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Bali and Lombok Indonesia Travel Guide

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  • pg 1
									        eye witness travel guides

bali & Lombok

    beaches   temples
    diving     dance
                                     J A
                                         L A

markets                                      N
                                                 R A
                                                     Y A
                                                           U B
                                                               U D

The Guides that show you what others only tell you

bali & Lombok
Never has a travel guide been so easy to
use – just turn to the area of your choice

   PAGES   56-77

   PAGES   78-99

   PAGES   100-123

   PAGES   124-149

   PAGES   150-163

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Bali and Lombok Area by Area

                                                                          C ENTRAL B ALI
                                                                              Pages 78 –99

              N ORTH     AND    W EST B ALI
                        Pages 124 –149
                                                           • Singaraja

                      NORTH AND WEST BALI

                                                                                                  EAST BALI
       • Negara                                             BALI
                                                                                        • Bangli
                                                                              • Ubud

                                                           • Tabanan       Gianyar •          • Klungkung

                                   B A L I   S T R A I T            • Denpasar
                                                                           • Sanur
                                                           Kuta •                             NUSA
                                                                         SOUTH BALI          PENIDA
                                                                         • Nusa Dua

                                                  I N D I A N   O C E A N

      S OUTH B ALI
       Pages 56 –77
                                                                    0 kilometres   15

                                                                    0 miles                  15
                                                                    L OMBOK
                                                                   Pages 150 –163

                                E AST B ALI
                             Pages 100 –123

              B A L I   S E A

• Amlapura                                                                      Labuhan
                                         • Senggigi                             Lombok •
         L O M B O K    S T R A I T           • Mataram

                                                          • Kuta


& lombok
                                                                              C ONTENTS
                                                                                 HOW TO USE THIS
                                                                                    GUIDE 6

        Produced by Editions Didier Millet, Singapore
            EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Timothy Auger
               PROJECT EDITOR Choo Lip Sin
                ART DIRECTOR Tan Seok Lui
       EDITORS Samantha Hanna Ascui, Marilyn Seow
           SENIOR DESIGNER Felicia Wong Yit Har
DESIGNERS Nelani Jinadasa, Norreha Sayuti, Annie Teo Ai Min
Andy Barski, Albert Beaucourt, Bruce Carpenter, John Cooke,
      Jean Couteau, Diana Darling, Sarah Dougherty,
     Julia Goh, Lorca Lueras, Tim Stuart, Tony Tilford
                       ERA-Maptech Ltd, Ireland
                 John Cooke, Koes Karnadi,                                          Ganesha statue at
           Tim Stuart, Tony Tilford, Richard Watson                                Pura Luhur Uluwatu

      Anuar bin Abdul Rahim, Denis Chai Kah Yune,                               I NTRODUCING
   Chang Huai-Yan, Choong Fook San, Koon Wai Leong,                                B ALI AND
       Lee Yoke Ling, Poo Lee Ming, Thomas Sui,                                    L OMBOK
               Peggy Tan, Yeap Kok Chien
           Reproduced by Colourscan, Singapore                                 PUTTING BALI AND
  Printed and bound by South China Printing, Hong Kong                        LOMBOK ON THE MAP
               First published in Great Britain in 2001
                    by Dorling Kindersley Limited
                     80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL
                                                                                  A PORTRAIT OF
                                                                                 BALI AND LOMBOK
                  Reprinted with revisions 2005
Copyright 2001, 2005 © Dorling Kindersley Limited, London
                   A Penguin Company                                            BALI AND LOMBOK
                                                                                THROUGH THE YEAR
         REPRODUCED, STORED IN A RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, OR TRANSMITTED                           40
                                                                                  THE HISTORY OF
                                                                                 BALI AND LOMBOK
                           ISBN 0 7513 6870 9

                        The information in this
       Dorling Kindersley Travel Guide is checked regularly.
 Every effort has been made to ensure that this book is as up-to-date
   as possible at the time of going to press. Some details, however,
 such as telephone numbers, opening hours, prices, gallery hanging
    arrangements and travel information are liable to change. The
 publishers cannot accept responsibility for any consequences arising
     from the use of this book, nor for any material on third party
   websites, and cannot guarantee that any website address in this
  book will be a suitable source of travel information. We value the
  views and suggestions of our readers very highly. Please write to:
               Publisher, DK Eyewitness Travel Guides,
   Dorling Kindersley, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, Great Britain.            A pavilion in the grounds of Puri
                                                                             Agung Karangasem, Amlapura
 Pura Bukit Sari in the monkey forest at Sangeh, West Bali
Gunung Agung, the most sacred volcano on Bali and a prominent feature in the landscape

     B ALI AND                          T RAVELLERS ’                    OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES
     L OMBOK                               N EEDS                                        202
                                         WHERE TO STAY                         S URVIVAL
   BALI AND LOMBOK                                166                            G UIDE
               54                                                               PRACTICAL
        SOUTH BALI                                                                       214
                                                                         TRAVEL INFORMATION
      CENTRAL BALI                                                                       226
                                                                             GENERAL INDEX
                                    Nasi campur, “mixed rice”, the
                                     most common Balinese dish            ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
                                                                           AND READING LIST
                                       WHERE TO EAT 180                                  238

                                        SHOPPING IN BALI                         GLOSSARY
Freshly gilded temple parasols            AND LOMBOK                                     240
drying in the sun                                 192
                                                                                ROAD MAP
      EAST BALI 100                   ENTERTAINMENT 198                      Inside Back Cover


  LOMBOK 150

A Balinese house compound,
home to an extended family
6                                                                                  H O W                                T O                                  U S E                                       T H I S                                             G U I D E

                                       HOW                                                           TO                                             USE                                                                     THIS                                                      GUIDE
                      helps you to get the                                                                                                                                                               and music to wildlife and diving. Four

                      HIS GUIDE
          most from your visit to Bali and                                                                                                                                                               chapters on Bali’s regions, plus one on
          Lombok. It provides detailed                                                                                                                                                                   Lombok, describe sights of interest,
    practical information and expert rec-                                                                                                                                                                using maps, photographs and illustra-
    ommendations. Introducing Bali and                                                                                                                                                                   tions. Restaurant and hotel recom-
    Lombok maps the islands and sets them                                                                                                                                                                mendations can be found in Travellers’
    in their historical and cultural context.                                                                                                                                                            Needs. The Survival Guide has tips on
    Features cover topics from festivals                                                                                                                                                                 everything from transport to safety.

    B ALI AND L OMBOK                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Introduction
                                                                                                                                                                  B A L I     A N D       L O M B O K               A R E A              B Y       A R E A   101

    A REA BY A REA                                                                                                                                                                      EAST BALI                                                                                                   The landscape, history
                                                                                                                                                              HE OLD KINGDOMS OF EASTERN BALI wielded influence and power
    The island of Bali is divided                                                                                                                       beyond their lofty mountains and lush green valleys. What                                                                                and character of each
                                                                                                                                                        remains of their palaces and temples is still a window into a
    into four areas, each with its                                                                                                              world of ceremony and tradition, focused around Gunung Agung,
                                                                                                                                                centre of the Balinese universe, and, high on its steep volcanic slopes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 region are outlined here,
    own chapter. A further chapter                                                                                                              Besakih, one of the most important temples in Bali.                                                                                              showing how the area
                                                                                                                                                The East Bali area                                                         king as late as the
    covers the island of Lombok.                                                                                                                corresponds to the
                                                                                                                                                three regencies of
                                                                                                                                                Klungkung, Bangli and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1940s. This tradition of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          royal grandeur dates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         back ultimately to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 has developed in the past
    A map of these regions can be                                                                                                               Karangasem. It is an area of
                                                                                                                                                natural beauty and stark contrasts. Not
                                                                                                                                                far from its high volcanic peaks are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         15th century, when the
                                                                                                                                                                                                           court of the first king of Gelgel was
                                                                                                                                                                                                           established. Around the courts and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and what it has to offer to
    found inside the front cover of                                                                                                             some of Bali’s best beaches. Just over
                                                                                                                                                3,000 m (almost 10,000 ft) high, the
                                                                                                                                                active volcano of Gunung Agung
                                                                                                                                                dominates the landscape, its foothills
                                                                                                                                                                                                           palaces of the region the arts flour-
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ished and villages of skilled artisans
                                                                                                                                                                                                           grew up. This tradition of craftsman-
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ship survives in many places today.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the visitor today.
    this book. All the sights are                                                                                                               covered with green ricefields. East Bali
                                                                                                                                                was devastated by Agung’s eruption
                                                                                                                                                in 1963 (see p115) and by an earth-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             In the 14th century the Javanese
                                                                                                                                                                                                           kingdom of Majapahit brought to Bali
                                                                                                                                                                                                           a new social order and caste system.

    numbered and plotted on each                                                                                                                quake in 1974. In many places great
                                                                                                                                                lava flows transformed the landscape.
                                                                                                                                                  In East Bali are some of the island’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Some communities resisted it, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                           their descendants, known as the Bali
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Aga (original Balinese), still live here
                                                                                                                                                most important temples and palaces.                        in culturally distinct villages such as
    chapter’s Pictorial Map.                                                                                                                    Extravagant temple complexes stand
                                                                                                                                                on ancient sites endowed with cosmic
                                                                                                                                                significance, for example at Besakih
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Tenganan and Trunyan.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Klungkung’s royal house came to an
                                                                                                                                                                                                           end in 1908, when the king and mem-
                                                                                                                                                and around the volcanic lake in the                        bers of his court committed puputan
                                                                                                                                                vast crater of Gunung Batur. At                            (see p49), rather than submit to Dutch
                                                                                                                                                Tirtagangga, in the hills north of                         colonial control. However, many
                                                                                                                                                Amlapura, a luxurious water palace                         architectural relics still remain as
                                                                                                                                                was built by descendants of the last                       reminders of pre-colonial times.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A locator map shows
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 where you are in relation
    Each area can be quickly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to other areas of the islands
    identified by its colour coding.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of Bali and Lombok.

       102            B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K     A R E A    B Y      A R E A                                                                                 overlooked B A  I
                                                                                                                                                Ricefields of East Bali E A S T by theLsacred volcano Gunung Agung                                  103

        Exploring East Bali                                                                                           G ETTING A ROUND
                                                                                                                      A car, rented with or without driver, is the best way of getting
                                  by the                                                                                  around. Roads are mostly good, although signposting is
            mighty volcano Gunung Agung,
        upon whose slopes is the
                                                                                                                                poor. Because of the many bends, journeys often take
                                                                                                                                    longer than one anticipates. Bemo run between
                                                                                                                                          villages, but taxis are scarce. Although
        important Besakih Temple
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pictorial Map
                                                                                                                                            public buses ply the coastal roads, tourist
        Complex. To the west is                                                                                                                shuttle buses are more comfortable.
        Gunung Batur, with its own                                                                                                                  Public transport is virtually non-
        temples and a crater lake. To                                                                                                                     existent at night. Padang Bai,
        the south is historic Klungkung,
        and the royal pavilions of
        Taman Gili. From here the road           KINTAMANI p
                                                            PURA TEGEH
                                                            KORIPAN    GUNUNG
                                                                                                                                                                on the southern coast, is
                                                                                                                                                                      the ferry port for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               This shows the road
        runs eastwards to some good                                       o
        trekking country near Manggis       PURA ULUN a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           network and gives an illustrated

        and Tirtagangga, and on to the    DANU BATUR

        dive sites of Amed and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           overview of the whole area.

        Tulamben on the coast. The                                                                                                                                                                 Gunung Agung dominating the

        arid, lava-strewn eastern slopes

                                                                                                                                                                                                   landscape of East Bali
                                                                                                                                                                           TULAMBEN y
        of Gunung Agung are austerely                                                                          GUNUNG ABANG

        beautiful. Tenganan, not far
        inland from the resort area of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The interesting places to visit

        Candi Dasa, is one of the                                                                                                                                                                                   L
        island’s Bali Aga (“original                                                                                                                                                                                         S

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           are numbered and there are
        Balinese”) villages, culturally                                                                                                                                                                                              A
        distinct from the rest of Bali.            Ubud
                                                                       Ubud                                                                                                                                             t
        Amed t
        Amlapura w
                                          Padang Bai 7
                                          Pura Tegeh Koripan s
                                                                                                                                                    u GUNUNG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           also useful tips on getting to,
        Bangli 1
        Besakih Temple Complex
                                          Pura Ulun Danu Batur
                                            pp122 –3 a
                                                                                                                     i COMPLEX
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and around, the region by car

          pp116 –17 i                     Sidemen 3                                                                                                                                                                         r GUNUNG
        Candi Dasa 8                                                                                                                                                                 e TIRTAGANGGA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and other means of transport.
                                          Tenganan Bali Aga Village
        Gelgel 5                            pp110 –11 0                                                                                                                                                                  SERAYA
        Goa Lawah Bat Cave 6

                                          Tirtagangga e
        Gunung Agung u                    Tulamben y                Gianyar
        Gunung Batur pp120 –21 o                                                                                                                                                                    AMLAPURA
                                          Ujung q
        Gunung Lempuyang r                                                                                                                                                                         w
        Iseh 2                            Walk                                                                                                               TENGANAN TO 9
        Kintamani p                       Tenganan to Tirtagangga 9                                                     2 ISEH                          TIRTAGANGGA WALK                                   q UJUNG
        Klungkung pp105 –7 4                                                         1 BANGLI
                                                                                                                                                            TENGANAN        0                                                                                              Features and story boxes

                                                                                                                  3 SIDEMEN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0 kilometres                5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           highlight special or unique
                                                                                                                                                                               8 CANDI DASA

                                                                                                                                                 7 PADANG BAI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0 miles                     3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           aspects of a particular sight.
                                                                                   KLUNGKUNG 4                                                                                                      K EY
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Major road
                                                                      Gianyar                                                 6
                                                                                                         5                    GOA LAWAH                                                                  Minor road
                                                                                                GELGEL                        BAT CAVE                  T
                                                                                                                                                    I         S EE A LSO                                 Scenic route
                                                                                                                                        T                     • Where to Stay pp176–7                    River
                                                                                                                         96                     B A L I       A N D     L O M B O K         A R E A        B Y              A R E A                                                                      C E N T R A L       B A L I                                      97
                                                                                                                          O K                                                                       J Viewpoint
        Lush green ricefields around Tirtagangga                                                                      M B                                     • Where to Eat pp189– 90
                                                                                                                  L O

                                                                                                                                                                                                               The collection is displayed in                                                           W OODCARVING            IN   B ALI
                                                                                                                                                                                                               seven buildings numbered
                                                                                                                                                                                                               according to the chronological                                                           The surprising abundance of Balinese woodcarving reflects
                                                                                                                                                                                                               sequence of the works                                                                    not only an intense decorative tradition but also the fact
                                                                                                                                                                                                               displayed. Moving through the                                                            that Bali’s wilderness is forest (still inhabited by tigers in
                                                                                                                                                                                                               buildings gives a good                                                                   the early 20th century). Trees have a ritual anniversary and
                                                                                                                                                                                                               overview of Balinese art                                                                 must be given offerings before being felled. Traditional
                                                                                                                                                                                                               history and its Indonesian                                                               woodcarving is of two main sorts: ritual objects such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                               context today. Some works                                                                effigies and masks; and ornamental
                                                                                                                                                                                                               are offered for sale. Of                                                                 carving, especially of
                                                                                                                                                                                                               particular interest to visitors                     White-water rafting in the rapids    architectural elements. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                               are the classical wayang-style                      of the Ayung River Gorge             liberalizing art movement of
                                                                                                                         The south pavilion of the Agung Rai Museum of Art, Peliatan                           paintings, anonymous works                                                               the 1930s (see pp34 –5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                               of great graphic sophistication;                    by rice terraces, is discreetly      encouraged woodcarvers

         Detailed Information
                                                                                                                         Peliatan e                                 contemporary Balinese and                  and also the Lempad collec-                         populated with some                  to sculpt freely for a
                                                                                                                                                                    Indonesian painting as well                tion (see p34), consisting of                       attractive luxury hotels and         foreign market. The main
                                                                                                                         Road Map D3. c @ from Ubud.                as temporary exhibitions. The              superb pen-and-ink drawings.                        private houses. Several              centres of woodcarving
                                                                                                                         n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. F kecak,           Rudana Museum houses an                                                                        companies offer white-water          today include Peliatan

         The sights in each area                                                                                         legong and Barong dance; women’s
                                                                                                                         gamelan. 0 - = p ®

                                                                                                                              HE VILLAGE OF Peliatan,
                                                                                                                                                                    extensive painting collection.
                                                                                                                                                                      The northern part of Peliatan,
                                                                                                                                                                    known as Andong, has some
                                                                                                                                                                    interesting craft shops.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               p Neka Art Museum
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Jalan Raya Campuhan. § (0361)
                                                                                                                                                                                                               975 074. # daily. ¢ public hols.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   rafting from points on both
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   sides of the river (see p203).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E NVIRONS : In the village of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and several other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        villages in Gianyar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        regency, including
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tegallalang (see p98)
                                                                                                                         T                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sleeping Woman (1956),

    are described individually                                                                                                once the seat of an off-
                                                                                                                         shoot of the royalty of
                                                                                                                         Sukawati, is renowned for
                                                                                                                         artistic activities. It was known
                                                                                                                                                                    p ARMA
                                                                                                                                                                    Jalan Pengosekan. § (0361) 975
                                                                                                                                                                    449. # daily. & 8 F -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Penestanan, just east of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Gorge, there are studios
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   making painted batik and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   beadwork. This is also the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and Mas (see p86).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Giant” Temple). The demonic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 by Ida Bagus Njana

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The design is associated with

    following the numerical                                                                                              among foreigners for its
                                                                                                                         artistic traditions even earlier
                                                                                                                         than Ubud. Today, Peliatan’s
                                                                                                                         gamelan and dance troupes
                                                                                                                                                                    p Rudana Museum
                                                                                                                                                                    Jalan Cok Rai Pudak 44. # daily. &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   centre of the Young Artists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   movement (see p35) which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   emerged in the 1960s.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       statuary suggests that this was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a cult-temple of Bhairava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Buddhism. The chief figure is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a masked 3.6-m- (12-ft-) high
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the Dong-son culture of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             southern China and northern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Vietnam around 1500 BC.

    sequence on the Pictorial                                                                                            (see pp30 –33) travel abroad
                                                                                                                         as cultural ambassadors, and
                                                                                                                         perform locally in traditional
                                                                                                                         rituals and for visitors.
                                                                                                                                                                    Sanggingan r
                                                                                                                                                                    Road Map C3. @ from Ubud.
                                                                                                                                                                    n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. 0 -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pejeng y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Road Map D3. @ from Ubud &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       giant, dancing on a corpse.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The beautifully proportioned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Pura Pusering Jagat (“Navel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of the World” Temple) has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             p Museum Purbakala
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pejeng. § (0361) 942 347.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             # Mon – Fri. & donation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tPura Arjuna Metapa

    Map. Road map references,                                                                                               Peliatan is also a centre of
                                                                                                                         painting and woodcarving.
                                                                                                                         Many artists’ studios can be
                                                                                                                         found along its main street
                                                                                                                                                                    =p ®

                                                                                                                                                                    T    HE ROAD running through
                                                                                                                                                                         the village of Sanggingan
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Portrait of Sutéja Neka (1991) by
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Arie Smit, Neka Art Museum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Gianyar. n Ubud, (0361) 973 285.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80-=p ®

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       EJENG, A VILLAGE on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       numerous pavilions housing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       similar tantric stone figures.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The “Pejeng Vessel”, a cylind-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       rical stone urn carved with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Across the road from Museum.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             # daily. & donation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             t Pura Kebo Edan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pejeng. # daily. & donation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ayung River                                         P
    addresses, telephone                                                                                                 and back lanes. The collector
                                                                                                                         Agung Rai established the
                                                                                                                         successful Agung Rai Gallery
                                                                                                                         and went on to create the
                                                                                                                                                                    is lined with art shops, art
                                                                                                                                                                    galleries, restaurants and
                                                                                                                                                                    small hotels.
                                                                                                                                                                       The excellent Neka Art
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Gorge t
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Road Map C3. @ from Ubud.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       road from Bedulu to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tampaksiring, lies at the heart
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of the ancient Pejeng-Bedulu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   kingdom, and there are many
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       cosmological figures, is kept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       in a shrine in the southeastern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       corner of the temple.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          About 2 km (1 mile) north
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pejeng. # daily. & donation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pura Pusering Jagat

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pura Penataran Sasih
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pejeng. # daily. & donation. 8

    numbers, opening hours,                                                                                              impressive Agung Rai
                                                                                                                         Museum of Art (usually
                                                                                                                         referred to as ARMA), in
                                                                                                                         southwest Peliatan. Three
                                                                                                                                                                    Museum, founded in 1976 by
                                                                                                                                                                    local collector and former
                                                                                                                                                                    teacher Sutéja Neka, houses
                                                                                                                                                                    one of the best collections of
                                                                                                                                                                                                               n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. 0 = ®

                                                                                                                                                                                                               B                     and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ETWEEN KEDEWATAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Sayan, the east bank of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   interesting relics from that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   time to be seen. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Museum Purbakala
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (Archaeological Museum)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of Pejeng, Pura Penataran
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Sasih houses the “Pejeng
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Moon” (sasih means moon),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a bronze drum 186 cm (74
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Petulu u

    information on admission                                                                                             large buildings house
                                                                                                                         collections of classical and
                                                                                                                                                                    Balinese and Indonesian
                                                                                                                                                                    paintings on the island.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               the spectacularly beautiful
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ayung River Gorge, flanked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   displays prehistoric objects in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   bronze, stone and ceramics,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   including several turtle-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   shaped stone sarcophagi.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       inches) long, of unknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       age. Considered sacred, it is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       kept in a tall pavilion. Temple
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       guides sometimes encourage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Road Map D3. @ from Ubud &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pujung. n Ubud, (0361) 973 285.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HIS VILLAGE is known for its
    charges, as well as                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A short walk from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   museum are three temples of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   particular interest for their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   sacred stone sculptures. Pura
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       visitors to stand on the base of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       an adjacent shrine; from here
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       can be glimpsed the drum’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       fine geometric patterning.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 white-plumed egrets and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Java pond egrets, generically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             called kokokan in Balinese.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             They feed all over the island

    transport options, are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Arjuna Metapa (“Arjuna
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Meditating” Temple) is a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   small pavilion standing alone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   in the ricefields, sheltering a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and return here in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    late afternoon to roost
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in the trees lining the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    road. It is not known

    provided where applicable.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cluster of stone sculptures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   that were probably once part
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of a spring temple. In
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   accordance with the wayang
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    why the birds suddenly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    settled in Petulu in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1965. The best place to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    view them is the road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tradition that recounts tales                                                    from the Junungan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   from the Mahabharata,                                                            direction through the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Arjuna is attended by a stone-                                                   ricefields; seen from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   relief servant character. About                                                  here the V-formations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   100 m (110 yards) north is          Prehistoric turtle-shaped stone sarcophagi of birds at sunset are
                                                                                                                         The Ayung River Gorge viewed from the ridge at Sayan village                                                                              Pura Kebo Edan (“Crazy              at the Museum Purbakala in Pejeng            an unforgettable sight.
                                                                                                       H O W                                     T O                                          U S E                                                                                                            T H I S                                                    G U I D E                                                                                                                                     7

                                                                 Major Towns
                                                             4   An introduction covers the history,
                                                             character and geography of the city or town.
                                                             The main sights are plotted on the map and
                                                             described in more detail.
  64                B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K          A R E A        B Y   A R E A                                                                                      S O U T H                                    B A L I                                                                                                65
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A Visitors’ Checklist gives
   Canggu 2
   Road Map C4. n Denpasar (0361)
                                       Sanur          3

                                                            ALI’S LONGEST-ESTABLISHED
                                                                                  resort, Sanur
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Road Map C5. n Denpasar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  transport and other useful
   756 175. 0 - ®                                       B
                                                      has a quiet charm. At its heart is an old                                                                                                                                                                                 (0361) 756 175. c @ 4 to

   I N THE ABSENCE OF restaurants
     and nightlife, the quiet
                                                   Balinese community. The simple layout of
                                                  Sanur’s streets and its tranquil atmosphere
                                                   appeal to families and those seeking a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nusa Penida & Nusa Lembongan.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                F traditional dance at some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                restaurants. 0 - = ®
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  information, plus details of
   atmosphere of Canggu is a
   complete contrast with that of
   Kuta (see pp68 –9). This is a
   place for walks on the wind-
                                                    relaxed vacation with the convenience
                                                       and facilities of a beach resort, but
                                                       without the intrusiveness of Kuta’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          O The Bali Hyatt Hotel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Jalan Danau Tamblingan. § (0361)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  facilities, local performances
   swept, virtually deserted                           hawkers and traffic. The shops are                                                                                                                                                                                 281 234. ∑ www.bali.resort.hyatt.com
   beach. Behind the beach is a
   landscape of coconut palms
   and ricefields. One can walk
                                   Sculpture of Hindu elsewhere in Indonesia. Many of the
                                    deity Ganesha at
                                                       pleasant and sell goods from Bali and

                                                       unpretentious cafés and pubs aim to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Even non-residents should
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          visit the Bali Hyatt (see p173)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          for a drink or a meal, if only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and festival dates.
   all the way along the beach        Pura Segara                                                                                 Sanur Beach, with fishing craft drawn up on the sand                                                                                    to enjoy the gardens. Here
   from Canggu to Seminyak.
                                                       attract visitors of a particular nationality                                                                                                                                                                       Australian landscape architect
     This area was discovered by or lovers of a particular sport. The nightlife is enjoyed                                        L Sanur Beach                             beach is a place to explore                                                                   Made Wijaya developed a
   surfers in the early 1970s, and by both visitors and locals.                                                                   The beach runs virtually the              for marine life, such as sea                                                                  style of Balinese garden
   remains a favourite surfing                                                                                                    full length of the town. Along            grass, starfish, sea cucumbers,                                                               design which has influenced
   spot. The waves are too big         Exploring Sanur                                                                            much of it is a paved walk,               hermit crabs, Fungia corals                                                                   designers worldwide.
   for good swimming.                  Jalan Danau Tamblingan,                                                                    although some parts of this               and sea urchins.
      Those interested in the use      Sanur’s main artery, is lined                                                              have been damaged by                                                                                                                        tPura Belanjong
   of traditional elements in          with restaurants, and shops                                                                storms or tides. Offshore,                tPura Segara                                                                                      Jalan Danau Poso. # daily.
   architectural design will           selling locally made fashion                                                               enormous breakers crash into              Jalan Segara Ayu, or from Sanur                                                                   & donation.
   appreciate the vacation houses,     and craft goods. It runs some                                                              a reef. The calm waters                   Beach. # daily. & donation.                                                                       In this plain-looking temple
   which combine Balinese style        5 km (3 miles) parallel to the                                                             between the reef and the                  Set in the grounds of Segara                                                                      is an ancient stone column,
   with modernity.                     beach from old Sanur village,                                                              white sands are good for                  Village Hotel, but accessible                                                                     the Prasasti Blanjong. On it is
                                       to the formerly distinct villages
                                       of Blanjong and Mertasari.
                                       Half-way is Bale Banjar Batu
                                                                                                                                  swimming except at low tide.
                                                                                                                                  Beyond the reef the currents
                                                                                                                                  are strong. Sanur offers sea-
                                                                                                                                                                            to the public, this is one of
                                                                                                                                                                            the best of several beach
                                                                                                                                                                            temples built of coral. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              carved the oldest edict so far
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              found in Bali (AD 914). The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              inscription is written in a form
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The town map shows the major
                                       Jimbar, a community centre                                                                 related activities including              pyramid shape of the offering                                                                     of Sanskrit, although it is not
                                       where musicians practise and
                                       women make flower and
                                       palm-leaf offerings. At Pasar
                                                                               Jalan Danau Tamblingan, lined
                                                                               with shops and restaurants
                                                                                                                                  diving, fishing trips and an
                                                                                                                                  evening sail on a jukung, a
                                                                                                                                  traditional outrigger. The
                                                                                                                                                                            houses is unique to Sanur,
                                                                                                                                                                            and suggests origins in
                                                                                                                                                                            prehistoric times.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              all decipherable. It suggests
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sanur was a lively trading port
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              more than 1,000 years ago.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  streets, main transport terminals
                                       Sindhu, sarongs and other               work. Le Mayeur’s wife, the
                                       products can be bought at
                                       bargain prices; it operates
                                       early in the morning.
                                                                               famous Balinese dancer Ni
                                                                               Polok, is the subject of
                                                                               several paintings on show.                             S ANUR T OWN        AND          B EACH
                                                                                                                                                                                                  DENPASAR, UBUD & GIANYAR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and information centres.
                                                                                                                                      Bali Hyatt Hotel 6                        DENPA                           JALAN SA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NUR                                           G TU
                                                                                                                                                                                        SAR                                                       J A L A N HA N
                                       tPura Desa                              T Grand Bali Beach Hotel                               Grand Bali Beach Hotel


                                       Jalan Hang Tuah. # daily.               Jalan Hang Tuah. § (0361) 288 511.
                                                                                                                                      Museum Le Mayeur 2

                                       This fine village temple was            ∑ www.grand-balibeach.com                                                                                                                           AN
                                                                                                                                      Pura Belanjong 7

                                       probably built early in the last        Bali’s only high-rise hotel was

                                       century, although its brickwork         refurbished after a fire in 1992                       Pura Desa 1                                                                                                                         3

                                                                                                                                      Pura Segara 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                         JALAN D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ANAU BUYA                                                              4
                                       has been restored since. It is in       and is now adorned with giant                                                                                                               N
                                       Sanur’s oldest neighbourhood,           Balinese-style statues. After it                       Sanur Beach 4                                                                                                                                     (
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             JALAN SINDHU
  Farmers harvesting rice in Canggu    which is famous for the                 was built in 1964, the religious
  with vacation homes nearby           spiritual power of its priests.         authorities issued a famous                                                                                                                                                        (
                                                                               edict outlawing structures                             K EY
      There are several distinctive    p Museum Le Mayeur                      taller than coconut palms.                                                                                                                                                                     (
                                                                                                                                      @ Bemo terminal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 JALAN DA N A U TAMBLIN

   “boutique hotels” (see p166).       Jalan Hang Tuah, via Grand Bali Beach   Such buildings were deemed
   They include the Tugu (see          Hotel. § (0361) 286 164.                offensive due to the spiritual                         4 Ferry or boat service
   p170), a self-styled “museum        # Sun – Fri. & 8                        value attributed to the trees.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     N G U R AH

                                                                                                                                      ( Market
   hotel”, furnished with an-          Built in the 1930s by                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (
   tiques. The pieces range from       Adrien Jean Le Mayeur,

   dragon doors made by Dayak          Belgian painter and one

   headhunters in Borneo to            of Sanur’s first Euro-



   colonial Art Deco furniture.        pean residents, on the
   The villas are themed on            artist’s death in 1958 the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      JA LA

   artists who lived in Bali, such     house became a                                                                                                                                                                                                                     N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D UY
   as Walter Spies and Adrien Le       museum and gallery,                                                                                                                                JA L
                                                                                                                                                                                                  AN                                                                            (
   Mayeur (see p50). It is worth       which has seen better                                                                          0 metres          1,000                                                 DAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AU                      POS O                     KE

   visiting the hotel just to eat in   days. Some of the                                                                                                                                                          7



   the Chinese restaurant, set         buildings are wooden,                                                                          0 yards        1,000

   inside an 18th-century,             with carved decorations.                                                                                                                                              JAL A N M
                                                                                                                                                                                                      BA K

   wooden Chinese temple               The courtyard garden
   moved here from North Bali.         features in Le Mayeur’s        View from the Grand Bali Beach Hotel                                                   KUTA
                                                                                                                                                         88                      B A L I                          A N D                   L O M B O K                                                        A R E A      B Y        A R E A                                                                                                          U B U D                                                      89

                                                                                                                                                         Street-by-Street: Ubud w                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                                                                                                                                          one is conscious of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Road Map C3. c from
                                                                                                                                                         A      LMOST EVERYWHERE IN UBUD
                                                                                                                                                              town’s artistic traditions. Since most shops stay open
                                                                                                                                                         until around 9pm, the best time for strolling around is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Denpasar & Kuta. @
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     n Ubud Tourist Information,
                                                                                                                                                         the early evening. By then the traffic has abated, the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jalan Raya Ubud, (0361) 973 285.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     F Balinese performances: daily,
                                                                                                                                                         cafés and restaurants are invitingly lit, and the cool air is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     details posted at Ubud n.
                                                                                                                                                         often filled with gamelan music from cultural perform-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0-=®
                                                                                                                                                         ances. The main street, Jalan Raya Ubud, is the setting
                                                                                                                                                         for several buildings of architectural interest. The streets
                                                                                                                                                         running off it to the north and south lead to village                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               . Puri Saren
    Street-by-Street Map
                                                                                                                                                         neighbourhoods, and are lined with family-run shops,          . Museum Puri Lukisan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ubud’s palace has a shady
                                                                                                                                                         small businesses catering for visitors, and art galleries.    A fine collection of Balinese art                                                                                                                                                                                                                     forecourt where visitors can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          is on show here (see pp92–3).                                                                                                                      relax during the day and see

    This gives a bird’s-eye                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pura Taman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Saraswati                          Ubud Tourist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             traditional dance every evening.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        is a temple set                         Information Centre                                                                               . Pasar Ubud

view of a key area in a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       by a lotus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  pond.                             The wantilan is a hall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    where local people can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    gather and cultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A farmers’ market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 takes place here
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in the morning.

major town and points out                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           events take place.                                                                           Shops and stalls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 sell all kinds of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 crafts, snacks and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              J A                                                                                                                                                                                                                sundries through-


interesting sights to visit,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      L A


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N                                                                                                                                                                                                          out the day.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 R A


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Y A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              U B

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  U D


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seniwati Women’s


many of them shown in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Art Gallery

                                                                                                                                                         Ary’s Warung


                                                                                                                                                         This restaurant is run by

                                                                                                                                                         a minor Ubud palace


                                                                                                                                                         family, on land either
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       I W

                                                                                                                                                         side of the house gate.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          J A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              L A


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      R A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Y A


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  U B

                                                                                                                                                              Monkey Forest Road                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      U D

                                                                                                                                                              (Jalan Wanara Wana)


                                                                                                                                                               The street is lined with

                                                                                                                                                                galleries, restaurants

                                                                                                                                                                            and hotels.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           To Peliatan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and Bedulu



                                                                                                                                                             I NFLUENTIAL V ISITORS                                                                               1930 S                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lempad House was

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               OF THE                                                                                             To Monkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Forest Sanctuary                                                                                                                                           once an artist’s home

                                                                                                                                                             Bali owes much of its fame to foreign guests of Ubud’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and studio (see p90).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0 metres                     100
                                                                                                                                                             royal family in the 1920s and ’30s. Through their films,

             A suggested route for a                                                                                                                         books and photographs, these visitors projected to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      J A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          L A

                                                                                                                                                                                     world an exotic image of Bali.                                                                                                        0 yards                    100                                       N


                                                                                                                                                                                     Among the most influential were                                                                                                       K EY

                                                                                                                                                                                     German painter and musician Walter

             walk is shown in red.

                                                                                                                                                                                     Spies and Dutch painter Rudolf                                                                                                                        Suggested route

                                                                                                                                                                                     Bonnet, who helped found the Pita


                                                                                                                                                                                     Maha artists’ association (see p35);                                                                                                                                                                                             A
                                                                                                                                                                                     and Mexican artist Miguel                                                                                                               S TAR S IGHTS
                                                                                                                                                                                     Covarrubias, who wrote the classic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             To Pengosekan,
                                                                                                                                                                                     Island of Bali (1937). The anthro-                                                                                                      . Museum Puri                                                                    Batubulan and
                                                                                                                                                                                     pologists Margaret Mead and                                                                                                               Lukisan                                                                            Denpasar
                                                                                                                                                                                     Gregory Bateson lived in Sayan, just
                                                                                                                                                                                     outside Ubud; their neighbours                                                                                                          . Puri Saren                                                   Jalan Dewi Sita is a street around
                                                                                                                                                             Walter Spies, who       were composer Colin McPhee and                                                                                                                                                                         which have been established many                                        Jalan Hanoman
                                                                                                                                                             settled in Ubud in 1927 his wife, ethnographer Jane Belo.                                                                                                       . Pasar Ubud                                                   popular boutiques, art galleries                                        Temples, shops, art studios, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and restaurants.                                                        homestays can be found here.

