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					Implications of the EU
enlargement to the state of
environment in new member
states and prospects for the
future


      ANITA PIRC VELKAVRH
   European Environment Agency
          15 June 2004

                        European Environment Agency
           Content of the presentation

    • Selected processes in air quality, water quality,
      waste, biodiversity, sectors and benefits and
      challenges of acquis implementation

    • What have new member states brought in EU?

    • EEA work on the implications of EU enlargement
      to the EU SoE and its prospects

    • Priority messages (draft, work in progress)


2                                      European Environment Agency
                 EU
     Financial
                      Environment?
    mechanisms
          ENLARGEMENT

    EU                          EU



      Labour           Economic
      market            prestige
                 EU

3                            European Environment Agency
                               EEA membership
    EU membership




4                   European Environment Agency
    EU Enlargement 2004

    • The area and population has increased
      for aprox 20%
    • Economic output has increased by
      5,16%
    • Member states languages from 11 to 20




5                               European Environment Agency
    Economic strenght of countries
• GDP of Slovenia is close to Portugal or 70% of
  German, GDP of Bulgaria is 20% of German

• avarage foreing aid per country counts for 0,3% of
  GDP

• 1,5 to 5 % of national GDP goes for environment
  now

• With the whole aid the environment would not be
  regulated in 20 years

• Important is to use all other possible instruments
  and opportunities that countries have
6                                     European Environment Agency
    Air quality
• SO2emissions 1991-2000
  40-50% decrease in Bu, Hu, Pl, Slo; 80% decrease in
  CZ,Lv,Lt
• Emissions per capita still high (EU 21 kg; Hu,Ee,Pl,Slo
  40-70 kg )
• Exceedences of acceptable thresholds declined for
  SO2 and Nox, not for particulates; exposure to ozone
  difficult to identify
BENEFITS AND CHALANGES OF ACQUIS IMPLEMENTATION:
• Less emissions and benefits for health and social syst.
• Monitoring networks to be improved (quality of data,
  monitoring coverage for indicators)
• Further develop air management plans
7                                     European Environment Agency
     Water quality
• Improvements in nitrate and phosphate
  concentrations in rivers in last decade, locally still
  some problems
• Exceedences of 50mg/l nitrate concentrations in
  ground waters(Nitrate directive) – no exceedances in
  Baltic achieved, in other countries different situations
• Drinking water quality unevenly improved (urban
  areas more than in rural)

BENEFITS AND CHALANGES OF ACQUIS IMPLEMENTATION:
• better supply of drinking water (20% -30% of
  Estonia, Bulgaria, Turkey not connected)
• better confidence in quality, reduced contamination


 8                                      European Environment Agency
     Waste water treatment
• Majority of population live in catchments that are
  sensitive areas (nutrient removal is min)
• Recent national cost estimates are higher than previous
  international, between countries consistent, but lower
  than in older MS
• Problem is dispersed population in rural areas (low cost
  technology needed, <2000 inh. settlements not
  regulated)

BENEFITS AND CHALANGES OF ACQUIS IMPLEMENTATION:
• Coverage of collection systems and level of waste
  water treatment improved

 9                                     European Environment Agency
     Waste
BENEFITS AND CHALANGES OF ACQUIS IMPLEMENTATION:
• Low reuse and recycling rates; wasteful use of
  natural resources
• Landfilling as main final destination
• Illegal waste dumping
• Poor construction of the landfills and incinerators-
  to meet standards
• Poor level of waste collection
• Poor level of monitoring and reporting and
  enforcement
• 2% growth of waste generation expected, especially
  of some waste streams as old cars, white goods,
  electronic waste
• Projected is reduction of waste disposal by 2020 by
  2/3 (59 mio t to 20-35 mio t)
10                                    European Environment Agency
         Biodiversity

     •    Size of protected areas as % of total are will
          increase
         (Slovenia 8 to 32; Malta 18 to 28; Lithuania 11 to
          19, Bulgaria 5 to 7,5, Estonia 16 to 18,3)

     BENEFITS AND CHALANGES OF ACQUIS IMPLEMENTATION:
     •   Increase of the size of protected areas need proper
         management and financing
     •   EU threats to potential Natura 2000 sites: (EU
         funding); also national threats
     •   Lack of information (except Slovakia, Czech
         Republic, Malta..)

11                                         European Environment Agency
     Some existing and expected
     processes in sectors
      • Increase of transport • Increasing energy
                                consumption and low
      • Land abandonment,
                                efficiency
      • intensification of
        agriculture,          • Modernisation of
      • Unfavourable            industry
        infrastructure in agri• Clean up of past
      • Increase of tourism     liabilities
        and its impacts       • Old environmental
      • Better health           infrastructure in
                                settlements
     Environmental performance improved more due
     to transition than due to enlargement
12                                  European Environment Agency
     Distribution of benefits between
     countries




13                               European Environment Agency
     Aquis on Environment 22


     Total 83 acts:
     • Horisontal legislation
                                •IPPC
     • Air
                                •Chemicals
     • Waste
     • Water                    •Noise
     • Nature                   •Nuclear safety
                                •Civil protection

14                                 European Environment Agency
     Transition period can not be granted to:
     • transposition,
     • framework legislation
     • nature protection,
     • product related legislation,
     • new installations

     National policy targets have to be harmonized with EU targets
       to achieve quick and comprehensive development. This can
       be jeopardized by insufficient administrative capacity and low
       implementation of the acquis as a result of merely formal
       adoption.

