MUSSELS AS BIOINDICATORS By: Andrea Scoles MUSSELS: o Phylum: Mollusca o Class Bivalvia-comprised of animals with 2 shell valves o Includes about 15000 species both marine and freshwater o Clams, oysters, scallops, and mussels MUSSELS Feeding Suspension or filter feeding MUSSELS o 4 different stages: fertilization, larvae, host living, and free living USE OF MUSSELS Positive Negative Filter Feeders Extrapolation of data Sedentary Cultivation in a lab Long life span Ease of maintenance and handling Can be found in abundant numbers Ecotoxicology Science of predicting effects of potentially toxic agents on natural ecosystems and nontarget species Importance o Finding a contaminated area for mussels could express concern of the entire habitat o Analyzing of toxic levels o Help to understand why mussel populations are declining Toxicants o Heavy Metals- Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn o Pesticides- • atrazine & pendimethalin, fipronil & permethrin, chlorothalonil, propiconazole, & pyraclostrobin STUDY METHODS AND RESULTS o Effects of technical grade pesticides on larvae and juvenile stages o Collection of gravid females from rural areas in North Carolina and Missouri o Lampsilis silquoidea most viable to continue with testing –for both glochidia and juvenile stages o Glochidia more sensitive to chlorothalonil while juveniles more sensitive to pyraclostrobin and propiconazole STUDY METHODS AND RESULTS o Effects of ammonia on cultured juveniles o Special system used o Lampsilis cardium o Calculated LC and EC o Results: Positive relationship between number of dead and affected and the concentration of ammonia FUTURE OF RESEARCH o Necessary to monitor environmental changes o Bring about less societal concern o Findings can be used in future research REFERENCES Akan, J.C., F.I. Abdulrahman, J.T. Ayodele, and V.O. Ogugbuaja. 2009. “Impact of Tannery and Textile Effluent on the Chemical Characteristics of Challawa River, Kano State, Nigeria.” Austrailian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3(3): 1933-1947. Boudou, Alain, and Francis Ribeyre. 1997. “From the Ecosystem to the Cellular and Molecular Levels.” Aquatic Ecotoxicology 105(1): 21-35. Bringolf, Robert B., W. Gregory Cope, Chris B. Eads, Peter R. Lazaro, M. Christopher Barnhart, and Damian Shea. 2007. “Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Technical- Grade Pesticides to Glochidia and Juveniles of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae).” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(10): 2086-2093. Crowe, Tasman P., Emma L. Smith, Peter Donkin, Deborah L. Barnaby, Steven J. Rowland. 2004. “Measurements of Sublethal Effects on Individual Organisms Indicate Community-Level Impacts of Pollution.” Journal of Applied Ecology 41(1):114-123. DeLafontaine, Yves, Francois Gagne, Christian Blaise, Georges Costan, Pierre Gagnon, and H.M. Chan. 2000. “Biomarkers in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) for the assessment and monitoring of water quality of the St Lawrence River (Canada).” Aquatic Toxicology 50:51-71. Dixon, David R., Audrey M. Pruski, Linda R. J. Dixon and Awadhesh N. Jha. 2002. “Marine invertebrate eco-genotoxicology: a methodological overview.” Mutagenesis 17(6): 495-507. Forbes, T.L. and V.E. Forbes. 1993. “A Critique of the Use of Distribution-Based Extrapolation Models in Ecotoxicology.” Functional Ecology 7(3):249-254. Gosling, Elizabeth. Bivalve Molluscs: Biology, Ecology, and Culture. Oxford, UK:Fishing New Books, 2003. REFERENCES (CONT) Newman, Michael C. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology. Michigan: Ann Arbor Press, 1998. Newton, Teresa J., John W. Allran, Jonathan A. O’Donnell, Michelle R. Bartsch, and William B. Richardson. 2003. “Effects of Ammonia on Juvenile Unionid Mussels (Lampsilis cardium) in Laboratory Sediment Toxicity Tests.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(11):2554-2560. Niemi, Gerald J. and Michael E. Mcdonald. 2004. “Application of Ecological Indicators.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35:89-111. Pritchard, John B. 1993. “Aquatic Toxicology: Past, Present, and Prospects.” Environmental Health Prespectives 100:249-257. Roditi, Hudson S. and Nicholas S. Fisher. 1999. “Rates and Routes of Trace Element Uptake in Zebra Mussels.” Limnology and Oceanography 44(7):1730-1749. Walker, Colin H. 1998. “Biomarker Strategies to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Chemicals.” Environmental Health Perspectives 106(2):613-620. Walsh, Andrew R. and John O’Halloran. 1998. “Accumulation of Chromium by a Population of Mussels (Mytilus edulis (L.)) Exposed to Leather Tannery Effluent.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17(7): 1429-1438. THANK YOU! Any Questions?