 to 5 Proficient criteria or
                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 10
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
         o Beginning: Meets fewer than 4 criteria; task needs to be repeated
           after remediation
         o Referring to your task instructions and sample proficient student
           response, write the specific criteria for “progressing” and “beginning”
           in the planning template.

Correlating Rubric Criteria with Point Values
   • Proficient and Exemplary criteria can be weighted with point values
   • Points can then be equated to percentages and letter grades for summative
      (not formative) evaluation
   • This assists with the assignment of grades AND students’ need for specific
      criteria.




                                                            2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 11
                                     Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                                      PART IV
                      WRITING FIRST-DRAFT
               COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT ITEMS

   • Consider which types of assessments will most effectively assess your
       concepts and skills
   •   Selected response format options: multiple choice, short answer, matching,
       fill in
   •   Constructed response format options: short response (one to four
       sentences) or extended response (multiple paragraphs or essay)
   •   Use a blend of both assessment types with one or more formats within each
       type
   •   A model to use includes:
            o 1 or more selected response format
            o One extended response item
            o Two to four short response items

How Many Items to Write?
  • Each standard should be sufficiently represented in the assessment items
  • The number and weighting of items on a test should be representative of the
     importance of the content standards being measured
  • A good guideline for making decisions regarding percentage of importance
     for each learning target is that the percentage of instructional time and
     percentage of assessment items should be roughly equal.

Write First Draft Assessment Items
  • Writing Selected Response Items
         o Begin with one format (multiple choice)
         o Review concepts and skills
         o Target one particular concept and/or skill
         o Design item to match level of rigor in skills

   • Writing Extended Response Item
       o Decide what format of extended response item to use (problem
            solving, single paragraph, essay)
          o Review concepts and skills
          o Target particular concepts and/or skills
          o Design item to match level of rigor in skills
                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 12
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
   •   Short Response
         o Ask students to respond in writing to your essential question with
             their own big ideas. They should be able to explain their thinking
             using any of the concept vocabulary terms they can.
         o Students who are not yet writing, who are just learning English, or
             who have special needs may respond orally or in other ways deemed
             appropriate.

Value of Pre-Assessment
   • Pre-tests help teachers decide where to aim early instruction
   • Pre-tests indicate what sorts of skills, knowledge, or attitudes students
      have or do not use.
   • Pre-assess to determine enabling sub-skills (skills necessary for the unit of
      study)
   • A pre-test/post-test design provides a matching set of “bookend”
      assessments that are either the same or alternative form of the same
      assessment
   • The improvement between the pre-test and post-test constitutes credible
      evidence of the teacher’s instructional success
   • Decide whether to use the same assessment items for a pre assessment or
      write alternate items
             Check: Do pre and post assessments align with one another?

Review and Revise Assessment Items
   • Look for matches between guidelines and actual assessment items.
   • Regard your own assessment items as “works in progress” as you conduce
      your own review of items.
   • Evaluate your first draft assessment items using the guidelines.
   • Make any needed revisions to assessment items prior to administering them
      to students.

Complete the Process
  • Administer common formative assessment to students.
  • Score assessments, individually or collaboratively.
  • Analyze results in your teams using the five step data process.
  • Critique and revise items prior to administering common formative
      assessment again.

                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 13
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Summary Points
  • Always begin with a clear purpose—finding out what students know and are
    able to do with regard to specific standards/strands.
  • Select assessment types and write corresponding items that will enable you
    to make sound inferences as to students’ degree of proficiency.
  • Evaluate results and differentiate instruction accordingly.

Questions for reflection:
  • What insights have you gained?
  • What are your next steps?

Questions for discussion
  • How are we assessing for learning?
  • What assessment evidence are we gathering and analyzing in grade level
     teams to show student proficiency of standards/strands?
  • How will we use this information to improve our instruction and
     corresponding assessments?

Team Reflections after Administration of Assessment to Students
   1. Which assessment items produced the results we intended?