                         92                B A L I      A N D       L O M B O K         A R E A     B Y      A R E A                                                                                                                                                 U B U D                                                                                        93

                         Ubud: Museum Puri Lukisan                                                                                                            L OOKING          AT      B ALINESE PAINTINGS                                                                                                                     V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                              USEUM PURI LUKISAN (“Palace of                                                                                                  The density of Balinese                                                                                                                                           Jalan Raya Ubud. § (0361)
                         M    Painting”), was the brainchild of
                         Ubud’s prince Cokorda Gede Agung
                                                                                                                                                              painting is extraordinary.
                                                                                                                                                              Even with little or no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                975 136. ` (0361) 975 137.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                # 8am – 4pm daily.
                         Sukawati, and Dutch painter Rudolf Bonnet                                                                                            background in the arts, the                                                                                                                                       ¢ Public hols. 8 = m
                         (see p88). It was conceived in 1953 out of
                         concern that Bali’s finest works of art were
                         disappearing into private collections
                                                                                                                                                              viewer can enter the imagin-
                                                                                                                                                              ative world of Balinese
                                                                                                                                                              culture as represented by
                                                                                                                                                              both traditional and modern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ∑ www.mpl-ubud.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 For all the top sights, a
                         around the world. The museum’s holdings
                         are mainly 20th-century Balinese painting
                         and wood sculpture, including important
                                                                                                                                                              painting. It is a good idea to
                                                                                                                                                              look at a Balinese work from
                                                                                                                                                              a distance at first, to see its
                                                                                                                                                              graphic composition before
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           G ALLERY G UIDE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Building I houses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           woodcarving and pre-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           World War II painting,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Visitors’ Checklist provides
                         collections from the 1930s. The grounds,
                         with their gardens and ponds, are a shady,
                         tranquil oasis in the centre of Ubud.
                                                                                       . Octopus (1955)
                                                                                       I Gusti Made Deblog
                                                                                       is known for his fine ink-
                                                                                                                                                              moving nearer to inspect the
                                                                                                                                                              details of the content. Close
                                                                                                                                                              inspection reveals tiny scenes
                                                                                                                                                              being enacted by the                                                  Tiger with Monkey (undated),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           including the Pita Maha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and Lempad collections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (see pp34–5). Building II
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           has contemporary Balinese
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the practical information you
                                                                                       wash technique.                                                        inhabitants of the canvas.                                            artist unknown                                                                         art. Temporary exhibitions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           are housed in Building III.                                                           will need to plan your visit.
                                                                      Building I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Building III

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Top Sights
                         This work by Ida
                         Bagus Gelgel is in
                         the Balinese
                         tradition of paint-
                         ing fables and tales.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 6    These are given two
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 full pages. Interesting
                                              . Dewi Sri (1960)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 temples or other important
                                              The woodcarver Ketut
                                              Djedeng depicts the rice
                                              goddess with a grain of rice                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        . Balinese Market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 buildings are shown in a
                                              in her hand.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (detail, 1955)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Anak Agung Gede
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sobrat, a leading Ubud
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  school painter, explores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 bird’s-eye view, with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  a modern theme here.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 major features high-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S TAR E XHIBITS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                . Octopus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 lighted. Areas of natural
                              Birds Dancing the
                                 Gambuh (1940)
                             A bas-relief showing                                                                   Building II
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   . Kala Rau (1974)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I Ketut Budiana, of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                . Dewi Sri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                . Balinese Market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 beauty such as national
                               the gambuh dance                                                                                                                                                                                    Padang Tegal, Ubud,
                            inspired this painting
                                 by Ida Bagus Sali.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   paints the lunar eclipse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of Balinese myth.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                . Kala Rau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 parks are shown in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 specially drawn graphics.

                                                               The gallery guide explains the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Stars indicate the sights or features
                                                               layout of a museum or gallery                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           that no visitor should miss.
                                                               and gives a summary of what
                                                               the collections contain.

P U T T I N G B A L I & L O M B O K O N T H E M A P 10–11
     A P O R T R A I T O F B A L I & L O M B O K 12–39
 B A L I & L O M B O K T H RO U G H T H E Y E A R 40–43
   T H E H I S TO RY O F B A L I & L O M B O K 44–51
10                     I N T R O D U C I N G                  B A L I               A N D        L O M B O K

      Putting Bali and Lombok on the Map
          HE ISLAND OF BALI lies east of Java, separated
      T   from it by the Bali Strait. Bali is 5,633 sq km
      (2,253 sq miles) in area. Lombok lies east of Bali,                                         KEY
      with an area of 5,435 sq km (2,098 sq miles). Bali
      (population 3 million) is more developed than
      Lombok (population 2 million). The main airport                                                  Ferry and boat service
      for both islands is Ngurah Rai International Airport                                             Dual carriageway
      near Denpasar in Bali; most onward travel to
                                                                                                       Major road
      Lombok is by domestic flight, or by ferry from
      Padang Bai or Benoa Harbour. The road network                                                    Minor road
      reflects the islands’ mountainous nature; many of                                                Provincial boundary
      the most important routes run along the coasts;                                                  Regency boundary
      roads across the islands follow the lie of the land.

           JAVA                                                                                             B A L I
                Meneng                GUNUNG            Labuhan                                              S E A
                                   PRAPAT AGUNG                            Pemuteran
                                                        Lalang                                Pantai                                 Kalibukbuk
                Ketapang            Gilimanuk                                                 Gondol                                    (Lovina)
                                         Cekik            Jayaprana
                                                                                                  Grogak                  Seririt        Banjar
                                                    Blimbingsari                                                                    Sidatapa
                                                          TAMAN NASIONAL                                                                 Pedawa
                                                             BALI BARAT                                                   Busungbiu
                                                       Palasari                 JEMBRANA                                                 Munduk
                                         Melaya                                                                         B ULELENG

                                                       Candi Kusuma
                                                                           Ijo Ge


                                                                                        Mendoyo        Medewi
                                                                                                       Beach       Asahduren
                                   S t

                                                             Perancak                                        Pekutatan

                                               it                                                                            Surabrata
                                                                                                                        (Balian Beach)

                                                                                      Anyar                                            Antosari
 0 kilometres    15
                                           Kayangan           Segenter
 0 miles                    15                                                                                                            Soka
                                                                                     Bayan          Obel-obel
                           Gili  Gondang                                                      Sajang
                      Gili Meno
                Trawangan       Gili Air           Senaru
                              Tanjung Krakas Tiu
                                             Pupas                                                       Sambelia
                          Bangsal                   Danau                             Sembalun
                                  Pemenang          Segara                            GUNUNG
                                                                      Anak             RINJANI

                                   Semaya                    LOMBOK                                 Sapit

                                    Kekait                        Tetebatu
                Batu Bolong                                                                             Suwela
    Lombok            Selaparang        Lingsar                                     Pringgabaya
                   Ampenan         Cakranegara            Pringgasela    Aikmel
    Strait                                  Narmada      Loyok
                        MATARAM      Sweta            Mantang        Masbagik
                         Gunung Banyumulek                                        Korleko
                                           Ubung         Terara Sikur    Selong
   li                                        Sukarara
      Bangko          Gili
                                   Gerung                                    Labuhan
      Bangko Gili Nanggu
             Gede                           Praya                            Haji
Labuhan Sekotong                                          Mujur
      Poh     Pelangan       Sekotong      Sengkol             Keruak Tanjung
              Barat          Tengah                                     Luar        Strait
          Mecanggah                                           Sagikmateng
                              Sepi            Sade Rembitan
                                   Selong             Kuta
                                   Blanak                                                     Pengorosdalam
                                                      Mawun           Gerupuk
      INDIAN OCEAN                                                Desert
                          P U T T I N G                  B A L I                   A N D         L O M B O K              O N           T H E             M A P

           The Indonesian Archipelago                                                               CAMBODIA
           Bali and Lombok lie at the heart of the                                                       VIETNAM                    THE                                  PACIFIC
           archipelago that makes up the Republic                                                                                                                        OCEAN
           of Indonesia. The Balinese, however,                                                    MALAY                       SABAH
           with their Hindu tradition and rich                                                   PENINSULA
                                                                                                    M A L A Y S I A
           artistic heritage, have a strong sense of
                                                                                                       SINGAPORE      BORNEO
           distinctness from the rest of Indonesia.                                                                (KALIMANTAN)
                                                                                                  SUMATRA                          SULAWESI                                    IRAN
            JAVA                                                                                                                                                                   NEW
                                                                                                   KRAKATOA               I    N    D      O        N     E     S   I     A GUINEA
                                                                                                                   JAVA                SUMBAWA
                                BALI                    LOMBOK                                                                            FLORES
                                             Mataram                                                                       BALI &
                          Denpasar                                             SUMBAWA                                    LOMBOK
            BALI & LOMBOK                                                                               OCEAN
                                                                                                                                                    A U S T R A L I A

                                                                                                INDONESIA AND ENVIRONS
      Sangsit         Kubutambahan

        Singaraja                            Julah                                                              0 kilometres                   15
                      Sawan                                                            Tembok
                   Sudaji                                                                                       0 miles                                             15

                 Pegayamen               Dusa                  Sukawana                             Tianyar
          Lake                                                GUNUNG               Toya
         Buyan                                                 BATUR
                                       Kintamani                                   Bungkah
         Lake                                                                          Lake                       Kubu
                           Lake          BANGLI                                        Batur                        Rubaya
   Tamblingan              Bratan           Penelokan                         Kedisan                                 Tulamben
    GUNUNG                          Pelaga

   SANGIYANG                                           Katung                                  KARANGASEM


                Pacung                                                                                           Culik
                                                                     Telaga W

BALI                                                                                               GUNUNG

                                                                               Besakih             AGUNG                   Tista

                                                       Tampaksiring                        Muncan             Ababi

                                                           Rendang                            Selat

TABANAN                     Tegallalang                                                                                       Amlapura


                                                                                                   Duda Sibetan

                                                                   Sidemen                                                    (Karangasem)
                              Sangeh                                                               Tenganan
           Sembung               Sanggingan                       KLUNGKUNG      Bugbug

                           Ubud                                   Padang
                                       Pejeng                     Bai       Candi
             Tabanan      Goa Gajah                 Klungkung               Dasa
      Krambitan              Mambal                           Goa Lawah
                       Kapal                   Gelgel      Kusamba
                                    Celuk                                                    ai t
Tanah        Sempidi
                                  Tohpati                                          g                                                                                     Lo
    Canggu                                                            n                                                                                                       bo
   Peti Tengat
                      DENPASAR Sanur
                                                                 u Ped    Sampalan                                                                                              k

            Legian                                     Toyapakeh

      Ngurah Rai
    International          Benoa                                      NUSA
          Airport          Harbour                                   PENIDA
               Tuban         Tanjong                      Sebuluh
          Jimbaran           Benoa
               Bukit Bualu Nusa Dua                                                                                                                                                k
 Uluwatu Peninsula
             Pecatu Kutuh

                                             Clouds forming over the mountains of Bali and Lombok, seen from space
12   R U N N I N G   H E A D
                I N T R O D U C I N G            B A L I     A N D   L O M B O K       13

                      A PORTRAIT OF
                     BALI AND LOMBOK

                      of Bali and Lombok are sufficiently close to be
             HE ISLANDS

        visible to each other on a clear day. They are both volcanic,
        are of similar size and have much else in common. However,
they offer the visitor very different experiences. Bali – noisy, colour-
ful, crowded and glamorous – is one of the world’s most celebrated
destinations; quiet Lombok was long a travellers’ secret.

Geographically, Bali and Lombok               Facilities such as electricity and
are at the centre of the Indo-                  television came to most places
nesian Archipelago. This is a                   only in the last quarter of the 20th
vast chain of islands stretching                century (despite this, the internet
from the Indian Ocean to the                     is already widely used).
Pacific. It lies across the                            In daily life on Hindu Bali
ancient trade routes between                        and mostly Muslim Lombok,
Europe, the Middle East,                             great importance is attached
India and China, and has                            to community matters, includ-
absorbed influences from                             ing social harmony. With
all these civilizations.                             Indonesia’s move in the late
  Bali is a province within the                      1990s from dictatorship to
                                 Stone statue from
Republic of Indonesia, with         Klungkung        democracy, there is great
its provincial capital at                            awareness of the importance
Denpasar. Lombok is part of the of religious tolerance, while at the
province of West Nusa Tenggara; same time each society takes pride
Mataram, the provincial capital, is on in its own identity. Bali eagerly
the island. Both are mainly rural soci- shares its flamboyant religious cul-
eties, despite the urbanization of ture; the people of Lombok, how-
southern Bali in the 1980s and 1990s. ever, are generally more reticent.

The Mayura Water Palace in Mataram, a legacy of Balinese rule in Lombok (see p155)

A villager carrying her offering to an odalan (temple festival)
14                  I N T R O D U C I N G          B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K

     A Balinese family group carrying holy water to their house temple

     At the core of Balinese society is the Bali and Lombok were both prime
     village, a cohesive religious com- rice-producers until land began to
     munity organized around a group of become scarce in the mid-20th cen-
     temples. Village members are required tury. Since then the government has
     to take part in temple rituals and assist encouraged crop diversification, par-
     in the community’s funerary rites.            ticularly into commodity crops
       Religious practice in Bali                       such as coffee, vanilla, cloves,
     entails music, theatre and                           tobacco and citrus fruits.
     elaborate offerings. The                              Today, land is increasingly
     labour-intensive nature of                             being used for tourism.
     rituals requires a high                                There seem to be few alter-
     degree of social organiza-                            natives. Marine and coastal
     tion, visible in the village                        resources have never been
     layout. Family house com- Painting of rice terraces energetically developed,
     pounds are usually laid out                          perhaps because of the more
     on a north-south axis. The village core salubrious climate of the rice-growing
     is dominated by temples, market, civic regions; until the advent of tourism,
     structures and often puri, houses of the coasts produced little more than
     the nobility.                             coconuts and salt. Fishing remains
       On Lombok, most of the indigenous generally a poor man's occupation.
     Sasak people are orthodox Muslims           There has been little true industrial-
     (see p23), their social life organized ization. Some artisanal manufacturing
     around the family and village mosque. has emerged in South Bali, particularly
                                               in the garment industry around Kuta;
                                               but although this does absorb some
                                               local labour, it also attracts workers
                                               from other, poorer islands who are
                                               willing to work for lower wages, com-
                                               pounding problems of unemployment
                                               with new social challenges.
                                                 On the other hand, cottage industry,
                                               in particular handicrafts, has allowed
                                               local economies within Bali and
                                               Lombok to shift away from agriculture
     A road-side food stall near Candi Dasa    without a great rural exodus.
                 A    P O R T R A I T   O F   B A L I   A N D   L O M B O K           15

       A RTS AND H ANDICRAFTS                                 T OURISM
Handicrafts and the production of art Tourism came to Bali much earlier
objects for secular use have become than to Lombok (see p51) and is far
a vigorous export industry in Bali. more developed here. On both islands
Styles of painting, wood sculpture, there is awareness of its economic
jewellery and textiles have been importance. On Bali, it has created an
adapted for sale to visitors and to almost urban density in Kuta and
export markets (see pp36 –7), and this Sanur; this is increasingly the situation
has opened up new cre-                                      in Ubud too, and density
ative opportunities.                                        of road traffic is also now
  A sizeable expatriate                                     a problem. On Lombok,
community in Kuta, Sanur                                    tourism is concentrated
and Ubud has played an                                      on the fertile west coast
important role in devel-                                    around Senggigi and the
oping this sector together                                  unspoilt Gili Isles (see
with local entrepreneurs.                                   p156). The south coast of
Recently, Bali has also                                     Lombok has splendid
become a marketplace for                                    beaches that are still rel-
handicrafts, antiques and                                   atively pristine, although
reproduction furniture                                      extensive development
from other islands of the                                   there is planned around
Indonesian Archipelago.                                     the village also called
                                A beach in South Bali, the
  Lombok has a venerable       tourist centre of the island Kuta (see p162), where
tradition of making low-                                    tourism is still on a small
fired domestic pottery (see p154). The scale. For most travellers, even from
artisans are generally women, aided outside Indonesia, access to Lombok
in the heavier chores and the market- is mainly by way of Bali.
ing by their husbands. Lombok's                   Despite sporadic internal distur-
hand-woven textiles and shapely rat- bances associated with broader polit-
tan baskets have also found an eager ical changes in Indonesia, Bali and
international market. There are great Lombok remain places where social
hopes that tourism will further harmony is greatly prized and visitors
strengthen the island’s local economy. are regarded as welcome guests.

The rural landscape of Central Bali
16               I N T R O D U C I N G           B A L I      A N D     L O M B O K

 The Volcanoes of Bali and Lombok
                      lie in one of the geologically most
     active regions on earth, part of the Pacific Rim’s
 great “ring of fire”. They are two in a chain of volcanic
 islands which stretches some 3,500 km (2,200 miles)
 from Sumatra to Flores, and which marks the point
 where the Australian tectonic plate is being forced
 beneath the Eurasian plate at a rate of 6 cm (2 inches)
 each year. The volcanoes of Bali and Lombok have
 influenced the way human societies on the islands
 have developed, and still play a very important role in
 the culture of the islands’ inhabitants.

                                                                          Gunung Agung (see p114),
                                                                          at 3,142 m (10,308 ft), is Bali’s
                                                                          highest and most sacred volcano.

                                                                     The peak of Gunung Batur,
                                                                     seen here from the air, and
                                                                     nearby Lake Batur are set in
                                                                     a spectacular caldera,
                                                                     created about a million years
                                                                     ago, when the top of the
                                                                     mountain was explosively
                                                                     blown off by the pressure of
                                                                     accumulated magma.

 Taman Nasional
 Bali Barat (see
 pp136 –7) is a national
 park dominated by ancient,
 eroded volcanic peaks.



                                             Deep gorges and
                                             steep ridges run
                                               north and south
                                                from the higher
                                           peaks, making east-
                                            west travel difficult.
                                                     This is why
                                           traditional Balinese
                                              society developed
 Lake Tamblingan (see pp140– 41)             along river valleys
 lies in an ancient caldera. Volcanoes,              and on the
 such as Gunung Lesong, have grown                coastal plains.
 within the caldera since its formation,
 hiding all traces of the southern rim.
                A     P O R T R A I T   O F    B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K                     17

 Volcanic activity, including the
 deposition of magma, can cause
 changes in the landscape. These
 drawings show the rapid changes in
 the peaks of Gunung Batur during
 the major eruption of 1926. Today      An early stage in the very destructive eruption of Gunung
 the volcano is still active and it     Batur which took place in 1926
 enjoys small, regular eruptions.
 The last one in 2000 created a
 small cone, which is visible from
 Kintamani. Other major eruptions in
 recent years include that of Gunung
 Rinjani in 1994 and that of Gunung
 Agung in 1963. The latter caused
 widespread devastation and             The landscape a few days later than the view in the upper
 hardship (see p115).                   drawing, showing significant changes

The line of volcanic peaks
running along Bali and
Lombok is the islands’ most
conspicuous physical feature.
One mountain or another is
visible from almost any
location. The combination of
volcanic soil and rainfall has
created a richly fertile
environment for agriculture.      Gunung Rinjani (see pp158–9), at 3,726 m (12,224 ft), is
                                  Indonesia’s second-highest mountain. Within its caldera is the
                                  small but still active volcano Gunung Baru, and a beautiful
                                  crater lake, Danau Segara Anak.


 The south coast
 of Nusa Penida
    (see p75) was
      formed from
ancient coral reefs                                                   Fertile ricefields are
  raised above the                                                    irrigated by the streams
surface of the sea,                                                   flowing down Gunung
     as a result of                                                   Rinjani. The soil is rich in
 volcanic activity.                                                   tephrites and silica.
18               I N T R O D U C I N G             B A L I      A N D      L O M B O K

 Landscape and Wildlife of Bali and Lombok
                                      have a rich flora and
                    B    ALI AND LOMBOK
                      fauna. Human activity, including agricul-
                ture and (more recently) tourism, has caused
                 some loss of habitat diversity. Nevertheless,
             large areas are still unspoilt, and some are
  Tree frog,
 common in officially protected. There are few places better
   Lombok    for the nature-lover than Bali and Lombok, where
             conditions for walking and exploring range from
 arid mountain slopes and high natural forests to the margins
 of rivers and ricefields and the seashore.                                          Giant golden orb weaver,
                                                                                     common in lowland areas

 F ORESTS                                               V OLCANIC P EAKS
 Much of Bali and Lombok was once covered               After volcanic ash is deposited by an
 in forest, including large areas of lowland            eruption, centuries pass before the formation
 rainforest. Much has been destroyed; causes            of soil capable of sustaining a rich plant life.
 include volcanic eruptions, coffee and coco-           However, the slopes are soon colonized by
 nut cultivation and collection of firewood.            mosses, grasses and ferns, and there is a
 Lush forests still grow on Bali’s southern and         diverse bird life. On the arid northern and
 western mountain slopes. On the drier,                 eastern slopes grows a grassland vegetation
 northern slopes the forest is deciduous.               often punctuated by lontar palms.

                                                              The mountain white-
         The long-tailed                                      eye gathers in treetops,
     macaque monkey is                                       uttering a characteristic
     often seen in forests,                                         high-pitched call.
        on roadsides and
         around temples.

                                                                                    The helmeted friar
                                                                                    bird inhabits the arid
                                                                                    mountain areas of
                              The black-winged
                              starling is an
                              endangered species
                              that lives in the         The senduduk
                              deciduous forests of      flower, with its exotic
                              northwest Bali, as well   pink petals, is found in
                              as in open grasslands.    mountain scrub.
                A   P O R T R A I T       O F     B A L I   A N D      L O M B O K                       19

           WALLACE ’ S L INE
          Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913), a British
          naturalist, noted differences between the wildlife
         of the former tectonic landmasses of Asia and                   KALIMANTAN
        Australia – marked by a line that passes between Bali                              SULAWESI
       and Lombok at its southern extremity. The Australian
 Orange-   group includes birds of paradise, and species
                                                                            Java Sea
 banded    such as the orange-banded thrush, which is seen
 thrush    in Lombok but not in Bali. The Asian group                JAVA              LOMBOK

 includes monkeys and the tiger (the latter last seen in Bali                BALI
 in the 1930s). Another example is the fulvous-breasted
 woodpecker, more often seen in Bali than in Lombok.                Wallace’s Line

R IVERS   AND   R ICEFIELDS                        C OASTLINES
Some 150 rivers flow through the gorges of         The beaches, coral reefs and shallow waters
Bali and Lombok, assisting irrigation of the       around these islands support a huge variety
rice crops. Here birds, frogs, toads and           of marine life, even in developed areas such
spiders can live on                                as Sanur. Although little true mangrove forest
planthoppers and other                             remains, mangroves still absorb the force of
small pests which cause                            waves, helping to reduce coastal erosion.
damage to the rice itself. The
birds include egrets, herons,
ducks and small finches.                                                               The lionfish,
                                                                                       while visually
                                                                                       attractive, is
The Java sparrow, a                                                                    poisonous to
   red-billed native of                                                                touch. It lives
     Java and Bali, is                                                                 in waters off
  found around river                                                                   the smaller
 gorges and ricefields.                                                                islands
                                                                                       around Bali.

                            Toads live in
                            damp habitats
                            such as ricefields;
                            here they survive
                            on a diet of in-
                            sects, including
                            beetles and            The green turtle is endangered; it is hunted for
                            crickets.              its meat, sometimes used in Balinese ritual.
20                I N T R O D U C I N G          B A L I    A N D    L O M B O K

 Rice Cultivation
                 HE MOUNTAIN LAKES, the gentle climate and
            T   the volcano-enriched soils of Bali and
            Lombok are ideally suited for the growing of
           rice (Oryza sativa). Although some of the
           islands’ rice-farming land is being converted to
           other uses, terraced ricefields are still the
            dominant feature of the rural landscape, and
           the cult and cultivation of rice remain much as
         they were in Neolithic times. Steep terrain
         makes mechanization difficult and poses a par-
         ticular problem for “wet rice farming” – water
             flows far below the arable land, in deep                 Padi Bali is the generic term
    Rice                                                              for several strains of
             river gorges. The Balinese solution, which               traditionally grown rice, a tall,
             dates from as early as the 9th century AD, is            strong plant with a growing
 an ingenious and complex network of irrigation                       cycle of 210 days.
 channels, tunnels and aqueducts that
 diverts water from sources high up in
 the mountains to water-sharing
 communities known as subak.

 The paddy field is a basin of packed earth
 reinforced with intertwining grassroots.
 Irrigation water is let in and out of each field
 individually through a small gap in the earthen
 wall that can be opened or closed with a hoe.
 The water is drained off through channels that
 empty into rivers.

                         Rice plants nearing
                         full growth

     Across the island of Bali and among traditional farmers
     in Lombok, offerings are made in the ricefields at
     significant stages of the rice-growing cycle. These
     rituals reflect the central importance of rice cultivation
     in the traditional life of the islands. The most elaborate
     ricefield ceremony takes place when the rice grain
     begins to form on the stalk. A small shrine to honour
     Dewi Sri, the rice goddess (see p25), is built by the
     farmers in a corner of their ricefields and decorated
     with handmade palm-leaf festoons.

      Bamboo shrines where offerings are given to the rice goddess
                  A     P O R T R A I T          O F   B A L I   A N D       L O M B O K                  21

    The rice barn,
   once a common                                           T HE R ICE -G ROWING C YCLE
           feature of
 houses in Lombok
         and Bali, is                                      1. Rice seed is
  where sheaves of                                         planted in a
the older strains of                                       protected bed.
     rice are stored.                                      While the seed-
        The grain is                                       lings mature,
 threshed by hand                                          farmers prepare
  as needed. These                                         the fields.
  buildings are less
    frequently seen
   than in the past.

    Coconut, banana and bamboo grow
    along high ridges above the river valleys,
    concealing small village communities

                                                           2. The planting basin is prepared by
                                                           flooding, ploughing and levelling the field.

                                                           3. Seedlings are
                                                           transplanted into
                                                           flooded fields by
                                                           hand. As the plants
                                                           mature, the fields are
                                                           alternately flooded
                                                           and dried at specific
                                                           stages to maximize
                                                           growth, and they are
                                                           periodically weeded.

                                                                                    4. Harvesting is
                                                                                    done by women,
                                                                                    who cut the stalks
                                                                                    with a small knife
                                                                                    concealed in their
                                                                                    palms so as not to
                                                                                    frighten the rice

                                                           5. High-yield varieties
                                                           of rice are threshed
                                                           directly in the fields and
                                                           put in bags to be taken to
                                                           a rice mill. Older strains
           R ICE T ERRACES                                 of rice are kept on the cut
           Bali’s terraced ricefields have been            stalks and gathered into
           described as an “engineered                     bundles to be stored in a
           landscape”, a collaboration between             rice barn until needed.
           nature and human beings. Terracing
           allows rice to be planted on steep
           slopes and protects the land from
           erosion. Each terrace is irrigated by
           a complex series of channels,
           controlled by small dams.

  River gorges can often be seen below
  rice terraces.                                           6. After harvest, fields are burned off,
                                                           producing a soil-protecting alkaline ash.
22                   I N T R O D U C I N G         B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K

 The Islands’ Religions
                                 are Hindu.
     Most of the Sasaks, the indigenous
 people of Lombok, practise orthodox Islam.
 However, permeating religious practice on                                                 Temple
                                                                                          offerings are
 Bali and Lombok are animistic beliefs and a                                               a prominent
 sense of the supernatural (see p24). Ancient                                               aspect of
 agricultural and mountain cults are reflected                                               Hindu
 in temple and village architecture, and in                                                 observance
 rural rituals. There are Muslim and Christian                                              in Bali
 minorities in Bali’s towns and coastal areas                                             (see pp38–9).
 and a smaller number of Buddhists.

                            Spirit house        T RACES      OF   A NCIENT C ULTS
                                                In architecture and ritual practice, the forms and
                                                beliefs of prehistoric Indonesian societies are still
                                                visible today in modern Hindu Bali and the
                                                traditions of rural Lombok.

                                                  Rice cult image
                                                  made from palm       A shrine at the grave of folk hero
                                                       leaves          Jayaprana, near Labuhan Lalang
 A temple in stepped-pyramid form                                      (see p138), draws petitioners for
 suggests that a site predates Hindu times.                            supernatural favours.

 Balinese Hinduism has elements not only of the
 Shivaite cult, but also of animism and Buddhism.
 Deities are believed to visit the human realm on
 ritual occasions. Temples hold odalan (anniver-
 sary festivals), during which gods are honoured
 with offerings, music and dance (see pp38 –9).

     Offerings of
     palm leaf and        Sprinkler made
     flowers              of grass

                                           rice grains

 Holy water, the medium of the gods, is
 sprinkled on offerings and distributed along                Villagers carrying a temple effigy in a portable
 with rice grains to worshippers after prayers.              “ancestral spirit house” during a temple festival
                  A      P O R T R A I T    O F     B A L I    A N D     L O M B O K                     23

Most people on Lombok are Muslims. Like the majority of
Indonesians, they follow a traditional form of Islam which
often incorporates underlying folk traditions. In some of the
more isolated parts of the island, the Sasaks adhere to a
form of Islam known as Wetu Telu, mixing Islamic beliefs
with pre-Islamic, indigenous and Hindu-Buddhist elements.
Like Balinese Hinduism, Wetu Telu ascribes great powers to
the spirits that dwell within nature.

                                               Many Muslims in
                                            Bali and Lombok can
                                              be seen wearing the
                                             traditional peci cap,
                                              particularly on Fri-
A village mosque in Lombok                 day, the day of prayer.

B UDDHISM                                             C HRISTIANITY
Although certain Buddhist cults flourished in         Small communities of Protestants and
Bali at around AD 1000, it was not until late         Catholics are to be found in West Bali,
in the 20th century that mainstream                   where they resettled after conversion by
Buddhism gained                                       missionaries in the early 20th
any significant                                       century. Many Balinese
presence here.                                        people of Chinese
Buddhists are still                                   descent are Christian.
a small minority.

                                                      The Catholic
                                                      cathedral at
   A gilded Buddha                                     Palasari has
   dominates the in-                                  architectural
terior of the Brahma                                       features
    Vihara Ashrama                                      which echo
  monastery, Banjar                                        Balinese
           (see p139).                                     temples.

  In Bali and Lombok religion plays a part in rituals
  such as weddings, funerals and coming-of-age cere-                                 This palanquin
  monies, which require the participation of an entire                               (ceremonial
  village (see pp28 –9). In Muslim Lombok, the most                                  litter) is in the
  festive rituals are circumcision rites, undergone by                               form of a
                                                                                     painted lion.
  boys around the age of eleven.
                                           A gilded
                                           offering bowl
                                           holds ritual

  Hindu high priests conduct a
  ceremony as part of the preparation             At a circumcision rite, a Sasak Muslim boy is
  for a royal cremation.                          paraded through the streets.
24                I N T R O D U C I N G           B A L I      A N D       L O M B O K

 Traditional Beliefs
                                            are a
               strong undercurrent in Balinese life, even
          in local Hindu observance. The Balinese term
           sekala niskala (“visible-invisible”) sums up
             the idea that the physical world is pene-
             trated by a spirit world. The spirits, loosely
              described as “gods” and “demons”, are
              honoured almost everywhere with offerings
  Temple     made of flowers and other materials. The
   statue    invisible world is represented in many vivid
 symbols. Ancestors are deified in complex rituals and
 venerated at domestic and clan temples (see p26).
                                          Figure of Rangda at Puri Saren,
                                           Ubud’s royal palace (see p90)

 Large stones, trees and other powerful-
 looking natural objects are believed to be
 favoured dwellings for invisible beings. To
 keep these spirits content, a shrine or small
 temple may be erected for them. Buta kala
 (ground spirits) are demonic energies that
 cluster at crossroads, graveyards, rivers, in
 certain trees, or wherever there is an
 important life event such as a birth, a death
 or an accident. They are appeased with
 offerings that contain meat or strong drink.
 Keris (dagger)
                            Parasols indicate that a
                                   deity is present.
                           The effigy of the god is
                           presented with offerings.

                           Guardian spirits reside
                               in demonic statues.

                       Objects such as daggers
                       and consecrated masks
                       are seen as imbued with
                       great spiritual power,
                       and can give rise to               A shrine by a sacred tree, decorated on holy days
                       trance possession.                 when holy water and offerings are placed here

 Fear of the supernatural feeds a widespread fear of
 witchcraft. Practitioners of Balinese “black” and “white”
 magic may engage invisible powers such as buta kala
 (ground spirits) to heal or harm. Household offerings
 are made to the spirits daily.

                                                  A tumbal, a type of
                                                magical drawing often
                                                 prepared by a witch
                                                   doctor, is shown as
                                                     protecting a man
                                                 against the influence
                                                   of a buta, or spirit.
                                                                           Tumbal (Magical Amulet) (1938) by
 Daily flower offerings known as canang                                    Anak Agung Gede Sobrat, Ubud
                 A   P O R T R A I T      O F     B A L I   A N D      L O M B O K                         25

T HE R ICE G ODDESS                                                          Bamboo shrines are built
The Hindu goddess of prosperity, Dewi Sri,                                   in the fields to honour the
became identified in Bali with the rice spirit                               rice goddess during the
of local belief, and she is honoured in the                                  growing cycle.
fields, the granary and                                                                  Offerings are
the rice basket. Her                                                                     consecrated
image in offerings and                                                                   with holy
textiles is known as the                                                                 water.
cili motif. According to
tradition, after the daily
meal has been cooked,
tiny rice offerings must
be set out before food
can be consumed.

           Wooden ornament with
        cili motif representing the
           head of the rice goddess

The dragon-like Barong (representing order,
harmony and health) and his demonic counterpart
Rangda (associated with chaos, illness and harm)
are guardian effigies. They are periodically
“awakened” to restore the spiritual balance of a
village by means of a ritual battle culminating in
wild trance. Devotees of the Barong attack Rangda
with their keris daggers. Rangda’s power turns the
daggers against the attackers; the Barong’s power
prevents the blades from piercing their bare skin.

                                                         Rangda, identifiable by her fangs, striped
                                                         breasts and necklace of entrails

                                                   The Barong’s beard is
                                                   made of human hair.

                                                 The magical power of the Barong and Rangda is
                                                 concentrated in their masks, which are kept in a
                                                 village temple and given offerings.

The Balinese believe that human beings can help
keep “high” and “low” spirits in balance through
making ritual offerings to both. For the Balinese,
the universe is dualistic in nature, a play of ever-
shifting opposites. This opposition is symbolized
                              by the black-and-white
                              checked textile known
                              as poleng, in which
                              statues and other
                              objects thought to be
                              magically charged are
                              often wrapped.            Guardian statues wrapped in poleng cloths,
The ubiquitous poleng cloth                             as often seen in Balinese temple forecourts
26                I N T R O D U C I N G        B A L I      A N D   L O M B O K

 Balinese Temple Architecture
                   (public temple) is a holy
      enclosure where Hindu deities are
 periodically invited to descend into pratima
                                                                                    The padmasana
                                                                                    shrine (“lotus
                                                                                    throne”), in the
 (effigies) kept in shrines. During odalan                                          most sacred
                                                                                    corner of the
 (festivals), temples are alive with music, dance                                   temple, has an
 and offerings (see p38). Otherwise they are                                        empty seat at the
 rather quiet. Temples include the kahyangan                                        top open to the
 tiga (the three village temples – see pp28 –9),                                    sky, signifying the
 clan temples, market temples, irrigation                                           Supreme God.
 temples, temples to nature deities, and “state”
 temples of former kingdoms. Temples are
 usually open to visitors during daylight hours.

 The jeroan (inner courtyard)
 has shrines to the temple’s
 core deities and often to
 deities of the mountains, lakes
 and sea. It is often closed to
 visitors, but can usually be
 viewed from outside the walls.

                                    The bale gong is a
                                    pavilion where ritual
                                    gamelan music may be
                                    played (see p32).

