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A national approach to the estimation of above ground biomass in

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					What’s new with FIADB 4.0:
Carbon, biomass, and trend
         analysis

     Mark H. Hansen
    NRS – St. Paul, MN
              Evolution of the FIADB User Manual

        350

        300      Phase 2

        250      Phase 3
Pages




        200

        150

        100

        50

         0
                V-1              V-3               V4
                              Versions
       FIA biomass estimates
• Tree level estimates of the biomass of all live
  (and some formerly live) trees 1” diameter and
  larger on forest land.
• Used to report total biomass at various levels.
• Indirectly used to compute total carbon at
  various levels.
• Not currently used to compute the growth,
  removals and mortality of biomass or carbon .
Volume components in both FIADB3 & FIADB4




                   Rotten or
                                                                               Trees < 5”
                   missing cull
                                                                               have
                                                                               zero
                                                                               volume

                    Form cull or
                    sound defect




Gross volume (VOLCFGRS)   >=   Sound volume (VOLCFSND)   >=   Net volume (VOLCFNET)
            Biomass components in FIADB3




                      Rotten or
                                                                            Trees < 5”
                      missing cull
                                                                            have
                                                                            zero
                                                                            DRYBIOM

                      Form cull or
                      sound defect




Total gross biomass (DRYBIOT) minus Merch. Biomass (DRYBIOM ) = Tops,   limbs and stump
               Biomass components in FIADB4


Rotten or
missing cull




Form cull or
sound defect




--------------------------Trees 5”+ DBH ---------------------------           Saplings           Woodland species
    DRYBIO_BOLE              DRYBIO_TOP           DRYBIO_STUMP           DRYBIO_SAPLING        DRYBIO_WDLD_SPP

                                                                      All trees 1” diameter and larger
                                                                               DRYBIO_BG




           REGIONAL_DRYBIOM and REGIONAL_DRYBIOT are in a new tree level table by themselves.
     Tree biomass components in FIADB4




1”     2”   3”   4”   5”   6”   7”   8” ….
Carbon components in FIADB4
     Forest carbon
     on tree records
      (carbon/tree)

                       Forest carbon on condition
                         records (carbon/acre)
      CARBON_AG
                       CARBON_DOWN_DEAD
                       CARBON_LITTER
                       CARBON_SOIL_ORG
                       CARBON_STANDING_DEAD
                       CARBON_UNDERSTORY_AG
      CARBON_BG        CARBON_UNDERSTORY_BG
  Other Biomass components in FIADB4




                               The REF_SPECIES table contains all the
                               coefficient values (stored at the species
                               level) that are needed to compute biomass
                               using the Component Ration Method (CRM)
                               (as used to compute DRYBIO_BOLE … )
                               and also the coefficients need to compute
                               biomass based on Jenkins.




REGIONAL_DRYBIOT   AND   REGIONAL_DRYBIOM
              Example change matrix analysis
         MN 1999-2002 plots remeasured in 2004-2007
              Forest land both measurements

                                            2007 Forest-type group – (thousand acres)
2002
forest
type
group    R/W/J     S/F          ERC         Scots     O/P          O/H         E/A/C     M/B/B     A/B          Ex         NS          Total

R/W/J      845.9         38.0         0.0       2.1         58.6     12.9          5.7      18.9         44.4        0.0         7.9    1,034.4

S/F         32.2   3,286.7            0.0       0.0          0.0         0.0      74.1      24.4     148.4           0.0        68.7    3,634.5

ERC          0.0          0.0     11.7          0.0          3.8         5.4       0.0       0.0          0.0        0.0         0.0       20.9

Scots        0.0          0.0         0.0       2.9          0.0         0.0       0.0       0.0          0.0        0.0         0.0           2.9

O/P         55.8         10.5         0.0       0.0     135.6            5.5       2.5       2.5         67.8        0.0         1.2      281.4

O/H          5.3          4.2         0.0       0.0         22.8    885.1          5.2     102.1         46.0        0.0         8.5    1,079.2

E/A/C        0.0         48.6         0.0       0.0          0.0     34.0        908.2      72.3     106.5           0.0        20.6    1,190.1

M/B/B        0.0          3.2         1.3       0.0         24.0     66.6         76.9   1,390.2     133.2           1.1         5.3    1,701.8

A/B         31.0     205.5            0.0       0.0         50.6    111.8        177.2     176.2   5,834.1           0.0        55.0    6,641.3

Ex           0.0          0.0         0.0       0.0          0.0         0.0       0.0       0.0          0.0        0.0         0.0           0.0

NS           1.0         51.2         0.0       0.0          7.1         6.1      11.8      14.9         38.8        0.0        60.9      191.9