   2. Which items do we need revise?



   3. Regarding the design, administration, scoring, and analysis of the
      assessment, what worked? What didn’t?




   4. What do we need to do differently next time?




   5. What should we do the same?




                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 14
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
           PART V

Common Formative Assessment
        Exemplars




                                  2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 15
           Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                              COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
                                   PLANNING TEMPLATE
                                        SAMPLE
                                 (From the Center for Performance Assessment)



GRADE LEVEL ____K___________ CONTENT AREA _________Math______

AUTHORS ____________Sample____________ SCHOOL
_______WPS____________

                                 PART I
STUDENT DATA ANALYSIS
(WHAT AREAS OF FOCUS ARE DATA TELLING US NEED WORK?)

Sets and Attributes

STRAND/STANDARD (MATCH STRAND DATA WITH ELA/Math STANDARD)

MATCHING sets of objects one-to-one.

IDENTIFY, SORT, and CLASSIFY objects by size, number, and other
attributes.
IDENTIFY objects that do not belong to a particular group.

COMPARE and SORT common objects by position, shape, size, roundness, and
other attributes.




                                                        2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 16
                                 Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
            CONCEPTS (Underline)                                 SKILLS (Circle)
     (What students need to know about)            (What students are able to do.)
                                                   (Write # of approximate Bloom’s
                                                              Taxonomy)
    Objects:                                       • (1) MATCH (objects one-to-
      • Sets                                          one)
      • One-to-one                                 • (1) IDENTIFY (objects by
                                                      attributes)
    Attributes:                                    • (1) SORT (objects by
       • Size                                         attributes)
       • Number                                    • (2) CLASSIFY (objects by
       • Things that don’t belong                     attributes)
       • Position                                  • (3) COMPARE (objects by
       • Shape                                        attributes)
       • Roundness
       • Other attributes
Blooms: (1) Knowledge (2) Comprehension (3) Application (4) Analysis (5) Synthesis


    BIG IDEA(S) (From ELA/Math Standards)

       1. Objects with the same attributes can be grouped together.

       2. Objects can be compared, classified, and sorted by their different
          attributes.



    ESSENTIAL QUESTION(S) (Matched to Big Ideas)

       1. How can we group objects? (Objects with the same attributes can be
          grouped together).

       2. How is one group of objects different from another? (Objects can be
          compared, classified, and sorted by their different attributes).




                                                               2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 17
                                        Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE: Selected-Response
(Note: Number in parentheses indicates level of Bloom’s Taxonomy of thinking
skills)

   •   (1) IDENTIFY (objects by attributes)
   •   (2) CLASSIFY (objects by attributes)
   •   (3) COMPARE (objects by attributes)

(Kindergarten students can reply orally while looking at physical objects)
Multiple Choice: Direct Question with Best Answer (recommended)

   1. Which item in the following set is most like a ball?
         a. Soup can
         b. Orange
         c. Apple
         d. Checker
   Best answer: “b”

   Meets criteria:
   • Question stem is self-contained.
   • Only one choice is best answer.
   • Answer choices are equal in length.
   • Distracters are plausible (all have “round” attribute).
   • Question addresses concept of roundness attribute but requires student
     to use higher-level skills (compare/classify).

Multiple Choice: Question Stem with Negatives (not recommended)

   2. Which item in the following set is not like a ball?
         a. World globe
         b. Orange
         c. Marble
         d. Checker
         e. Charlie Brown’s head
Best answer: “d”

Not Recommended:
  • Question stem contains a negative (not).
  • Too many item choices (3-4 recommended).
  • Inappropriate use of humor with potential bias (e).
                                                           2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 18
                                    Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE: Extended Constructed-Response

This assessment is designed to evaluate student understanding of these
concepts and skills:

Teacher preparation: Gather 20 buttons of differing sizes, shapes, colors, and
unique attributes, such as number of holes or different textures.

Directions: The student sorts the buttons into groups and answers the following
three questions:
   1. Which buttons go together?
   2. How did you sort the buttons?
   3. Why did you put these buttons together?

The student then graphs the sorted buttons on a graph mat and answers the three
questions orally.