                                                                      The bale
                                                                      agung is the
                                                                      village council
 Pelinggih are shrines or
 “seats” of the gods. The                                                        T EMPLE L AYOUT
 dark fibre used for the                                                        The arrangement of
 roof, which resembles                                                             Balinese temples
 human hair, is a product                                                        follows a generally
 of the sugar palm.                                                         consistent pattern, with
                                                                               individual structures
                                                                                  orientated along a
                                                                                 mountain-sea axis.
                                                                             Degrees of sacredness
     The kori agung is a grand                                                are reflected in prox-
       gateway usually reserved                                              imity to the mountain.
            for gods and priests.
                   A    P O R T R A I T       O F        B A L I   A N D       L O M B O K                   27

                                 B ALI ’ S M AIN T EMPLES
                                 There are tens of thousands of
                                 temples on Bali, perhaps                                       9
                                 200,000 including house                                       8
                                 temples. The locations of the                                6    2
                                 most important ones are shown                               7
                                 here. Visitors should observe                            4
                                 temple etiquette (see p219).

                                 WHERE TO FIND THE PRINCIPAL TEMPLES
                                 1 Besakih Temple Complex                5 Pura Meduwe Karang (pp148 –9)
                                   (pp116 –17)                           6 Pura Taman Ayun (pp130 –31)
The meru shrine has 3, 5,        2 Pura Goa Lawah (p108)                 7 Pura Tanah Lot (p128)
7, 9 or 11 tiers, depending      3 Pura Kehen (p104)                     8 Pura Tirta Empul (p99)
on the importance of its         4 Pura Luhur Uluwatu (pp76 –7)          9 Pura Ulun Danu Batur (pp122 –3)
deity. It symbolizes the
Hindu holy Mount Meru,
      but can also represent
           other sacred peaks.
                                 In the jaba tengah
                                 (middle courtyard)
                                 are secondary
                                 shrines and pavilions
                                 for a variety of
                                 practical purposes.

                                                                           The candi bentar (split gate) is
                                                                                 often used as a courtyard
                                                                          entrance. It represents the cosmic
                                                                            mountain split into the positive
                                                                                         and negative forces
                                                                                             of the universe.

The kulkul                                                                     Entrance
is a watchtower
with a drum which                                                       The bale piasan
is struck when deities                                           is a sacred pavilion for
are thought to descend to
                                                              placing religious offerings.
the temple.
28              I N T R O D U C I N G        B A L I        A N D   L O M B O K

 Village Life
                          is one of the island’s
      most visually distinctive features. It is
 essentially a religious community, organized
 around a core of temples. Village land is
 considered a bequest of the founding ancestors,
 who are worshipped as local deities. Private life
 is largely ruled by adat (village customary law).
 Every married couple is obliged to belong to
 the banjar (community association); among the
 banjar’s duties are funerary rites for village                Funerary rites involve all village
 members. Not to belong to a banjar is to risk                 members, who will congregate in the
 perdition in the afterlife.                                   spirit of banjar suka duka (“together
                                                               in happiness and woe”).

                                      B ALINESE V ILLAGE L AYOUT                    The pura puseh
                                      Traditional villages are orientated           (temple of origins)
                                      on a mountain-sea axis.                       is where the
                                                                                    village’s founding
                                                                                    ancestors are
                                      Puri (houses of
                                      the nobility) are
                                      generally at the                                    The kulkul
                                      village centre.                                     is the village
                                                                                          watch tower.

                                                                                        The pura
                                      The wantilan                                      desa is the
                                      is a large                                        temple where
                                      pavilion for                                      the village’s
 Village streets are usually
                                      public                                            territorial deity
 aligned with the mountain            entertainment                                     is honoured.
 and the sea, an arrangement          and community
 which the Balinese call kaja-        events such as
 kelod (mountainward-                 cock-fighting.                                  The pasar is the
 seaward).                                                                            place where a
                                                                                      farmers’ market
                                                                                      is held once
                                      The bale                                        every three days.
                                      banjar is the
                                      meeting hall.                            Banyan tree

                                                                                   The pura dalem
                                      K EY                                         (temple of the
                                                                                   dead) and the setra
                                          Public building                          (cemetery) are at
                                          Private house compound                   the seaward end of
                                                                                   the village.

                                                                                   The warung,
                                                                                   a family-run
                                                                                   mini-shop, is at
 The slit-log drum in the kulkul                                                   the heart of
 tower summons banjar members                                                      village social life,
 to village duty, announces a                                                      although it has
 death, and serves traditionally as                                                no special
 a general alarm bell.                                                             location.
                     A    P O R T R A I T         O F     B A L I      A N D      L O M B O K                       29

Village land is divided into uniform residential plots
or compounds enclosed on all sides by a wall of
clay or brick. Living quarters are enclosed pavilions
for sleeping and storage, with large verandahs for
work and socializing. The courtyards are generally
floored with packed earth, and kept free of vege-
tation except perhaps for a few ornamental flowers
or a decorative tree. Most compounds house extended
families of the male line. They may not be sold.
Upon the death of the occupant, if there is no heir                  A courtyard wall built of clay and capped
the property reverts to the village.                                 with bamboo.

   Ancestors are honoured in the                                                 The bale dangin or bale
   sanggah or merajan (house temple).            The natah (courtyard) is        sakenam (“eastern” open
                                                 the symbolic centre of the      ceremonial pavilion) is used for
                                                 domestic microcosm.             rites of passage (see p38).
  The bale meten is an enclosed
  pavilion for the household head or

                     House gate

The bale dauh (west                The bale gede is a
pavilion) is the living            place for weaving or
quarters; guests are               other kinds of work.               The paon (kitchen) is situated in the
received here.                                                        south, the cardinal point ruled by Brahma,
                                                                      the Hindu god of fire.

The range of gates
lining the narrow
streets is one of the
most striking features
of a Balinese village.
The gate is traditionally
positioned towards the
kelod (seaward, or
downhill) end of the
house compound. The
degree of architectural
elaboration generally
reflects the material
status of the family              Simple house gate with     Gate with tiled roof and    Gate with decorated
living in the house.              alang alang grass thatch   minimal decoration          roof and brickwork
30                  I N T R O D U C I N G         B A L I     A N D   L O M B O K

 Traditional Dance and Drama
                    HE ROOTS OF Balinese dance are
                   Ttrance ritual and the Javanese
               theatrical forms known as wayang.
                Various performances take place at
                 religious ceremonies, often late at
                 night and several hours long.
                 Shorter versions are put on for
                 visitors in more convenient circum-
               stances. In Lombok, the dances of                  Arja is a dance-opera in which
                the Sasak are ritual performances,                choreography, music, costume and
  Wayang kulit often involving men in competition                 singing styles are strictly defined for
 shadow puppet                                                    twelve core character roles.
                or combat. Islam has favoured lit-
 erary rather than performing arts, one reason why
 dance is less common in Lombok than in Bali.

 Various forms of dance and drama can be seen at the
 annual Bali Arts Festival (see p41). Some tell a story;
 some are non-representational. New genres such as
 sendratari often contain elements of older traditions.

       Servant-clowns            Stage entrance

                                                                        The oleg tambulilingan,
                                                                        a dance created in the 1950s,
                                                                        is performed to the accom-
                                                                        paniment of the Gong Kebyar
                                                                        gamelan orchestra (see p32).

                                                                          Noble hero

                                                                      Sendratari was devised in
                                                                      the 1960s as an art form
                                                                      without ritual function. The
                                                                      name is a contraction of the
                                                                      words for “art”, “drama”,
                                                                      and “dance”.

 Ritual-based performances
 range from dances per-
 formed for temple deities
 to complex dramas. They
 often contain elements
 of trance (see p24).
 Even trance dances for
 visitors require ritual

     Baris gede is an old
     ritual dance performed                                               Kecak is based on a sanghy-
     by a regiment of soldiers                                            ang (trance) chorus formerly
     to protect the deities.                                              used in times of epidemic.
                  A   P O R T R A I T       O F    B A L I      A N D   L O M B O K                     31

Bali evolved its own style of the Javanese
wayang kulit puppet theatre and wayang wong
masked dance drama. Both are vehicles for
the Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana.
In topeng, the performer changes masks and
costumes to show different characters.

Masks are                                             Wayang kulit (shadow puppet theatre) uses
often carved
by the dancer.
                                                      flat leather puppets which cast shadows on a
                                                      screen. The puppet master manipulates the
                                                      puppets with sticks.

                                                                    Servant-clowns interpret the
                                                                    Kawi (Old Javanese) speech
                                                                    of “high characters”.

          Topeng dancers recount genealogical histories of              Servant-clowns in topeng
          dynasties through a series of masks. Players may be           amuse the audience and
          a troupe of three or more, or may perform solo.               make moral commentaries.

                                            Wayang kulit
                                           characters are
                                         distinguished by
                                           headdress and
                                        manner of speech.
                                             These are the
                                         “prince” and the

Wayang wong characters wear
masks and move like puppets.
                                                  S ASAK D ANCES
This is Garuda, a mythical bird.                  In Lombok, the
                                                  performing arts reflect
                                                  both indigenous Sasak
                                                  rites and Balinese
                                                  traditions. Dances in
                                                  Lombok are very often
                                                  accompanied by drums;
                                                  they often consist of a
                                                  sequence of energetic
                                                  movements alternating
                                                  with slower actions
                                                  and graceful poses.
                                                  Peresehan, a dance
                                                  which is often per-
                                                  formed for festivals, is
Puspawresti is a modern creation inspired         the ritual enactment of    Peresehan, a traditional
by rejang. A dance addressed to the gods,         a duel between two         fight using poles and
rejang is performed by females, usually           Sasak warriors.            shields made of rattan.
either young or past child-bearing age.
32              I N T R O D U C I N G          B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K

 Musical Instruments of Bali and Lombok
                N BALI AND PARTS OF LOMBOK, traditional
               Imusic is performed by a gamelan
               orchestra. This is a percussion ensemble
              consisting largely of bronze metallophones
           (instruments with tuned metal keys), led by
  cymbals  drums; there are a few wind and stringed
           instruments. The music is based on rhythmic
 and melodic cycles punctuated by gongs. Many
 orchestras play for tourists. Most villages in Bali own at
 least one set of gamelan instruments for ritual
 occasions. Some sets are considered sacred and are
 played only during religious ceremonies.

 I NSTRUMENTS      OF THE    G AMELAN                                        The gamelan tingklik,
 Most of the orchestra is made up of pairs         Bamboo                    with bamboo keys, accom-
 of metallophones, which are tuned to a            resonators                panies traditional dances.
 very slight but precise dissonance which          amplify sounds
                                                   made by the
 gives the gamelan its piercing, shimmering        bronze keys.
 sound. Each gamelan has its own unique
 internal tuning; instruments are not
 interchangeable between orchestras.

          Metal keys      Wooden

 Gangsa, which are keyed metallophones of
 various sizes, are played in syncopation to
 create a complex melodic texture.

          A pair of “male” and
          “female” kendang
          (drums) conduct the

                                                         Bronze material          Carved pelawah
                                                         is recycled from         (instrument stands) are
                                                         old gongs to make        custom-designed for
                                                         new ones.                each orchestra.

 Bronze gongs of           Carved
 various sizes form the    wooden
 heart of the gamelan      frame                                  Pot gong
 orchestra. They are
 struck with padded
 mallets or sticks to
 produce resonant
 sounds which
 punctuate the
 melodies made by
 keyed instruments.     Kemong gong            Kempur               Kempli            Gong Ageng
                 A     P O R T R A I T    O F     B A L I    A N D      L O M B O K                    33

                                                             D RUMS      IN   L OMBOK
                                                             Drums play an important role in
                                                             the music of Lombok. The island’s
                                                             main musical traditions reflect
                                                             Hindu-Buddhist forms which
                                                             originated in Java and Bali, and
                                                             others which developed from the
                                                             traditions of Islam.

Balaganjur, a walking orchestra of cymbals and
drums, has an exciting, crashing sound intended to
scare off evil spirits in its path.

                                  The reyong is a row of
The terompong is a series         small gongs played by a
of inverted kettle gongs played   group of two, three or
by a single musician.             four musicians.

                                                              Kendang beleq (“big drum”) at a
                                                              cultural festival in Lombok

                                                              Celebration of a special occasion with
                                                              the aid of drums

                                                              The use of drums and ceremonial
                                                              dress at a wedding
The Gong Kebyar is Bali’s newest, most popular
and most complex form of gamelan. Its sound has
been described as a “cascade of blazing gold”.

                                                        Suling are bamboo flutes of various degrees
Large bamboo musical instruments are used               of thickness and length. The players use a
by gamelan jegog orchestras, a type of ensemble         special breathing technique to produce a
associated particularly with West Bali.                 continuous stream of sound.
34             I N T R O D U C I N G           B A L I   A N D      L O M B O K

 Balinese Painting
                 is a rich tradition very much
     alive today, especially in the villages of
 the Ubud-Mas-Batuan area of Central Bali.
 During the 20th century the influence of
 Westerners (see p88) was a factor in Balinese
 painting. However, themes and images still
 show traces of Bali’s Javanese heritage,
 including Indian themes which predate the
 arrival of Islam in Java (see p45). In the late
 20th century, when some artists were
 educated in academies, what is known                     The “wayang” style dominated pre-
 generally as “modern art” began to appear.               colonial painting; this anonymous canvas
                                                          from Kamasan dates from the 19th century.

                                                Garuda, the
                                                mythical bird                    A busy market scene

 One of the most gifted Balinese artists
 of the mid-20th century was I Gusti
 Nyoman Lempad, who created expressive
 and stylized works such as The Tantri
 Stories (1939). Lempad took the art of
 drawing in Bali to new heights.

 The Batuan style, as in this work painted
 by Ida Bagus Made Togog in 1932, is
 typical of much Balinese painting in its
 full occupation of the canvas, repetition
 of patterned iconographic elements, fine
 detail and slightly monochromatic
 quality. Balinese painters often tell a
 story by showing scenes of everyday
 life. The basis of this story is not known.

 The Pita Maha
 association, which was
 centred around Ubud,
 led to the creation of
 the “Ubud Style”. This
 stimulated the emer-
 gence of other local
 styles, such as that of
 Sanur in the south. The
 villages of Pengosekan
 and Penestanan, though      The Community of Artists           The Sanur School flourished in the
 both in the Ubud area,      in Pengosekan uses subtle          1930s. Fighting Horses (undated) by I
 also developed distinct     colours, as in I Dewa Nyoman       Gusti Ketut Rundu is essentially decora-
 artistic identities.        Batuan’s Cosmic Circle (1975).     tive rather than narrative in nature.
               A   P O R T R A I T      O F      B A L I    A N D       L O M B O K                  35

 M ODERN A RT        IN   B ALI
 Academic art education has introduced
 a new, more analytical approach to
 Balinese art. Some painters have opted
 for academic realism; others have
 chosen a modernist look. I Nyoman
 Gunarsa combines the free brush-
 strokes of American Expressionism
 with exotic Balinese themes, such as
 traditional dancers and wayang figures.
 Painters such as Made Wianta and
 Nyoman Erawan have also produced
 art which is modern yet at the same
 time strongly Balinese in feeling.

  Three Dancers (1981) by I Nyoman Gunarsa

                                                       A battle
                                                       provides a
                                                       sharp contrast
                                                       to the peace-
                                                       ful scenes of
                                                       daily life
                                                       shown in the     The Pita Maha association
                                                       rest of the      was founded in 1936 by
                                                       painting.        Cokorda Gede Agung Suka-
                                                                        wati and European painters
                                                                        Walter Spies and Rudolf
                                                                        Bonnet. It encouraged local
                                                                        artists to create non-
                                                                        religious art using their own
                                                                        imaginative resources.

                                                           The river at the centre of the
                                                           painting gives it a strong
                                                           graphic structure.

                                                                Farmers are shown working
                                                                with their cows in the ricefields.

The Ubud Style, as in Balinese Stone-Craftsmen    The Young Artists School of Penestanan,
Working (1957) by I Nyoman Madia, is charac-      influenced by Dutch artist Arie Smit, typically
terized by themes of daily life and a way of      uses bright colours, as seen here in Jayaprana
showing anatomy influenced by Rudolf Bonnet.      Ceremony (1972) by I Nyoman Kerip.
36              I N T R O D U C I N G              B A L I    A N D     L O M B O K

 Crafts and Textiles
     OLD- AND SILVERSMITHING, stone carving,
 G   woodcarving and weaving are crafts that
 have survived from the age of Bali’s opulent
 kingdoms. Today, a thriving handicraft industry
 produces goods mainly for tourism and export.
 Crafts are generally practised in specialist villages,
 and Bali is an important market for goods made
 on other islands. Lombok has a long tradition of
 domestic pottery, and produces colourful                           Garudas (mythical birds) carved in wood
 handwoven textiles (see p161).                                     and painted in the villages around Ubud

 The virtuoso carving of architectural elements,
 still practised today in Bali, blurs the distinction
 between crafts and fine arts. The works of
 craftsmen can be seen adorning many temples,
 palaces and houses; an industry has also devel-
 oped producing items for general decoration.

                                 Chinese-inspired              Wall ornamentation such as this
                                 motifs decorate this          example from Pura Tirta Empul (see p99)
                                 door in Puri Agung            is carved from volcanic stone (paras).
                                 (see p112), the work
                                 of Chinese artisans in                    Wooden
                                 the 19th century.                         mallet and
                                 Stone sculpture is
                                 a thriving industry
                                   as a consequence
                                      of strong local
                                      demand in the
                                       restoration of
                                       Bali’s temples.

 Renowned for its simple designs and fine                                       Domestic pottery,
 craftsmanship, Lombok pottery is made                                          such as this water jar,
 using simple, age-old techniques and fired in                                  is widely used in
 straw on open ground. Sasak women have                                         Lombok households
       been making pottery since the 14th                                       for storage, cooking
           century, when the skill was                                          and bathing.
            probably introduced by
             Majapahit migrants. Among
             Lombok’s most prominent
              pottery villages are Penujak
                     (see p161), Banyumulek
                        (see p154) and
                          Masbagik Timur.

                                 Forms are built
                                 by hand.

                            Clay material
                            comes from                       Lombok pottery range from a terracotta
                            local riverbeds.                 colour to rich reddish-brown and black
                  A    P O R T R A I T       O F    B A L I      A N D     L O M B O K                    37

A large cottage industry has grown up in Bali, based
on craft work. It provides employment to thousands
of rural families who can no longer make a living by
farming. The level of skill demonstrated by a sizeable
part of the Balinese population is remarkable. Some
craftsmen have an “artshop” in their home.

                                                                  Painted wooden trinkets

                                                Basketware is widely
                                                     made in Lombok
                                                     using rattan,
                                                      grass, bamboo
                                                       and lontar.
                                                        Designs vary
                                                        villages.             Gold and silver
                                                       Sometimes palm         are imported to Bali from
                                                     leaves are used          other islands and worked
Lacquer-painted baskets                            for smaller boxes.         by members of the metal-
woven in Bali                                                                 smithing Pande clan.

The most common textiles are endek or warp ikat (made by
dyeing the threads before weaving) and the more costly
songket (gold tapestries). The Balinese are the only weavers in
Southeast Asia to master double ikat, in the form of geringsing
made in the village of Tenganan (see pp110 –11). Most of this
work is woven on simple backstrap looms in the home.

                                                                   The traditional hand-operated
                                                                   loom is supported by the weaver who
                                                                   leans back to maintain the tension
                                                                   of the threads. Very complex pieces
                                                                   can take years to complete.

Silk sarong made in North Bali in the 19th century, showing a
mythological story enacted by shadow puppets

Detail of flower motif, part of   Prada, a gold-painted fabric     The rich design of songket, with a
a geringsing from Tenganan        made in Bali                     pattern of gold or silver thread
38                I N T R O D U C I N G             B A L I   A N D     L O M B O K

 Festivals and Holy Days
                     often the occasion for
 B   extravagant celebrations, are calculated
 according to either a lunar calendar or the
 210-day Balinese calendar. Odalan
 (temple festivals) are the anniversary
 celebrations of particular temples. There is
 almost always a temple festival taking
 place somewhere. Rites of passage and
 other religious holidays are mostly cele-
 brated with guests at home in the family
 temple. Outsiders may watch more public
 occasions such as odalan and even crem-                      The ingredients of offerings include palm
                                                              leaves, flowers, fruit and other foodstuffs.
 ations, provided they show due respect.

                 Female devotees are dressed with
                 a ceremonial waist sash and
                 flowers for the occasion.

                                  Offerings are
                                  made by the
                                  women in the
                                  household. This
                                  skill is passed from
                                  mother to
                                  daughter. Older
                                  women are highly
                                  respected as
                                  tukang banten
                                  (offerings experts).

                            T EMPLE F ESTIVALS
       At an odalan, the deities of a temple are
          honoured with offerings, prayers, and
       entertainment. Temples sometimes strike
      the visitor as rather quiet places, but they
      come alive during temple festivals, which
           generally last three days. The whole
       occasion has a carnival atmosphere, and                   Male devotees, shown here praying,
     demands elaborate preparations. All village                 wear a white formal costume which
      members contribute labour and materials.                   includes a white headcloth.

                                                          B ALINESE R ITES      OF   PASSAGE
                                                          Rites of passage ease a soul along the cycle
                                                          which runs from before birth to after death.
                                                          A person’s oton is his or her birthdate on
                                                          the Balinese calendar, and so occurs once
                                                          every 210 days. A child’s first and third
                                                          oton are usually lavish occasions. A tooth-
                                                          filing ceremony, in which the front teeth
                                                          are filed even, marks the coming-of-age of
                                                          an adolescent. A wedding ceremony takes
                                                          place in the family home of the groom,
                                                          where a high priest conducts prayers; a
                                                          ritual bath is followed by a feast. A ritual
 In a Balinese cremation, the corpse is placed in         cremation usually involves elaborate
 an animal-shaped sarcophagus.                            preparations by the community.
               A    P O R T R A I T       O F       B A L I   A N D       L O M B O K                 39

                            This guardian
                            statue has been
                            decorated with
                            flowers, cloth and
                            offerings in
                            preparation for
                            a temple festival.

                                                        The Balinese Calendar, each day represented
                            Offerings are brought
                                                        by an appropriate image
                            by worshippers from
                            home and placed on a
                            special platform.           T HE B ALINESE C ALENDAR
                                                        Certain Balinese holy days are
                                                        calculated according to the complex
                                                        210-day pawukon calendar. This is
                                                        made up of 30 seven-day wuku (weeks),
                                                        along with nine other overlapping
                                                        wewaran (cycles) of different lengths.
                                                        The most common wewaran are the
                                                        three-day “market” cycle, the five-day
                                                        cycle and the seven-day cycle. Many
                                                        festivals fall when these cycles cross.

                                                        Saraswati and Renewal of the Cycle:
                                                        On the last day of the 210-day cycle,
                                                        Saraswati, the goddess of learning, is
                                                        worshipped. Books are honoured with
                                                        offerings laid on them and sprinkled
                                                        with holy water. Children make
                                                        offerings at school while adults bring
                                                        gifts to healers and traditional teachers.

                                                        Banyu Penaruh: The first day of the
                                                        210-day cycle is one of ritual cleansing
                                                        with holy water, usually at a spring
                                                        temple or at the house of a high priest.

                                                        Pagerwesi: This is a day for spiritual
                                                        strengthening; it is celebrated
                                                        elaborately in North Bali with penjor
                                                        and feasting as at Galungan. The name
                                                        means literally “fence of iron”.

                                                        Tumpek: Once every 35 days, offerings
                                                        are made to specific categories of
                                                        valued things, such as metal objects,
                                                        trees, books, musical
                                                        instruments, livestock
                                                        and wayang puppets;
                                                        in modern Bali,
                                                        motorcycles, cars,
                                                        computers and
                                                        refrigerators may be
                                                        included. There are
Decorated bamboo poles known as penjor
                                                        six Tumpek days
adorn Bali’s village streets at Galungan.
                                                        in the 210-day
                                                        calendrical cycle.
Galungan occurs every 210 days, in the 11th
week of the cycle. This holiday celebrates the            Devotees receiving
creation of the universe. A period of festivity          holy water during a
culminates ten days later in Kuningan, the                  religious festival
Balinese “All Saints’ Day”.
40              I N T R O D U C I N G         B A L I    A N D       L O M B O K

                    BALI AND LOMBOK
                    THROUGH THE YEAR
       HE SEASONS IN North Bali,                 or consult the internet – and be pre-

 T     South Bali and Lombok
       do not coincide pre-
 cisely. In very broad terms
                                                    pared for slight discrepancies. Many
                                                      temples have festivals on the pur-
                                                              nama (full moon). A few
 the coastal areas are generally                               are mentioned below.
 drier than those at higher                                    Besides the high season in
 altitudes. Any particular                                     July and August, the long
 day can often differ from                                     weekends around Chinese
 place to place: the situation                                 New Year, Easter, Christ-
 in Ubud may well be dif- Buffalo racing in Negara, at mas and New Year are par-
                                its best from July to October
 ferent from that in Sanur.                                    ticularly crowded. If you
 For precise dates of religious holidays plan to travel then, book well in
 and cultural festivals, visitors should advance and expect to pay higher
 check with tourist information offices rates for accommodation.
                                   make them as frightening,          may be suspended. Travel-
                                   funny or outrageous as they        lers should check for details
                                   can. At the end of the festiv-     ahead of time.
                                   ities, the effigies are burned.    Purnama Kedasa (two
                                      On Nyepi itself, the Day of     weeks after Nyepi). To mark
                                   Silence, no one is allowed to      this, the full moon of the
                                   go out on the street and no        tenth month, there are large
                                   lights may be lit, until 6am       festivals at important Bali-
                                   the following day.                 nese temples, especially at
                                      The growing impact of           Besakih (see pp116 –17),
                                   tourism and modern lifestyle       Pura Ulun Danu Batur (see
                                   on religious culture has           pp122 –3) and Pura Samuan
                                   caused some Balinese to            Tiga (see p87). These are
                                   become increasingly scru-          opportunities to see offer-
                                   pulous about keeping the           ings, music and sacred dance
 Ogoh-ogoh (demonic effigies) in   Day of Silence. Visitors are       in their full cultural context.
 a Nyepi procession in April       expected to observe these
                                   restrictions and remain in-        M AY
                                   doors in their hotels. Special
 D RY   SEASON                     arrangements are made to           Waisak (Apr/May). The
                                   look after guests, and             small Buddhist community of
    ROM APRIL to October,          sometimes to include them          Bali visits the few Buddhist
 F  occasional rain is normal.
 July and August are relatively
                                   in the festivities on the eve
                                   of Nyepi. During this 24-
                                                                      temples of the island on this
                                                                      holiday, which takes place
 cool and pleasant months,         hour period airline travel         on the day of the full moon
 and nights in the highlands
 can even be chilly.

 Nyepi (Mar/Apr). Falls on
 the day after the ninth new
 moon. At midday on the eve
 of Nyepi, massive offerings
 are set out at major
 crossroads; they are believed
 to have the power to
 exorcise evil spirits. That
 evening, there are noisy
 torchlit processions of huge
 ogoh-ogoh (demonic
 effigies). These are created
 each year by village youth
 groups, who compete to            Balinese worshippers at a temple festival at Pura Taman Ayun
            B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K         T H R O U G H        T H E     Y E A R            41

                                                                                Sunshine Chart
    AVERAGE D AILY H OURS            OF   S UNSHINE     IN   B ALI              The island of Lombok
    Hours                                                                       typically receives
     10                                                                         about an hour less
                                                                                sunshine each day
        8                                                                       compared to Bali.
                                                                                Daylight hours are
                                                                                fairly constant
        4                                                                       throughout the year
                                                                                on both islands as
        2                                                                       they are close to the
                                                                                equator. Days and
        0                                                                       nights are about the
              Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun       Jul   Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
                                                                                same length.

                                                 thought to be           Mekepung (Jul –Oct, dates
                                                 an auspicious time      variable). Buffalo races held
                                                 for cremations.         in Negara (see p134). A more
                                                 Bali Kite Festival      modest version is put on for
                                                 (date variable),        visitors all year round.
                                                 South Bali. An
                                                 annual, inter-          S EPTEMBER
                                                 national event
                                                 which draws             In September, the weather is
                                                 participants from all   hot and dry, bringing out
                                                 over Southeast Asia     flowers in profusion.
The annual Bali Kite Festival in South Bali      and Japan, the Bali     Purnama Katiga (full
                                                 Kite Festival takes     moon). Temple festival at the
usually in May, according to          place at the time of year          Gunung Kawi Royal Monu-
the Buddhist lunar calendar.          when winds are most                ments at Tampaksiring in
Purnama Desta (full moon). suitable for kite-flying. The                 Central Bali (see p99).
Hindu temple festival held at festival inspires children
Pura Maospahit in Denpasar            throughout the countryside;        O CTOBER
(see p61), and Pura Segara,           they construct kites from
near Ampenan on Lombok.               plastic bags or any other          Purnama Kapat (full
                                      materials they can find, and       moon). Festivals at many
J UNE                                 fly them from drying rice          major temples, including
                                      fields and village streets.        Besakih (see pp116 –17),
Pesta Kesenian Bali (Bali             Indonesia’s Independence           Pura Ulun Danu Batur (see
Arts Festival) (mid-June to           Day (17 Aug). In the week          pp122 –3), Pura Tirta Empul
mid-July), Denpasar. The              leading up to Independence         (see p99), Pura Pulaki (see
height of Bali’s secular              Day, which is marked by            p138) and Pura Tegeh
cultural calendar, this is a          events throughout Indonesia,       Koripan (see p115).
two-to-four-week jamboree             Bali’s traffic may be held up      Hari Raya Sumpah
of mostly Balinese (but               by ranks of schoolchildren         Pemuda (28 Oct). A work-
increasingly international)           marching along the roads, in       ing day commemorating the
dance, theatre, music and             preparation for the military-      independence movement. It
cultural events at the Taman          inspired ceremonies held on        has come to be associated
Werdhi Budaya (Bali Arts              the big day itself in the          with political reform in Bali
Centre) (see p61). The dates          provincial capital, Denpasar.      and elsewhere in Indonesia.
and duration vary somewhat
from year to year. The
opening-day parade is a
spectacular procession in
which the participating
troupes perform as they
move through the city
streets, sometimes even
going into a state of trance.

This is the high season for
visitors from Europe and
North America. It is also           Kuta Beach during the high season in July and August
42              I N T R O D U C I N G            B A L I    A N D      L O M B O K

                                                                                  Rainfall Chart
     AVERAGE M ONTHLY R AINFALL            IN   B ALI                             The dry and rainy
      mm                                                               Inches     seasons fall in the
     300                                                                  12      same part of the year
                                                                                  in both Bali and
     240                                                                          Lombok, although
                                                                                  Bali experiences
                                                                          6       greater fluctuations
     120                                                                          in the amount of
                                                                                  rainfall. The rainfall
      60                                                                          pattern has been
                                                                                  somewhat distorted
       0                                                                  0       by the El Niño
           Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun       Jul    Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
                                                                                  phenomenon in
                                                                                  recent years.

                                                      and January,        F EBRUARY TO M ARCH
                                                      when, accord-
                                                      ing to local        Chinese New Year (Jan/
                                                      belief, people      Feb). Crowds of Chinese
                                                      are at their        come to Bali from Singapore
                                                      most suscep-        and Jakarta. Following recent
                                                      tible to illness. liberalization of government
                                                      During this         policy towards Indonesia’s
                                                      period many         religious minorities, this
                                                      villages hold       holiday is likely to become
                                                      melasti             increasingly characterized by
 Raindrops falling on an irrigated ricefield          processions,        Chinese ritual ceremonies.
                                                      carrying            Like the Eve of Nyepi (see
                                      statues of gods to the sea          p40), the Chinese New Year
 R AINY S EASON                       or to holy springs.                       is celebrated with great
                                      Purnama Kenam (Dec).                          fanfare, particularly
      ONSOON WEATHER brings           On the full moon of                            in Denpasar.
 M     rain from mid-October
 to mid-March, the wettest
                                      the sixth month,
                                      the temple festival
                                                                                    Bau Nyale (Feb).
                                                                                    Sasak courtship rites
 months being December                takes place at Pura                              take place on Kuta
 and January. Several days of         Lingsar in                                         beach (see p162)
 uninterrupted rain may be            Lombok.                                            in South Lombok,
 followed by a week without           Siwa Latri (Dec).                               on the appearance
 any rain at all. Rain normally “Shiva’s Rite” is                                     of the nyale sea-
 begins at midday and lasts           celebrated by                                   worm, a traditional
 until late afternoon. These          Balinese Hindus                                 symbol of fertility.
 are also the warmest months two weeks after                                          Purnama Kesanga
 at the equator and rain              Purnama Kena, on A street procession at (Feb/Mar). The
 brings relief from the heat.         the night before          a Muslim festival      temple festival of
 Sunny days during this               the seventh dark                                 Pura Penataran
 period are hot and humid.            moon (Tilem Kapitu). It             Sasih in Pejeng (see p97),
   Bali and Lombok are not            involves a 24-hour vigil,           near Ubud, takes place on
 subject to typhoons, but in          usually held in a temple.           the day of the full moon.
 February there are normally
 a week or two of southwest-
 erly wind and rain before the
 monsoon shifts direction and
 brings in cooler, drier
 weather from the northeast.

 Purnama Kalima (Nov).
 The full moon of the fifth
 month of the Hindu calendar
 is the occasion when Pura
 Kehen in Bangli (see p104)
 holds its temple festival.
    The height of the rainy
 season comes in December            Hindus praying during a temple festival at Pura Taman Pule in Mas
           B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K         T H R O U G H              T H E   Y E A R            43

                                                                                   Temperature Chart
   AVERAGE M ONTHLY T EMPERATURE                IN   B ALI                         Bali has an average
    °C                                                                °F           temperature which is
  30                                                                       90      higher than Lombok
                                                                                   by about one degree
  25                                                                       80
                                                                                   Celsius. Tempera-
  20                                                                       70      tures on Bali and
  15                                                                       60      Lombok fluctuate
                                                                                   only marginally
  10                                                                       50      throughout the year,
    5                                                                      40      but it is generally
                                                                                   cooler in the hill
    0                                                                      30
         Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun       Jul   Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec                   regions than in the
                                                                                   areas near the coast.