     Aim is to change the position of environmental standards
       (enforcement). Some new are added (particulates), some
       standards are implemented in courtiers even stricter (bathing
       water quality standards in Croatia, Montenegro, Turkey-
       tourism)


15                                               European Environment Agency
     Issue of transition period                                No of countries        Langest
                                                                                      period

     Emissions of volatile organic compound (VOC) from         II I I I I             2008
     storage and distribution of petrol,
     sulphur content of certain liquid fuels                   I I                    2006

     urban waste water treatment,                              I II I I I I I I I     2015

     drinking water,                                           I I I                  2015

     discharges of dangerous substances into the aquatic       I I I                  2007
     environment,

     packaging and packaging waste,                            IIII I I I I I         2007

     landfill of waste,                                        I I I                  2012
     asbestos waste,                                           I                      2004
     shipments of waste,                                       I                      2007

     use of clap-nets for capture of certain bird species to   I                      2008
     establish a captive breeding system,
     strict protection of lynx,                                I

     integrated pollution prevention and control,              I I I I                2011

     Air pollution from large combustion plants,               I I I I I I I          2017

     waste and incineration of hazardous                       I I                    2005

     ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure.       I I                    2006
16                                                                       European Environment Agency
      What have new member states
      brought in EU?

     • Bussiness ocasions
     • Wealth of nature (landscape diversity
       biodiverstiy, pristine nature)
     • Stocks of fresh water
     • Common strenghts for global problem
     • Wealth of culture and tradition
     • Low level of socioeconomic
       development
     • Problems of the region

17                                 European Environment Agency
      OBJECTIVE of the EEA work on
     the implications of enlargement
 The aim is to support EU and national policy processes
   with information particularly related to the enlargement to
   protect the environment and achieve sustainable
   development in the enlarged EU.
 EEA expects related assessments to have an impact on policy
   processes through the various actors involved in the
   Community institutions,      candidate countries and EU
   member states. The information could for example help in
   decisions concerning the placement of EU structural funds
   and other instruments for sectoral and regional development
   in acceding countries.
 Assessments could also have an impact on NGOs and help
   strengthen civil society in countries.
18                                        European Environment Agency
                                        State and
     Products:                          environment
                                        and outlook
     Messages                           report 2005


     Opportunities and threats
     Storylines
     Case studies                              Scenarios
     Indicators


                        Civil society
                        workshop




19                                       European Environment Agency
     Draft priority messages on

       •   Policy integration
       •   Spatial planning
       •   Economical restructuring
       •   Biodiversity
       •   Quality of life

       (work in progress)


20                                    European Environment Agency
        Policy integration
     1. Priority of economic development might jeopardise necessary
        environmental protection including environmental acquis
        implementation even though environmental ministers have used
        the high priority that EU has given to environment protection as
        a means to raise their profile in government.
     2. Despite steps to improve environmental integration, EU
        sectoral policies still largely remain obstacles for integration
        and could result in environmental damage.
     3. Implementation of EU legislation is only a partial contribution to
        deliver environmental outcomes – it is also necessary to achieve
        environmental policy integration into the national decision
        making system of economic sectors; additional and sometimes
        better opportunities arise when integration happens at the local
        level.
21                                                 European Environment Agency
     Spatial planning

1. There is an opportunity to use the tradition and
   experience in new member states on spatial planning,
   build upon it and integrate with EU planning needs

2. Risk of unplanned development, poor integration of
   vertical and horizontal planning systems

3. Transboundary and cooperative planning initiatives
   improve environmental problem management and
   deliver practical outcomes
22                                     European Environment Agency
      Economical restructuring
     1. Compared with the existing member states the new
        countries have an opportunity to decouple pressures
        on environment from economic growth especially
        from energy, transport and industry. This is a major
        challenge for all the EU with deep consequences for
        production and consumption processes and practices -
        it is important that some positive aspects in the new
        member states, such as older habits to conserve
        resources and recycle, are not destroyed by accession.
     2. The development of new environmental friendly
        technologies is an opportunity, but it should not
        stimulate transfer of environmentally unfriendly
        technologies to other countries.

23                                             European Environment Agency
     Bioidversity
 1. Species diversity of enlarged EU will increase considerably, but
    this will need adequate protection to be preserved.
 2. Traditions of nature conservation and landscape
    management in new Member States are diverse and need to
    be carried on to maintain biodiversity. Transposition of EU
    legislation should supplement existing legislation, not
    substitute it.
 3. Effective management of Natura 2000 sites and wider landscape
    needs to be ensured through proper management plans and
    training.
 4. Adequate financial support is needed for implementation of
    Birds and Habitats directives and absorption capacity of
    new Member States needs to be increased. Good
    implementation of directives is dependant upon sufficient
    financing.
24                                           European Environment Agency
     Quality of life

     1. Economic transition is not necessarily improving the
        environment
     2. To increase of the quality of life in new countries it is
        important to reduce current inequities in the
        distribution of wealth and access to resources and
        ensure their sustainable use. Material and non-
        material components in quality of life should be
        enhanced in balanced way.
     3. Advantage of the more sustainable consumption patterns
        in new MS


25                                             European Environment Agency
     Conclusions
     • Estimated cost versus benefits are for new MS
       in general very close/the same
     • Opportunities that are at present existed in
       new MS should be examined more and
       elaborated into the concrete measures
     • Registered negative trends should be turned
       into neutral/positive
     • There is a need for more examination how to
       achieve objectives and deliver results with
       other ways than just spending money (work
       on efficiency of measures, lower costs of
       technologies, use of integrated (spatial)
       planning approaches and systems…

26                                     European Environment Agency