Agricultural Sources Emissions and Control Technologies

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Agricultural Sources Emissions and Control Technologies Powered By Docstoc
					    Implementation of an
    Agricultural Air Quality

            Tulare Ag Expo
           February 11, 2004

                David L. Crow
Executive Director/Air Pollution Control Officer
          San Joaquin Valley APCD

• Long-standing permit exemption for
  Agricultural Sources under the State law
• Federal law requires permits for major
  agricultural sources (Title I and Title V)
• Federal sanctions (entire state) set for
  November 2003 unless ag exemption
• SB 700 (Florez) -- Signed into Law in
SB 700 Summary

• Removes permit exemption for Agricultural
  sources (major and minor sources)
• Requires Particulate Matter (PM) controls
  (including PM precursors)
• Additional pollution controls and permits
  for Confined Animal Facilities (CAFs)
• Offers off-ramps from pollution control and
• Treat agricultural facilities similar to other
  air pollution sources
SB 700 Control Requirements

• BACM and BARCT for sources where
  technology is transferable
• Controls for tilling, discing, cultivation,
  and raising of animals
• Controls for fugitive emissions
• Include measures for PM precursors
• Enforceable rules and regulations
 Minimum Permitting Requirements

• Major agricultural sources will be subject to
  Title V and NSR requirements
• District MUST require permits for agricultural
  sources with emissions at or above ½ the
  major source thresholds unless certain
  findings are made at a public hearing
• District CANNOT require permits for sources
  with emissions below ½ major source
  thresholds unless certain findings are made at
  a public hearing
Permitting Offramp
• District may exempt a source if:
   • Replace I.C. engines with electrical or
     State/EPA certified, and
   • Mitigate emissions from all ag activities,
   • Mitigate emissions from all ag equipment
• May serve as an incentive that could lead
  to air quality benefit
 More Requirements for CAFs

• 7/1/05 - CARB to define “Large”
• 7/1/06 – District to adopt permitting
  and mitigation rules for “Large CAFs”
• Degree of control = BARCT
• Regulations must be submitted to
  EPA for inclusion in the SIP
 More Requirements for CAFs (cont.)

• 1/1/07 - “CAF permit” applications due
  from “large” CAFs
• District issue permits within 6 months
  (30-day public notice) Sources to
  implement mitigation within 1 year
• NOT a substitute for other permitting
  Permitting Timeline
• Ag. exemption goes away 1/1/2004
• Existing sources:
  – Local permit applications due by 7/1/04
  – Title V permit applications due 1/1/05
  – Grandfathered (no BACT/ERCs)
  – BARCT/BACM later
• New sources (e.g., new dairies):
  – Effective 1/1/04 must obtain construction
    permits subject to BACT,ERCs, and public
              BACT Process

• Find the most effective control that is:
  – Technologically feasible
  – Cost effective/Achieved in practice
• Work with industry groups, individual
  dairies, equipment vendors
• Public workshops
• Evolve with time and science
     Areas of Possible Dairy Controls
     and/or Practices
•   Milking Center
•   Cow Housing/Feeding
•   Manure Storage Piles
•   Land Application of Waste Material
•   Lagoons
    Number of affected sources
• Total number of facilities in the Valley:
  – Farms (~28,000)
  – CAFs (~5,500)
• Facilities subject to BARCT/BACM:
  – Farms (~8,000)
  – CAFs (~1,100)
• Facilities subject to permits
  – Farms (~4,000)
  – CAFs (~350)
  – Fewer sources may be affected after closer
Rule 4550
Conservation Management Plans