                                        Calendar (see p39). The
                                        most important of these            P UBLIC H OLIDAYS
                                        is Galungan, which                 New Year’s Day (1 Jan)
                                        occurs in the 11th week.           Nyepi (Hindu New Year;
                                        The whole of Bali is               26 Mar in 2001,
                                        festively decorated, and           14 Apr in 2002)
                                        people dress up in their           Hari Paskah (Good Fri-
                                        best finery. Kuningan              day/Easter; 13 –15 Apr in
                                        follows ten days after             2001, 29 –31 Mar in 2002)
                                        Galungan, on a                     Hari Waisak (Buddhist
                                        Saturday, and marks the            holy day; 7 May in 2001)
                                        end of the holiday                 Ascension of Christ
                                        period. The day after              (24 May in 2001,
                                        Kuningan is Manis                  9 May in 2002)
                                        Kuningan, a big day for            Hari Proklamasi
                                        temple festivals at Pura           Kemerdekaan
                                        Sakenan on Pulau                   (Independence Day;
Moving a musical gong in preparation    Serangan, and Pura                 17 Aug)
for celebrating Galungan in Ubud        Taman Pule in Mas.                 Christmas Day (25 Dec)

                                                                           Hindu holidays based on
B ALINESE H OLY D AYS             R AMADAN – M USLIM                       Balinese 210-day
                                  M ONTH OF FASTING                        calendar:
     religious holidays and
annual temple festivals, the      D    URING RAMADAN,   the ninth
                                       month of the Islamic
                                                                           Galungan (28 Feb and
                                                                           26 Sept in 2001, 24 Apr
12-month lunar calendar is        calendar, Muslims refrain                and 20 Nov in 2002)
the framework for regular         from eating, drinking and                Kuningan (10 days
ritual celebrations and           smoking from dawn to dusk.               later)
religious observance.             Visitors to Lombok should                Saraswati (14 Jul in
   On the tilem (new moon)        avoid these activities in                2001, 9 Feb and 7 Sep
and purnama (full moon) of        public in Ramadan.                       in 2002)
each month, special offerings       At the end of Ramadan is
are prepared and presented        Idul Fitri, a two-day holi-              Muslim holidays based on
within the household and at       day. Most Muslims return to              Islamic 354- or 355-day
local public temples.             their villages, causing mas-             calendar:
   The monthly celebration                sive air, sea and land
of purnama is                              traffic throughout the          Idul Adha (6 Mar in
particularly lively at                               country.              2001; 23 Feb in 2002)
certain “state”                                                            Hijriyah (26 Mar in
temples, such as the                                                       2001; 15 Mar in 2002)
Pura Jagatnatha in                                                         Maulid Nabi
Denpasar, Pura Kehen                                                       Muhammed (4 Jun in
in Bangli and other                                                        2001; 25 May in 2002)
regional capitals. It is                                                   Isra Miraj Nabi
marked by shadow                                                           Muhammed (15 Oct in
puppet theatre and                                                         2001; 5 Oct in 2002)
readings of sacred poetry.                                                 Idul Fitri (16 –17 Dec in
   Other festivals are based      Greeting cards for                       2001; 6 –7 Dec in 2002)
on the 210-day Balinese           the Muslim festival of Idul Fitri
                  I N T R O D U C I N G           B A L I       A N D     L O M B O K                         45

                        T H E H I S TO RY O F
                       BALI AND LOMBOK

                ILLTOPS AND MOUNTAIN GODS are both prominent in Balinese

           legend. The landscape of the islands has deeply influenced
           their cultural, political and economic life for thousands of
  years. Old traditions have persisted remarkably, despite the succes-
  sive impacts of colonialism, political strife and the travel industry.
  The Balinese, and the Sasaks (the                     (see p99) were built in order
  indigenous people of Lombok), are                      to commemorate the king
  thought to be descendants of                         Anak Wungsu and his queen
  migrants from southern China who                   Betari Mandul. This king’s edicts
  arrived around 2000 BC. Their                     have been found in Sangsit on the
  legacy is believed to                             north coast and as far as
  include the growing of                            Klungkung in the south, imply-
  rice as a staple crop, the                          ing that he was ruler of the entire
  craft of metal-working and                         island. Pura Tegeh Koripan (see
  the prevalance of mountain                         p115) may have been built to
  cults. These cultural traits, still Keris (dagger) venerate him. Anak Wungsu’s
  clearly observable in traditional      handle       reign, which began around
  Balinese life today, suggest                        1025, was a period of close con-
  broad affinities with other peoples of tact with Java. His mother was a
  Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. Javanese princess; his father was the
                                               Balinese king Udayana; and his older
             E ARLY K INGDOMS                  brother was the great Airlangga, who
  There are few written records of Bali ruled a large kingdom in East Java.
  and Lombok before the 20th century,            A contemporary of Anak Wungsu,
  and none of Lombok before 1365; but Mpu Kuturan, is thought to have
  ancient artifacts tell of Hindu king- established the three-temple system
  doms and the continuous influence common in Balinese villages (see p28):
  of Java. An inscribed pillar in the pura puseh (temple of origins), the
  Belanjong, Sanur, dated to AD 914, pura desa (village temple), and the
  implies that relations had been estab- pura dalem (temple of the dead).
  lished before that date between Bali           There was substantial Chinese influ-
  and the Buddhist Sanjaya dynasty of ence in early Bali. Kepeng (Chinese
  Central Java. In Central Bali there are coins) were in circulation from the 7th
  relics of a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, century onwards; the dragon-like
  dating from the 10th–13th centuries, Barong effigy (see p25) is thought to
  whose seat was near today’s Pejeng be of Chinese origin; and King
  and Bedulu. During the 11th century, Jayapangus of Bali married a Chinese
  the Gunung Kawi Royal Monuments princess in the 12th century.

      250,000 –10,000 BC                       Ancient pillar                      AD 914 First written
      Upper Pleistocene era                         in Pura                      inscription, on a pillar
                                                 Belanjong,                     in Pura Belanjong, of a
                                                      Sanur                        Balinese royal name

250,000 BC              10,000 BC              2,000 BC           1,000 BC             AD 1                 AD 1000

                                                                                   AD 960 Holy spring
                     2000 BC Migrations from                                       temple of Pura Tirta
                          China to Indonesia                                               Empul built

                                                Prehistoric bronze spearheads

  The Death of Abhimayu, from the epic Mahabharata; late 19th century, Kamasan style (detail; artist unknown)
46              I N T R O D U C I N G             B A L I      A N D      L O M B O K

                                                         became a culturally distinct minority
                                                         (see p121). Majapahit shaped the cul-
                                                         ture that has survived in Bali to the
                                                         present day, including architectural,
                                                         dance and theatrical forms; literature
                                                         written in Kawi script; and painting
                                                         and relief sculpture influenced by
                                                         wayang puppet theatre (see p31).
                                                         However, with time the imported cul-
                                                         ture gradually took on certain features
                                                         of the more rustic Bali.
                                                           Majapahit also ruled Lombok. A 1365
                                                         Javanese chronicle mentions Lombok
                                                         as a dependency. Lombok histories
                                                         tell of Majapahit princes being sent to
 Shrine in Denpasar’s Pura Maospahit, a temple           Bali, Lombok and Bima (present-day
 established in the Majapahit era (see p61)              Sumbawa). The old Hindu-Buddhist
                                                         elements in Lombok’s culture can be
            M AJAPAHIT B ALI                             traced to this period.
 Bali maintained its independence from
 the kingdoms of East Java until 1284.                B ALI ’ S G OLDEN A GE
 In that year the Singasari king Kerta- By the end of the 15th century Bali had
 negara sent an expedition to Bali, and recovered its independence. Majapahit
 as a consequence brought the island was seriously foundering, a decline
 into the Javanese political sphere.        accelerated by the rise of Islam in Java.
   Kertanegara’s successor in East Java, The Balinese kingdom of Gelgel flour-
 Raden Wijaya, founded the kingdom ished in the mid-16th century under
 of Majapahit, which over the next two King Waturenggong, who extended it
 centuries became the largest empire westward to Java, and over Lombok
 ever in Southeast Asia. Bali was not to Bima. Some Hindu Javanese nobles
 truly subjugated by Majapahit until migrated to Gelgel, bringing a fresh
 1343, when the Javanese prime min- infusion of Majapahit court culture.
 ister, Gajah Mada, defeated the king Waturenggong’s reign was a time of
 in Bedulu. Majapahit sovereignty was rebirth in the Hindu arts, literature and
 eventually established at Gelgel.          religion.
   The Gelgel kings ruled with the help       Around the 1540s, two new streams
 of local chieftains under a Majapahit of religious thought spread eastward
 lord. The people of                                         from Java: Islam, which
 some villages declined                                       was never to become
 to adopt Majapahit’s re-                                   widely established in
 ligious and social cus-                                 Bali; and a Hindu refor-
 toms. These people, now                             mation movement led by
 known as the Bali Aga                                    Waturenggong’s priest,
 (“original Balinese”),                                   Dang Hyang Nirartha.
 remained isolated in their     Ceremonial bowl from     This Javanese brahman
 village settlements, and around the 15th century was a poet, architect and

                                           1284 King Kertanegara of
 1050 –1078 Reign                            Kediri, Java attacks Bali
 of Anak Wungsu                                                            14th century coin from
                                                                            the Majapahit empire
               1100                         1200                           1300                          1400
                                                     1294 Raden Wijaya
                                                       founds Majapahit                1343 Majapahit
                                                   kingdom in East Java                invasion of Bali by
                                                                                       Gajah Mada
                               An edict written in old Balinese,
                               10th to 11th century
                       T H E      H I S T O R Y         O F     B A L I        A N D      L O M B O K                  47

      religious teacher. Among his                                    Dewa Agung (“great lord”).
      reforms was the introduction                                         Soon, the Klungkung
      of the padmasana shrine                                              dynasty began to break
      (see p26), an altar to the                                           into smaller kingdoms.
      Supreme God. He estab-                                               Over the next 250 years,
      lished, inspired or reno-                                            warfare and intermar-
      vated many temples in                                                riage created a complex
      Bali, including Pura                                                 political landscape.
      Tanah Lot (see p128). He                                                The 18th and 19th
      preached in Lombok;                                                  centuries saw the rise of
      and he is considered to                                              other kingdoms that
      be the ancestor of Bali’s                                             foreshadowed the reg-
      Brahmana Siwa clan, the                                               encies of Bali today.
      island’s main priestly Kulkul tower at Pura Taman Ayun, These were Klungkung,
      kinship group.                         built in Mengwi around 1740   Karangasem, Buleleng,
        Meanwhile, from the                                                Jembrana, Bangli, Bad-
      16th century Lombok was embracing ung, Gianyar, Tabanan and Mengwi.
      Islam. Two of the most important fig- Buleleng became a major power under
      ures in the process were Sunan Prapen, Panji Sakti, who ruled from 1660 to
      a disciple of the Islamic saint Sunan 1704; in the 18th century it was rivalled
      Giri; and the possibly mythical Javan- by Mengwi and Karangasem. Mengwi
      ese prince, Pangeran Sangupati, whom was split up among its enemies in the
      the Sasaks consider founder of the mys- late 1890s, but a trace of its former
      tical Islamic sect Wetu Telu (see p23). glory remains at the royal temple
                                                            complex Pura Taman Ayun (see
                R ISE OF N EW P OWERS                       pp130–31). Although the territory
      By 1597, which saw the first recorded ruled by Klungkung was smaller than
      visit to Bali by Europeans, the court at the other great kingdoms, the Dewa
      Gelgel was decadently rich. The Agungs retained prestige because their
      dynasty was soon displaced by a new realm included the important temple
      branch, founded around 1650 at at Besakih (see pp116–17).
      Klungkung, the kings taking the title                   The kingdom of Karangasem in east-
                                                                 ern Bali occupied Lombok in
                                                                 1740; Balinese settlers lived in the
                                                                 western part of the island. There
                                                                 was resistance in the centre and
                                                                 the east from the Sasak nobility
                                                                 and Bugis migrants (see p135).
                                                                 Conversely, contacts with Islam
                                                                 increased in Bali itself. By the end
                                                                 of the 18th century all of the kings
                                                                 on Bali had hired Muslim merce-
                                                                 naries. This is why many
                                                                 “Balinese-Muslim” villages still
                                                                 exist near what were formerly
      Dutch map of Bali, c.1597, clearly showing volcanic peaks important court centres.

                         c.1550 –70 Reign       1619 Founding of Batavia             Puri Agung, grand palace of the
      c.1540 Sunan       of Waturenggong        in West Java                       18th-century Karangasem dynasty
    Prapen sent as a     in Gelgel – Bali’s
Muslim missionary to     Golden Age                      c.1650 Establishment of      1740 Karangasem
   Bali and Lombok                                       Klungkung dynasty            conquers Lombok
          1500                           1600                              1700                         1800
             c.1540                       1602 Founding
              Hindu                       of the United                    c.1700 Rise of Mengwi        1800 VOC is
           reformer        1597 First     East India Com-                                               dissolved; Dutch
            Nirartha    recorded visit    pany (VOC)              c.1680 Rise of Karangasem             colonial government
        reaches Bali    of Europeans      (see p48)                                                     installed
                               to Bali                      c.1660 –1704 Rise of Buleleng
48                  I N T R O D U C I N G              B A L I     A N D    L O M B O K

        A RRIVAL OF THE E UROPEANS                   Java (1811–16), a consequence
  The 17th century saw a new player on               of the Napoleonic Wars – this
  the scene. The Dutch set up the United              caused some concern to the
  East India Company (VOC) in 1602,                     Dutch. The Dutch were to
  a trading company succeeded in                         become far more militant after
  1800 by the Dutch East Indies                          their victory over the Javan-
  colonial administration.                               ese, who were led by the
    Until the mid-19th cen-                             prince Dipanagara, in the Java
  tury, Dutch colonial atten-                          War of 1825 –30. They also
  tion was concentrated in                             found themselves in conflict
  Batavia (now Jakarta), on the                        with Balinese kings over sal-
  island of Java. Bali had little                      vage from shipwrecks: the
  contact with the Dutch,                               kings regarded cargo as a just
  except for trade in opium                              reward for saving ship and
  and slaves. Balinese kings                            crew. One such dispute with
  sold debtors and prisoners of The raja of Buleleng, the king of Buleleng in 1845
                                    mid-19th century
  war; the Dutch sold opium.                            led to the landing of Dutch
                                              troops on Balinese soil. The Balinese,
         A T UMULTUOUS C ENTURY               led by the brilliant tactician Gusti
  The 19th century brought enormous Jelantik, resisted three military expe-
  suffering to Bali and Lombok, as a con- ditions before they were finally
  sequence of volcanic eruption, famine, defeated in 1849 at Jagaraga; Jelantik
  disease and war. There were military fled to Karangasem where he was
  incursions by the Dutch and petty wars killed in a palace intrigue.
  between the kingdoms. Thomas                  The Dutch now had direct control of
  Stamford Raffles (later the founder of the northern Balinese kingdoms of
  Singapore) showed some interest in Buleleng and Jembrana. Rivalry pre-
  Bali during the British interregnum in vented a lasting alliance among the

   View of the harbour of Ampenan, Lombok, c.1850

1808 –1816 French and British interregnum
                                                                      Accession of Raja Ratu Ketut
              1815 Eruption of Gunung                                Ngurah Karangasem, ruler of
              Tambora in Sumbawa                                                    Lombok, 1855
1810                       1820                         1830                    1840                       1850
     1811 –16                                                                                    1846 –9 Buleleng
     T S Raffles becomes                                                                         expeditions;
     Lt-Governor of Java                 Mayura Water Palace,                                    puputan at Jagaraga
                                           built by the Balinese
                     1825 –30 Java War    dynasty which ruled                           1843 Lombok accepts
                                         in Lombok until 1843                           Dutch sovereignty
                 T H E      H I S T O R Y    O F      B A L I    A N D      L O M B O K                   49

                                          small Dutch ship which had run
                                          aground off Sanur. The matter esca-
                                          lated and became a political stand-off.
                                          In September 1906, a large Dutch fleet
                                          arrived. In Denpasar, kings, princes
                                          and brahmans dressed in white and
                                          had their ritual weapons blessed. As
                                          the Dutch advanced towards the town,
                                          they were met by hundreds of men,
                                          women and children emerging from
                                          the Denpasar palace. The Balinese ran
                                          towards the Dutch guns and were
                                          mown down. The survivors turned
                                          their weapons on themselves in an
                                          orgy of suicide. That afternoon a sim-
                                          ilar tragedy took place at the nearby
                                          Pemecutan palace. The king of
                                          Tabanan surrendered with his son;
                                          two days later they committed suicide
 Dutch cavalry in Lombok, 1894            in their cell. In Klungkung, the Dewa
                                          Agung and his court were shot down
 other kingdoms; most aspired to in another puputan in 1908. Bali was
 Dutch help against their neighbours. then wholly incorporated into the
 The Balinese ruler in Lombok during Dutch East Indies.
 this time had accepted Dutch sov-
 ereignty in 1843. In 1849 he sided with              C OLONIAL R ULE
 the Dutch against Buleleng by attack- Royal houses were stripped of prop-
 ing Buleleng’s ally Karangasem, his erty and power as the Dutch recruited
 own ancestral home. Thus Karan- surviving “rajas”, as junior personnel,
 gasem became a vassal of Lombok.         into their bureaucracy. With a modus
                                          vivendi established, The Netherlands
  T HE FALL OF B ALI ’ S O LD K INGDOMS were to conserve Bali as a “living
 Dutch control over Lombok was not museum” of classical culture, a show
 fully asserted until the end of the 19th
 century. In 1894, seizing the pretext
 of a Sasak revolt against their Balinese
 masters, the Dutch attacked and sub-
 dued the whole island, in the process
 acquiring Karangasem as well. In
 1900, Gianyar put itself under Dutch
 control, while Bangli hesitated. Three
 kingdoms remained independent –
 Badung, Tabanan and Klungkung.
   The occasion for the next and deci-
 sive Dutch attack was another dispute
 over a shipwreck – the pillage of a Interior of the Karangasem royal palace, built c.1900

1860 – 88 Epidemics
and plagues in Bali
                                                         The Ruins of Denpasar (1906)
                                                               by W O J Nieuwenkamp

1860                     1870                  1880                      1890                      1900
                                                                                    1906 Dutch expedition against
                              1882 –1900                                            Badung; puputan in Denpasar;
                Inter-kingdom wars in Bali   1888 Major earthquake                                 Tabanan falls
                                                in Bali and Lombok              1894 Dutch
                                                                                conquest of Lombok
    50                  I N T R O D U C I N G            B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K

       case for enlightened                                        T HE L AST P ARADISE
       Dutch colonialism. The                                    To visitors from abroad,
       restoration of the role of                                 however, Bali was a
       the rajas as custodians                                    paradise. Early images
       of ritual matters gave the                                 by Dutch illustrator
       appearance of cultural                                     W O J Nieuwenkamp,
       continuity.                                                and German photo-
         At the same time the                                     grapher Gregor Krause,
       Dutch used compulsory                                      inspired Westerners
       labour, formerly a                                         to visit the island.
       royal prerogative, to                                      The Dutch cautiously
       improve irrigation and King and visitor at the gateway of encouraged tourism.
       build a network of roads          Puri Gianyar, 1910       Some visitors stayed on
       across the island. They streamlined vil- more permanently, settling mainly in
       lage laws and class structure; new Ubud and Sanur, and presented to the
       taxes rewarded loyal nobility but outside world an image of Bali as “the
       impoverished the peasantry, and were island of the gods” where “everyone
       especially harsh on Lombok. These is an artist”.
       actions created tensions that were to          Meanwhile, a modern bureaucracy
       erupt later, when post-colonial gov- was growing, whose members soon
       ernments raised popular expectations constituted, with Chinese, Arab and
       but were not able to resolve certain Muslim traders, the core of a new
       fundamental social problems.                urban intelligentsia. Together with
                                                   other Indonesians from Java, Sumatra
                                                   and the eastern islands, they formed
                                                   the pan-archipelago political networks
                                                   which later gave rise to Indonesian
                                                   nationalism. In 1928, the lingua
                                                   franca of the archipelago, Malay, was
                                                   declared the official language of the
                                                   Dutch East Indies, Bahasa Indonesia.

                                                                        WAR AND I NDEPENDENCE
                                                                 In 1942 Japan invaded and occupied
                                                                 the Dutch East Indies. Requisition of
                                                                 crops led to deprivation. Non-Indo-
                                                                 nesians were imprisoned by the
                                                                 Japanese or deported. The occupation
                                                                 spurred on the forces of nationalism.
                                                                 Leading the nationalists was Javanese
                                                                 intellectual Sukarno, who proclaimed
                                                                 independence on 17 August 1945, two
                                                                 days after the Japanese surrender.
                                                                   However, the Dutch returned to
       Photograph of Balinese women, taken by G P Lewis          reclaim their colonies. They met fierce
       in the 1920s and coloured for publication                 resistance. In Bali they achieved a

       T IMELINE
1908 Klungkung puputan;                    1928          1936 Founding 1942 Japanese              1945 Indonesia
Dutch control all of Bali               Opening              of the Pita    invasion;             proclaims independence;
                                          of Bali              Maha art  Dutch with-              Sukarno becomes
  Klungkung’s king in 1908,              Hotel in            movement draw from the               president
 Dewa Agung Semarabhawa                 Denpasar              (see p35)  archipelago
     1910                     1920                        1930                     1940                       1950

                                                                             1946 Dutch return;             1949 Transfer
                       1917 Earthquake;                                    puputan at Margarana             of sovereignty
                       eruption of Gunung Batur                                                             to Republic of
                                                                          1937 Publication of Island        Indonesia
               1914 Opening of          The title page from               of Bali, a classic travel work,
               Bali to tourism                Island of Bali              by Miguel Covarrubias.
                T H E      H I S T O R Y         O F     B A L I    A N D       L O M B O K                    51

                                                                 A UTOCRACY AND R EFORM
                                                        On 30 September 1965, an alleged
                                                        coup attempt took place in Jakarta.
                                                        Sukarno was displaced by the little-
                                                        known general Suharto, who then led
                                                        a “cleansing” campaign in which thou-
                                                        sands of communists and suspected
                                                        communist sympathizers were mur-
                                                        dered, and countless internal conflicts
                                                        brutally settled. Suharto’s “New Order”
                                                        eventually brought prosperity to Bali
                                                        with the resurgence of tourism.
                                                          The first modern tourists were trav-
                                                        ellers on the “hippie trail” of the late
                                                        1960s and 1970s. The Australians dis-
                                                        covered Bali as a nearby holiday
                                                        destination. The coconut groves of
                                                        Kuta were gradually replaced by “art-
                                                        shops” and small hotels. In the 1980s
 Balinese judges under the colonial regime, 1935        and 1990s, South Bali was transformed
                                                        by a building boom. There
 political foothold amongst the former were just a few hundred
 nobility. Pro-republican youths waged hotel rooms in 1965,
 guerrilla war until November 1946, and 30,000 by 1999.
 when a band of 94 freedom-fighters,                      In the Suharto era,
 led by Gusti Ngurah Rai, died in a development took place
 puputan at Marga (see p132). Despite at the expense of civil
 this victory, the Dutch were in an liberties, a trade-off Pro-democracy
 unsustainable position. Three years destroyed by the financial banner, 1999
 later they withdrew from Indonesia, crisis of 1997. In May
 transferring sovereignty on 27 1998, Suharto was forced to resign.
 December 1949.                                         Suppressed social pressures erupted.
   The prosperity promised by inde-                       In Bali, after the 1999 elections, some
 pendence did not materialize for many public buildings were burned down.
 years. Guerrilla bands roamed the Later, Lombok suffered unrest, appar-
 islands of the archipelago. Suc-                             ently provoked by outsiders;
 cessive governments, power-                                  tourists were unharmed. Megawati
 less or over-nationalistic,                                   Sukarnoputri, favoured by the
 deterred foreign investors.                                    majority of Balinese as presi-
 Thought to be extinct,                                          dential candidate, became vice-
 Bali’s highest volcano                                            president. With the new
 Gunung Agung erupted in                                           millennium came the promise
 1963, killing thousands of                                        of a slow but real economic
 people, devastating East Bali                                     recovery. But, on 12 October
 and causing famine. Political                                     2002 a terrorist bomb in Kuta
 polarization worsened.                     Suharto in Bali, 1979 killed over 180 people.

            1965 30 September coup attempt;                1983 Opening of Nusa
            Anti-Communist purges begin                    Dua Beach Hotel, part of a
                                                           5-star resort complex
              1966 Bali Beach Hotel is opened
                                                                      Nusa Dua Beach Hotel
1960                    1970                      1980                        1990                      2000
                 1967 –98 Suharto’s New Order;
                 rise of tourism                                  1999 PDI-P party led by Megawati
                                                               Sukarnoputri wins 80 per cent of vote
                                                               in Bali; Abdurrahman Wahid becomes
       1963 Eruption of Gunung Agung                                           president of Indonesia

BALI   AND  L O M B O K AT A G L A N C E 54–55
            S O U T H B A L I 56–77
           C E N T R A L B A L I 78–99
            E A S T B A L I 100–123
   N O R T H A N D W E S T B A L I 124–149
             L O M B O K 150–165
54                 B A L I        A N D      L O M B O K             A R E A   B Y     A R E A

 Bali and Lombok at a Glance
     HE ATTRACTIONS of Bali and Lombok are varied, appealing
 T   to visitors with an interest in cultural heritage, natural
 beauty, and sports. South Bali has the greatest concentra-
 tion of beach resorts and nightlife; Central and East Bali are
 particularly rich in history and artistic interest. Throughout
 both islands there is wonderful scenery, from volcanic
 peaks and lakes to rice terraces and a beautiful coastline,
 in many areas quite undeveloped.

                                                    Bali Bird Park (see                    Pura Meduwe
                                                    pp84–5) is home to                     Karang (see pp148–9)
                                                    more than 1,500 birds                  is a temple noted for its
                                                    of over 250 species                    stone sculptures, wall
                                                    displayed in a fine                    carvings and reliefs.
                                                    tropical garden.
                                                                               Singaraja (see
                                                                               pp146 –7) retains the
                                                        Ubud (see pp88 –95)    atmosphere of an old
                                                        and the nearby         port and colonial
                                                        villages are at the    capital.
                                                        heart of Bali’s
                                                        cultural life.

 Taman Nasional
 Bali Barat (see
 pp136 –7) is a large
 nature reserve which                     NORTH AND WEST BALI
 includes the Bali
                                                  (see pp124 – 49)                                        CENTRAL
 Starling Breeding Facility
 and the coral reefs of                                                                                     BALI
 Menjangan Island.                                                                                        (see pp78 –99)

                                   0 kilometres          20

                                   0 miles         10

                                    Bali Museum
                                    (see pp62–3)
                                    is noted both                                                 SOUTH
                                    for its fine                                                   BALI
                                    collection of                                               (see pp56 –77)
                                    artifacts and
                                    for its
 Pura Taman Ayun (see                                                                                  Denpasar (see
 pp130– 31) is a royal                                                                                 pp60 –61) is Bali’s
 temple with an inner                                                                                  administrative
                                                                                                       capital and com-
 and an outer moat.
                                                                                                       mercial centre.

                                                                                           Kuta (see pp66 –9),
                                                                                           the most developed
                                                                                           tourist centre in
      Pura Luhur Uluwatu                                                                   Bali, is crowded
                                                                                           with hotels, shops,
     (see pp76–7) is set high                                                              bars and restaurants.
      on the edge of a cliff at
       the end of South Bali’s
             Bukit Peninsula.
                     B A L I      A N D       L O M B O K          A T        A   G L A N C E   55

            Taman Nasional Gunung
            Rinjani (see pp158 –9) is a
       national park and trekking area
        encompassing Lombok’s highest
            volcano and the crater lake
                  Danau Segara Anak.

                                             Gunung Batur (see pp120–21), an active
                                             volcano, and Lake Batur are enclosed within a
                                             spectacular caldera within which are several
                                             historic temples and some trekking routes.

                       Besakih Temple Complex (see
                       pp116 –17) contains 22 temples built
                       on the lower slopes of the sacred
                       volcano Gunung Agung.

          EAST BALI
         (see pp100 –23)

                                                                         (see pp150 –163)

    Tenganan (see             Senggigi (see
    pp110 –11) is a           p156) is a popular
    village where the         beach resort area
    minority Bali Aga         set in a sandy bay.
    (“original Balinese”)
    still live according
    to their own,
    ancient traditions.

                                                            Pura Lingsar
                                                    (see p154) in Sweta is
                                                        a temple with 300
                                                    years of history. Apart
                                                         from the temple’s
                                                             importance to
                                                     worshippers, the lotus
                                                    ponds in the precincts
                                                           give pleasure to
                                                            local children.
Taman Gili (see pp106–107) is a
royal compound with beautiful ceiling
paintings in its two main pavilions.
                B A L I      A N D      L O M B O K         A R E A    B Y    A R E A            57

                                 SOUTH BALI

                                                South Bali offers many
         contrasts. Budget travellers have flocked to the beaches here
          since surfers first arrived decades ago; at the other extreme,
lavish hotels and resorts have created a more glamorous and exotic
version of Bali. Meanwhile, despite modern development, temples and
village communities still maintain their cultural and artistic traditions.
At the heart of South                                                  restaurants and clubs,
Bali is Denpasar, the                                                   water sports, pulsating
island’s provincial                                                    night life and shops to
capital since 1958 and today                                          suit every budget. Sanur
a busy, modernizing city,                                             has many of the attrac-
Bali’s administrative and commercial                   tions of Kuta, but in a gentler, less rau-
hub. Denpasar used to be a royal cap-                  cous style. Nusa Dua, a development
ital – the kingdom of Badung domi-                     planned specially for visitors, offers
nated the southern part of Bali from                   the manicured gardens of a 5-star
the late 18th to the beginning of the                  resort-hotel complex complete with
20th century, and its heritage is to be                an 18-hole golf course.
seen in several of its older buildings.                  The highland peninsula of Bukit in
Two important cultural centres are                     the far south is arid and stands in stark
here: the Bali Museum (see pp62 –3)                    contrast to the verdant gardens and
and Taman Werdhi Budaya (Bali Arts                     rice terraces that enriched the rajas of
Centre) (see p61).                                     old. One of Bali’s holiest temples, Pura
  The city lies within Bali’s most                     Luhur Uluwatu, is set high on a cliff at
important tourist area, a triangle                     the Bukit’s southwest extremity, with
formed by the beach resorts of Kuta,                   a spectacular view of the ocean.
Legian, Seminyak and Canggu on the                       The sea is never far away in South
west coast, Sanur on the east coast,                   Bali. Surfers come for the waves,
and Nusa Dua to the south.                             divers and snorkellers for the reefs
  Kuta is Bali’s leading tourist centre.               and underwater life. Everyone comes
The beaches are famous. There are                      for the beach life, which has few rivals
hotels of every standard, exciting                     in Asia or further afield.

Fishermen off the South Bali coast in their light outrigger boat

 Woodcarving of a Garuda (a mythical bird), an example of the craft work typical of South Bali
58                 B A L I     A N D    L O M B O K        A R E A     B Y     A R E A

     Exploring South Bali                                                                      Mengwi &
                                                             Tanah Lot
                         arrive at Denpasar’s
            airport at the centre of South
     Bali. The most important resort
     areas, with their beaches and
     nightlife, are only a short taxi
     ride away. Some people feel no
     need to venture further afield, but
     communications are good to other
     parts of Bali, and to Lombok. South Bali is
     therefore a good base for further exploration;
     it is easy to make all the practical arrangements                    2 CANGGU
     here. This is the least mountainous part of the
     island, but much of the landscape is lush with
     gardens and ricefields, and the Bukit Peninsula in
     the south offers a more rugged contrast. Offshore
     to the east lie the islands of Nusa Lembongan and
     Nusa Penida, usually reached from Benoa Harbour.
                                                                                         SEMINYAK 5

     S IGHTS    AT A   G LANCE
     Benoa Harbour 7
     Canggu 2
     Denpasar pp60 –61 1
     Jimbaran q
     Kuta and Legian pp66 –9 4
                                                                                     KUTA AND
     Nusa Dua 0
                                                                                       LEGIAN 4
     Nusa Lembongan e
     Nusa Penida r
     Pulau Serangan 8
     Pura Luhur Uluwatu
                                                                                               TUBAN 6
       pp76 –7 w
     Sanur 3
     Seminyak 5
     Tanjung Benoa 9
     Tuban 6
                                                                                               BA RAN

                                        Kuta Beach, a popular spot for sunbathing,
                                        surfing and other water sports

                                                                                         JIMBARAN q



                                         PURA LUHUR
                                       w ULUWATU

     Stone statue in Puri Pemecutan,
     a palace in Denpasar
                                                 S O U T H       B A L I                                            59

Mengwi &                                                                          G ETTING A ROUND
Tabanan            Sangeh &                             Batubulan, Ubud,
                   Kintamani                            Gianyar & Kintamani       All flights to Bali land at
                                                                                  Ngurah Rai International Air-
                                                                                  port, south of Tuban. Bali’s
                                                                                  first dual carriageway, Jalan
                                                                                  Bypass Ngurah Rai, runs
                                                                                  from Nusa Dua to Kuta (via
                                                                                  the airport), up to Tohpati
                                                                                  (via Sanur) and the trunk
                                                                                  road to Ubud and Gianyar.
                                                                                  Transport is plentiful, in the
                                                                                  form of bemo, taxis, and
           1 DENPASAR                                                             tourist shuttle-buses. Buses
                                                                                  run from Denpasar to other
                                                                                  parts of the island, and to the
                                                                                  inter-island ferry terminals at
                                                                                  Gilimanuk and Padang Bai.
                                                                                  These cater more for locals
                                                                                  than for visitors.

                                                                              K EY
                                                                                  Dual carriageway
                                                            SANUR                 Major road

                                                                                  Minor road


                                                                              J Viewpoint

                                                                              k Airport

                      8 PULAU                                                 S EE A LSO
                                                                              • Where to Stay pp170 –74

                                                                              • Where to Eat pp184 –7
           7 BENOA HARBOUR
                              B A D U N G

                                   S T
                                       R A
                                           I T

                        0 NUSA DUA
                                                        Local handicrafts on sale in Sanur

                                                             N USA P ENIDA AND
                                                             N USA L EMBONGAN

                                                                                  NUSA e
                                                                                               NUSA r
                    0 kilometres                    3

                    0 miles                         2
60                 B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K                                                         A R E A                            B Y              A R E A

Denpasar               1

                 ENPASAR IS Bali’s bustling provincial
             D   capital. Some older buildings predate
             the Dutch invasion of 1906 (see p49),
          and there are still some white-walled, red-
          tiled structures dating from colonial times.
           On the streets can be seen several statues
          commemorating heroes of Indonesia’s
Detail of struggle for independence. Around the main
   wall street, Jalan Gajah Mada,
 carving are shophouses built                UBUNG,
                                             TANAH LOT,
by Chinese, Arab and Indian                  KAPAL &
traders. Shopkeepers from all
over Bali buy wholesale here.                                                                                                    Bronze statues in Taman Puputan
                                                                                                                                 commemorating puputan heroes of 1906

( Pasar Badung                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            JALAN                 PATIMURA
Jalan Gajah Mada. # daily.

This is a lively market full of

colour and excitement. The
                                                                   I IABUD



extensive flower section is not

                                                           JALAN SET

to be missed – exotic blossoms                                                             JALAN GA

                                                                                                   MBUH                                             JALAN
used in religious offerings



(see p38) are a major com-


modity on Bali.

  The fruit, vegetable and fish

                                            JALA                                                                                                                                                                            JALAN
market is full of spectacular                              N

tropical harvests. Bargains
                                                                                                                                                                                                       6                       n

can be found among the                                                                                                   M AD A

                                                                                                                   2                                                                                         7                                            n
                                                                                                                             SU WESI

textiles, baskets, mats and



traditional dancers’ costumes.

                                           JALAN G







   Jalan Hasanuddin                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0

Gold jewellery in Balinese,                     JALAN BATUR

Indonesian and Western
                                                                                                 JALAN HAS
                                                                                                          ANUDDIN                                                 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        JALAN DEBES
designs is sold here.


=    Jalan Sulawesi


This three-block stretch houses

a myriad of fabrics and textiles.                                                                                                      R


Everything from cheap batiks


to imported silks and brocades                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a
                                                                                                                                                                  JALAN DIPONEGORO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               JALAN SUDIRMAN

can be found here. This is
where the Balinese come to
buy their temple clothing,              KUTA
                                        AIRPORT                                                                                                       (
and the delicate lace used for
kebaya (a traditional tight-
fitting ladies’ blouse).
                                                                                                                                                         (                                                                                BENOA

                                                                                                                                                    =  Jalan Gajah Mada
                                                                                                                                                    Several interesting Chinese
                                                                                                                                                    apothecaries with an array of
                                                                                                                                                    herbal medicines can be
                                                                                                                                                    found on this busy street.
                                                                                                                                                    One of the largest is Toko
                                                                                                                                                    Saudara. Other stores sell
                                                                                                                                                    electronics, sporting goods,
                                                                                                                                                    handicrafts, batik and ikat
                                                                                                                                                    textiles. Many traders of Arab
                                                                                                                                                    and Indian descent have
Colourful textiles for sale on Jalan Sulawesi                                                                                                       businesses here.
                                                                                            D E N PA S A R                                                    61

                O Taman Puputan                                                      T Bali Hotel
                Jalan Udayana and Jalan Surapati.                                    Jalan Veteran 3. § (0361) 225 681.
                                                                                                                                V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                A bronze statue in this large       Built in 1928, and once the                                                 Road Map C4. @ from Kuta,
                square (once the site of               only luxury hotel in Bali,                                               Sanur & Nusa Dua.
                Denpasar’s palace) com-                the Bali Hotel has wel-                                                  n Jalan Surapati 7, (0361) 234
                memorates the puputan                  comed famous guests                                                      569. _ Bali Arts Festival: Taman
                of 1906 (see p49).                      including Charlie Chaplin                                               Werdhi Budaya, Jun – Jul (see
                                                         and Noel Coward. The                                                   p41). 0 - = ®
                T Catur Muka                             open pavilion on the
                Northwest corner of Taman               opposite side of Jalan
                Puputan.                               Veteran was built to stage                                             F Taman Werdhi Budaya
                Wisnu, the four-headed                dances for guests. Seen                                                 Jalan Nusa Indah. § (0361) 227 176.
                Hindu god, is shown in the            here were many great                                                    ` (0361) 247722. # daily.
                form of a stone                               performers who                                                  ¢ public hols.
                statue 20 m (65 ft)                             helped to make                                                Also known as the Bali Arts
                tall, dating from the                           Balinese dance                                                Centre, this is an attractive if
                1970s. The name           Statue of Ngurah     world-famous.                                                  under-used complex with
                means “four faces”.        Rai (see p51)                                                                      extensive gardens, an art
                                                                                                                              museum, several indoor thea-
                                                                                                                              tres and an outdoor amphi-
                                                               JALAN    SUPR ATMAN                            UBUD,           theatre. There are frequent
                                                                                                              GIANYAR &
                                                                                                                              dance and music perform-

                                                                                                                              ances, but no set programme.

