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Mussels as bioindicators

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					MUSSELS AS BIOINDICATORS
By: Andrea Scoles
MUSSELS:
o   Phylum: Mollusca

o   Class Bivalvia-comprised
    of animals with 2 shell
    valves

o   Includes about 15000
    species both marine and
    freshwater

o   Clams, oysters, scallops,
    and mussels
MUSSELS

Feeding



   Suspension or filter
    feeding
MUSSELS



          o 4 different stages:
            fertilization, larvae,
            host living, and free
            living
USE OF MUSSELS
Positive                Negative
 Filter Feeders         Extrapolation of data
 Sedentary              Cultivation in a lab

 Long life span

 Ease of maintenance
  and handling
 Can be found in
  abundant numbers
Ecotoxicology
Science of predicting effects of
potentially toxic agents on natural
ecosystems and nontarget species
Importance
o Finding a contaminated area for
  mussels could express concern of the
  entire habitat
o Analyzing of toxic levels
o Help to understand why mussel
  populations are declining
           Toxicants
    o   Heavy Metals- Cd, Hg, Cu,
                  and Zn
             o   Pesticides-
•       atrazine & pendimethalin,
          fipronil & permethrin,
               chlorothalonil,
             propiconazole, &
               pyraclostrobin
STUDY METHODS AND RESULTS

o   Effects of technical grade pesticides on larvae
    and juvenile stages
o   Collection of gravid females from rural areas in
    North Carolina and Missouri
o   Lampsilis silquoidea most viable to continue with
    testing –for both glochidia and juvenile stages
o   Glochidia more sensitive to chlorothalonil while
    juveniles more sensitive to pyraclostrobin and
    propiconazole
STUDY METHODS AND RESULTS
o   Effects of ammonia on cultured juveniles
o   Special system used
o   Lampsilis cardium
o   Calculated LC and EC
o   Results: Positive relationship between
    number of dead and affected and the
    concentration of ammonia
FUTURE OF RESEARCH
o   Necessary to monitor environmental changes
o   Bring about less societal concern
o   Findings can be used in future research
REFERENCES
   Akan, J.C., F.I. Abdulrahman, J.T. Ayodele, and V.O. Ogugbuaja. 2009. “Impact of Tannery
            and Textile Effluent on the Chemical Characteristics of Challawa River, Kano
            State, Nigeria.” Austrailian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3(3): 1933-1947.
   Boudou, Alain, and Francis Ribeyre. 1997. “From the Ecosystem to the Cellular and
            Molecular Levels.” Aquatic Ecotoxicology 105(1): 21-35.
   Bringolf, Robert B., W. Gregory Cope, Chris B. Eads, Peter R. Lazaro, M. Christopher
            Barnhart, and Damian Shea. 2007. “Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Technical-
            Grade Pesticides to Glochidia and Juveniles of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae).”
            Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(10): 2086-2093.
   Crowe, Tasman P., Emma L. Smith, Peter Donkin, Deborah L. Barnaby, Steven J.
            Rowland. 2004. “Measurements of Sublethal Effects on Individual Organisms
            Indicate Community-Level Impacts of Pollution.” Journal of Applied Ecology
            41(1):114-123.
   DeLafontaine, Yves, Francois Gagne, Christian Blaise, Georges Costan, Pierre Gagnon,
             and H.M. Chan. 2000. “Biomarkers in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) for
            the assessment and monitoring of water quality of the St Lawrence River
            (Canada).” Aquatic Toxicology 50:51-71.
   Dixon, David R., Audrey M. Pruski, Linda R. J. Dixon and Awadhesh N. Jha. 2002.
            “Marine invertebrate eco-genotoxicology: a methodological overview.” Mutagenesis
            17(6): 495-507.
   Forbes, T.L. and V.E. Forbes. 1993. “A Critique of the Use of Distribution-Based
            Extrapolation Models in Ecotoxicology.” Functional Ecology 7(3):249-254.
   Gosling, Elizabeth. Bivalve Molluscs: Biology, Ecology, and Culture. Oxford, UK:Fishing
            New Books, 2003.
REFERENCES (CONT)

   Newman, Michael C. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology. Michigan: Ann Arbor Press, 1998.
   Newton, Teresa J., John W. Allran, Jonathan A. O’Donnell, Michelle R. Bartsch, and
           William B. Richardson. 2003. “Effects of Ammonia on Juvenile Unionid Mussels
           (Lampsilis cardium) in Laboratory Sediment Toxicity Tests.” Environmental
           Toxicology and Chemistry 22(11):2554-2560.
   Niemi, Gerald J. and Michael E. Mcdonald. 2004. “Application of Ecological Indicators.”
            Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35:89-111.
   Pritchard, John B. 1993. “Aquatic Toxicology: Past, Present, and Prospects.”
            Environmental Health Prespectives 100:249-257.
   Roditi, Hudson S. and Nicholas S. Fisher. 1999. “Rates and Routes of Trace Element
             Uptake in Zebra Mussels.” Limnology and Oceanography 44(7):1730-1749.
   Walker, Colin H. 1998. “Biomarker Strategies to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of
            Chemicals.” Environmental Health Perspectives 106(2):613-620.
   Walsh, Andrew R. and John O’Halloran. 1998. “Accumulation of Chromium by a
            Population of Mussels (Mytilus edulis (L.)) Exposed to Leather Tannery Effluent.”
            Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17(7): 1429-1438.
THANK YOU!
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