Task-Specific Scoring Guide:

Exemplary:
     All “Proficient” criteria plus:
     Justifies sort with a rule
     Makes connections to sorting other kinds of sets in school or home




Proficient:
       Sorts buttons into appropriate groups
       Represents sort in graph form
       Describes graph

Progressing:
      Student work meets 2 of the “Proficient” criteria

Beginning:
      Student work meets fewer than 2 of the “Proficient” criteria
      Assessment task to be repeated after remediation

Teacher’s Evaluation _______________________________
                                                            2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 19
                                     Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Comments regarding student’s performance:

Source: Ainsworth & Christinson, Five Easy Steps to a Balanced Math Program for
Primary Grades, Advanced Learning Press, 2006.

ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE: Short Constructed-Response – Part 2

This portion of the common formative assessment requires students to
demonstrate their integrated understanding of all the concepts and skills in
the targeted Power Standards by expressing their understanding of the Big
Ideas in their own words.

Write your planned Essential Questions (and corresponding Big Idea responses
for your own reference) in the space provided.

   1. How can we group objects? (Objects with the same attributes can be
      grouped together).
   2. How is one group of objects different from another? (Objects can be
      compared, classified, and sorted by their different attributes).

Teachers: Ask students to orally respond to the two Essential Questions with
their own Big Ideas. They should be able to explain their thinking and include any
of the concept vocabulary (sets, objects, attributes) that they can. Evaluate their
responses with the following Generic Scoring Guide. Kindergarten teachers may
decide to use only three performance levels instead of the provided four.




                                                             2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 20
                                      Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Generic Scoring Guide:

    Exemplary             Proficient               Progressing                  Beginning
                                                                             Meets fewer
  All “Proficient”    Criteria for             Student work                than 2 of the
   criteria plus:     Proficient             meets 2 of the                “Proficient”
  Makes                 States Big Ideas     “Proficient”                  criteria
connections to        correctly in own       criteria                        Task to be
other areas of        words                                                repeated after
school or life          Provides                                           remediation
  Provides            supporting details
examples(s) as        for each one
part of explanation     Includes
                      vocabulary of
                      “unwrapped”
                      concepts in
                      explanation




Teacher’s Evaluation _______________________________

Comments regarding student’s performance:




                                                              2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 21
                                       Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                              COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
                                   PLANNING TEMPLATE
                                        SAMPLE
                                 (From the Center for Performance Assessment)



GRADE LEVEL ____2___________ CONTENT AREA _________Math______

AUTHORS ____________Sample____________ SCHOOL
_______WPS____________

                                    PART I
STUDENT DATA ANALYSIS
(WHAT AREAS OF FOCUS ARE DATA TELLING US NEED WORK?)

Number Computation: Students use numerical and computational concepts and
procedures in a variety of situations.

STRAND/STANDARD (MATCH STRAND DATA WITH ELA/Math STANDARD)

NUMBER SENSE: The Student DEMONSTRATES number sense for three-
digit whole numbers and simple fractions in a variety of situations.

NUMBER SYSTEMS AND THEIR PROPERTIES: The student DEMONSTRATES
an understanding of simple fractions (fourths, thirds, halves) and three-digit
whole numbers with a special emphasis on place value and RECOGNIZES,
APPLIES, AND EXPLAINS their properties.

ESTIMATION: The student APPLIES numerical estimation with whole numbers
up to 999, simple fractions, and money.




                                                           2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 22
                                    Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
        CONCEPTS (Underline)                                SKILLS (Circle)
(What students need to know about)            (What students are able to do.)
                                              (Write # of approximate Bloom’s
                                                         Taxonomy)
Number Computation                         (1) RECOGNIZE (number system
• Number Sense                                  properties)
  • Three-digit whole numbers
  • Simple Fractions                       (2) DEMONSTRATE (number sense,
                                             simple
•   Number Systems and their                     fractions, 3-digit whole numbers)
    Properties
    • Simple fractions (fourths,           (2) EXPLAIN (number system
       thirds, halves)                    properties)
    • Three-digit whole numbers            (3) APPLY (estimation with whole
    • Place value                               numbers, fractions, money,
                                                properties)
•   Estimation
    • Numerical estimation
    • Whole numbers to 999
    • Simple fractions
    • Money




Blooms: (1) Knowledge (2) Comprehension (3) Application (4) Analysis (5)
Synthesis

BIG IDEA(S) (From ELA/Math Standards)

    3. Fractions represent quantities less than, (equal to, or greater than) one
       whole.*

    4. The position of a digit determines its value in a number.

    5. Estimation comes close to an exact number. Whether you estimate or
       need the actual answer depends on the situation.