             STADIUM                                                                                                             The centre is a good place

                                                                                                                              to come to during the heat of

                                                                                                                              the day. The permanent


                                                                                                                              collection of sculptures and
                                                                                                                              paintings reflects the art world

                                                                                                                              of the l970s and 1980s. More
                               AN      L

                                                                                                                              recent works are shown in
                                                                                                                              rotating exhibitions.
                                                                                                                                 Information can be found in
                                                                                                                              the Bali Post newspaper and

                                                                                                 w                            tourist magazines.
                                                                       JALAN    HAYAM    WURUK



                                           0 metres                       500
                                                                                        Pura Jagatnatha
                                           0 yards                     500
                                                                                   Taman Puputan, Jalan Letkol Wisnu.
                                                                                   # daily. & donation.
                D ENPASAR                                                          This temple was built in the
                                                                                   1970s for the worship of Sang
                Bali Hotel 6
                                                                                   Hyang Widhi Wasa, the
                Bali Museum 0                                                      Supreme God. It is crowded
                Catur Muka 7                                                       on the full and new moons,
                Jalan Gajah Mada 5                                                 and on Kajeng Kliwon, which
                Jalan Hasanuddin 4                                                 falls every 15 days in the
                Jalan Sulawesi 3                                                   Balinese calendar (see p39).
                Pasar Badung 2                                                     It has a very tall padmasana               Pura Maospahit, one of Bali’s
                Pasar Burung q                                                     shrine (see p26).                          oldest temples

                Pura Jagatnatha 9
                                                                                   p Bali Museum                                Pura Maospahit
                Pura Maospahit 1                                                   Jalan Letkol Wisnu. See pp62 –3.           Jalan Sutomo, Grenceng.
                Taman Puputan 8                                                                                               ¢ to public.
                Taman Werdhi Budaya                            w                   ( Pasar Burung                             This temple dates from the
                                                                                   Off Jalan Veteran. # daily.                time between the 13th and
                K EY                                                               At this lively bird market                 the 15th centuries, when the
                                                                                   many species of birds and                  Majapahit ruled over Bali (see
                n Tourist information
                                                                                   other animals can be seen.                 p46). The style of the statuary
                c Bus terminal                                                     The Balinese love song-birds               and brickwork developed at
                                                                                   and those with exceptional                 that period. The restrained
                @ Bemo terminal
                                                                                   voices can sell for very high              ornamentation is delightful.
                A Hospital                                                         prices. There is also trade in             Although the temple is closed
                                                                                   dogs, tropical fish, fighting              to visitors, the architecture
                ( Market
                                                                                   crickets and fighting cocks.               can be seen from outside.
62             B A L I     A N D   L O M B O K      A R E A   B Y   A R E A

Denpasar: Bali Museum
                              houses one of the
         T  HE BALI MUSEUM
               world’s best collections of Balinese art.
            Completed and opened in 1931 by
            architect P J Moojen, its attraction is not
           only the items on show but also the build-
         ings and setting. The exterior walls, gates
            and courtyards were executed in the
 Bronze manner of an old Denpasar royal palace,
 Age axe while the Tabanan, Karangasem and
            Buleleng gedung (pavilions) are built in
the style of the regions after which they are named.

                                                           Ceremonial Gate
                                                           Fine brickwork without
                                                           mortar is combined
                                                           with volcanic-
                                                           stone reliefs.

                           Carved Palace Doors
                           On display are these
                           carved, gilded doors
                           from the 19th century.

. Stone Sculptures
Lining the verandah of
the pavilion are stone
statues from the 16th to
the 19th centuries. The
one shown here depicts

                 masks, such as
               this 19th-century
              example from South
             Bali, are shown with pup-
             pets and musical instruments.

Bronze Cannons
This 17th-century gun,
with monster-head
muzzle, is one of a                                                       The gazebo has a
pair made for                                                             base decorated with
a Denpasar prince.                                                        fine stone motifs.
                                        D E N PA S A R                                           63

                                     . Excavated Artifacts
                                     The collection ranges         V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                     from the Bronze Age to        Jalan Letkol Wisnu, on east side
                                     the 19th century. These       of Taman Puputan. § & `
                                     prasasti (inscribed bronze    (0361) 222 680. # 8am –3:30pm
                                     plaques) praise 10th-         Mon –Thu, 8am –1pm Fri,
                                         century Balinese          8am –3:30pm Sun. & m

                                                                         The arched gateway
                                                                         is richly decorated
                                                                         with stone carvings.


                                      The kulkul is a
                                      multi-levelled       Entrance to Timur Pavilion
                                      tower which          In front of the pavilion is a
                                      houses a slit-log    landscaped courtyard with an
                                      alarm drum.
                                                           ornamental pool.

                                                                  K EY   TO   F LOORPLAN
                                                                    Tabanan Pavilion

                                                                    Karangasem Pavilion

                                                                    Buleleng Pavilion

G ALLERY G UIDE                                                     Timur Pavilion
The collections are housed                                          Library
in four pavilions: Tabanan
is noted for its theatrical
masks and musical instru-
ments; Karangasem has a         . Textiles                         S TAR E XHIBITS
display of sculptures,          The collection contains pieces
woodcarvings and                                                   . Stone Sculptures
                                woven in the Bali Aga villages
paintings; Buleleng has a
collection of textiles; Timur   (see pp110 –11), such as this      . Excavated Artifacts
contains prehistoric finds      gold brocade from North Bali,
and, upstairs, some             and examples of geringsing         . Textiles
antique woodcarvings.           double ikat from Tenganan.
64               B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K          A R E A        B Y   A R E A

Canggu 2                            Sanur          3

Road Map C4. n Denpasar (0361)                                                 resort, Sanur
                                                         ALI’S LONGEST-ESTABLISHED
756 175. 0 - ®                                       B
                                                   has a quiet charm. At its heart is an old
                                                Balinese community. The simple layout of
  N THE ABSENCE OF restaurants
I and nightlife, the quiet
atmosphere of Canggu is a
                                               Sanur’s streets and its tranquil atmosphere
                                                appeal to families and those seeking a
complete contrast with that of                   relaxed vacation with the convenience
Kuta (see pp68 –9). This is a                       and facilities of a beach resort, but
place for walks on the wind-                        without the intrusiveness of Kuta’s
swept, virtually deserted                           hawkers and traffic. The shops are
beach. Behind the beach is a                        pleasant and sell goods from Bali and
landscape of coconut palms      Sculpture of Hindu elsewhere in Indonesia. Many of the
and ricefields. One can walk     deity Ganesha at   unpretentious cafés and pubs aim to
all the way along the beach        Pura Segara
from Canggu to Seminyak.
                                                    attract visitors of a particular nationality
  This area was discovered by or lovers of a particular sport. The nightlife is enjoyed
surfers in the early 1970s, and by both visitors and locals.
remains a favourite surfing
spot. The waves are too big         Exploring Sanur
for good swimming.                  Jalan Danau Tamblingan,
   Those interested in the use      Sanur’s main artery, is lined
of traditional elements in          with restaurants, and shops
architectural design will           selling locally made fashion
appreciate the vacation houses,     and craft goods. It runs some
which combine Balinese style        5 km (3 miles) parallel to the
with modernity.                     beach from old Sanur village,
                                    to the formerly distinct villages
                                    of Blanjong and Mertasari.
                                    Half-way is Bale Banjar Batu
                                    Jimbar, a community centre
                                    where musicians practise and            Jalan Danau Tamblingan, lined
                                    women make flower and                   with shops and restaurants
                                    palm-leaf offerings. At Pasar
                                    Sindhu, sarongs and other               work. Le Mayeur’s wife, the
                                    products can be bought at               famous Balinese dancer Ni
                                    bargain prices; it operates             Polok, is the subject of
                                    early in the morning.                   several paintings on show.

                                      Pura Desa                             T Grand Bali Beach Hotel
                                    Jalan Hang Tuah. # daily.               Jalan Hang Tuah. § (0361) 288 511.
                                    This fine village temple was            ∑ www.grand-balibeach.com
                                    probably built early in the last        Bali’s only high-rise hotel was
                                    century, although its brickwork         refurbished after a fire in 1992
                                    has been restored since. It is in       and is now adorned with giant
                                    Sanur’s oldest neighbourhood,           Balinese-style statues. After it
Farmers harvesting rice in Canggu   which is famous for the                 was built in 1964, the religious
with vacation homes nearby          spiritual power of its priests.         authorities issued a famous
                                                                            edict outlawing structures
   There are several distinctive    p Museum Le Mayeur                      taller than coconut palms.
“boutique hotels” (see p166).       Jalan Hang Tuah, via Grand Bali Beach   Such buildings were deemed
They include the Tugu (see          Hotel. § (0361) 286 164.                offensive due to the spiritual
p170), a self-styled “museum        # Sun – Fri. & 8                        value attributed to the trees.
hotel”, furnished with an-          Built in the 1930s by
tiques. The pieces range from       Adrien Jean Le Mayeur,
dragon doors made by Dayak          Belgian painter and one
headhunters in Borneo to            of Sanur’s first Euro-
colonial Art Deco furniture.        pean residents, on the
The villas are themed on            artist’s death in 1958 the
artists who lived in Bali, such     house became a
as Walter Spies and Adrien Le       museum and gallery,
Mayeur (see p50). It is worth       which has seen better
visiting the hotel just to eat in   days. Some of the
the Chinese restaurant, set         buildings are wooden,
inside an 18th-century,             with carved decorations.
wooden Chinese temple               The courtyard garden
moved here from North Bali.         features in Le Mayeur’s        View from the Grand Bali Beach Hotel
                                                S O U T H                                    B A L I                                                                      65

                                                                                                                                             V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                                                                                             Road Map C5. n Denpasar
                                                                                                                                             (0361) 756 175. c @ 4 to
                                                                                                                                             Nusa Penida & Nusa Lembongan.
                                                                                                                                             F traditional dance at some
                                                                                                                                             restaurants. 0 - = ®

                                                                                                                                       O The Bali Hyatt Hotel
                                                                                                                                       Jalan Danau Tamblingan. § (0361)
                                                                                                                                       281 234. ∑ www.bali.resort.hyatt.com
                                                                                                                                       Even non-residents should
                                                                                                                                       visit the Bali Hyatt (see p173)
                                                                                                                                       for a drink or a meal, if only
Sanur Beach, with fishing craft drawn up on the sand                                                                                   to enjoy the gardens. Here
                                                                                                                                       Australian landscape architect
L   Sanur Beach                           beach is a place to explore                                                                  Made Wijaya developed a
The beach runs virtually the              for marine life, such as sea                                                                 style of Balinese garden
full length of the town. Along            grass, starfish, sea cucumbers,                                                              design which has influenced
much of it is a paved walk,               hermit crabs, Fungia corals                                                                  designers worldwide.
although some parts of this               and sea urchins.
have been damaged by                                                                                                                         Pura Belanjong
storms or tides. Offshore,                    Pura Segara                                                                                  Jalan Danau Poso. # daily.
enormous breakers crash into              Jalan Segara Ayu, or from Sanur                                                                  & donation.
a reef. The calm waters                   Beach. # daily. & donation.                                                                      In this plain-looking temple
between the reef and the                  Set in the grounds of Segara                                                                     is an ancient stone column,
white sands are good for                  Village Hotel, but accessible                                                                    the Prasasti Blanjong. On it is
swimming except at low tide.              to the public, this is one of                                                                    carved the oldest edict so far
Beyond the reef the currents              the best of several beach                                                                        found in Bali (AD 914). The
are strong. Sanur offers sea-             temples built of coral. The                                                                      inscription is written in a form
related activities including              pyramid shape of the offering                                                                    of Sanskrit, although it is not
diving, fishing trips and an              houses is unique to Sanur,                                                                       all decipherable. It suggests
evening sail on a jukung, a               and suggests origins in                                                                          Sanur was a lively trading port
traditional outrigger. The                prehistoric times.                                                                               more than 1,000 years ago.

                                                                DENPASAR, UBUD & GIANYAR
    S ANUR T OWN        AND          B EACH                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                            1                               AH
    Bali Hyatt Hotel 6                        DENPA                           JALAN SA
                                                                                      NUR                                          G TU
                                                   SAR                                                          J A L A N HA N

    Grand Bali Beach Hotel           3

    Museum Le Mayeur 2

    Pura Belanjong 7

    Pura Desa 1                                                                                                                        3

    Pura Segara 5
                                                                       JALAN D
                                                                               ANAU BUYA
    Sanur Beach 4                                                                                                                                    (
                                                                                                                          JALAN SINDHU

    K EY
    @ Bemo terminal
                                                                                                                                              JALAN DA N A U TAMBLIN

    4 Ferry or boat service
                                                                                                                   N G U RAH

    ( Market




                                                                                                                                   JA LA

                                                                                                                                           D UY
                                                       JA L
                                                               AN                                                 JALAN
    0 metres          1,000                                                 DAN
                                                                                AU                      POS O                    KE
                                                      J A LA

                                                            N PE


    0 yards        1,000
                                                                   MBA K

                                                                           JAL A N M

66                    B A L I       A N D   L O M B O K               A R E A             B Y          A R E A

Kuta and Legian                         4

    HE BEACH at Kuta is long and sandy. However, the
T   dollar-a-night homestays which attracted young
backpackers and surfers in the 1970s have been
replaced by a resort strip which is now world-famous
(see Street-by-Street, pp68 –9). Besides the beach and
water sports, the principal attractions are shopping and
nightlife. Development has spread beyond the original
Kuta Beach, including Legian, and has now enveloped
Tuban in the south and Seminyak in the north.
Exploring Kuta and Legian               Kuta or Legian. A good rest-
As Bali’s main tourist hub,             stop is Made’s Warung (see
Kuta is a good base for                 p184), casual and cool, and                          Surfers at Kuta Beach, a location
relaxation and organizing               one of Kuta’s most famous                            suitable for all levels of ability
trips to other parts of Bali.           restaurants. Legian and Sem-
Off the beach, shopping is              inyak are now as built-up as                         L   Kuta Beach
perhaps the most tempting               Kuta proper. However, its                            The beach is flat and sandy,
activity; there are no major            labyrinth of back streets offers                     and stretches for over 3 km
cultural or historic sights in          low-priced accommodation.                            (2 miles), backed by some
                                                                                             sizeable hotels. Hawkers sell
                                                                                             their wares and refreshments
                                                                                             are available all day long.
                                                                                             Surfboards can be rented –
                                                                                             this is a good place for the
                                                                                             novice surfer, although one
                                                                                             should watch out for the rip
                                                                                             tides. Because of currents,
                                                                                             swimmers should stay between
                                                                                             the safety flags. Kuta Beach
                                                                                             becomes Legian Beach north
                                                                                             of Jalan Melasti. Legian
                                                                                             Beach’s famous nightspots are
                                                                                             Kama Sutra, Gado Gado and
Locals and visitors alike relaxing in the evening on Kuta Beach                              Club Double Six.

     K UTA      AND   L EGIAN
     Bali Bungy 2
     Bemo Corner 9                                   1
                                                     JALAN DOUBL
                                                                 E       SIX
     The Bounty 3
     The Bounty II 6
                                                       JALAN PURA
     Club Double Six 1                                          BAGUS
     Kama Sutra 4

     Kuta Beach 5
     Kuta Square 7

                                                              JALAN PADMA
     Made’s Warung 1 8
                                                                       JALAN ME

                                                                                 3 n

                                                                                                      JAL                TANJUNG
     0 metres           1,000                                                                             A   N    JAL
                                                             PAN I



                                                                     JALAN BENESA
                                                                                                                     JU N

     0 yards          1,000
                                                                                                                                         I M A M BO


                                                                               LANE II

                                                            5    POPPIES                 6

     K EY                                                            POPPI
                                                                                                                                   JA L

                                                                             ES LA
                                                                                  NE I
                                                                                                                                              @                     SANUR
     @ Bemo terminal                                                                     8 9             @                                                H
                                                                      JALAN PANTAI KUTA


     n Tourist information
                                                                                           n n


         Street-by-Street pp68 –9
                                                                                                                                JA L

                                                                                                                                 NUSA DUA
                                              S O U T H        B A L I                                       67

    =   Poppies Lanes I & II
    These two narrow lanes are
    lined with small shops, stalls,
    hotels and bars. One of the
    first hotels was Poppies,
    from which the lanes took
    their name. The network of
    alleys in this part of Kuta
    offers a refuge from the
    traffic, pollution and noise
    of the main streets.

    = Jalan Legian
    This is the commercial artery
    of Kuta, running parallel with
    the beach. At the southern
    end is Bemo Corner, a busy            Pool volleyball at the Waterbom Park & Spa, Tuban
    intersection. Jalan Legian is
    the place to find banks, travel       Seminyak 5                           Tuban 6
    agencies, car-rental outlets
    and the like. Pubs, bars and          Road Map C5. @ from Kuta. n          Road Map C5. @ from Kuta. n
            nightclubs proliferate –      Kuta, (0361) 756 176. 0 - = ®        Kuta, (0361) 756 176. 0 - = ®
              some, such as The
               Bounty and The                                    north of          T IS HARD to know where
               Bounty II, are
                landmarks in
                                          S  EMINYAK EXTENDS
                                               Kuta and Legian. The
                                          further northward one goes,
                                                                               I    Kuta ends and Tuban
                                                                                begins. However, the streets
                 themselves. Thrill-      the more peaceful the atmo-           of Tuban are laid out on a
                  seekers will find       sphere becomes, although              slightly larger scale, and the
                  Bali Bungy (see         Seminyak is now an important effect is a sense of greater
                  p207) close by.         tourist centre. Some good             order than in Kuta. By the
                  Near Jalan Melasti,     fashion boutiques                     beach is a series of large
                  the memorial to         can be found here,                                 luxury hotels with
                   the 202 victims        selling inexpensive                                spacious gardens.
                   of the Kuta bomb       but stylish clothes                                Shopping in Tuban
                    blast of October      made in the region.                                 has an inter-
Bima monument 2002 is located.               The luxurious                                    national feel. Some
on Jalan Bypass                           Oberoi Hotel (see                                   people may find it
                  E NVIRONS : On          p173) has very                                      a welcome respite
    the outskirts of Kuta, on Jalan       attractive gardens                                  from the bustle
    Bypass Ngurah Rai at Simpang          overlooking the                                     that often accom-
    Siur roundabout, is an ornate         beach. Further                                     panies shopping in
    modern statue of Bima, hero           north still, deve-                                 Bali. The northern
    of the Hindu Mahabharata              lopment on the                                    limit of Tuban is the
    epic. It is one of several            palm-lined beach                                 Matahari department
    public monuments recently             has been less                                    store, selling a huge
    erected by the authorities for        aggressive,               Colourful scarf for    range of practical
    the benefit of visitors.              although this is           sale in Seminyak      items, T-shirts and
                                          likely to change                                 handicraft goods.
                                          with time.                               Near the Matahari store it is
                                                                                possible to take a ride on a
                                          E NVIRONS : A short walk up           dokar, one of the colourful
                                          the beach north of Seminyak           carts pulled by small, hardy
                                          is the Pura Peti Tenget               horses originally brought in
                                          (“magic chest”) temple, raised from Sumba Island.
                                          some 8 m (26 ft) above road              A very popular attraction
                                          level. Founded by the 16th-           for visitors in search of
                                          century priest, Dang Hyang            entertainment is the
                                          Nirartha (see pp46 –7), it is         Waterbom Park and Spa (see
                                          considered one of Bali’s most p201) which has an array of
                                          mystically charged temples.           slides and pools. It is also a
                                             The area from Seminyak to          good place to relax and eat.
                                          Kerobokan, 5 km (3 miles) to             Tuban is one of the
                                          its north, is a furniture-            departure points for surfers
                                          making centre (see p194).             making their way to the break
                                          Galleries line the main road.         at Kuta Reef, off Jimbaran
                                                                                (see p74). Fishermen with
    Shop in Jalan Legian, selling craft     Pura Peti Tengat                    motorized outriggers can be
    goods from Bali and elsewhere         Jalan Kayu Aya. # daily. & donation. chartered for the trip.
68              B A L I   A N D      L O M B O K        A R E A        B Y      A R E A

Street-by-Street: Kuta
                                 most developed visitor
               K   UTA IS THE
                      destination in Bali. Thirty years
                 ago the beach was set against coconut
                 groves and banana plantations. It is still
                a great attraction today; however, a few
                steps away, there are now streets lined
                with businesses catering for visitors –
  Kite for sale bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs and
 on the beach department stores. Packed along the
                narrow lanes are shops and stalls                   Signboards on Jalan Legian (see p67)
selling many kinds of product likely to appeal to                   advertising pubs and cafés
travellers from around the world, as well as losmen
offering budget accommodation (see p166).                                                            J A L
Commercialized Kuta may be, but it is a vibrant                                                            A N
place, and caters for all budgets.

                                                                     I I

. Poppies Lane II

Along this narrow alley are shops,
                                                        I E

stalls, restaurants and reasonably

priced accommodation.

                                                                                                               I E

                                        To Legia
                                                        J A L
                                                              A N
                                                                           P A N T
                                                                                   A I    K U T A

                                  . Kuta Beach
                                  The sandy beach, which
                                  stretches northwards
                                  towards Seminyak and
                                  beyond, is a place to surf,
                                  swim, and relax in the sun.

                                            . Poppies Lane I
 . Poppies Lanes I & II                   Named after Poppies
                                     Restaurant, one of Kuta’s
 . Kuta Beach
                                        oldest eating establish-
 . Kuta Square                            ments, this is a good
                                       area for casual dining.
                                                     S O U T H        B A L I                                             69

                                                                                              V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                                              Road Map C5. c @ n Jalan
                                                                                              Bunesari 36B, ` (0361) 756
                                                                                              175, $ dipardabadung@go.id
                                                                                              ∑ www.badung.go.id; Jalan
                                                                                              Pantai Kuta 2, (0361) 756 176.

     Bemo Corner
     Busy shopping streets radiate from this intersection, which
     is Kuta’s central hub.
                                       To Jalan Bypass         Made’s Warung
L E G                                  Ngurah Rai,             (see p184) is one
      I A N                            Denpasar, Sanur         of Kuta’s first
                                       and Nusa Dua            and most famous
                                             T A

                                                                              N G

                                                                                         . Kuta Square
                                         K U

                                                                          W A

                                                                                         This is a major shopping
                                                                                         complex housing hundreds of
                                         A I


                                                                                         small retailers, the large
                                                                        G A

                                     N T

                                                                                         Matahari emporium and

                                                                    T E
                                 P A

                                                                                         Kuta Galleria (see p195).


                               L A

                                                                                         K EY
                                                                      L A
                                                                         J A
                           J A

                                                                                                       Suggested route

                       J A L
                             A N                                                      To
                                               K A R
                                                     T I K                            Tuban
                                                           A     P L A
                                                                       Z A
                                                                                                 0 metres       100

                                                                                                 0 yards       100

      Hard Rock Café
             and Hotel                                                                    Kuta Art Market
          This, the only                                                                  Here it is possible to buy
       Hard Rock hotel                                                                    basketware and other craft
        in Asia, has the                                                                  goods made in Bali and the
     largest swimming-                                                                    nearby islands of the
           pool in Bali.                                                                  Indonesian Archipelago.
72                   B A L I       A N D   L O M B O K        A R E A     B Y     A R E A

                                           sometimes used, because          Tanjung Benoa                 9
                                           of the sea turtles that used
                                           to lay their eggs here. The        Road Map C5. c @ from Nusa
                                           island has been greatly            Dua. n Badung, (0361) 756 175.
                                           extended by reclamation            0-=®
                                           during construction works
                                           for a hotel. A bridge now               ANJUNG (meaning “Cape”)
                                           links it to mainland Bali.
                                           Local people maintain an
                                                                            T      Benoa is a long, narrow,
                                                                              sandy spit, with a small
                                           unofficial guard post, and         fishing village built on it. The
                                           charge visitors a small fee        cape is separated from Benoa
                                           for access to the island.          Harbour by a narrow stretch
                                           Besides the Balinese, there of water. The village was
                                           is an old Bugis community once a trading port, and some
                                           (see p135); their ancestors        Chinese and Bugis as well as
                                           migrated from South                Balinese still live here. There
                                           Sulawesi, in the 1600s.            are some Balinese temples
                                              Here also is one of the         built of carved limestone, as
                                           six most sacred temples in         well as a mosque. At an
                                           Bali, Pura Sakenan, said           ancient Chinese temple built
Cruise vessels in Benoa Harbour            by some to have been               by sailors and traders,
                                           founded by the 16th-                  fishermen of all religions
Benoa Harbour 7                        century reformist priest                     consult with the fortune-
                                       Dang Hyang Nirartha                            teller in the hope of
Road Map C5. c @ from                  (see pp46 –7).                                    finding a good catch.
Denpasar (shuttle bus services         Others believe                                         There is now a
available to Benoa from hotels).       the temple was                                        modern road
4 to Lembar on Lombok. -               founded in the                                       leading to the tip
                                       11th century by the                                of the peninsula
                    will appeal        Javanese Buddhist                                from Nusa Dua.
     to boat-lovers. Among the
commercial and privately
                                       priest Mpu Kuturan.
                                       Within the inner
                                                                                       Hotels, spas and
                                                                Wall motif in a mosque restaurants
owned vessels, there is often          courtyard is a             in Tanjung Benoa         specializing in
an interesting variety of              stepped pyramid                                     grilled seafood
traditional craft from the             built of white coral,                  have grown up along both
Indonesian Archipelago.                reminiscent of temples in              sides of the road. One quirky
These include pinisi, broad-           Polynesia. During Manis                landmark is the stone pine-
beamed sailing cargo boats             Kuningan (see p43), a vibrant          apple motif marking the
from South Sulawesi; and               festival takes place here              entrance to the Novotel.
brightly coloured fishing              marking the temple’s                      Despite development,
boats from Madura, off north-          anniversary.                           Tanjung Benoa still attracts
east Java. There is a multitude          The island is a good                 those in search of a relaxing
of boat-charters and tours on          vantage point from which to            beach off the beaten track.
offer. Day trips to Nusa               watch vessels returning to             There are facilities for water
Lembongan (see p74) are                Benoa Harbour at the end of            sports, such as water-skiing,
recommended. A yacht or                the day. There are views of            banana-boat rides, fishing and
traditional Bugis ship can be          the islands and great sunsets.         paragliding. Cruise operators
hired for a day-trip; longer                                                  offer trips out to sea for
trips go as far as Komodo and            Pura Sakenan                         snorkelling in waters rich in
the Lesser Sunda Islands.              Pulau Serangan. # daily. & donation. corals and tropical fish.
   Nearby, on the Jalan Bypass         _ Manis Kuningan.
Ngurah Rai, is the Mangrove
Information Centre (0361 728
966), which aims to preserve
the 15 species of coastal
mangrove in its natural forest.

Pulau Serangan 8
Road Map C5. &

T  separated from the
southern curve of Sanur
beach by a mangrove area
known as Suwungwas. The
name “Turtle Island” is                             An ancient Chinese temple on Tanjung Benoa
   The kecak dance, in which a chorus of men chant an accompaniment as the Ramayana story is enacted
                                         S O U T H      B A L I                                          73

The world-renowned Bali Golf and Country Club, and beyond it the resorts of Nusa Dua and the sea

Nusa Dua 0                          Hilton Hotel, with thousands        safaris through the arid hills
                                    of brightly-coloured koi (a         are offered at the Nikko Hotel.
Road Map C5. c @ n Denpasar
                                    type of carp first bred in Japan)   One beach near the Nikko is
(0361) 223 602. 0 - = I ®
                                    swimming among water lilies.        a favourite haunt of surfers.
                                      The Bali Golf and Country           Beautiful beaches line the
                  (literally “Two   Club (see p204) has a cham-         southern coast. Most require a
     Islands”) area is named
after the two peninsulas along
                                    pionship course over three
                                    types of terrain (highland,
                                                                        hike or climb; many are
                                                                        popular surfing spots, but
its coast. It consists primarily    coconut grove and coastal).         they can be dangerous for
of luxury resorts run by major      Other facilities at Nusa Dua        beginners, with big waves
hotel chains. The beaches are       include the Bali International      and strong currents.
sandy and clean. The                Convention Centre and the             West of Nusa Dua, on the
entrance road is lined with         Galleria complex. The latter        road to Uluwatu, is the GWK
                                    has shops, restaurants,             (Garuda Wisnu Kencana, or
                                    galleries, a supermarket and a      “Golden Garuda Vishnu”)
                                    performance theatre. There          cultural centre. The main
                                    are regular dance and other         feature will be a statue of the
                                    cultural activities here.           mythological bird Garuda and
                                                                        the Hindu god Vishnu. This
                                    E NVIRONS : Bualu is a bustling     will be taller than New York’s
                                    village outside the gates of        Statue of Liberty. Its impact
                                    the Nusa Dua complex.               on the landcape has been
                                    Several streets are lined with      controversial and plans for
                                    restaurants offering fresh fish     completion are unclear.
                                    and shops selling handicrafts.      Exhibitions and performances
                                      Between the Sheraton and          can already be seen here.
                                    Grand Hyatt hotels a head-
Split gate at the entrance garden   land with native flora and          F GWK
of the Nusa Dua Beach Hotel         several Balinese shrines juts       Jalan Raya Uluwatu, Bukit Ungasan,
                                    out into the sea. The views         Jimbaran. § (0361) 703 603. # daily.
rows of statues; it leads           are good from here. Camel           & - = ∑ www.gwk-bali.com
through a large candi bentar
(split gate), on each side of
which carvings of frogs serve
as guardian figures.
  Inside, there is an air of
gentility and order. The hotels
are built on a big scale. Their
grandiose entrances have
been described as “Bali
Baroque” or “expanded
traditional” in style – they are
of interest to architecture
enthusiasts. Young visitors
will love the fish ponds of the     The Amanusa, a boutique hotel overlooking the golf course at Nusa Dua
74                B A L I    A N D      L O M B O K         A R E A      B Y    A R E A

                                                                          Nusa Lembongan e
                                                                          Road Map E4. 4 from Sanur,
                                                                          Kusamba & Padang Bai.
                                                                          n Klungkung, (0366) 21 448.

                                                                              HIS SMALL ISLAND has pristine
                                                                          T   beaches for sunlovers and
                                                                          good coral reefs for divers
                                                                          and snorkellers. Bird-lovers
                                                                          will find a variety of species.
                                                                             Day trips to the island have
                                                                          been available since the early
Access to Jimbaran beach where the freshly cooked seafood is delicious    1990s. In operation now are
                                                                          several jet catamarans, the
Jimbaran q                          and sterns can be seen all day
                                    long bobbing at anchor in the
                                                                          best-known of them being
                                                                          the Bali Hai (see p207); as a
Road Map C5. n Kuta, (0361) 756     surf off the coast. As the sun        consequence the island is
175. 0 = ® ∑ www.badung.go.id       begins to set, the fishing craft      visited by larger groups than
                                    set off into the dusk with            hitherto. Trips to the island
            is a large village      lamps burning – it is an              are also offered by some local
   consisting of many family
compounds laid out on
                                    unforgettable sight.                  boat owners. The boats
                                                                          include pinisi, a type of
traditional Balinese lines (see                                           Indonesian sailing vessel
pp28 –9). There are no                                                    originating in the island of
individual buildings of great                                             Sulawesi to the northeast.
interest to visit, but Jimbaran                                              Most boat-operators rent
is a good place for those who                                             water-sport equipment, and
like to see scenes of local                                               snorkelling and diving gear.
everyday life. Several of Bali’s                                             On the island is an exten-
most luxurious resorts have                                               sive underground house,
been built nearby. The most                                               known as the “Cavehouse”.
famous is the Four Seasons                                                It was dug by a Balinese
Resort (see p170).                                                        priest after he was instructed
   There is a very attractive                                             in dreams to live in the belly
beach, from which the                                                     of Mother Earth. He has
sunsets and the views are                                                 passed away but the cave
spectacular. On a clear day                                               remains a popular curiosity.
the profiles of all Bali’s          Surfing at Kuta Reef, off the west       For those who like pristine
volcanoes and hills are visible     coast of South Bali                   islands with no cars, Nusa
from here, including the three                                            Lembongan is a good place
peaks of Gunung Batukau to          E NVIRONS : Kuta Reef is one          to stay a night or two. There
the west (see p133), and            of Bali’s famous surfing              are some good homestays for
Gunung Batur (see p120 –21),        points. The reef break which          budget travellers. After the
Gunung Agung (see p114),            lies off the coast of Tuban is        daytrippers go, silence reigns;
Gunung Abang (see p121)             one of the surfing spots in the       only some overnighters and
and Gunung Seraya (see              sea around the Ngurah Rai             the locals remain.
p103) to the east. On the           International Airport. It can
beach itself, it is possible to     be reached by paddling for
rent sailing-boats and take         some time, or chartering an
part in other water activities.     outrigger at Tuban (see p69)
   Jimbaran is a good place to      or at Jimbaran.
eat. The beach is lined with           The Bukit Peninsula is the
thatch-roofed eating places,        southernmost part of Bali,
where customers choose their        making up most of the area
fresh seafood which is then         south of Jimbaran. Much of
grilled over coconut husks          the coast is a series of
and delivered to the table.         inhospitable limestone cliffs.
   There is a large fishing         The Bukit is an arid place, but
settlement here, consisting of      still attractive to those in
simple huts built near the          search of some solitude.
waterfront. Many of the
fishermen are not of Balinese
origin, but migrants from the       Pura Luhur
islands of Java and Madura.         Uluwatu w
The brightly painted boats                                                Ideal conditions for snorkelling
with their impressive bows          See pp76 –7.                          off Nusa Lembongan
                                           S O U T H      B A L I                                         75

                                                                            of shellfish. The main gate is
                                                                            especially imposing.
          q q                                                                  A short distance south of
             S      q           q                                           Suana there is a sacred
        4              Pura Ped
              • 4          •
                                   •                                        limestone cave, Goa
   Cavehouse   q Toyapakeh                                                  Karangsari.
                                                                               In general there are few
  NUSA           q
                                                                            facilities of any kind on Nusa
  CENINGAN     q
                                            Goa Karangsari   •
                                                                            Penida. Visitors must take
                                                                            even basic supplies with
                                                         Suana   •  q        them. Simple homestays are
                      Batumadeg        •           Pura Batu Kuring  •
                                                                                the only accommodation.
                                                              Semaya     •
                                                                                 The roads are not good.
                                                                                  The best way to get about
                                                                                  is by motorcycle or on
                          q        NUSA PENIDA                                    foot. It is also possible to
                                                                           q rent a car with a driver or
                                                                                 take a bemo.
K EY                                q                                               The waters off the coast
4 Ferry service                                                             of Nusa Penida are crystal-
                                                                            clear, although the currents
S Surfing                             0 kilometres                  10      are often strong. Here
q Diving or snorkelling                                                     experienced divers will be
                                      0 miles                      6
                                                                            able to see to see many large
                                                                            and rare species of under-
                                                                            water life. There are fine coral
                                     Some cotton is grown here.             formations, especially off the
                                     From it is woven the cepuk, a south coast, where the sea is
                                     form of ikat textile (see p37)         also famous for its rare but
                                     thought to have magical,               spectacular concentrations of
                                     protective powers. Other local giant sunfish (see pp210 –11);
                                     occupations include                           in December and January
                                     seaweed farming.                                 they float in the water
                                        There are several                             like large hot-air
                                     interesting temples                             balloons. Sailfish and
                                     here. One is the Pura                           the whale shark can
                                     Ped, in the village of                          occasionally be seen.
                                     Toyapakeh. The                                 Off the northern half of
                                     temple is built on an                         the island the waters,
The coastal temple Pura Batu         island in a large lotus                       while also clear, are
Kuning, on Nusa Penida               pond. Among the                                 shallower and calmer,
                                     carvings in Pura                                 especially in the strait
Nusa Penida           r              Batu Kuning, near                                between Nusa Penida
                                     Semaya, are some           Stone sculpture and Nusa Lembongan.
Road Map E5 & F5. 4 from Sanur,      explicitly erotic             at Pura Ped        Most people who dive
Kusamba & Padang Bai.                reliefs. The pura                                off these islands make
n Klungkung, (0366) 21 448.          desa, or village temple, of the their arrangements with
0=®                                  inland village of Batumadeg            operators in Sanur.
                                     also has some interesting                 For those who want to
    HIS QUIET, UNDEVELOPED           decorative reliefs. They show          explore Nusa Lembongan
T   island, once the penal
colony of the Raja of Klung-
                                     a number of sea creatures,
                                     including crabs and a variety
                                                                            there is a ferry which runs
                                                                            from Toyapakeh.
kung, appeals mainly to
hardy adventurers. Here,
Balinese language and art
have been less subject to
change than on the mainland.
The island is the legendary
home of Ratu Gede Mecaling,
the Balinese “King of Magical
Powers”. It is somewhat
feared by many Balinese.
  In general the landscape is
dry, even arid, resembling the
limestone hills of the Bukit
Peninsula. Towards the south
coast, with its tall white cliffs,
there are a few lusher hills.        Diving off the coast of Nusa Penida
76             B A L I      A N D   L O M B O K     A R E A    B Y    A R E A

Pura Luhur Uluwatu                     w

            URA LUHUR ULUWATU is not only one of Bali’s
       P    most sacred places of worship but also one
         of the most beautiful examples of classical
         Balinese architecture. It is connected in legend
           to two figures important in the history of
              Balinese religion, Mpu Kuturan, thought to
               have built it in the 11th century, and the
Local monkeys reformer priest Dang Hyang Nirartha
              (later deified as Betara Sakti Wawu Rauh)
(see pp46 –7), who rebuilt it some 500 years later. Until
the beginning of the 20th century only the
princes of Denpasar were allowed to
worship here. It is best to visit                                    . Three-tiered Meru
during the late afternoon when                                       The pagoda is dedicated
the sea breezes rise, and then                                       to Nirartha who achieved
enjoy the sunset.                                                    enlightenment here.
                                                                             This courtyard
                                                                             is reserved for

View of the Temple
From several points the
temple can be seen in its
full glory as the surf
crashes onto the rocks
below. It is sometimes
possible to see turtles
and dolphins in the sea.