• Conservation Management Plans for Ag
• Implement Controls for On-field
• Similar to Permitting – but it’s Not
• Sources Select from Control Options
CMP Program Concept
• Mandatory participation for farm sites 100
  contiguous acres and larger
• Select 1 measure from each of 5 categories
     –   Land preparation/cultural activities
     –   Harvest
     –   Unpaved roads
     –   Unpaved parking and staging areas
     –   Other – wind erosion prevention, waste
• Relatively simple plans submitted to NRCS/RCD
  for review and to District for approval
CMP Program
• Practices proposed by growers to be
  provided in a handbook
• Growers can propose new measures for
  Ag Tech Committee review & District
• New and improved CMPs as technology
  develops over time
• Best Available Control Measures (BACM)
• Help achieve annual 5% reduction in PM
CMP Examples
• Practices that reduce or eliminate the need to
  disturb the soil or manure
• Practices that protect the soil from wind erosion
• Equipment modifications to physically produce
  less PM10
• Applying water or dust suppressants to reduce
  emissions entrained by moving vehicles and
• Reducing speed or access on unpaved roads
  and parking areas
• Alternative practices to waste burning
CMP Timeline
• Rule development now underway
• Final workshops in March 2004
• Rule adoption May 2004
• Outreach/education ongoing
• CMP Program implementation begins July
• CMP Plans due no later than December 31,
• Fees to cover plan program costs with 50%
  discount for NRCS verification
Ag Research Priorities
• Dairy and other CAFO VOC emission
  factors – eventually need process based
• CAFO ammonia and PM10 emission
• On field management practice PM10
  emission differentials
• Equipment modifications to reduce PM10
 Ag Program Implementation
• Extensive outreach – Coordination with Industry
• Small Business Assistance
• User-friendly application forms
• Web-based tools/aides
• Development of good science and staff expertise
• Coordination/Utilization with other agencies (e.g.,
  NRCS, County agencies)
• Support legislation aiding effective
  implementation (e.g., Eliminate utility stand-by
• Statewide coordination
Some Important Dates
• 1/1/2004 – SB700 Effective, No Ag Exemption ,
  Title I & V
• 1/15/2004 – Governing Board Approves Staffing
• 5/20/2004 – District CMP Rule to Governing Board
• 7/1/2004 – District Permit Applications Due
• 1/1/2005 – Title V Application Deadline
• 1/1/2005 – CMP Applications Due
• 7/1/2005 – BARCT Rule for Ag IC Engines Due
• 7/1/2006 – District to Adopt Large CAF Permit Rule
• 1/1/2007 – Title V Permits Issued
Other Recent Air Legislation
• SB704 Biomass Funding- passed
• SB705 SJV Ag Burn Prohibition - passed
  - Phases out ag burning between 2005 and
  - District required to identify feasible
    alternatives to burning
  - Exceptions for diseased crops
SB704 - Agricultural Biomass to
Energy Program
• Enacted September 22, 2003
• Uses $6 million from Revenue Trust Fund
• $10/ton incentive for qualified agricultural
• Paid to biomass facilities meeting certain criteria
• CEC will manage funds
• CEC holding hearing to adopt program
  guidelines February 18, 2004
• All funds to be expended by June 30, 2004
SB 705 Changes to State Law
• Added Sections 41855.5 and 41855.6 to
  the California Health & Safety Code
• Prohibits the issuance of an agricultural
  burn permit within the San Joaquin Valley
  Air Basin for certain agricultural wastes,
  commencing on specified dates for each
  crop type
• Prohibition does not apply to prescribed
  burning or hazard reduction burning
  conducted in the foothills and mountain
  areas of the District
June 1, 2005 – Phase Out
• Field Crops:
  Alfalfa, asparagus, barley stubble, beans, corn, cotton, flower
     straw, hay, oat stubble, pea vines, peanuts, rice stubble,
     safflower, wheat stubble, and any other field crop
• Prunings:
  Apples, apricots, avocados, bush berries, cherries, Christmas
    trees, citrus, dates, eucalyptus, figs, kiwis, nectarines,
    nursery prunings, olives, peaches, persimmons, pistachios,
    plums, pluots, pomegranates, prunes, quince, rose
    prunings, trees and branches associated with pasture or
    corral maintenance, and any non-surface harvested
• Weed Abatement:
  Berms, grass, fence rows, pasture, ponding or levee banks
June 1, 2007 – Phase out

• Orchard Removals:
  Orchard removal matter, stumps, and
     untreated wooden stakes
June 1, 2010 – Phase Out

• Other Materials:
  • Brooder paper, deceased goats, and diseased beehives

• Surface Harvested Prunings:
  • Almond, walnuts, pecans, grapevines, and vineyard removal

• Vineyard Materials:
  • Grape canes and raisin trays
Amendments to Rule 4103
(Ag Burning)
By June 1, 2005, the District shall
  develop and adopt rules:
• Establishing the best management
  practices for certain weeds and
  maintenance, as defined, and
• Regulate the burning of diseased crops
Smoke Management

• March 2001 - Title 17 California Code
  of Regulations
• Districts given a mandate to develop
  better tools to manage smoke
• Agricultural burning and Prescribed
Acreage Allocation

• District determines atmospheric
  holding capacity in local geographic
• Local meteorological data
• Local air quality data
• Local nuisance potential
How Will It Work?
• Permitting process remains the same –
  same cost
• Daily allocation for each geographic area
  will be established by District
• No more burn or no burn days
• Farmers call to request a burn
  - Accepted
  - Reduced acreage
  - Allocation full
Waiting List
• Priority over new requests
• You will receive an automated
  message the afternoon before you can
• Choose to burn next day or delay up to
  5 times
• Call back to confirm that you will burn
Ways to request a burn

• Talk to an operator in person

• Use an automated phone system

• Use the Internet