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					                             Japanese     English

                                    1/7/02

                          Seminar 1,Judy Yoneoka




<OUTLINE>

Ⅰ:Introduction

  There is a lot of Japanese English in Japan.         These words are not

understood in English, and they cause misunderstandings,   because Japanese

English comes from Japanese original ideas. It is originally English, but

somehow Japanese people change English into Japanese, which is easy to

understand for them.

  There are many types of Japanese English in Japan. For example,

1:reduction words (personal computer→pasokon)

2:loan words (an apartment house→mansion)

3:Japanese general idea (couple→two shot)

We tend to think we use these words without knowing that they are Japanese

English. So we may get into trouble by using these words when we talk with

someone in English. Now, in order not to be in trouble about it, let’s research

these words with dividing them into some categories.



Ⅱ: What types of words are there in Japanese English?


                                      1
  Japanese English hasn’t coherence, so there are lots of types. For example,

homonym type, omission type, superfluous type, compounds type and mixed

type etc.

  In this paper, we can compare ①reduction words, ②loan words and ③the

words which were made by Japanese general ideas, because these words are

the most popular types among Japanese people.



Ⅱ-1. Reduced words

  These words aren’t English; but come about as a result of being contracted

from the original English. We also have superfluous words in Japanese English,

but Japanese people tend to be fond of omitting words, so they made more

reduction words than superfluous words. There are three types of reduced

words: ① Words with latter half part omitted. ② Words with first half omitted.

③ Two words with one or both last parts omitted.

① Words with latter half part omitted.

-In these words, their latter half parts are omitted.

INFURE                           Inflation

*DEFURE                          Deflation

RISUTORA                         Restructuring

TEREBI                           Television

ANIME                            Animation

APAATO                           Apartment

Table 1. Words with latter half part omitted. (Japanese English and Standard

English.)

② Words with first half omitted.


                                         2
-In these words, their first half parts are omitted.

NEKKU                            Bottle neck

HAUSU                            Greenhouse

SISUKO                           San Francisco

Table 2. Words with first half omitted. (Japanese English and Standard English.)

③ Two words with one or both last parts omitted.

-In these words, their head parts are fixed only.

RIMOKON                          Remote control

WAAPURO                          Word processor

SEKUHARA                         Sexual harassment

ENSUTO                           Engine stall

EAKON                            Air conditioner

OOBAASUROO                       Overhand throw

Table 3. Two words with one or both last parts omitted. (Japanese English and

Standard English.)



Ⅱ-2. Loan words.

 These words have the same spelling and resemble the pronunciation of real

English, but they have entirely different meanings. There are also three types of

loan words: ① Word with meaning completely changed. ② Words with

meaning narrowed. ③ Words with meaning widened.

① Word with meaning completely changed.

-These words changed the meaning of real English, completely.




                                         3
Smart                          Slim, slender, stylish, well proportioned.

Mansion                        Apartment, flat, studio.

Talent                         TV personality, TV celebrity.

Cunning                        Cheating, cribbing, crib, phony.

Morning service                Breakfast special.

Table 4. Word with meaning completely changed. (English and its Japanese

English meaning.)

② Words with meaning narrowed.

-These words changed from their real meanings into narrowed ones.

Hip                           Buttocks

Stove                         Heater

Single                        An unmarried person

Handsome                      Cool, neat

Local                         Home town

Table 5. Words with meaning narrowed. (English and its small Japanese English

meanings.)

③ Words with meaning widened.

-These words changed from real meanings into widened.

Y-shirt (white shirt)         Colored shirt

Car                           Chair, carriage, buggy

Up                            Increase, rise, hike

Down                          Decrease, cut

Table 6. Words with meaning widened. (English and its big Japanese English

meanings.)




                                       4
Ⅱ-3. Japanese general ideas.

   -Each of these components of these word combinations are real English, but

they can’t be understood in English, as a result of being combined with each

other. It is said that this type of Japanese English is the most popular type in

Japan.

Salary man                      Office worker

Pocket bell                     Beeper,pager

Skin ship                       Physical contact

Decoration cake                 Fancy cake

Two shot                        Couple

Table 7. Japanese general ideas. (Japanese English and English)



Ⅲ:Conclusion

   It is said that there are over 10 percent of imported word in Japanese words.

Also, these imported words include about 80 percent of English-related words.

We like to create a lot of new words in Japan, and also we tend to make long

words into short ones. I found that this type (reduced words) of Japanese

English holds a large majority. It is said that this is a large feature of Japanese

English.

 I’m interested in Japanese English, so I studied various kinds of materials. But

this time, I was overwhelmed it’s numerous numbers of Japanese English, over

again. And as an English student, I think this study will be useful for us. Because

this report shows you the differences between near Japanese English and real

English.




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<Bibliography>

A: Kobayashi, Tadao. (1999) / Katakanagono shoutai (The true colors of

Katakana words, in Japanese.): Maruzen Library.



B: Matsuda.H, available

What is Standard English? ; http://www.nsknet.or.jp/~hide0508/ca/janglish.html

as of Oct.2001



C: Nozumi, Sachiko. (1998) / Nihonsyakaini afureru katakanago (Japanese

English is overflowed in Japanese society, in Japanese.): Shinpuusya.



D: Passin, Harbert. (1982) / Eigokasuru Nihonsyakai (Japanese society is

changing English speaking society, inJapanese.): Saimaru Shuppansya



E: Uemura,Y. (2000) / ”English” Made in Japan, unpublished ms.available

http://www.kumagaku.ac.jp/teacher/~judy/classes/zemi/zemi2/semipapersnew/u

emura.rtf as of Oct.2001



F: Yamada, Masae. (1995) / Americajinno shiranai eigo (English which American

people don’t know it, in Japanese.): Maruzen Library.



G: Yamada, Masae. (1996) /Americajinni tuujinai eigo (English which can’t be

understood in English, in Japanese.): Maruzen Library




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