 . Three-tiered Meru

 . Main Gate
 . Candi Bentar                 These stepped paths along the cliff rise
                                200 m (600 ft) above the sea.
                                     S O U T H      B A L I                                        77

                                                                     V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                     End of Jalan Uluwatu. Road
                                                                     Map B5. c @ # 8am –7pm
                                                                     daily. ¢ for festivals. &
                                                                     F Kecak dance: 6pm daily.
                                                                     _ temple anniversary (based on
                                                                     Balinese calendar).

                                                                  Guardian Statues
                                                                  These Ganesha, elephant-
                                                                  headed guardian statues,
                                                                  wearing a belt with a
. Main Gate                                                       clasp in the form of a
The unusual arched doorway has the                                cyclops, are masterpieces
shape of Meru, the Cosmic Mountain of                             of Balinese sculpture.
Hinduism. Surmounting it are three
finials and a kala head – this is a fanged
demon with bulging eyes, thought to
ward off evil spirits.

                             The jero tengah, or
                             central courtyard,
                             offers spectacular
                             views of the sunset.

                                                                                . Candi Bentar
                                                               At the top of the stairs leading to
                                                                    the temple is a candi bentar
                                                                     (split gate) decorated with
                                                                              elaborate carvings.

                                                                                     The astasari
                                                                                     is a shrine for


                                                                           This shrine is dedi-
                                                                           cated to Dang Hyang
                                                                           Nirartha, with images of
                                                                           Brahma and Vishnu.

                                                              The bale tajuk are shrines for the
                                                              spiritual guardians of Nirartha.
                B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K         A R E A     B Y     A R E A       79

                             CENTRAL BALI

           ALI ’ S BROAD SOUTHERN SLOPES , with their terraced ricefields and
        hundreds of villages, were the cradle of traditional Balinese
        society. This area coincides with the regency (and former
kingdom) of Gianyar, made up of many puri (noble houses) whose
former glory lives on in the courtly arts of sculpture, painting, gold-
and silversmithing, music, dance and theatrical performance.
Gianyar is bounded                                                       in Sukawati and
on its western side                                                     Gianyar. Satellite puri
by the tumultuous                                                      competed in architec-
Ayung River and to the east                                           tural and ritual display.
by the Melangit River. A                                               Inter-kingdom warfare
number of other rivers slice through                  at the end of the 19th century gave
the intervening landscape. Between                    Ubud much of Gianyar’s land. Po-
the Petanu and Pakrisan Rivers are the                litically, Puri Gianyar remained on top,
remains of one of Bali’s oldest civi-                 partly because of its early incorpora-
lizations. Here is the village of Ubud,               tion into the Dutch colonial regime.
a cultural centre and former kingdom,                    Ubud became internationally famous
which attracts many visitors today.                   as a gateway into Bali’s cultural heart-
  From the 9th to the 11th century, Bali              land, when several Western artists and
was ruled by Hindu-Buddhist king-                     intellectuals settled here in the 1930s.
doms centred near present-day Pejeng                  Today, many farmers are turning to
and Bedulu, a short distance from                     tourism and handicrafts for economic
Ubud. After the Majapahit conquest                    reasons. Local cultural traditions are
in the 14th century, power shifted to                 being preserved as a consequence.
Klungkung but it returned here in the                    The climate of Central Bali cools
18th century. At that time branches of                noticeably as one ascends from the
the Klungkung dynasty grew into rival                 coastal region into the foothills, and
kingdoms, two of which were based                     can be chilly north of Tegallalang.

View across the Ayung River valley from the Chedi hillside resort, near Ubud

 Densely carved temple gate of the Pura Desa (village temple) in Peliatan
80                 B A L I     A N D        L O M B O K    A R E A     B Y    A R E A

     Exploring Central Bali                                                     Kintamani            Batur

         ENTRAL BALI, RICH IN HISTORY,is famous for
     C   craft production and the performing arts.
     Ubud is an important artistic centre, and a                                  TARO p
     good base for exploring the area. Many
     other villages and monuments of historic
     and cultural interest are located on the
     roads running between the coastal plain                                            PUJUNG •     o
     and the slopes of Gunung Batur. The river                                                     SEBATU
     gorges, separated by ridges and rice
     terraces, provide beautiful landscapes,
     and exciting white-water rafting. Near
     Singapadu are the attractively laid-out
     Bali Bird Park and Bali Reptile Park.                                                  TAMPAKSIRING •

                                                         PAYANGAN •

                                                                                            i TEGALLALANG

                                                    AYUNG RIVER
                                                         GORGE t

                                                          SANGGINGAN r

                                                            SAYAN •

                                                               J      UBUD w                       y PEJENG

                                                                                    e PELIATAN
                                                                                GOA GAJAH q        0 BEDULU

                                                                                                   KUTRI •
                                                                                 MAS 9
     Pura Pengastulan, a temple in Bedulu

     G ETTING A ROUND                                                                       BLAHBATUH 7
     The main route through Central Bali leads
     through several arts and crafts villages:                           SINGAPADU
     Batubulan, Celuk, Sukawati, Batuan, Mas and           BALI REPTILE
                                                                  PARK 3 •
     Ubud. A parallel, more westerly road runs
     through Singapadu. These roads can be travelled                     2 BALI          6 BATUAN
     by bemo. Taxis are not as frequent as in South                           BIRD
     Bali. North of Ubud three parallel roads climb,                          PARK           5 SUKAWATI
     via the villages of Payangan, Tegallalang and
     Tampaksiring towards Gunung Batur and                                        CELUK
     Kintamani. Bicycles and motorcycles are not                                  4
     pleasant ways of travelling on main roads south         BATUBULAN 1
     of Ubud, because of the density of traffic,
     although they are more satisfactory further north
     and on back roads. Public buses between
     Denpasar and Singaraja ply the main north-south
     route; however, tourist shuttle buses run
     frequently between South Bali’s resorts and
     Ubud, and are much more comfortable.
                                                                      C E N T R A L    B A L I                                81

                 Gunung Batur



                                                   Tilem gallery selling woodcarvings in the village of Mas

                                                            S IGHTS AT A G LANCE
                                                            Ayung River Gorge t              Mas 9
                                                            Bali Bird Park pp84 –5 2         Pejeng y
                                                            Bali Reptile Park 3              Peliatan e
                                                            Batuan 6                         Petulu u
                                     Bangli                 Batubulan 1                      Pura Tirta Empul s
                                                            Bedulu 0                         Sanggingan r
                                                            Blahbatuh 7                      Sebatu o
                                                            Celuk 4                          Sukawati 5
                                                            Gianyar 8                        Taro p
                                                            Goa Gajah q                      Tegallalang i
                                                            Gunung Kawi Royal                Ubud pp88 –95 w
                                                             Monuments a

                                                                                                 S EE A LSO
                                     •   SIDAN                                                   • Where to Stay pp174–6

                                                                                                 • Where to Eat pp187–9

•    BONA

                                                            0 kilometres       3

                                                            0 miles                2
                             T                   K EY
                     G                              Major road
             U                                      Minor road
     A                                              River
                                                 J Viewpoint
                                                                                         Coconuts being collected near Ubud
82                B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K         A R E A       B Y   A R E A

Keris trance, one of the energetic ritual dance performances which can be seen in Batubulan

Batubulan 1                          in response to the desire of         collection. They include
                                     visitors to take photographs.        Komodo dragons, four
Road Map C4. c @ n Denpasar,
                                     However, this exorcistic drama       species of crocodiles, and
(0361) 223 602. - =
                                     still has ritual significance.       what is claimed to be the
                                                                          largest known python in
   LTHOUGH DENPASAR’S     urban        Pura Puseh                         captivity. Many venomous
A    sprawl is enveloping
Batubulan and the main road
                                     Main Road, Batubulan. # daily.
                                     & donation.
                                                                          snakes from around the world
                                                                          are well displayed in glass
is now lined with shops sell-        F Denjalan                           cages. Among them are a
ing “antique” furniture, this        § (0361) 298 038 or (0361) 298       king cobra, a Malayan pit
large village is still a centre of   282. Performances: 9:30am daily. &   viper and a death adder.
traditional stone carving.
Craftsmen can be seen in
countless workshops sculpt-          Bali Bird Park 2                      Celuk 4
ing mythological and religious
figures or highly imaginative        See pp84 –5.                          Road Map D4. c @ n Gianyar,
modern forms, apparently                                                   (0361) 943 401. - =
oblivious to the heavy traffic
passing by on the main road.         Bali Reptile Park 3                          HE VILLAGE OF CELUK is
   The village temple, Pura
Puseh, is a good example of          Jalan Serma Cok Ngurah Gambir,
                                                                           T      devoted almost entirely to
                                                                              gold- and silversmithing.
the use of paras, Bali’s             Singapadu. Next to Bali Bird Park.       Much of the jewellery sold in
ubiquitous grey stone, which         Road Map D4. § (0361) 299 344.           Bali originates here. The
is in fact volcanic tuff,            # daily. ¢ Nyepi. & - = m                workers belong to the caste
quarried from river gorges.                                                   clan of Pande Mas, tradition-
Paras is used both for                   VISIT TO THE Bali Reptile            ally practitioners of various
sculpture and as a building
material. Its soft texture
                                     A    Park (Rimba Reptil) is
                                     easily combined with a visit
                                                                              metal crafts. Grand jewellery
                                                                              shops line the main road;
makes it very easy to carve.         to the Bali Bird Park nearby.            smaller ones selling cheaper
   Batubulan is also home to         The two are conceived                          goods occupy the
several venerable Barong and         in a similar style.                              narrow side streets.
Keris dance theatre troupes.         Although somewhat                                 Several studios
During alternate weeks the           smaller in area than                              produce traditional
Pura Puseh is the pleasant           the Bird Park, the                               and modern designs
venue of a daily Barong and          Reptile Park is also set                       of ornamental jewellery
Keris dance performance by           in lush, botanically                            as well as keris daggers
the celebrated Denjalan              interesting gardens. The                         and religious items.
troupe; in intervening weeks         landscaping concept is Silver earrings Jewellery can be made
the location is Batubulan’s          that of an ancient                 from Celuk    to order. Buyers
bale banjar, or community            archaeological site,                             should be aware that
pavilion. A few other troupes        excavated and restored to its            at the larger outlets, prices
perform at around the same           former glory. All the sig-               may include a commission
time. Daytime performances           nificant reptile species of              (often 40–60 per cent) passed
were developed in the 1930s,         Indonesia can be seen in the             on to tour guides.
                                      C E N T R A L       B A L I                                        83

Sukawati 5                          village. The Batuan                       road is the large workshop
                                    school of painting                           and showroom of the
Road Map D4. c @ n Gianyar,         is known for its                               Sidha Karya Gong
(0361) 943 401. - =                 dense graphics,                                  Foundry, established
                                    dramatically                                       by the renowned
              worth visiting        restricted                                           gongsmith
    primarily as a handicrafts
centre. Opposite the farmers’
                                    colour palette
                                    and astute
                                                                                         I Made
                                                                                         Gabeleran. A full
market on the east side of the      observation of                                       array of trad-
main road through the town          human life                                           itional musical
is the Pasar Seni (“Art             (see pp34 –5).                                       instruments and
Market”). It is housed in a            The Pura                                           dance costumes
complex of two-storey build-        Puseh, the          Giant baby statue near Blahbatuh is on sale here.
ings packed with stalls selling     magnificent                                             At Kutri, 3
craft goods. Behind it is a         village temple, welcomes               km (2 miles) north of Blah-
market selling woodcarvings,        visitors. Extensively renovated batuh, is a hill at the base of
open until 10am daily.              in 1992, its opulent shrines           which is the temple complex
   To the people of Bali,           and carvings are proof that            Pura Bukit Dharma Kutri.
Sukawati is important as the        Bali’s traditional building arts       On the hilltop, from which
ancestral seat of many of the       are thriving. Gambuh                   there are good views, is a
region’s puri (noble houses),       performances are held at the           shrine that houses a partly
and as a centre of the sacred       temple on the 1st and 15th of effaced, but still fine, relief
shadow puppet theatre,              each month, a rare oppor-              carving of the goddess Durga
wayang kulit (see p31). In the      tunity to see this ancient court killing a bull. It is thought to
early 1700s an off-shoot of         dance. Among the dance                 be a portrait statue of an
the royal house of Klungkung        troupes of Batuan are prac-            11th-century Balinese queen.
was established here. The           titioners also of topeng and             Kemenuh, 1.5 km (1 mile)
palace, on the northeast            wayang wong (see p31).                 west of Blahbatuh, is a
corner of the main inter-           These are, like gambuh, per-           woodcarving centre. Also
section, is now much                formed to traditional music            here is Sua Bali, a modest
reduced; and the temples,           during temple festivals.               eco-friendly resort, where
further north on the main                                                  courses are offered in local
road and nestling in side              Pura Puseh                          languages, crafts and cuisine,
streets to the east, are not        # daily. & donation. F Gambuh          as well as cultural study
generally open to visitors.         dance: 7 –9pm, 1st & 15th monthly.     programmes.

                                                                          Vihara Amurva Bhumi
                                    Blahbatuh 7                          Blahbatuh
                                                                         Blahbatuh. # daily. m
                                    Road Map D4. c @ n Gianyar,          p Sidha Karya
                                    (0361) 943 401. 0 - =                Jalan Raya Getas-Buruan, Blahbatuh.
                                                                         § (0361) 942 798.
                                                             by a          Pura Bukit Dharma Kutri
                                    T  HIS VILLAGE IS MARKED
                                        huge stone statue of a
                                    baby, erected in the early
                                                                         Kutri. # daily. m
                                                                         p Sua Bali
                                    1990s, said by some to be the        Kemenuh. § (0361) 941 050.
                                    village giant Kebo Iwo as an         $ suabali@indosat.net.id
                                    infant. Others whisper
                                    that the women of a
                                    nearby village urged their
Stone sculptures of mythological    husbands to build the
figures in a shop at Sukawati       statue to placate a demon
                                    who was claiming the
                                    lives of children.
Batuan 6                               Vihara Amurva Bhumi
                                    Blahbatuh, a large
Road Map D4. c @ n Gianyar,         Chinese temple (klenteng)
(0366) 93 401. 0 - =                with Buddhist and Hindu
                                    elements which under-
                   Batuan goes      went grand expansion in
     back almost 1,000 years.
The population contains more
                                    1999, is a little-known
                                    centre of worship for
nobility than commoners; and        Chinese Buddhists from
it is celebrated for its artistic   throughout South Bali.
excellence in the fields of not
only dance but also painting        E NVIRONS : On the main
and architecture. Painters’         north-south road between
studios are prominent in the        Blahbatuh and the Bedulu        Pura Bukit Dharma Kutri, a temple
84              B A L I   A N D     L O M B O K      A R E A       B Y     A R E A

Bali Bird Park             2

                                       until 1995 an
                B UILT ON WHAT WAS
                     expanse of ricefields, Bali Bird Park,
             or Taman Burung, is a place where visitors
              can see a profusion of exotic wildlife at close
                 quarters. There are more than 1,500 birds
  Edward’s fig   here, many of them in big, walk-in
    parrot       aviaries. There are 250 species not only
from Bali and Lombok, but also from the rest of
Indonesia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. Many of
the birds are rare and endangered, and some of these
are bred here. Among the inhabitants is Bali’s only
endemic bird, the Bali starling (see p137). Besides the            . Birds of Paradise
birds, there are more than 300 exotic trees and plants             The lesser bird of paradise,
on display in a beautifully landscaped setting.                    from New Guinea, has been
                                                                   hunted close to extinction.
Irian Jaya
Forest Aviary                                     m         -

. Rainforest Habitat                              The Asian
This huge, walk-in aviary has a                   pied hornbill
raised walkway. The birds here                    has a very               Australian Pelican
include many birds of paradise,                  distinct, loud,           This large waterbird
the toco toucan, and sun conures                 raucous call.             sometimes wanders
from South America.                                                        as far as Indonesia.

                I NDONESIAN O WLS
                 These nocturnal birds can rarely be seen
                  in the wild and the buffy fish owl and the
                   barred or Sumatran eagle owl are
                    therefore a highlight of the Bali Bird
                      Park. They are both large and feed on
                       rodents. In all there are 38 recognised
                       species of Indonesian owl – many of
                        them found only on small islands.                Crowned Pigeon
                        Their secretive nature and, in some              This aviary has one of the
                         cases, preference for inhospitable              three crowned pigeon spec-
                       habitats are reasons why little is                ies from New Guinea; also
                             known about them.
                                                                         the Nicorbar pigeon; the
                           Buffy fish-owl                                pink-necked pigeon; and
                                                                         the great argus pheasant.
                                         C E N T R A L      B A L I                                     85

                                                                            V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                            Jalan Serma Cok Ngurah Gambir,
                                                                            Singapadu, Batubulan. Road
                                                                            Map D4. § (0361) 299 352.
                                                                            # 8am – 6pm daily. ¢ Nyepi.
                                                                            & 8 0 - = m No pets.
                                                                            ∑ www.bali-birdpark.com

                                                                          K EY
                                                                          h Parking

                                                                          = Souvenir shop
Komodo Dragons
These carnivorous creatures are the world’s largest                       7 Wheelchair access
lizards, endemic to Komodo in Indonesia.                                  - Café

                                                                          m Toilet

                                                                          n Tourist information point
                           0 metres                50
       Birds of Bali
       and Java
                           0 yards            50
                                                                      To Bali
                                                                      Reptile Park               Entrance

                                                            m                               7


                       -                                                         m
 and cockatoos

                                                                                      Birds of

                                                                         The African
                                                                         Grey Parrot
                                                                         This species can
                                                                         often be trained
                                                                         to mimic.
Major Mitchell’s
Apart from this species                                                     S TAR F EATURES
from Australia, several
parrots and cockatoos                . Toraja House                         . Birds of Paradise
native to Indonesia (of              This typical house from
                                                                            . Rainforest Habitat
which there are over                 Sulawesi is nearly 100 years
75 species) are bred in              old. It was dismantled, moved          . Toraja House
this bird park.                      and re-assembled here.
86                 B A L I       A N D    L O M B O K         A R E A      B Y     A R E A

Puri Gianyar, a palace of the royal family of the former kingdom of Gianyar, restored to its past glory

Gianyar 8                             give a sense of the power of        wood sculpture and topeng
                                      the former kingdoms. After          masks (see p31). The
Road Map D4. c @ n Jalan Ngu-         damage by an earthquake in          brahmans of Mas have been
rah Rai 21, (0361) 943 401. - = (     1917, the puri was restored as      master-carvers for many
                                      a replica of the original 17th-     generations; sculpture has
              is a centre of          century construction.                been produced for the art
    administration rather than
of the tourist industry. The          E NVIRONS : Southwest of
                                                                            market since the 1930s (see
                                                                             pp36 –7). Among the best-
people of Bali shop here for          Gianyar are several                      established studio-
farm produce, household               villages whose livelihood                  galleries are Siadja &
appliances and paraphernalia          is increasingly based on                    Son, the Njana Tilem
for ceremonies; there is also a       craft products from                           Gallery and Adil
large market (with food stalls        plant materials.                               Artshop. Tantra
in the evening). This is a            Although these                                  Gallery and I B
good place to buy jewellery           are sold for                                        Anom (for
and hand-woven and hand-              export and in                                         masks) are
dyed textiles, many of them           shops around                                          well-known.
made locally. During the day,         Bali, visitors                                        Brahmans
there are food stalls at the          can buy for                                           come to Mas
Bale Banjar Teges (commu-             better prices at                                      from all over
nity association meeting hall)        source. Bona,                                         Bali every
at the town centre; the babi          3 km (2 miles)                                        Manis Kuning-
guling (roast pig) is famous.         southwest of        Elaborately carved gateway at      an festival (see
  On the north side of the            Gianyar, spec-           Pura Taman Pule, Mas          p39) to honour
town square is the impressive         ializes in hand-                                       their ancestor,
Puri Gianyar. Although the            woven objects made from the the Hindu priest Dang Hyang
palace is closed to visitors, its     leaves of the lontar palm.          Nirartha (also known as
grand outer walls and gates           About 2 km (1 mile)                 Dwijendra) at the temple
                                      southwest of Bona is the            Pura Taman Pule. The large
                                      village of Blega, which is a        old tree in the temple is
                                      centre for the production of        regarded as holy. According
                                      bamboo furniture.                   to local belief, a gold flower
                                                                          once grew from it. The tree is
                                                                          dressed up in ceremonial
                                      Mas      9                          colours during the festival.
                                                                          On the evening of the
                                      Road Map D4. c @ n Gianyar,         festivities there is usually a
                                      (0361) 943 401. 0 - = ®             ritual performance of wayang
                                                                          wong (see p31).
                                           HE VILLAGE OF MAs is most
                                      T    famous not for teak
                                      furniture, as the number of
                                                                            Pura Taman Pule
                                                                          # daily. F wayang wong: during
Local food stalls at the night        roadside shops selling it           festivals. _ Kuningan (lasts for
market in Gianyar                     might suggest, but for fine         three days).
                                      C E N T R A L         B A L I                                  87

Bedulu 0
Road Map D3. c @ n Gianyar,
(0361) 943 401. 0 -

    HIS LARGE, quiet village
T   was at the centre of the
Pejeng kingdom of the
10 –13th centuries. The
monumental relief carvings
on a large rock wall at the
Yeh Pulu spring, south of
the village, are thought to
date from the mid-14th-
century Majapahit conquest
(see p46). The carvings –
about 25 m (80 ft) long with        Carved rocks at the entrance to Goa Gajah, the “Elephant Cave”
an average height of 2 m (6
ft) – are thought to be the         Lempad (see p34), who was           Goa Gajah q
work of a single artist. Myth       born in Bedulu.
attributes the work to the            Lempad’s style may be seen        Bedulu. Road Map D3. c @
legendary 14th-century giant        also in the nearby Pura             n Gianyar, (0361) 943 401.
Kebo Iwo. The stories can be        Samuan Tiga. This name              # daily. & - = m
“read” by looking at the            derives from a legend. In the
vigorously carved images            11th century, a meeting
from left to right. Among           (samuan) is said to have                HE GOA GAJAH (“Elephant
them are heroic scenes
showing humans fighting
                                    been held here among the
                                    gods of three (tiga) warring
                                                                        T   Cave”) became known to
                                                                        Westerners only in 1923. It is
demonic beasts.                     religious sects after they had      thought to date from the 11th
   The large Pura Pengas-           defeated the demon king             century. Steps lead down to
tulan temple (see p80) has          Mayadanawa.                         the temple and other monu-
grand gates built in the art-         The annual festival around        ments, about 15 m (50 ft)
deco style made fashionable         Purnama Kedasa (see p40) is         below road level. The large
by the artist I Gusti Nyoman        a brilliant 11-day celebration;     springs, excavated in 1954,
                                    but even when empty, Pura           were intended probably for
                                    Samuan Tiga has a great,            bathing and as a source of
                                    quiet strength. The grand           holy water. The cave itself,
                                    inner gate by Lempad is             with a large face in the
                                    particularly impressive, as is      exuberantly carved surround-
                                    the cockfighting pit on the         ing rock, is a small, rather
                                    east side of the first courtyard.   airless, T-shaped chamber in
                                                                        which are niches containing
                                    T Yeh Pulu                          Shivite and Buddhist statues.
                                    # daily. & donation.                  Outside the cave is a shrine
                                    tPura Pengastulan                   to the Buddhist child-protector
                                    # daily. ^                          Hariti, depicted as the Balinese
                                    tPura Samuan Tiga                   Men Brayut, a poor woman
                                    # daily. & donation. F Perang       with too many children. In a
The village of Bedulu decorated     Sampian: 1pm during festival.       ravine a little to the south are
for the Galungan festival           _ Purnama Kedasa (Apr, variable).   a spring and more shrines.

  The name Bedulu comes from the 14th-century
  sorcerer-king Bedaulu, who was said to remove his
  head (hulu) to achieve more efficient meditation.
  One day he was disturbed in this practice and
  hastily took the head of a passing pig (beda means
  “different”). Thereafter it was forbidden to look at
  the king, lest his ugly secret be discovered, and he
  ruled from a tower, raised above eye level.
  However, the Majapahit general Gajah Mada tricked
  him during a feast. As Gajah Mada tipped back his
  head to drink, he looked up, glimpsed the king’s
  true nature and so was able to overpower him.

         The King of Bedulu in his Tower (1934) by I Tomblos
88              B A L I       A N D   L O M B O K    A R E A    B Y           A R E A

Street-by-Street: Ubud w
                                 one is conscious of the
     town’s artistic traditions. Since most shops stay open
until around 9pm, the best time for strolling around is
the early evening. By then the traffic has abated, the
cafés and restaurants are invitingly lit, and the cool air is
often filled with gamelan music from cultural perform-
ances. The main street, Jalan Raya Ubud, is the setting
for several buildings of architectural interest. The streets
running off it to the north and south lead to village
neighbourhoods, and are lined with family-run shops,          . Museum Puri Lukisan
small businesses catering for visitors, and art galleries.    A fine collection of Balinese art
                                                                is on show here (see pp92–3).

                                                                                                Pura Taman
                                                                                              is a temple set
                                                                                                    by a lotus

                                              J A

                                                  L A

                                                          R A

                                                              Y A
                                                                       U B

                                                                           U D

Ary’s Warung
This restaurant is run by
a minor Ubud palace
family, on land either
side of the house gate.

  Monkey Forest Road

  (Jalan Wanara Wana)

   The street is lined with

    galleries, restaurants

                and hotels.

 I NFLUENTIAL V ISITORS          OF THE   1930 S                         To Monkey
                                                                         Forest Sanctuary
 Bali owes much of its fame to foreign guests of Ubud’s
                                                                    0 metres                  100
 royal family in the 1920s and ’30s. Through their films,
 books and photographs, these visitors projected to the
                                                                    0 yards                100
                         world an exotic image of Bali.
                         Among the most influential were            K EY
                         German painter and musician Walter
                         Spies and Dutch painter Rudolf                            Suggested route
                         Bonnet, who helped found the Pita
                         Maha artists’ association (see p35);
                         and Mexican artist Miguel                    S TAR S IGHTS
                         Covarrubias, who wrote the classic
                         Island of Bali (1937). The anthro-           . Museum Puri
                         pologists Margaret Mead and                    Lukisan
                         Gregory Bateson lived in Sayan, just
                         outside Ubud; their neighbours               . Puri Saren
 Walter Spies, who       were composer Colin McPhee and
 settled in Ubud in 1927 his wife, ethnographer Jane Belo.            . Pasar Ubud
                                                                    U B U D                                                      89

                                                                                                   V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                                                   Road Map C3. c from
                                                                                                   Denpasar & Kuta. @
                                                                                                   n Ubud Tourist Information,
                                                                                                   Jalan Raya Ubud, (0361) 973 285.
                                                                                                   F Balinese performances: daily,
                                                                                                   details posted at Ubud n.

                                                                                           . Puri Saren
                                                                                           Ubud’s palace has a shady
                                                                                           forecourt where visitors can
                                                                                           relax during the day and see
                                                                                           traditional dance every evening.

              Ubud Tourist
              Information Centre                                                                               . Pasar Ubud
                                                                                                               A farmers’ market
                  The wantilan is a hall
                                                                                                               takes place here
                  where local people can
                  gather and cultural                                                                          in the morning.
                  events take place.                                                                           Shops and stalls
                                                                                                               sell all kinds of
                                                                                                               crafts, snacks and

                                                                                                               sundries through-

                                                                                                               out the day.

                                                                                                                Seniwati Women’s

                                                                                                                      Art Gallery

                                                                                                     I W

                                        J A

                                            L A


                                                    R A
                                                        Y A


                                                                U B

                                                                    U D

                                                                                                                To Peliatan
                                                                                                                and Bedulu

                                                                                                           Lempad House was

                                                                                                           once an artist’s home

                                                                                                           and studio (see p90).

    J A
        L A






                           To Pengosekan,
                            Batubulan and

          Jalan Dewi Sita is a street around
          which have been established many                                        Jalan Hanoman
          popular boutiques, art galleries                                        Temples, shops, art studios, and
          and restaurants.                                                        homestays can be found here.
90                 B A L I    A N D     L O M B O K          A R E A    B Y    A R E A

Exploring Ubud
                   BUD HAS LONG BEEN known as the
                 U “village of painters”. In the 1930s, the
               encouragement of the puri (royal family)
              attracted foreign artists and intellectuals
              seeking the “real Bali”, and so the village’s
           international reputation was born. A
   mask    peaceful hamlet until the 1980s, Ubud
           developed rapidly into a village of “cultural
tourism”. Now it is a small town, packed with galleries,
craft-shops, restaurants, bars and hotels. However,
Ubud spends much of its new prosperity on ritual
ceremonies and conservation of traditional art forms.

n  Ubud Tourist                      This temple was built in the        A palace gate in Puri Saren
Information Centre                   1950s by I Gusti Nyoman
Jalan Raya Ubud. § (0361) 973 285.   Lempad at the command of            T Puri Saren
# daily.                             Ubud’s prince, in honour of         Jalan Raya Ubud. § (0361) 975 057.
The centre is a reliable source      Saraswati, the deity of learn-      F Traditional dances 7:30pm daily.
of information about tours,          ing and the arts. It is set in a    ∑ www.ubudvillage.com
transport, dance perform-            water garden, with a lotus          The grandeur of Ubud’s royal
ances, and current cultural          pond as the centrepiece. The        palace dates from the 1890s,
events. It provides                  temple has fine carvings by         the time of warlord Cokorda
information about local              Lempad: a 3-m (10-ft) statue        Gede Sukawati. The present
ceremonies and encourages            of the demon Jero Gede              walls and resplendent gates
foreigners to observe dress          Mecaling; and the padma -           are largely the work of master
etiquette when visiting              sana shrine in the northeast        artist I Gusti Nyoman Lempad
temples or rituals (see p218).       corner, dedicated to the            (see p34). The puri, which
                                     Supreme God (see p26). The          owns several hotels, remains
p Seniwati Gallery Art by            temple is normally closed,          influential in Ubud’s religious
Women                                but admission may be gained         and cultural life, and spends
Jalan Sriwedari 2B. § (0361) 975     via the adjacent Café Lotus.        lavishly on local ceremonies.
485. # Tue–Sun.
∑ www.seniwatigallery.com            p Museum       Puri Lukisan
Pondok Pekak Jalan Monkey Forest.    see pp92 –3.
§ (0361) 976194.
This is the only gallery exhib-      ( Pasar Ubud
iting women’s art in Asia.           Jalan Raya Ubud. # daily.
They work with 72 mostly             At the huge Pasar Ubud
Balinese artists, who paint in       (Ubud Market) there are
modern and traditional styles.       sellers of agricultural produce
   Their library and bookshop,       and dry goods on the ground
Pondok Pekak Library and             floor and between the
Learning Centre, offer               buildings. The main attraction
language and arts classes.           for visitors is the all-day
                                     handicraft market. The food         A group of woodcarvers at work
  Pura Taman Saraswati               Market is held every three          near the Lempad House
Jalan Raya Ubud. # daily.            days on pasah.
                                                                         T Lempad House
                                                                         Jalan Raya Ubud. § (0361) 975 052.
                                                                         # daily.
                                                                         This is the family compound
                                                                         of I Gusti Nyoman Lempad
                                                                         (see p34), perhaps Bali’s most
                                                                         celebrated artist. It is open to
                                                                         visitors and contains an art
                                                                         shop selling the works of
                                                                         local painters. Some works by
                                                                         Lempad are on display in the
                                                                         courtyard. Lempad was also
                                                                         an architect and builder in the
                                                                         traditional style, and the
                                                                         handsome north and east
                                                                         pavilions of the house were
Pura Taman Saraswati facing Café Lotus across an ornamental pond         designed by him.
                                                                      U B U D                                                                                                                                                                   91

O Monkey Forest
Monkey Forest Road (Jalan Wana
Wanara). # daily. &
At the end of a long street
known as Monkey Forest
Road, this forest is a protected
sanctuary for three troupes of
long-tailed monkeys (Macaca
fascicularis). It is advisable to
heed the warnings against
feeding the monkeys – they
are mischievous and can
become aggressive. In the
forest, there is an important
temple complex and a
graveyard. The large temple,
Pura Dalem Agung, is a
“temple of the dead”; its
carved decorations are                Coconut palms surrounding rice plantations in the valley west of Ubud
appropriately frightening.
Down a short flight of steps          E NVIRONS : To the west, Jalan                                                                          Padang Tegal, on the
between the roots of tall trees       Raya descends into the valley                                                                           southern outskirts of Ubud,
is a spring temple, renovated         known as Campuhan, where                                                                                is a large village notable for
in the 1990s with the addition        two rivers meet (campuh).                                                                               its full “set” of Balinese social
of some carvings.                     This has been a foreigners’                                                                             classes and many painters
                                      residential neighbourhood                                                                               and intellectuals, as well as
                                      since the 1930s when Walter                                                                             its homestays. South of
                                      Spies (see p88) built his house                                                                         Padang Tegal is the small
                                      at what is now the                                                                                      village of Pengosekan,
                                      Tjampuhan Hotel and Spa.                                                                                home to many painters and
                                      A bridge built by the colonial                                                                          woodcarvers. In the village
                                      Dutch survives next to the                                                                              of Tebesaya, east of Padang
                                      modern traffic bridge. From it                                                                          Tegal, there are many good
                                      can be seen the spring temple                                                                           places to eat, shop and stay.
                                      Pura Gunung Lebah (Pura                                                                                 West of Pengosekan is Nyuh
A long-tail macaque in the            Campuhan), which was                                                                                    Kuning, the centre of wood-
Monkey Forest Sanctuary               founded in the 8th century.                                                                             carving in the area.