                                                            2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 23
                                     Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
ESSENTIAL QUESTION(S) (Matched to Big Ideas)

   3. What is a fraction? What is its relationship to a whole number?
      (Fractions represent quantities less than (equal to, or greater than) one
      whole.)*

   4. Why isn’t a digit always worth the same amount? (The position of a
      digit determines its value in a number.)

   5. What is estimation? When and how do we use it? (Estimation comes
      close to an exact number. Whether you estimate or need the actual
      answer depends on the situation.)

*Not all 2nd grade students may yet understand the concept of fractions also representing
amounts equal to or greater than one whole.


ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE: Constructed-Response

Our three 2nd grade classes are raising money to send to needy children in
Africa. Our goal is to raise $500. About how much money does each class
need to raise in order to donate about the same amount as the other classes?
Use words, pictures, and/or numbers to show how you figured out the
problem.

   3. First make a reasonable estimate of how much each class needs to
      raise.

   4. If each class donates an equal part of the total amount of money, what
      fraction will that be of the whole amount?

   5. Now write a number sentence that shows about how much money each
      class needs to raise in order to equal $500 total.




                                                                 2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 24
                                          Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                                  COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
                                       PLANNING TEMPLATE
                                            SAMPLE
                                          (Center for Performance Assessment)



    GRADE LEVEL ________5_______ CONTENT AREA ______Reading_______

    AUTHORS ________Sample__________________ SCHOOL
    _________WPS_________

    STUDENT DATA ANALYSIS
    (WHAT AREAS OF FOCUS ARE DATA TELLING US NEED WORK?)

    Main Idea, Supporting Details, Inferences

    STRAND/STANDARD (MATCH STRAND DATA WITH ELA/Math STANDARD)

    RECOGNIZE main ideas presented in texts and provide evidence that supports
    those ideas.

    DRAW inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and SUPPORT
    hem with textual evidence and prior knowledge.

    CONSTRAST facts, supported inferences, and opinions in text.

           CONCEPTS (Underline)                                SKILLS (Circle)
     (What students need to know about)            (What students are able to do.)
                                                   (Write # of approximate Bloom’s
                                                              Taxonomy)
    Main Idea                                (2)   RECOGNIZE (main idea)
    Supporting Evidence                      (2)   PROVIDE (supporting evidence)
    Inferences                               (4)   CONSTRAST (facts, supported
    Conclusions                                    inferences, opinions)
    Generalizations                          (5)   DRAW (inferences, conclusions,
    • Text evidence                                generalizations)
    • Prior knowledge
    Facts                                    (6) SUPPORT (inferences/conclusions
    Supported inferences                         with text evidence, prior
    Opinions                                     knowledge)
Blooms: (1) Knowledge (2) Comprehension (3) Application (4) Analysis (5) Synthesis
                                                               2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 25
                                        Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
BIG IDEA(S) (From ELA/Math Standards)

  1. Main ideas must be supported with evidence from text and supporting
     details.

  2. We draw conclusions and make generalizations from what we read and
     from our own experiences.

  3. Knowing the differences between facts, opinions, and inferences helps
     you make your own decisions about what you read.

ESSENTIAL QUESTION(S) (Matched to Big Ideas)

  1. Are main ideas by themselves enough for us to believe in them? (Main
     ideas must be supported with evidence from text and supporting details.

  2. What are conclusions and generalizations? How do we arrive at them?
     (We draw conclusions and make generalizations from what we read and
     from our own experiences.)

  3. Facts, opinions, inferences! What’s the difference, and why should we
     know? (Knowing the differences between facts, opinions and inferences
     helps you make your own decisions about what you read.)

ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE: Selected-Response

Student Directions: Read the story, A Bucket of Trouble, and then answer
the related questions.




                                                         2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 26
                                  Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                             A Bucket of Trouble
              An East Indian Folk Tale Retold by Larry Ainsworth

Once upon a time a big frog and a little frog were hopping along together on a
farm when they had the great misfortune of jumping straight into a half-
filled, steel pail of fresh milk left outside the barn by the farmer’s young son.
The two frogs paddled for hours and hours, going round and round in the white
liquid, hoping to get out somehow. But the sides of the pail were steep and
slippery, and death seemed certain. When the big frog was exhausted, he
lost courage. There seemed no hope of rescue.