Total      971.2   3,647.9        13.0          5.0     302.6      1,127.4     1,261.6   1,801.4   6,419.2           1.1    228.1      15,778.6
Previous measurement   Current measurement




    Cond 1
    Aspen
                           Cond 1
                            CC
Previous measurement                   Current measurement




    Cond 1
    Aspen
                                            Cond 1
                                             CC




         PREVCOND   CONDID   SUBPTYP_PROP_CHNG
             1         1            1.00
Previous measurement    Current measurement




   Cond 1
   Aspen
                            Cond 1
               Cond 2       BFCC
               Balsam
                 fir
Previous measurement                         Current measurement




   Cond 1
   Aspen
                                                  Cond 1
                       Cond 2                     BFCC
                       Balsam
                         fir




            PREVCOND      CONDID   SUBPTYP_PROP_CHNG
               1            1             0.65
               2            1             0.35
Previous measurement    Current measurement




                                     Cond 2
                                     Nonforest
   Cond 1
   Aspen
                            Cond 1
               Cond 2       BFCC
               Balsam
                 fir
Previous measurement                       Current measurement




                                                          Cond 2
                                                          Nonforest
   Cond 1
   Aspen
                                                 Cond 1
                       Cond 2                    BFCC
                       Balsam
                         fir



            PREVCOND      CONDID   SUBPTYP_PROP_CHNG
               1            1             0.54
               1            2             0.11
               2            1             0.17
               2            2             0.18
85,000 remeasured forest subplots
       in NRS, 1999-2007
• 91.3% one condition both measurements.
• 3.4% two conditions both measurement,
  no change in the mapping.
• 3.7% mapping eliminated or added.
• 1.3% three conditions on the subplot.
• 0.3% mapping was moved but not
  eliminated.
Lake States, Plains States and Central States 2007+ Maine and Pennsylvania 2006

         Million Acres   2006 or 7
           2001 or 2       forest     non-for    NC-water    C water    not samp    Total
         forest               114.3        2.3         0.1        0.0         0.2     116.9
         nonforest              6.2      375.3         0.7        0.6         0.1     383.0
         non-census
         water                  0.1        0.9         1.2        0.6         0.0           2.9
         census water           0.1        0.7         0.3        7.9         0.0           9.0
         not sampled            0.1        0.0         0.0        0.0         0.0           0.2
         Grand Total          120.9      379.2         2.3        9.2         0.3     511.9


         Percents        2006 or 7
           2001 or 2       forest     non-for    NC-water    C water    not samp    Total
         forest              94.6%       0.6%        4.4%       0.2%       62.6%     22.8%
         non-for              5.1%      99.0%       30.5%       7.0%       21.5%     74.8%
         non-cen wat          0.1%       0.2%       52.2%       6.7%        1.0%      0.6%
         census water         0.1%       0.2%       12.8%      86.1%        0.6%      1.8%
         not sampled          0.1%       0.0%        0.1%       0.0%       14.3%      0.0%
         Total              100.0%     100.0%      100.0%     100.0%      100.0%    100.0%
         Total               23.6%      74.1%        0.4%       1.8%        0.1%    100.0%


   Increase in forest land from 116.9 to 120.9 million acres (3.4%) over 5 years
The change matrix will enable easy
        construction of:
• Growth, removals and mortality reporting
  by either initial or final conditions.
• Empirical yield tables (volume per acre by
  age class) linked to observed growth over
  past remeasurement period.
• Good input for growth and yield research.
• Allocation of component of growth to land
  use changes.
                    Other changes

•       Added two new POP tables
    –     POP_EVAL_TYP
    –     POP_EVAL_TYP_DESCR
•       Renamed POP_ATTRIBUTE to REF_POP_ATTRIBUTE
•       Added and removed some reference tables and added
        documentation for the reference tables that will be
        available with FIADB 4.0
•       Changed the name of a few attributes that had the same
        name on two different tables but different definitions.
        Example: changed STATUSCD on SUBPLOT to
        SUBP_STATUS_CD
•       Dropped some attributes, many of which were noted in
        Version 3.0 as “to be dropped
    Added attributes to various tables

•    PLOT.INTENSITY
•    POP_ESTN_UNIT.P1SOURCE
•    POP_EVAL.START_INVYR
•    POP_EVAL.END_INVYR
•    POP_EVAL_ATTRIBUTE.STATECD
•    POP_EVAL_GRP.NOTES
•    SITETREE.CONDLIST (actually a rename)
•    SUBPLOT.SUBP_STATUS_CD (actually a rename)
•    SURVEY.ANN_INVENTORY
•    SURVEY.RSCD
Questions ??????
   Comments