    U BUD                                                                                    TEGALLALANG

                                                                 SANGGINGAN                                                                                                                                                       TEGALLALANG
                                                                 KINTAMANI                                                                                                                                                        KINTAMANI
    Lempad House 7
                                                                                                                                                              JALAN SR


    Monkey Forest Sanctuary 9                                    1


    Museum Puri Lukisan 3
                                                 A CAMP U H


    Neka Museum 1


    Pasar Ubud 6
                                                                 2                            4


                                                                                                                                                                                                          JALAN JE


    Pura Gunung Lebah                                                                                                                                        8


      (Pura Campuhan) 2                                                                     JAL
                                                                                                                                                                      N SA

                                                                                                                                                                                                      RO GADU

    Pura Taman                                                                                                    YA
                                                                                  N B


      Saraswati 4


                      DENPASAR                                                                                                   6
    Puri Saren 5      AYUNG RIVER                                                                               JALAN D
    Seniwati Gallery 8

                                                                                                                                                      JALAN SU


                                                                                                                                                                                          N ID


    0 metres                  1,000


                                                                                                         K EY



    0 yards                 1,000


    K EY


    @ Bemo terminal                                                                               O

                                                                                                      AD                                                                                                          BEDULU
    n Tourist information

         Street-by-Street pp88 –9
                                                     NYUH KUNING                            PENGOSEKAN
92              B A L I      A N D   L O M B O K   A R E A    B Y    A R E A

Ubud: Museum Puri Lukisan
                        (“Palace of
     Painting”), was the brainchild of
Ubud’s prince Cokorda Gede Agung
Sukawati, and Dutch painter Rudolf Bonnet
(see p88). It was conceived in 1953 out of
concern that Bali’s finest works of art were
disappearing into private collections
around the world. The museum’s holdings
are mainly 20th-century Balinese painting
and wood sculpture, including important
collections from the 1930s. The grounds,
with their gardens and ponds, are a shady,         . Octopus (1955)
tranquil oasis in the centre of Ubud.              I Gusti Made Deblog
                                                   is known for his fine ink-
                                                   wash technique.

                                      Building I

This work by Ida
Bagus Gelgel is in
the Balinese
tradition of paint-
ing fables and tales.

                  . Dewi Sri (1960)
                  The woodcarver Ketut
                  Djedeng depicts the rice
                  goddess with a grain of rice
                  in her hand.

     Birds Dancing the
        Gambuh (1940)
    A bas-relief showing                                                    Building II
      the gambuh dance
   inspired this painting
        by Ida Bagus Sali.
                                              U B U D                                               93

L OOKING     AT   B ALINESE PAINTINGS                                  V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
The density of Balinese                                                Jalan Raya Ubud. § (0361)
painting is extraordinary.                                             975 136. ` (0361) 975 137.
Even with little or no                                                 # 8am – 4pm daily.
background in the arts, the                                            ¢ Public hols. 8 = m
viewer can enter the imagin-                                           ∑ www.mpl-ubud.com
ative world of Balinese
culture as represented by
both traditional and modern
painting. It is a good idea to                                        G ALLERY G UIDE
look at a Balinese work from                                          Building I houses
a distance at first, to see its                                       woodcarving and pre-
graphic composition before                                            World War II painting,
moving nearer to inspect the                                          including the Pita Maha
details of the content. Close                                         and Lempad collections
inspection reveals tiny scenes                                        (see pp34–5). Building II
being enacted by the              Tiger with Monkey (undated),        has contemporary Balinese
inhabitants of the canvas.        artist unknown                      art. Temporary exhibitions
                                                                      are housed in Building III.

                                                                              Building III

                                                                         . Balinese Market
                                                                         (detail, 1955)
                                                                         Anak Agung Gede
                                                                         Sobrat, a leading Ubud
                                                                         school painter, explores
                                                                         a modern theme here.

                                   Entrance                            S TAR E XHIBITS
                                                                       . Octopus

                                  . Kala Rau (1974)                    . Dewi Sri
                                  I Ketut Budiana, of
                                                                       . Balinese Market
                                  Padang Tegal, Ubud,
                                  paints the lunar eclipse             . Kala Rau
                                  of Balinese myth.
94                 B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K          A R E A    B Y     A R E A

     A Walk in the Ubud Countryside
                            HE RICEFIELDS AND RIDGES around
                           TUbud are very suitable for
                        walking. Two routes are shown
                        here. They can be followed
                     separately, or one after the other form-
         butterfly ing a longer route. The ricefield walk is 6
                   km (4 miles) long but can be shortened
     to 4 km (nearly 3 miles) by omitting the northern
     loop. The 5-km (3-mile) ridge walk runs between two
     rivers, the Wos Timur and the Wos Barat. Walkers may
     cross ricefields provided they behave with due
     consideration. Wildlife sightings may include the
                                                                            View from Pura Ulun Sui
     iridescent blue Java kingfisher among other
     birds, the golden orb weaver spider, and
     a colourful variety of butterflies.                                                                      q

                                                                                                      Bangkiang Sidem              •
                                                        A yung River

           Jalan Raya Sanggingan w
           On this busy road, bemo
           transport can be found back                                                       •

           into central Ubud.

           Bridge q                                                                                                      0
           Near the bottom of the gorge,
           a bridge crosses the river to a
           steep road leading up to the                                  KEDEWATAN          w

           village of Payogan.                                                                   SANGGINGAN

                                                                                                                  s Barat Rive r

     Warung in Artists’ Settlement 0
     A small, isolated community of painters
     lives in this village, from which there are
     dramatic views along the Wos River
     gorges. Further north the landscape
     opens up to reveal ricefields.

            Alang Alang Grass 9                                                                               9
          After Pura Campuhan, a
        setting for some important
         religious ceremonies, the
            path continues through
         alang alang, a grass used                                                                            8
                for thatching roofs.                                     K EY
                                                                             Ricefield walk route
     Large Banyan Tree 8
     The ridge walk starts                                                   Ridge walk route

     near the Ibah Luxury
                                                                             Major road
     Villas, leading past an

     old banyan tree to a                                                    Minor road
     footbridge hanging
     over the river gorge.
                                                             U B U D                                                   95

                                                                              Pura Pejenenang 4
                                                                              Crossing the Wos Timur river to
                                                                              this temple cuts off the northern
                                                                              part of the walk, creating an
                                                                              optional shorter route.

    Rice Harvest 5
    According to the season, rice farmers may be planting or
    harvesting. Across a narrow bridge carrying irrigation
    water is an attractive subak temple (see pp20 –21).

                                                Pura Ulun Carik 6
                                                From here there is a view
                                                of the Wos Timur gorge,
                                                where chestnut and black
                                                coucal birds abound.
                          5                                                   Ricefield Shrines 3
                                                Jalan Raya Ubud 7             Offerings are placed at these
                                                The path back to the          shrines to the rice goddess, who
                                                main road passes a            will bless the growing crops.
    r            ve

                                                recently built palace
    Wos Timur Ri

                              Mumbul R



                                                                    Pura Ulun Sui 2
                      3                                             This is also known as Juwukmanis Temple.
                                                                    Adjacent to it is a subak office with a map
                                                                    explaining the irrigation system of Bali.

                                                                              T IPS   FOR   WALKERS
                      2                                                       Start point: Café Lotus, in Ubud.
                                                                              End point: Jalan Raya Sanggingan.
                                                                              When to go: All year, but in the wet
                                                  0 metres              500   season, trails can be slippery.
                                                                              Precautions: River gorges are prone
                                                  0 yards           500
                                                                              to flash flooding and should be
                                                                              crossed by the bridges. Do not
                                                                              descend into gorges without an
7                                                                             experienced guide. Avoid the small
                                                  Café Lotus 1                trails down to the stone quarries in
                          1                       The ricefield walk starts   the Wos River gorge – they are
                                                  at Café Lotus in central    slippery and prone to landslides. Care
                                                  Ubud, running north         should be taken walking along the
                              UBUD                along Jalan Kajeng          edges of ricefields. Walking shoes and
                                                  towards the ricefields.     sneakers are suitable footwear.
96                B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K           A R E A     B Y    A R E A

                                                                           The collection is displayed in
                                                                           seven buildings numbered
                                                                           according to the chronological
                                                                           sequence of the works
                                                                           displayed. Moving through the
                                                                           buildings gives a good
                                                                           overview of Balinese art
                                                                           history and its Indonesian
                                                                           context today. Some works
                                                                           are offered for sale. Of
                                                                           particular interest to visitors
                                                                           are the classical wayang-style
The south pavilion of the Agung Rai Museum of Art, Peliatan                paintings, anonymous works
                                                                           of great graphic sophistication;
Peliatan e                           contemporary Balinese and             and also the Lempad collec-
                                     Indonesian painting as well           tion (see p34), consisting of
Road Map D3. c @ from Ubud.          as temporary exhibitions. The         superb pen-and-ink drawings.
n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. F kecak,     Rudana Museum houses an
legong and Barong dance; women’s     extensive painting collection.        p Neka Art Museum
gamelan. 0 - = p ®                     The northern part of Peliatan,      Jalan Raya Campuhan. § (0361)
                                     known as Andong, has some             975 074. # daily. ¢ public hols.
     HE VILLAGE OF Peliatan,         interesting craft shops.              &^-m
T    once the seat of an off-
shoot of the royalty of              p ARMA
Sukawati, is renowned for            Jalan Pengosekan. § (0361) 975
artistic activities. It was known    449. # daily. & 8 F -
among foreigners for its             p Rudana Museum
artistic traditions even earlier     Jalan Cok Rai Pudak 44. # daily. &
than Ubud. Today, Peliatan’s
gamelan and dance troupes
(see pp30 –33) travel abroad        Sanggingan r
as cultural ambassadors, and
perform locally in traditional      Road Map C3. @ from Ubud.
rituals and for visitors.           n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. 0 -
   Peliatan is also a centre of     =p ®                                   Portrait of Sutéja Neka (1991) by
painting and woodcarving.                                                  Arie Smit, Neka Art Museum
Many artists’ studios can be             HE ROAD running through
found along its main street
and back lanes. The collector
                                    T    the village of Sanggingan
                                    is lined with art shops, art
                                                                           Ayung River
Agung Rai established the           galleries, restaurants and             Gorge t
successful Agung Rai Gallery        small hotels.
and went on to create the              The excellent Neka Art              Road Map C3. @ from Ubud.
impressive Agung Rai                Museum, founded in 1976 by             n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. 0 = ®
Museum of Art (usually              local collector and former
referred to as ARMA), in            teacher Sutéja Neka, houses                                  and
southwest Peliatan. Three
large buildings house
                                    one of the best collections of
                                    Balinese and Indonesian
                                                                           B    ETWEEN KEDEWATAN
                                                                               Sayan, the east bank of
                                                                           the spectacularly beautiful
collections of classical and        paintings on the island.               Ayung River Gorge, flanked

The Ayung River Gorge viewed from the ridge at Sayan village
                                      C E N T R A L       B A L I                                       97

                                     W OODCARVING           IN   B ALI
                                     The surprising abundance of Balinese woodcarving reflects
                                     not only an intense decorative tradition but also the fact
                                     that Bali’s wilderness is forest (still inhabited by tigers in
                                     the early 20th century). Trees have a ritual anniversary and
                                     must be given offerings before being felled. Traditional
                                     woodcarving is of two main sorts: ritual objects such as
                                     effigies and masks; and ornamental
                                     carving, especially of
White-water rafting in the rapids    architectural elements. The
of the Ayung River Gorge             liberalizing art movement of
                                     the 1930s (see pp34 –5)
by rice terraces, is discreetly      encouraged woodcarvers
populated with some                  to sculpt freely for a
attractive luxury hotels and         foreign market. The main
private houses. Several              centres of woodcarving
companies offer white-water          today include Peliatan
rafting from points on both          and several other
sides of the river (see p203).       villages in Gianyar
                                     regency, including
E NVIRONS : In the village of        Tegallalang (see p98)                 Sleeping Woman (1956),
Penestanan, just east of the         and Mas (see p86).                       by Ida Bagus Njana
Gorge, there are studios
making painted batik and
beadwork. This is also the          Giant” Temple). The demonic          The design is associated with
centre of the Young Artists         statuary suggests that this was      the Dong-son culture of
movement (see p35) which            a cult-temple of Bhairava            southern China and northern
emerged in the 1960s.               Buddhism. The chief figure is        Vietnam around 1500 BC.
                                    a masked 3.6-m- (12-ft-) high
                                    giant, dancing on a corpse.          p Museum Purbakala
Pejeng y                            The beautifully proportioned         Pejeng. § (0361) 942 347.
                                    Pura Pusering Jagat (“Navel          # Mon – Fri. & donation.
Road Map D3. @ from Ubud &          of the World” Temple) has             Pura Arjuna Metapa
Gianyar. n Ubud, (0361) 973 285.    numerous pavilions housing           Across the road from Museum.
80-=p ®                             similar tantric stone figures.       # daily. & donation.
                                    The “Pejeng Vessel”, a cylind-        Pura Kebo Edan
   EJENG, A VILLAGE  on the         rical stone urn carved with          Pejeng. # daily. & donation.
P   road from Bedulu to
Tampaksiring, lies at the heart
                                    cosmological figures, is kept
                                    in a shrine in the southeastern
                                                                          Pura Pusering Jagat
                                                                         Pejeng. # daily. & donation.
of the ancient Pejeng-Bedulu        corner of the temple.                 Pura Penataran Sasih
kingdom, and there are many            About 2 km (1 mile) north         Pejeng. # daily. & donation. 8
interesting relics from that        of Pejeng, Pura Penataran
time to be seen. The                Sasih houses the “Pejeng
Museum Purbakala                    Moon” (sasih means moon),            Petulu u
(Archaeological Museum)             a bronze drum 186 cm (74
displays prehistoric objects in     inches) long, of unknown             Road Map D3. @ from Ubud &
bronze, stone and ceramics,         age. Considered sacred, it is        Pujung. n Ubud, (0361) 973 285.
including several turtle-           kept in a tall pavilion. Temple
shaped stone sarcophagi.            guides sometimes encourage                           is known for its
  A short walk from the
museum are three temples of
                                    visitors to stand on the base of
                                    an adjacent shrine; from here
                                                                         T   HIS VILLAGE
                                                                              white-plumed egrets and
                                                                          Java pond egrets, generically
particular interest for their       can be glimpsed the drum’s            called kokokan in Balinese.
sacred stone sculptures. Pura       fine geometric patterning.            They feed all over the island
Arjuna Metapa (“Arjuna                                                          and return here in the
Meditating” Temple) is a                                                        late afternoon to roost
small pavilion standing alone                                                   in the trees lining the
in the ricefields, sheltering a                                                 road. It is not known
cluster of stone sculptures                                                     why the birds suddenly
that were probably once part                                                    settled in Petulu in
of a spring temple. In                                                          1965. The best place to
accordance with the wayang                                                      view them is the road
tradition that recounts tales                                                   from the Junungan
from the Mahabharata,                                                           direction through the
Arjuna is attended by a stone-                                                  ricefields; seen from
relief servant character. About                                                 here the V-formations
100 m (110 yards) north is          Prehistoric turtle-shaped stone sarcophagi of birds at sunset are
Pura Kebo Edan (“Crazy              at the Museum Purbakala in Pejeng           an unforgettable sight.
98               B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K       A R E A      B Y     A R E A

                                                                       Sebatu o
                                                                       Road Map D3. @ from Ubud.
                                                                       n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. 0 -

                                                                            EBATU VILLAGE, part of a
                                                                       S   larger area of the same
                                                                       name, is highly regarded
                                                                       among the Balinese not only
                                                                       for its painted wood sculpture
                                                                       but also for its dance, music
                                                                       and classical dance costumes.
                                                                       Easily explored on foot, the
                                                                       village is laid out on a grid of
                                                                       three north-south streets, with
                                                                       the temples and bale banjar
Woodcarver at work in Kenderan, a village near Tegallalang             (community pavilion) at the
                                                                       northern end. The western-
Tegallalang         i               Brahman temple Pura Griya          most street is lined with
                                    Sakti, renovated and               studios making woodcarvings
Road Map D3. @ from Ubud.           modernized in the late 1990s, for sale to visitors.
n Ubud, (0361) 973 285. 0 -         with a refurbished                        In a little valley on the
=®                                  wantilan performance                     western outskirts of
                                    pavilion. A visit to                     Sebatu itself is the lovely
    LAIN-LOOKING Tegallalang        see the huge                             spring temple Pura
P   village, once the seat of a
kingdom, is interesting as a
                                    intertwined trees
                                    behind the inner
                                                                              Gunung Kawi, not to
                                                                                be confused with the
centre of the woodcarving           courtyard requires                           royal monuments of
industry. As in most of the         permission of the                            the same name near
villages along this road, many temple attendant.                                Tampaksiring (see
people are engaged in                  There is an                               p99). The bathing
producing cottage-craft wood        interesting holy                             springs are worth
products wholesale, retail,         spring, Telaga                                seeing (but should
“antique” and made-to-order.        Waja, in Kapitu,                              not be photographed
                                    1 km (half a mile)                           if they are in use),
E NVIRONS : Kebon is a pretty       south of Kende-                              as is the carp-filled
village on a steep side road        ran. Access is by                            spring pool in the
3 km (2 miles) north of             way of a 200-m                               northwest corner. In
Tegallalang. At the junction        (220-yard) footpath Stone sculpture in the centre of the pool
with the main road is the           and a long, steep        Pura Gunung Kawi is a handsome shrine.
excellent Kampung Kafe (see         flight of steps. At                         There are some
p188). Kenderan, also on a          the site itself, traces of         interesting sculptures, some
back road, is a former micro-       meditation niches suggest that of them new and some old,
kingdom with several small          Telaga Waja was a Buddhist         among the small, colourfully
puri (houses of the nobility).      retreat; it is possibly over       painted pavilions in the
    The small village of            1,000 years old.                   central courtyard.
Manuaba, about 4 km
(2 miles) north of Kenderan,           Pura Griya Sakti                  Pura Gunung Kawi
is notable for the important        Manuaba. # daily. & donation.      # daily. &

Pura Gunung Kawi, Sebatu’s tranquil spring temple
                                      C E N T R A L       B A L I                                     99

Taro p
Road Map D3. n Ubud, (0361) 973

     N A WELL-MARKED (but
O    often rough) road to the
west of Pujung is Taro, said to
be one of the earliest
settlements in Bali.
  At the village centre is the
large temple Pura Gunung
Raung. Over its walls it is
possible to admire the long         Gunung Kawi Royal Monuments, candi shrines set in natural rock walls
bale agung pavilion, and a
glowering three-tier meru           and are carved into niches in       Pura Tirta Empul s
pagoda. The latter represents       a natural rock wall in the hill.
the East Javanese mountain          At their heart are a temple         Manukaya. Road Map D3. @ from
Gunung Raung; from here the         and a holy spring. A flight of      Bedulu & Gianyar. n Ubud, (0361)
legendary sage Rsi Markandya        stairs leads to the monument        973 285. # daily. & = m
and his followers set out in        complex, which straddles the
             the 8th century on     river. Commonly called                  HIS SACRED spring temple,
               a mission to Bali.
                       Taro is
                                    “tombs”, these are in fact
                                    memorial shrines, associated
                                                                        T   near the source of the
                                                                        river Pakrisan, is a major
                     the source     with the legendary 11th-            tourist stop, but it is a plea-
                     of Bali’s      century king Anak Wungsu            sant place to visit. The main
                     albino         (see p45) and his wives.            feature is a series of court-
                  cattle; these     To the south of the main            yards containing rectangular
                  animals are       complex are the “Second             bathing-pools. The spouts
                  valued for        Cloisters” on the east bank,        dispense specific kinds of
                  their impor-      and the “Third Cloisters”,          holy water, which devotees
An albino cow,    tance in large    which are believed to be            request with elaborate ritual
revered in Bali   rituals.          monuments dedicated to the          offerings. The temple is
                  Formerly they     queens of Anak Wungsu or            thought to date from the 10th
were sacrificed; today they are     his descendents. The                century; the present walls are
merely borrowed for the             “Tenth Tomb”, to the west,          recent. The pavilions are in
ceremony and then returned.         is reached by a walk along          an on-going state of restora-
The herd has multiplied             the edges of some ricefields.       tion, an indication of the
greatly in recent years and            On the steps leading to the      temple’s importance. People
wanders freely in the forest        tombs, craftsmen from               come from all over the island
south of the village.               Tampaksiring sell their wares,      for holy water and ritual ablu-
  The well-run Elephant             including some exquisite            tions, particularly on the day
Safari Park (see p206),             bone carvings.                      of the full moon (purnama).
created in the late 1990s,
enables visitors to view the
landscape from the back of a
Sumatran elephant. Attractions
include elephants that have
been trained to paint, a mu-
seum of elephants and their
history, and a large restaurant.

Gunung Kawi Royal
Monuments a
Tampaksiring. Road Map D3.
@ from Bedulu & Gianyar. n Ubud,
(0361) 973 285. # daily. & =

                of the small
    town of Tampaksiring,
bordering the Pakrisan River,
is a valley into the sides of
which are carved nine
immense monuments.
They are shaped like candi
(Buddhist-Hindu shrines),           Pura Tirta Empul, a spring temple and source of holy water
                B A L I      A N D      L O M B O K         A R E A      B Y     A R E A   101

                                    EAST BALI

        HE OLD KINGDOMS OF EASTERN BALI wielded influence and power

        beyond their lofty mountains and lush green valleys. What
        remains of their palaces and temples is still a window into a
world of ceremony and tradition, focused around Gunung Agung,
centre of the Balinese universe, and, high on its steep volcanic slopes,
Besakih, one of the most important temples in Bali.
The East Bali area                                                     king as late as the
corresponds to the                                                     1940s. This tradition of
three regencies of                                                    royal grandeur dates
Klungkung, Bangli and                                                back ultimately to the
Karangasem. It is an area of                                         15th century, when the
natural beauty and stark contrasts. Not                court of the first king of Gelgel was
far from its high volcanic peaks are                   established. Around the courts and
some of Bali’s best beaches. Just over                 palaces of the region the arts flour-
3,000 m (almost 10,000 ft) high, the                   ished and villages of skilled artisans
active volcano of Gunung Agung                         grew up. This tradition of craftsman-
dominates the landscape, its foothills                 ship survives in many places today.
covered with green ricefields. East Bali                 In the 14th century the Javanese
was devastated by Agung’s eruption                     kingdom of Majapahit brought to Bali
in 1963 (see p115) and by an earth-                    a new social order and caste system.
quake in 1974. In many places great                    Some communities resisted it, and
lava flows transformed the landscape.                  their descendants, known as the Bali
  In East Bali are some of the island’s                Aga (original Balinese), still live here
most important temples and palaces.                    in culturally distinct villages such as
Extravagant temple complexes stand                     Tenganan and Trunyan.
on ancient sites endowed with cosmic                     Klungkung’s royal house came to an
significance, for example at Besakih                   end in 1908, when the king and mem-
and around the volcanic lake in the                    bers of his court committed puputan
vast crater of Gunung Batur. At                        (see p49), rather than submit to Dutch
Tirtagangga, in the hills north of                     colonial control. However, many
Amlapura, a luxurious water palace                     architectural relics still remain as
was built by descendants of the last                   reminders of pre-colonial times.

Ricefields of East Bali overlooked by the sacred volcano, Gunung Agung

 Using the process of evaporation, traditional salt production on Bali’s east coast
102            B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K     A R E A    B Y      A R E A

 Exploring East Bali
                           by the
     mighty volcano Gunung Agung,
 upon whose slopes is the
 important Besakih Temple         Singaraja
 Complex. To the west is
 Gunung Batur, with its own
 temples and a crater lake. To
 the south is historic Klungkung,                   s
                                                     PURA TEGEH
 and the royal pavilions of                          KORIPAN    GUNUNG
 Taman Gili. From here the road           KINTAMANI p            BATUR
 runs eastwards to some good                                       o
 trekking country near Manggis       PURA ULUN a

 and Tirtagangga, and on to the    DANU BATUR

 dive sites of Amed and

 Tulamben on the coast. The

 arid, lava-strewn eastern slopes

 of Gunung Agung are austerely
 beautiful. Tenganan, not far
 inland from the resort area of
 Candi Dasa, is one of the
 island’s Bali Aga (“original
 Balinese”) villages, culturally
 distinct from the rest of Bali.            Ubud

 Amed t                            Padang Bai 7
 Amlapura w                        Pura Tegeh Koripan s
 Bangli 1                          Pura Ulun Danu Batur
 Besakih Temple Complex              pp122 –3 a
   pp116 –17 i                     Sidemen 3
 Candi Dasa 8                      Tenganan Bali Aga Village
 Gelgel 5                            pp110 –11 0
 Goa Lawah Bat Cave 6              Tirtagangga e
 Gunung Agung u                    Tulamben y                Gianyar
 Gunung Batur pp120 –21 o          Ujung q
 Gunung Lempuyang r
 Iseh 2                            Walk
 Kintamani p                       Tenganan to Tirtagangga 9
 Klungkung pp105 –7 4                                                         1 BANGLI

                                                                            KLUNGKUNG 4

 Lush green ricefields around Tirtagangga
                                                        E A S T     B A L I                                             103

       A car, rented with or without driver, is the best way of getting
           around. Roads are mostly good, although signposting is
                 poor. Because of the many bends, journeys often take
                     longer than one anticipates. Bemo run between
                           villages, but taxis are scarce. Although
                             public buses ply the coastal roads, tourist
                                shuttle buses are more comfortable.
                                     Public transport is virtually non-
                                           existent at night. Padang Bai,
                                                 on the southern coast, is
                                                       the ferry port for

                                                                               Gunung Agung dominating the
                                                                               landscape of East Bali
                                                            TULAMBEN y


                                     u GUNUNG
      i COMPLEX

                                                                                                       r GUNUNG
                                                                      e TIRTAGANGGA

                                              TENGANAN TO 9
         2 ISEH                          TIRTAGANGGA WALK                             q UJUNG

                                             TENGANAN        0


                                                                                              0 kilometres          5
                                                                8 CANDI DASA
                                                                                              0 miles               3

                                 7 PADANG BAI                                  K EY
                                                                                   Major road
               GOA LAWAH                                                           Minor road
               BAT CAVE                  T
                                     I         S EE A LSO                          Scenic route
                         T                     • Where to Stay pp176–7             River
           O K                                                                 J Viewpoint
       M B                                     • Where to Eat pp189– 90
   L O
104                 B A L I      A N D      L O M B O K           A R E A        B Y   A R E A

Bangli 1                                                                         Sanur. At Bunutin, 7 km
                                                                                 (4 miles) south of Bangli,
Road Map D3. c @ n Jalan                                                         Pura Penataran Agung has
Brigjen Ngurah Rai 30, (0366) 91 537.                                            two small shrines on islands
0-=®                                                                             in a lake filled with water lilies.

                       from the
     14th to the 19th century,
Bangli is one of Bali’s oldest                                                    Iseh 2
towns, a small, well-ordered
and tidy community. Set                                                           Road Map E3. @ from Bangli and
some way up the hills                                                             Klungkung. n Amlapura, (0363) 21
towards Gunung Batur, the                                                         196. -
town is ideal for a walk in the
cool mountain air.                                                                    HE AREA AROUND Iseh is
   Pura Kehen, a place of
worship since the 12th
                                                                                  T   remarkable for glorious
                                                                                  landscapes. Some of the best
century, steps impressively up                                                    can be seen on the road
a hillside in a series of eight         Mythological figure in Pura Dalem         eastward from Bangli via
terraces, enclosing a huge              Penungekan, a temple of the dead          Muncan and Duda, which
banyan tree in the first court-                                                   carves its way east through
yard of the complex. High in            Dalem Pengungekan, a                      great volcanic valleys. The
the banyan’s branches is an             temple dedicated to the dead,             terraced ricefields are lush
almost invisible kulkul with            and inside are shrines to                 and green. Iseh itself is a
an alarm drum. Fine statuary            Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu.                 small village with little in the
lines the steps leading to the                                                    way of tourist facilities. Walter
padmasana shrine (see p26)              tPura Kehen                               Spies (see p88) once had a
with a multi-tiered meru roof           Jalan Sri Wijaya. # daily. & donation.    house here, and it was this
in the inner sanctuary.                 _ Pagerwesi (27 Jul 2005, 22 Feb &        location that inspired some of
The shrine is covered with              20 Sep 2006, 18 Apr & 14 Nov 2007).       his most beautiful paintings.
elaborate ornamentation.                tPura Penyimpenan
The gold-painted doors of the           Jalan Sri Wijaya. # daily.                E NVIRONS : At Putung, 6 km
temple are beautiful.                   ¢ for ceremonies. & donation.             (4 miles) east of Iseh, there
   Pura Penyimpenan (“the               tPura Dalem Pengungekan                   are some great lookout
temple for keeping things”)             Jalan Merdeka. # daily.                   points and a couple of
contains three ancient bronze           ¢ for ceremonies.                         homestays (see pp166 –7).
inscriptions which imply that                                                     A further 4 km (2 miles) to
the area was considered holy            E NVIRONS : From the wooded               the east is the the village of
long before the present                 Bukit Demulih, some 4 km                  Sibetan, the best place to
temple complex was built.               (2 miles) west of Bangli, there           buy salak (see p183), a small,
   Images of heaven and hell,           are glorious views of Gunung              crisp, tart-tasting fruit with
the latter imaginatively grim,          Agung, and, on a clear day,               a scaly exterior that looks
cover the walls of Pura                 as far as Nusa Penida and                 rather like snakeskin.

Ricefields and coconut groves at Iseh, a good setting for a walk
                                          E A S T     B A L I                                       105

Sidemen 3
Road Map E3. @ from Bangli and
Klungkung. n Amlapura, (0363) 21
196. 0 - ®

                 in some of the
    most beautiful country in
East Bali. The views from the
slopes of Gunung Agung
stretch out like a green
patchwork with an impressive
mountain backdrop. The
town is a retreat from the
hustle and bustle elsewhere,
and there are some good
homestays (see pp166 –7)            Wayang-style painting by an artist from Kamasan village
overlooking ricefields. In
Sidemen one can visit work-         and marble sculptures, and          puputan. At the same road
shops making songket. This          paintings by Italian modernist      junction, a large indoor
work is historically the pre-       Emilio Ambron, as well as           market sells temple and
serve of higher castes, and         photographs of the royal            ritual paraphernalia, local
still implies high social status.   family and the palace dating        handicrafts and food. It is
                                    back to the early 1900s.            one of Bali’s best markets
                                       On the south side of Taman for textiles.
                                    Gili is a large gateway, which
                                    is thought to be the entrance       E NVIRONS : Less than 1 km
                                    to the inner courtyard of the       (half a mile) south of Klung-
                                    old palace from the outer           kung is the “artists’ village”
                                    courtyard. Legend has it that       of Kamasan; here painters
                                    these massive wooden doors           can be seen at work. The
                                    have remained stuck                   artists of Kamasan have
                                    together since the puputan             largely defined the style
                                    of 1908, when 200                       of traditional Balinese art
                                    members of Klungkung’s                    (see pp34 –5). About the
                                    royal court committed                      same distance to the
                                    ritual suicide (see p49).                   northeast is the temple
                                    This event is marked                        of Pura Taman Sari.
                                    by the Puputan                                In the temple’s large,
                                    Monument across                                  uncluttered
                                    the road from                                    compound is an
                                    Taman Gili. The                                  eleven-roofed
Street corner in the town centre    last raja died in                                     meru tower
of Klungkung                        1965, bearing                                          built on a
                                    the scars of                                           stone turtle
Klungkung 4                         wounds received         The Puputan Monument surrounded
                                    during the                   in Klungkung          by a moat.
Road Map D4. c @ n Jalan
Untung Surapati 3, (0366) 21 448.
                                      T EXTILES     OF   E AST B ALI
                                      In Bali great importance is attached
    LUNGKUNG,   also known as
K    Semarapura, is a district
capital and an important
                                      to textiles and their making, and
                                      nowhere more so than in East Bali.
                                      This area is famous for a type of
trading point on the road to          double ikat weave called gering-
the east of Bali.                     sing, produced only in the Bali Aga
  The most important historic         village of Tenganan (see pp110 –11).
sight in Klungkung is a pair          Geringsing cloths are credited by
of pavilions set in an                the Balinese with protective
ornamental moat, known as             spiritual powers. In Sidemen,
Taman Gili (see pp106 –7).            complex, decorative motifs in gold
These are relics of the palace        and silver threads are woven into
of the once-powerful rajas            cloth to create a rich brocade textile
(kings) of the Gelgel dynasty.        known as songket. This is often
Adjacent to Taman Gili is the         worn by the Balinese at religious or
small Museum Daerah                   social events, and as part of the         Songket fabrics woven
Semarapura in which can be            costume of traditional dancers.           in a Sidemen workshop
seen a collection of bronze
106              B A L I     A N D   L O M B O K     A R E A      B Y    A R E A

Klungkung: Taman Gili
    UILT ORIGINALLY in the early 18th century, Taman Gili
B   (“moated garden”) is what remains of Klungkung’s
royal palace, most of which was destroyed in 1908
during the Dutch conquest. The main features are two
raised, open meeting halls, or bale, with intricately
painted ceilings. The paintings have undergone
restoration and repainting several times in the last
hundred years, but remain fine examples of the
wayang style (see p35), in which the figures resemble
shadow puppets. The Kerta Gosa was originally the
setting for the royal “high court”. The present structure
of the Bale Kambang dates from the 1940s.
                                                                   The Moat
                                                                   The surrounding moat gave
                                                                   the Bale Kambang its name,
                                                                   meaning “floating pavilion”.

. Kerta Gosa Ceiling Paintings           Kerta
There are 267 painted panels             Gosa
arranged in several tiers. At the
apex is a carved lotus flower
surrounded by gilded doves,
representing the goals of                 Entrance
enlightenment and salvation.

                                            K ERTA G OSA C EILING PAINTINGS
                                            The main series shows part of the Bhima
                                            Swarga narrative, which was incorporated into
                                            Balinese tradition from the Indian Mahabharata
                                            epic. There are also scenes from the Tantri
                                            stories (a Balinese version of a series of Indian
                                            moral fables), and some based on an astrological
                                            calendar, showing earthquakes and eruptions.

 The demon Wirosa pursuing sinners

 A scene from the Tantri stories            A stage in the ascent to enlightenment and salvation
                                     E A S T   B A L I                                      107

                                                                V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                Puri Semarapura, corner of Jalan
                                                                Surapati and Jalan Puputan,
                                                                Klungkung. # 7am – 6pm daily.
                                                                ¢ public hols. & 8 m

                                                              . Bale Kambang
                                                              Ceiling Paintings
                                                              These depict scenes from
                                                              Balinese myths, including
                                                              the story of Sutasoma, a
                                                              Buddhist saint symbolizing
                                                              strength without aggression.

                                                   Roof made from
                                                   hardwood shingles

                                                                           Moat stocked
                                                                           with carp

                               Bale Kambang

                                                              Carved Stone Wall Relief
                                                              The building is decorated
                                                              with carved reliefs of
                                                              mythical creatures.

                                                                S TAR F EATURES
                                                                . Kerta Gosa
                                                                  Ceiling Paintings
Museum Daerah Semarajaya                                        . Bale Kambang
West of the Bale Kambang, the museum (see p105) has               Ceiling Paintings
objects relating to the dynasties of Klungkung and Gelgel.
108                B A L I      A N D    L O M B O K         A R E A     B Y       A R E A

                                                                             one can rent outriggers for
                                                                             diving and snorkelling. At the
                                                                             eastern end of the bay, a 20-
                                                                             minute walk away, there are
                                                                             several temples. They include
                                                                             Pura Silayukti, associated
                                                                             with Mpu Kuturan, who intro-
                                                                             duced the three-temple
                                                                             system to Balinese villages in
                                                                             the 11th century (see p28).