“Why keep struggling against the inevitable?” he said, gasping for breath.
“Keep on! Keep on!” urged the little frog in reply, who was still circling the
pail. “Don’t give up!”

So they went on this way for awhile longer. But the big frog at last decided
that it was no use.

“Little brother, we may as well give up. I’m going to quit struggling.” And
with that, he sank beneath the waves of the milk to the bottom of the pail.

Now only the little frog was left. He thought to himself, “Well, to give up is
to be dead. I will keep swimming.”

Two more hours passed, and the tiny legs of the determined little frog were
almost paralyzed with exhaustion. It seemed as if he could not keep moving
for another minute. But then he remembered his dead friend and made up his
mind that he would keep on. Again and again he thought to himself: I’ll keep
paddling until I die – if death is to come - but I will not cease trying. While
there is life there is hope!

Intoxicated with determination, the little frog kept on, circling around and
around and around inside the pail, chopping the milk into white waves. After
awhile, just as he felt completely numb and thought he was about to drown,
he suddenly felt something solid underneath him. To his astonishment, he saw
that he was resting on a lump of butter which he had churned by his incessant
paddling!

And so the successful little frog leaped out of the milk pail to freedom.
                                                            2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 27
                                     Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
Choose the best answer from the answer choices.
   1. What is the main idea of this tale?
         a. Two frogs accidentally jumped into a pail of milk.
         b. The little frog lives because he didn’t give up.
         c. Milk can be churned into butter with enough effort.

  2. Why did the big frog drown?
       a. He decided it was no use to keep trying.
       b. His legs couldn’t move anymore.
       c. He was too heavy to stay afloat.
  3. True/False: Write T or F in the space provided.
  ___ The little frog hoped that if he kept paddling, he would live.

  4. True/False: Write T or F in the space provided.
  ___ The little frog knew the milk would turn into butter if he kept
  paddling.

  5. This   tale best illustrates which one of the following generalizations.
       a.   Danger can show up in the most ordinary places.
       b.   Events sometimes take a surprising turn if you refuse to quit.
       c.   Everyone fails some of the time.

  6. Decide which line from the tale best supports this conclusion: The way
     to overcome difficulties is to fact them bravely.
       a. “Why keep struggling against the inevitable?”
       b. “Well, to give up is to be dead.”
       c. “While there is life, there is hope.”




                                                           2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 28
                                    Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
                                COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
                                     PLANNING TEMPLATE
                                    (From the Center for Performance Assessment)




    GRADE LEVEL ________________ CONTENT AREA
    __________________________

    AUTHORS ____________________________ SCHOOL
    ________________________


                                    PART I
    STUDENT DATA ANALYSIS
    (WHAT AREAS OF FOCUS ARE DATA TELLING US NEED WORK?)




    STRAND/STANDARD (MATCH STRAND DATA WITH ELA/Math STANDARD)




                  CONCEPTS                                              SKILLS
     (What students need to know about)             (What students are able to do)
                                                   (Write # of appropriate Bloom’s
                                                             Taxonomy)




Blooms: (1) Knowledge (2) Comprehension (3) Application (4) Analysis (5) Synthesis

                                                               2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 29
                                        Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment
BIG IDEA(S) (From ELA/Math Standards)




ESSENTIAL QUESTION(S) (Matched to Big Ideas)




                                   PART II
ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE: Selected-Response




ASSESSMENT EXAMPLE: Extended Constructed-Response




                                   PART III
Task-Specific Scoring Guide:

    Exemplary           Proficient              Progressing                    Beginning

 All “Proficient”   Criteria for            Student work                  Student work
  criteria plus:    Proficient            meets 2 of the                meets fewer than 2
                                          “Proficient”                  of the “Proficient”
                                          criteria                      criteria
                                                                          Assessment task
                                                                        to be repeated
                                                                        after remediation




                                                            2007 Adapted from Larry Ainsworth, 30
                                     Common Formative Assessments, Center for Performance Assessment

				
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