    Thank you
Relationships among phase 1 tables and the phase 2
             plot data tables in FIADB.
Volume estimates have been one
of our primary products for many
             years.
 Regional biomass computation
• DRYBIOT = fb1(DIA,…)
• DRYBIOM = fb2(DRYBIOT,…)
or
• DRYBIOM = fb3(VOLCFGRS,…)
• DRYBIOT = fb4(DRYBIOM,…)

• Biomass and volume equations take different
  forms and were developed at different times
  from different data sets.
                    Issues
•   National consistency.
•   Biomass-volume consistency.
•   Errors in application of biomass equations.
•   Realistic estimates of components.
Consistent - reasonable estimates
 Select red oak, 10.0” dia, live, growing stock trees, 60-70’ HT



                                                 (DRYBIOT-
                       DRYBIOM /                 DRYBIOM) /
                       VOLCFSND                   DRYBIOT

                     Pounds of wood             Percent of total
                   and bark per cubic          biomass in tops,
FIA Region         foot of sound wood         limbs and stumps
NRS-West                   40.9                     29.8%
 NRS-East                   53.5                     11.3%
   SRS                      41.4                     21.8%
Jenkins et al. – total above ground
   biomass (including foliage)

                    0   1diameter
Biomass  e
                          1 
                  0           
  Ratio  e            diameter 
                          Predicted total aboveground biomass by species group. Jenkins
                                                    et al. 2003

                   8000
                              maple/oak/hickory/beech
                   7000       soft maple/birch
                              Douglas fir
                   6000       mixed hardwood
Biomass (pounds)




                              true fir/hemlock
                   5000
                              aspen/alder/cottonwood/willow
                              spruce
                   4000
                              pine

                   3000       cedar/larch
                              woodland
                   2000

                   1000

                      0
                          5                      10                  15           20      25
                                                              Diameter (inches)
         Biomass data sets
• All the boles are strong
• All the trees are good looking
• All the SI are above average
                                        Select red oaks - average VOLCFSND by Latitude

                           80

                           70
Average VOLCFSND (sq ft)




                           60

                           50

                           40

                           30

                           20

                           10

                           0
                                5   6    7    8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20
                                                           Diameter (inches)
                                  Select red oaks - average HT by Latitude

                    120


                    100
Average HT (feet)




                    80


                    60


                    40


                    20


                     0
                          5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20
                                                   Diameter (inches)
                                         Lodgepole pine - average VOLCFSND by Latitude

                           100
                           90
                           80
Average VOLCFSND (sq ft)




                           70
                           60
                           50
                           40
                           30
                           20
                           10
                            0
                                 5   6     7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20
                                                            Diameter (inches)
                                  Lodgepole pine - average HT by Latitude

                    120


                    100
Average HT (feet)




                    80


                    60


                    40


                    20


                     0
                          5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20
                                                   Diameter (inches)
    Component Ratio Method
           (CRM)
• Based on the assumption that FIA volume
  estimates are pretty good.
• Sound wood has biomass.
• Rotten and missing wood has no biomass.
• If we get the bole right, we are about 75%
  done.
       Biomass in the bole
     DRYBIOM in FIADB v3
    DRYBIO_BOLE in FIADB v4

   VOLCFSND (cf) x wood density (lbs/cf)
                    +
VOLCFSND (cf) x bark ratio (cf bark/cf wood) x
           bark density (lbs/cf)
           Biomass in the bole
             DRYBIO_BOLE

                  DRYBIO_BOLE
                        =
            VOLCFSND * WOOD_SPG * 62.4
                        +
      VOLCFSND * BARK_PCT * BARK_SPG * 62.4
                        =
VOLCFSND * (WOOD_SPG + BARK_PCT * BARK_SPG) * 62.4
        Bole

          Bole biomass
                =
(volume of sound wood in the bole)
    x (density of sound wood)
                +
   (volume of bark on the bole)
        x (density of bark)
    Biomass in the stump
part of (DRYBIOT-DRYBIOM)
          in FIADB v3
DRYBIO_STUMP in FIADB v4
       DRYBIO_BOLE (lbs)
                 x
   Jenkins biomass in stump (lbs)
                 /
    Jenkins biomass in bole (lbs)
              DRYBIO_STUMP
                        DRYBIO_STUMP =
    VOLCFSND * (WOOD_SPG + BARK_PCT * BARK_SPG) * 62.4
                                 *
                                 (
                     raile_stump_b1*dia*dia
                                 /
 (((exp(jenkins_stem_bark_ratio_b1 + jenkins_stem_bark_ratio_b2
                             /(dia*2.54))
                                 +
(exp(jenkins_stem_wood_ratio_b1 + jenkins_stem_wood_ratio_b2
                            /(dia*2.54))))
  * (exp(Jenkins_TOTAL_b1 + jenkins_TOTAL_b2 * ln(dia*2.54)))))
                                 )
Stump

Stump biomass
      =
 Bole biomass
      x
 Stump ratio
Biomass in the tops and limbs
part of (DRYBIOT-DRYBIOM)
          in FIADB v3
 DRYBIO_TOP in FIADB v4
        DRYBIO_BOLE (lbs)
                 x
  Jenkins biomass in branches (lbs)
                 /
    Jenkins biomass in bole (lbs)
Tops and limbs

  Top and limb biomass
           =
     Bole biomass
           x
      Branch ratio
Saplings (trees < 5.0” diameter)
• CRM is Jenkins adjusted to meet national
  average CRM biomass of a 5.0” diameter
  tree by species group.
• Smooth transition over the 5” threshold is
  important for growth estimation.
• DRYBIOT in FIADB v3
• DRYBIO_SAPLING in FIADB v4
    Below ground – coarse roots
             (all trees)

• Not in FIADB v3
• DRYBIO_BG in FIADB v4
• Computed directly using Jenkins (no
  adjustments)
What follows are Regional vs CRM
vs Jenkins estimates for each FIA
          region by state
• All estimates are based on the latest/greatest
  public version of FIADB (as of Oct 2008).
• All estimate are total above ground biomass of
  live trees 5” diameter and larger on forest land.
• Annual estimates for 47 states, mostly 2007 and
  2006, a few 2005.
• New Mexico – 1999 periodic inventory is
  include.
• Oklahoma and Hawaii are missing.
                                                                                                              SRS


          Hardwoods                                                     200



                                                                        150
                                                                                  REGIONAL
                                                                                  CRM
                                                                                  JENKINS




          4.0” to 6.0”                                                  100



                                                                         50




           diameter                                                       0
                                                                              4   4.2    4.4      4.6   4.8     5   5.2    5.4    5.6    5.8    6




                                 PNWRS                                                                    RMRS
200                                                                     200

          REGIONAL                                                                 REGIONAL
150       CRM                                                           150        CRM
          JENKINS                                                                  JENKINS


100                                                                     100



50                                                                       50



 0                                                                        0
      4   4.2        4.4   4.6   4.8   5    5.2   5.4   5.6   5.8   6         4   4.2       4.4   4.6    4.8    5    5.2    5.4    5.6    5.8       6




                                 NRS-East                                                               NRS-West

200                                                                     200

           REGIONAL                                                               REGIONAL
           CRM                                                          150       CRM
150
           JENKINS                                                                JENKINS


100                                                                     100



 50                                                                     50



  0                                                                      0
      4   4.2        4.4   4.6   4.8   5    5.2   5.4   5.6   5.8   6         4   4.2       4.4   4.6    4.8    5   5.2    5.4    5.6     5.8       6
                                                                                                          SRS

          Softwoods                                                150

                                                                             REGIONAL
                                                                             CRM




          4.0” to 6.0”
                                                                   100       JENKINS




                                                                    50




           diameter                                                  0
                                                                         4   4.2       4.4   4.6    4.8     5   5.2   5.4   5.6   5.8   6




                            PNWRS                                                                    RMRS
150
                                                                   150
          REGIONAL
                                                                             REGIONAL
          CRM
                                                                             CRM
100       JENKINS
                                                                   100       JENKINS




50                                                                 50




 0                                                                  0
      4   4.2   4.4   4.6   4.8   5    5.2   5.4   5.6   5.8   6         4   4.2   4.4       4.6   4.8      5   5.2   5.4   5.6   5.8   6




                            NRS-East                                                               NRS-West
150                                                                150

          REGIONAL                                                           REGIONAL
          CRM                                                                CRM
100       JENKINS                                                  100       JENKINS




 50                                                                 50




  0                                                                 0
      4   4.2   4.4   4.6   4.8   5    5.2   5.4   5.6   5.8   6         4   4.2   4.4       4.6    4.8     5   5.2   5.4   5.6   5.8   6
               CRM estimates
 Select red oak, 10.0” dia, live, growing stock trees, 60-70’ HT


                                            (DRYBIOT-
                 DRYBIOM /                  DRYBIOM) /
                 VOLCFSND                   DRYBIOT


                 Pounds of wood     Percent of total
                 and bark per cubic biomass in tops,
FIA Region       foot of sound wood limbs and stumps
NRS-West                   42.7                     26.5%
NRS-East                   42.7                     26.5%
  SRS                      43.6                     26.5%
    What next – the future of CRM

• All the species level coefficients used to
  compute components will be stored in
  FIADB v4.
• Better (taper based) volume estimates will
  improve the CRM estimate of biomass.
• Taper based estimates of stump volume.
• Improved estimates of bark volume.
• Other estimates of the biomass in tops
  and limbs .

				
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