                                                                              Pura Silayukti
                                                                             # daily. _ temple anniversary (Apr &
                                                                             Nov 2005, Jun 2006, Jan & Aug 2007).
Temple entrance at the Goa Lawah Bat Cave

Gelgel 5                              E NVIRONS : Kusamba, 4 km              Candi Dasa 8
                                      (3 miles) southwest of Goa
Road Map E4. @ from Klungkung.        Lawah, is a busy little fishing        Road Map E4. c @ n Jalan
n Klungkung, (0366) 21 448.           village with a black-sand              Candi Dasa, (0366) 41 204. - = ®
_ Purnama Kapat (Oct).                beach. Jukung (outrigger
                                      fishing craft) line the shore,                          a fishing village,

T   HE ROYAL COURT  of the
    Majapahit rulers of Bali
                                      and are available for chartered
                                      day trips to nearby islands.
                                                                             O    RIGINALLY
                                                                                   Candi Dasa has now
                                                                             grown into a popular resort.
(see p46) was established in          The boats can feel vulnerable          However, since the reef
Gelgel in the 14th century by         as the ocean swell picks up.           which once lay offshore was
Dewa Ketut Ngulesir, son of           Salt production pans can be            largely destroyed by exploi-
Bali’s first Majapahit king. A        seen on the coast here.                tation as a raw material, the
reminder of the former                                                              beach has been almost
kingdom is Gelgel’s very                                                            completely eroded.
ancient royal temple of Pura                                                        Candi Dasa is still a
Dasar, with its large outer                                                         good base for exploring
courtyard, and several tall                                                         the region, and for
meru towers.                                                                        diving and snorkelling.
  The Pura Penataran is one                                                         There are some repu-
of a number of other temples                                                        table diving schools, and
that can can be seen along                                                          good dive sites near the
the village’s broad streets.                                                        offshore islands. There is
                                                                                    a wide range of losmen
                                                                                    and other accommoda-
Goa Lawah                                                                           tion, restaurants and
Bat Cave 6                            Colourful jukung (outriggers) on the          bars. The local dish is
                                      black-sand beach at Kusamba                   bebek betutu, succulent
Road Map E4. c @ n Klungkung,                                                       duck cooked with herbs
(0366) 21 448. # daily. & _           Padang Bai 7                           and spices (see p182).
temple anniversary (29 Mar & 25 Oct                                             The name Candi Dasa is
2005, 23 May & 19 Dec 2006). 0 =      Road Map E4. c @ 4 to Nusa
                                                                             said to be derived from the
                                      Lembongan, Nusa Penida & Lembar,
                                                                             Balinese “Cilidasa”, which
                    more than                                                means “ten children”. In the
    1,000 years old, Goa Lawah
is important to temple rituals
                                      Lombok. n Amlapura, (0363)
                                      21 196. 0 - = ®
                                                                             centre of the village, over-
                                                                             looking a lagoon with water
pertaining to the after-life. The                         beach              lilies, is Pura Candi Dasa,
main feature of the temple is
a cave inhabited by tens of
                                      T  HIS IS A RELAXED
                                          resort, a good base for the
                                      exploration of East Bali. It is
                                                                             a temple dedicated to Hariti,
                                                                             the goddess of fertility.
thousands of fruit bats. Local        also the main port for ferries
legend has it that the cave           to Lombok, and therefore the             Pura Candi Dasa
stretches 30 km (19 miles)            traffic from Denpasar is quite         Jalan Candi Dasa. # daily.
back into the mountain, as far        heavy. In the village are
as Besakih, (see pp116 –17)           numerous restaurants, hotels,          E NVIRONS : About 2 km (1
and is the home of a giant            guesthouses, bars, tour guides         mile) east of Candi Dasa and
dragon-like snake called              and dive shops.                        up a steep flight of steps, is
Basuki who feasts on bats.                                                   Pura Gomang, from which
   For visitors there are some        E NVIRONS : Within walking             there are great views of the
good eateries outside the cave        distance to the west of                coast. A little further east is
that have fine views over the         Padang Bai is Biastugal, an            Pasir Putih, a secluded bay
ocean towards Nusa Penida             unspoiled white-sand bay               hemmed in on one side by a
and Lombok. However, it is            where sunworshippers gather.           sheer rock face, and used as a
also renowed for hawkers.             A little further along the coast       harbour by jukung outriggers.
                                       E A S T          B A L I                                             109

Walk from Tenganan to Tirtagangga 9
     HE WALK FROM TENGANAN to                  villages. This is a good way to
T    Tirtagangga reveals some
of the most scenic terrain of
                                                 see village temples, local
                                                 schools, tiny mountain warung
Bali’s interior, and many                        (shops) and weavers of
glimpses of traditional Balinese Ricefield toad basketware. In the early
life along the way. The 6-km                      morning vendors sell tuak, a
(4-mile) walk takes about three hours. sour-tasting alcoholic drink made
From the higher points there are           from the flower of the jaka palm tree.
impressive views of Bali’s mountains;      These trees can be recognized by the
the route passes also through terraced enormous grape-like buds jutting
ricefields and peaceful hillside           from their trunks.

                                                                                           Tirtagangga 7
                                           Budakling 6                       •
                                                                                       The country road to
                                           North of the main             7                 Tirtagangga (see
                                           road is this                                  p112) offers good
                                           metalsmithing                                 views of ricefields
                                           village, before                             with the sea beyond.
                                           one arrives at a
                                           lava trail.                                          Kastala 5
                                                                                 Across the river, the trail
                                                                                 leads to this village near
                                                                                    the main road. To cut
                                                                                 short the walk, transport
                                                                                        can be taken from
Hillside Warung 4                                                                              Bebandem.
A small café stands on the
slope overlooking the rice
terraces. The trail leads on
to an irrigation dam
and a ricefield shrine                 •

before crossing a shallow river.       Babandem

Pura Puseh 3
At the Pura Puseh temple is                    5
revealed a view to the far
east of Bali; ricefields can
be seen at various stages of
cultivation. Gunung                4                                                     Gumung Kaja 2
Lempuyang and Gunung                                                                       In the village of
                                                               Bungaya   •

Seraya are in the distance.                                                                  Gumung Kaja,
                                                       2                                  baskets and mats
                                               3                                       are woven with the
K EY                                                                                    stems of the ata, a
                                                                                         kind of palm tree.
    Major road

    Minor road                                                               0 kilometres                   2

    Lava trail                                1
                                                                             0 miles                  1
    Walking route                               •   Tenganan

Tenganan Village Gate 1
                                                                         T IPS    FOR       WALKERS
 From the village, a stone-                                              Start point: Tenganan.
      paved path leads to a                                              End point: Tirtagangga
temple complex and then                                                  Getting there: Bemo to Candi
  to the edge of the forest.                                             Dasa, then own transport.
     Here a wall marks the                                               When to go: Any time, but trails
   beginning of a half-hour                                              are slippery in rainy season.
       climb to the primary                                              Walking time: 3 hours.
         school at Gumung.
110             B A L I      A N D       L O M B O K    A R E A      B Y      A R E A

Tenganan Bali Aga Village                              0

                 HE BALI AGA, “original Balinese”
           T     (see p46), maintain a distinct
             cosmology and social organization.
             For example, villagers must marry in
             the community or leave the village.
             They make fine basketware, and this
             is the only place in Southeast Asia
             where geringsing double-ikat                     Detail of double-ikat geringsing textile
 Wall motif textiles (see p37) are
   in clay                                                                                  Market
            made. Tenganan is the
best preserved of the Bali Aga
villages. It is closed to
outsiders after dark.

             Public baths

Village Temple
In the village’s “temple of origins”, outside
the village walls, the community joins in
rituals reflecting a dualistic cosmology based         The wantilan is an
on principles of complementary opposites.              large, open pavilion
            0 metres                30                 where village
                                                       members meet for
            0 yards            30                      social activities.

 It is said that in the 14th century, King Bedaulu, the ruler
 of Bali, lost his favourite horse and offered a reward for its
 return. The horse was eventually found dead near Tenga-
 nan and the villagers asked to be granted land as a reward.
 The King sent his minister to draw the boundaries of the
                                           area to be given to
                                           them, instructing the
                                           minister to include
                                           all of the land
                                           where he could             Village Houses
                                           smell the dead
                                                                      A short flight of steps leads
                                           horse. Accompanied
                                           by the village chief,      up to each house which also
                                           who had hidden             has a small courtyard.
                                           some of the rotting
                                           horse meat in his
                                           clothes, the minister        S TAR F EATURES
                                           performed his duties
                                           and drew generous            . Bale Petemu
                                           boundaries which
                                                                        . Main Street
 Land at Tenganan, owned communally
 according to Bali Aga tradition           remain today.
                             E A S T   B A L I                                        111

                                                          V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                          Road Map F3. @ from Candi
                                                          Dasa. n Amlapura, (0363) 21
                                                          196. # daylight hours.
                                                          & donation. _ Usaba Sambah
                                                          and Mekare-kare (stick fight)
                                                          (Jun–Jul). - = m

                                                       . Bale Petemu
                                                       This is the meeting hall of
                                                       one of three associations of
                                                       unmarried village men.

                                                   . Main Street
                                                   The main streets are partly
                                                   cobbled and rise in tiers,
                                                   connected by ramps.

                                                       Fighting Cocks
                                                       Birds are often kept in cages
                                                           in front of the houses;
                                                                most fights take
                                                                    place outside
                                                                      the village.

The kitchen of
the bale agung is                                                          Entrance
where large numbers of
pigs are killed and cooked
for ceremonial purposes.                         The bale agung is the hall for
                                                 meetings of the village council,
                                                 composed of all the married couples.
112               B A L I     A N D    L O M B O K         A R E A       B Y    A R E A

Ujung q                                                                       Dutch royal family.
                                                                              Another building in the
Road Map F3. c @ from Amla-                                                   compound is known as
pura. n Amlapura, (0363) 21 196.                                              the Bale London, as some
                                                                              of its furniture bears the
     JUNG, meaning literally                                                  British royal family’s coat-
U    “at the end”, is an
appropriate name given the
                                                                              of-arms. There are two
                                                                              bale (open halls) beside
remote location of this fishing                                               ornamental ponds in front
village. The Puri Taman                                                       of the Maskerdam Build-
Ujung is a water palace built       The Maskerdam Building, a royal           ing. These were used for
in 1921 by the last raja of         residence furnished in Dutch style       ceremonies and meetings.
Karangasem, I Gusti Bagus                                                    Over one of the bale
Djelantik. The buildings were       then divided the island up           entrances is a photograph of
all but destroyed in the earth-     amongst themselves.                  the raja, taken in 1939 when
quake of 1974. But renovation         The Balinese of Karang-            the district was granted
in 2004 has restored it to its      asem remained in power in            limited self-rule by the Dutch.
former grandeur.                    western Lombok until 1894,
                                    although facing continuous           T Puri Agung
E NVIRONS : The narrow road         challenges from the Sasak            Jalan Gajah Mada. # daily. & 8
winding east from Ujung             nobles. Karangasem became
around the eastern tip of Bali      a vassal of Lombok in 1849,
is very scenic, with spectac-       when the Lombok king                  Tirtagangga e
ular views of the ocean and         attacked his own ancestral
Gunung Seraya. Before taking        land. It placed itself under          Ababi. Road Map F3. c @
this road, one should check         Dutch rule in 1894, after the         n Amlapura, (0363) 21 196.
its condition with the locals.      Dutch conquest of Lombok.             # daily. & 8 0 = ®
                                      Puri Agung, a royal palace
T Puri Taman Ujung                  of the kings of Karangasem,                           (meaning
# daily. & donation.                was built at the turn of the
                                    20th century. It was the
                                                                          T    IRTAGANGGA
                                                                              “holy water from the
                                                                          Ganges”) is the best surviving
                                    birthplace of the last king.          example of Bali’s royal water
                                    The palace compound is no             palaces. It was built in 1947
                                    longer inhabited, descendants         by Anak Agung Anglurah
                                    of the royal family preferring        Ketut, the last king of Karan-
                                    to live in the palaces of Puri        gasem, and restored after
                                    Gede and Puri Kertasurahe             damage sustained in the 1963
                                    across the road (unlike Puri          eruption of Gunung Agung.
                                    Agung, they are not open to           The complex consists of a
                                    the public). Architecturally,         sacred spring, a cold spring-
Puri Taman Ujung, the royal water   Puri Agung is an eclectic mix         fed pool and several other
palace before renovation            of European and Balinese              ponds. Bathing is permitted
                                    styles. It has a particularly         in the pools. A small fee is
                                    impressive entrance gateway.          charged at the spring-fed
Amlapura w                            The main attraction is the          pool, which has simple
                                    Maskerdam Building, so-               changing rooms. The pools
Road Map F3. c @ n Jalan            called as a tribute to the            and fountains are set in well-
Diponegoro, (0363) 21 196. 0 = ®    Dutch (“Amsterdam” as                 maintained gardens.
                                    pronounced by the locals).              Tirtagangga has a cool
                         trading    Behind its carved doors are           climate, and is a good base
     town of Amlapura is a
district capital with an active
                                    pieces of furniture donated by
                                    Queen Wilhelmina of the
                                                                          for walks in the area. There
                                                                          are several homestays here.
market serving the area. The
town was given its present
name after reconstruction in
the aftermath of the 1963
eruption of Gunung Agung.
It is still often referred to by
its former name, Karangasem.
   Karangasem became an
important power in the late
17th century. The royal
families of Karangasem had
strong political links with the
nearby island of Lombok.
In the mid-18th century they
ousted the powerful kings of
Sulawesi from Lombok and            Gardens surrounding the bathing pools in Tirtagangga
                                                E A S T      B A L I                                        113

                                                                                generations, salt is made from
                                                                                brine poured into wooden
                                                                                frames, gathered in sacks and
                                                                                laid out by the road for sale.
                                                                                   Divers come to this area,
                                                                                and in particular to the bay at
                                                                                Jemeluk to the east of Amed,
                                                                                to enjoy underwater views of
                                                                                colourful coral gardens and a
                                                                                spectacular variety of fish.
                                                                                   The east coast round Amed
                                                                                is hot, dry and economically
                                                                                rather poor. Barren hills
                                                                                pinned with thirsty-looking
                                                                                lontar palms stand in stark
                                                                                contrast to the green
                                                                                mountain slopes behind.
                                                                                The arid, harsh landscape is
                                                                                distinctly different from the
                                                                                lushness of most of East Bali.

                                                                                E NVIRONS : Some 5 km
                                                                                (3 miles) east of Amed is the
                                                                                quiet coastal village of Lipah,
                                                                                where tourist facilities are
                                                                                being rapidly developed,
Plantations beside the scenic route around Gunung Lempuyang                     happily in reasonable taste
                                                                                and at reasonable prices.
Gunung                                   of Pura Telagamas at the
                                         bottom. There are several
Lempuyang r                              strategically located resting
                                         places along the way.
Drive through villages of Tista, Abang
and Ngis Tista. Road Map F3. c @         tPura Lempuyang Luhur
n Amlapura, (0363) 21 196. -             # daily. _ temple anniversary
                                         festival (Manis Galungan, 10 Mar & 6
                1,000 m (3,300
     ft), Gunung Lempuyang
is worth a full day’s trip,
                                         Oct 2005, 4 May & 30 Nov 2006)

especially when there is a               Amed t
temple ceremony. Getting
there is part of the attraction          Road Map F2. c @ n Amlapura,
– the road from Tirtagangga              (0363) 21 196. 0 - = ®
runs northeast along a valley,                                                  Lontar palms in the coastal region
with Gunung Agung to the                                  fishing-town,
west and Gunung Lempuyang
to the east, carving its way
                                         A  SLEEPY LITTLE
                                             Amed is of interest for its
                                         dive sites and salt-production.
                                                                                of Tulamben

                                                                                Tulamben y
through lush ricefields.                 In a simple evaporation
The mountain itself is then              process little changed for             Road Map F2. c @ from
reached via a side road.                                                        Amlapura & Singaraja. n Amlapura,
   At the top stands Pura                                                       (0363) 21 196. 0 - = ®
Lempuyang Luhur. There
has probably been a temple                                                                         nondescript
on this remote and sacred site
since pre-Hindu times. The
                                                                                T  ULAMBEN IS A
                                                                                    little town, but it is of
                                                                                interest as the location of the
temple is important to                                                          wreck of the American cargo
Balinese today because of its                                                   ship Liberty, 120 m (396 ft)
location – at the top of the                                                    long and torpedoed south-
island’s easternmost                                                            west of Lombok during World
mountain. The temple is not                                                     War II. It lies 40 m (44 yards)
large; there is just a single                                                   offshore and, at its deepest
courtyard with a few simple                                                     point, some 60 m (198 ft)
bale (pavilions). The views                                                     down. The water provides
of Gunung Agung are                                                             great diving and snorkelling.
spectacular. Reaching the                                                       Day trips off Tulamben can
temple involves a two-hour                                                      be arranged with dive
climb up 1,700 stone steps,              Boats for diving or snorkelling        operations (see p202). Boats
passing the smaller temple               trips off the coast around Amed        can be rented locally.
114              B A L I          A N D         L O M B O K         A R E A          B Y     A R E A

 Gunung Agung                               u
                                                                                     T IPS   FOR        C LIMBERS
                        3,142-m- (10,350-ft-) high,
      active volcano, the dominant feature of East
 Bali. It has a profound significance in the life of
                                                                                     Start point: Either of two base
                                                                                     camps: Besakih 1; and Pura
                                                                                     Pasar Agung 2, north of Selat.
 every Balinese. Communities orientate their                                         Getting there: Bus or bemo to
 houses, temples and even beds in relation to this                                   Besakih from Denpasar, Gianyar
 sacred place, where the spirits of ancestors are                                    and Amlapura. Own transport to
                                                                                     Pura Pasar Agung.
 believed to dwell. Visitors climbing the mountain
                                                                                     When to go: Off-limits during
 should observe rules for temple dress (see p218)                                    the rainy season (Oct – May),
 or risk offending local sensibilities.                                              when there are dangerous mud
                                                                                     slides and swollen rivers, as well
                                                                                     as ceremonies (Mar – Apr).
                                                                                     Guide: Visitors are strongly
                                                                                     advised to engage a reliable
                                                                                     guide (see p205), because the
                                                                                     climbs from both base camps are
                                                                                     steep and require early-morning
                                                                                     starts. The lower slopes are
                                                                                     heavily forested. Changes in
                                                                                     weather can be dramatic and
                                                                                     sudden. Attitudes of local people
                                                                                     to climbers may be unfriendly.
  From Besakih 1                                                                     Length of climb: Six hours
  This climb, the longer of the two routes, goes right to the                        starting from Besakih; three
  top of the volcano, where there are spectacular views of                           hours from Pura Pasar Agung.
  Bali and Lombok when the weather is clear.

  K EY
        Trekking route

        Major road

        Minor road

                                                                                 Pura Pasar Agung   •

                              •   Besakih

                                            •   Lebih

                                                                Sebodi   •

                                                                                        From Pura Pasar Agung 2
                                                                                        The southern climb is shorter
                         •                                                              but steeper and stops about
                                                                                        100 m (325 ft) away from the
   BANGLI                                               •                               summit proper.

 0 kilometres                 3

  0 miles                         2
                                            E A S T     B A L I                                        115

                                            T HE 1963 E RUPTION              OF   G UNUNG A GUNG
                                            Although Gunung Agung had long been thought
                                            extinct, in 1963 it erupted dramatically, shooting
                                            boulders and ash high into the sky. In all, the event
                                            lasted six months. Whole villages were buried; nearly
                                            2,000 people died; and much arable land was laid
                                            waste. The rock-filled rivers of East Bali and Agung’s
                                            bare eastern flank still bear witness to the event.
                                            According to local belief the disaster happened
                                            because spiritual leaders wrongly timed the performance
                                            of Eka Dasa Rudra. This is a Hindu spiritual purification
                                            ceremony which takes place every hundred years.
  Eruption of Gunung Agung (1968)           Ancient texts suggest that the ceremony should have
  by Ida Bagus Nyoman Rai                   taken place not in 1963, but in 1979.

Besakih Temple                      and the next begins, as they          Pura Ulun Danu
                                    have now merged together to
Complex i                           form a ribbon of development          Batur       a
                                    catering for the many visitors
See pp116 –17.                      who come here. The whole             See pp122 –3.
                                    road is transformed into a
                                    parking lot when the tour
Gunung Batur              o         buses arrive. The hawkers can         Pura Tegeh
                                    be particularly persistent.           Koripan          s
See pp120 –21.                         However, people do not
                                    come to look at the village of       Road Map D1. c @ from
                                    Kintamani itself – they come         Kintamani. n Penelokan, (0366) 51
Kintamani           p               to stand in awe of the view. It 370. # daily. ¢ during ceremonies.
                                    is worth stopping here just to       & donation. _ temple festival (Oct).
Road Map D2. c @ n Penelo-          get a real sense of the scale of
kan, (0366) 51 370. 0 - = ®         the landscape from a high                 URA TEGEH KORIPAN (also

      NE OF THE MOST popular
                                    vantage-point; here it is easy        P   known as Pura Sukawana
                                    to see the relative positions of or Pura Penulisan) is one of
O     destinations for visitors in Gunung Batur, the Bali Aga
Bali is Kintamani, notable          village of Trunyan (see p121)
                                                                         the oldest temples in Bali,
                                                                         dating from the 11th century
above all for its view of a         down on the shore of                        or earlier (see p45). Set
volcano within a caldera. The the lake, and                                           at more than 1,500
air here is fresh and the view      Gunung Abang                                          m (4,950 ft) on
from Kintamani into the             on the eastern                                         the side of Gu-
caldera of Gunung Batur (see        side of the lake facing                         nung Penulisan, it is
pp120–21) is perhaps the            Gunung Batur.                                      certainly one of the
most famous on the island, as          There are many                                  highest (see p120).
the tourist buses testify.          places to eat along       An ancient shrine in     It does not get very
  Kintamani is one of three         most of the 10 km         Pura Tegeh Koripan       much tourist traffic
small villages set high on          (6 miles) of the main                              and, therefore, has
Batur’s caldera rim.                road along the crater rim;           a peaceful atmosphere.
Penelokan and Batur are the         most of them have good                  It is in fact a complex of
other two. It is hard to            views. There is also a market        five temples. Its pyramidal
distinguish where one ends          selling fresh local produce.         structure, set on eleven levels
                                                                         of terraces along the slope,
                                                                         suggests that it dates from the
                                                                         pre-Hindu-Buddhist era, and
                                                                         is associated with the
                                                                         megalithic culture of Bali.
                                                                            The main temple, Pura
                                                                         Panarajon, is over 300 steps
                                                                         up and at the highest position
                                                                         in the complex. Inside, there
                                                                         are some stone inscriptions
                                                                         and statues thought to date to
                                                                         the 10th century.
                                                                            From the slopes of Gunung
                                                                         Penulisan there are good
                                                                         views: on clear days one can
                                                                         see as far as Java to the east,
Shop and warung, typical of those which line the road to Kintamani       and the Bali Sea to the north.
116             B A L I    A N D   L O M B O K     A R E A    B Y   A R E A

Besakih Temple Complex                           i

                URA BESAKIH is a grand complex of 22
             P  temples spread over 3 sq km (1 sq mile)
            on the slopes of Gunung Agung (see p114),
            where the Balinese believe the spirits of their
            ancestors live. Said to have been founded in
            the late 8th century by the Javanese sage,
            Rsi Markandya, it later came under the
            jurisdiction of the Klungkung kingdom. All
 Stone wall
            but two shrines were destroyed in an
            earthquake of 1917, and it underwent several
major renovations in the 20th century, escaping damage
in the 1963 eruption of Gunung Agung. Now it is an
important focus of modern Indonesian Hinduism.

                                                                . Eleven-tiered Meru
                                                                The tall meru (pagodas)
                                                                are shrines for deified
                                                                kings, ancestral spirits and
                                                                nature gods.

                                               . Main Courtyard
                                               This is the main focus of
                                               worship at the temple. A
                                               padmasana tiga (triple lotus
                                               shrine) is dedicated to
                                               Brahma, Shiva
                                               and Vishnu.

Terraced Entrance
The terraces at the entrance to
Pura Penataran Agung are an
echo of the stepped pyramids of
Indonesian prehistory.

                          Only wor-
                          shippers are                                  Footpaths connect
                          allowed to use the                            the temples in the
                          entrance stairway.                            complex.
                                    E A S T    B A L I                                         117

                                    Pura Ratu Pande
                                    The roofs of this clan          V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                    temple beside Pura              Besakih. Road Map E2. c @
                                    Penataran Agung                 n Amlapura, (0363) 21 196.
                                    have been restored              # 7am – 6pm daily, but inner
                                    with black palm fibre           courtyards must be viewed from
                                                                    outside. & 8 - =
                                    and gilded roof caps.
                                                                    _ Betara Turun Kabeh (Apr);
                                                                    Purnama (full moons, throughout
                                                                    the year, particularly in Apr
                                                                    and Oct).

In the inner court-
yards of the temple
there may have been
meru towers since the
14th century.

                                                                   P URA P ENATARAN A GUNG
                                                                   The temple illustrated here
                                                                   is Pura Penataran Agung,
                                                                   the spiritual core of the
                                                                   Besakih complex.

                             P URA (T EMPLES ) IN                              4
                             THE B ESAKIH C OMPLEX                                     6

                             1   Peninjoan                     1
                             2   Batu Madeg                                        5
                             3   Ratu Pande                        2
                             4   Pengubengan                                       7
                             5   Gelap                                             8
                             6   Tirta                                     q
                             7   Ratu Penyarikan                                   0
  Low walls surround the     8   Pedharman
  temple complex; visitors   9   Kiduling Kreteg                                   w
  can view the shrines by    0   Ratu Pasek
                                                                       s               e
  walking along the          q   Penataran Agung
                             w   Dukuh Segening                                        r
  footpaths and looking
                             e   Basukian                              a           t
  over the walls.
                             r   Merajan Kanginan                                  y
                             t   Goa
                             y   Bangun Sakti                              i
 S TAR F EATURES             u   Ulun Kulkul
                             i   Manik Mas                                     o
 . Eleven-tiered             o   Pesimpangan
   Meru                      p   Dalem Puri                     K EY
                             a   Merajan Selonding
 . Main Courtyard            s   Jenggala                           Footpath

                             Irrigated ricefield at Tirtagangga, with Gunung Agung in the distance
120                  B A L I       A N D        L O M B O K            A R E A            B Y        A R E A

Gunung Batur                          o

                           (Mount Batur) is
    not the largest volcano in Bali, it is the
most active. It is surrounded by a spectacular
caldera, which implies that it was once much
larger than now, having blown off its top in
an eruption. It has erupted on a large scale
more than 20 times in the last 200 years. The
most devastating occasion was in 1917 when
more than 1,000 people died and over 2,000                               Gunung Batur Eruptions
temples were destroyed. Volcanic activity has                            Minor but noisy eruptions occur
made the slopes of Gunung Batur bare and                                 frequently day and night, and can be
dry, in contrast to the vegetation which                                 watched from the road running
covers the slopes of Gunung Abang, on the                                through Kintamani.
opposite side of Lake Batur.
                                                       Gunung Penulisan      •

                                                                        •    Pura Tegeh Koripan (see p115)


 Walking up to one of the four craters of
 Gunung Batur takes an hour from                            •    Kintamani
 Serongga, or three hours from Kedisan.
    Guides are not necessary for day treks as
 the trails are easy to follow. It is important to

 keep to the trails. A small information centre
 is located at Toya Bungkah, where there is                                                •   Pura Ulun Danu Batur
                                                                                               (see pp122-3)
 also losmen accommodation.
    The air can be quite chilly before
                                                                                      •   Batur
 daybreak, and warm clothing is highly
 recommended for night treks. Care should
 be taken to avoid the hot steam issuing                                                                                         n
 from fissures in the rocks.                                                                                                     •

    The slopes of the volcano are slippery and
 dangerous in the rainy season, and trekking
 is not recommended from October to April.


                                                                                                      AND UBUD


                                                                                           0 kilometres                  3

                                                                                           0 miles                           2

                                                                                           K EY
                                                                                                  Major road


                                                                                           4 Ferry/boat service

The Western Slopes of Gunung Batur                                                         n Tourist information
The area at the foot of the volcano is covered with lava
                                                                                           J Viewpoint
deposited by old eruptions. The vegetation is sparse here.
                                                                     E A S T    B A L I                                            121

                                                                                                    V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                                                    Road Map D2. c @ from
                                                                                                    Penelokan & Kintamani.
                                                                                                    n Jalan Sriwijaya 23, Bangli
                                                                                                    (0366) 91 537.
                                                                                                    Trunyan Bali Aga Village:
                                                                                                    4 from Kedisan.
                                                                                                    _ Berutuk (Oct).

              Lake Batur
              This lake is the main irrigation source for much of the
              agriculture of Central and East Bali. It is said to be
              protected by the lake goddess, Ida Betari Dewi Ulun Danu.

                                                                   Shrines on Gunung Abang
                                                                     In the forest on the peak of
                                                           Gunung Abang is a temple containing
                                                            some small, brightly painted shrines.

•   Serongga                                                                          Gunung
                               •   Pura Ulun Danu                                      Abang
         Songan       •

                                                       •   Trunyan


                              Toya Bungkah

              •   Pura Jati

•   Kedisan
    4                                 J

                                                                               Trunyan, on the eastern shore of Lake Batur,
                                                                               reachable most easily by water

                                                                               T RUNYAN B ALI A GA V ILLAGE
                                                                               One of the culturally isolated Bali Aga villages
                                                                               (see p46), Trunyan is still most easily accessible
                                                                               by boat. Villagers here practise customs found
                                                                               nowhere else in Bali, even in other Bali Aga
                                                                               villages. These include the treatment of their
                                                                               dead bodies, which are placed in pits, and
                                                                               covered by cloth and shabby bamboo
                                                                               canopies. The influence of an ancient tree is
                                                                               said to preserve the corpses from putrefaction.
                                                                               The cemetery is the main feature of interest
                                                                               to visitors. Trunyan is the home of Da Tonta,
                                                                               a 4-m- (13-ft-) high statue of Dewa Ratu
                                                                               Gede Pancering Jagat, patron guardian of the
                                                                               village, which is brought out at the Berutuk
        Toya Bungkah                                                           festival (usually October). The people here
                                                                               tend to expect “donations” from visitors, whom
        This village near a hot spring has simple                              they now regard as a source of income.
        restaurants and losmen accommodation.
122              B A L I   A N D     L O M B O K      A R E A    B Y   A R E A

Pura Ulun Danu Batur                          a

                HIS TEMPLE IS is one of the most important
            T   on Bali because of its association with Lake
            (danu) Batur, which supplies the irrigation
            system of Gianyar and Bangli through a series
             of underground springs. From a distance the
             temple’s silhouette can be seen on the rim of
             the vast Batur caldera. Adjoining this temple
  Stone       are others in the process of enlargement,
sculpture     making up a quite extensive complex.

                                                                   Temple Flags
                                                                   Deities and mythical beasts
                                                                   are often depicted in rich
                                                                   colours on temple flags
                                                                   and sculptures.

Third Courtyard
The third courtyard is the most
sacred. Three gateways
lead from one
courtyard to
the next.

                        The figure of Garuda,
                        a bird from Hindu
                        mythology, is depicted
                        in this stone relief on the
                        courtyard wall.

                                                                . Central Courtyard
                                                                The great quadrangle, shown
                                                                here occupied by a festive
                                                                structure of bamboo and straw,
                                                                is the occasional setting for a
                                                                baris gede dance (see p30).
                                       E A S T    B A L I                                       123

                                  O FFERINGS TO THE                V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                  L AKE G ODDESS                   Batur. Road Map D2. c @
                                  Devotees from all over Bali      n Penelokan, (0366) 51 370.
                                  present elaborate offerings      # 7am – 6pm daily.
                                  at this temple, which is de-     & donation. _ temple
                                  dicated to Ida Betari Dewi       anniversary (Apr & Oct Purnama).
                                  Ulun Danu, the goddess of
                                  Lake Batur. The respect
  Offerings of fruits and flowers accorded to the goddess is
                                  reinforced by events in the
 temple’s history. At its former location closer to the lake,
 the temple was miraculously saved from destruction in the
 volcanic eruption of 1917, when the lava flow stopped just
 short of its walls. Another eruption, in 1926, prompted the
 villagers to move the temple to its present location.

 . Gold-painted Doors
   The great timber doors
       of the main temple
    gateway are reserved
  for the use of priests on
    important occasions.

                                                                 Side Gate
                                                                 This tall, slender gate, built
                                                                 in a combination of brick-
                                                                           work and paras
                                                                            stone decoration,
                                                                              leads to another


The bale                                                           S TAR F EATURES
gong is a pavilion
housing the temple’s                                               . Central Courtyard
set of gamelan instruments,
including a great gong believed                                    . Gold-painted Doors
to have a magical history.
                B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K          A R E A    B Y    A R E A     125

             NORTH                     AND            WEST BALI

         T THE HEART OF NORTH AND WEST BALI is amountainous, volcanic
         hinterland. This is ringed by coastal plains where most of the
          population live. Before the Dutch took over southern Bali in
the early 20th century and a harbour was built at Benoa in the 1920s,
most contact between the Balinese and the rest of the world took place
in this northern and western region of the island.
North and West Bali                                                   more of Javanese
corresponds to the                                                    coastal trading towns
regencies of Tabanan,                                                than of the Balinese
Jembrana and Buleleng, of                                           centres of aristocratic
which the administrative                                           power. North Bali is
capitals are Tabanan, Negara and                     more heavily marked by the Dutch
Singaraja respectively. To the west of               colonial presence than the rest of the
Tabanan regency rice-growing grad-                   island, which was colonized later.
ually gives way to dry fields and                    Following their brutal takeover of
forests. The population is increasingly              Buleleng in 1849, the Dutch set up a
Muslim as one moves west; the older                  Residentie (prefecture) in Singaraja in
Muslim settlements were established                  1855. Singaraja shows evidence of its
by Bugis sailors in the 17th century.                Dutch past in its old offices and man-
The landscape of Buleleng regency                    sions and the airy, shady atmosphere
on the north coast consists of steep                 of the town. Temples evolved an orig-
mountain slopes plunging down to a                   inal, even at times humorous, style of
narrow stretch of dry land which is                  bas-reliefs and sculptures where
generally impervious to irrigation –                 Europeans, cars, boats and other signs
the exceptions are the relatively fer-               of modernity often appear in the
tile hinterland of Singaraja town and                places taken by demons and abstract
the plantation area of Munduk and                    flower motifs in temples further south.
Busungbiu further inland.                              New converts to Christianity were
  The history of this part of Bali has               resettled by the Dutch in the hinter-
been influenced as much by the sea                   land of Negara. More recently, several
as by the traditions of the courts: both             settlements have been established
Singaraja and Negara have the flavour                along the coast by Madurese migrants.

Ducks being farmed on the coastal plains of western Bali

Pura Tanah Lot (see p128), a Balinese temple situated on a rocky outcrop by the ocean
       126               B A L I        A N D   L O M B O K     A R E A   B Y    A R E A

         Exploring North and West Bali
               EST BALI HAS areas of great natural beauty. The
         W    mountains, black-sand beaches, coconut
         plantations and ricefields make up some idyllic
         landscapes. The eastern part is known for its many
         impressive temples, and for Gunung Batukau,
         surrounded by Bali’s last remaining primary forest.
         Near the hill-resort area of Bedugul is a string of
         mountain lakes in an ancient caldera. On the north
         coast lies Singaraja, once the Dutch colonial capital.
         A great expanse of territory is occupied by the
         Taman Nasional Bali Barat (West Bali National Park),
         and the adjacent area of protected scrub forest.

                   i MENJANGAN                                             Clear waters at Pantai Gondol
Java                      LALANG                p      •                                 B A L I
                                                                                                   S E A
                          •                            PURA          a PANTAI
y GILIMANUK                   oJ                       PULAKI             GONDOL
                          MAKAM                                                                            SERIRIT
                        JAYAPRANA                                                   •   GEROKGAK                •

                         u TAMAN     NASIONAL

                               •   PALASARI
         MELAYA •

                                                t NEGARA    •   MENDOYO
                                                                            RAMBIT SIWI
                                              r PENGAMBENGAN                •
                                        PERANCAK                                          •   PEKUTATAN
                                                                     MEDEWI BEACH e
         0 kilometres              10

         0 miles           5
                                                                     I N D I A N    O C E A N

         Banjar s                             Medewi Beach e               Pura Tanah Lot 1
         Blayu 7                              Mengwi pp129 –31 6           Sangeh 8
         Gilimanuk y                          Menjangan Island i           Singaraja pp144 –6 k
         Gitgit z                             Munduk f                     Tabanan 5
         Gunung Batukau w                     Negara t                     Taman Nasional Bali Barat
         Jagaraga x                           Pantai Gondol a                pp136 –7 u
         Kapal 2                              Pejaten 3                    Tejakula v
         Krambitan 4                          Pemuteran p                  Yeh Panas 0
         Lake Bratan and Bedugul j            Pengambangan r
         Lake Buyan h                         Pupuan d                     Tour
         Lovina l                             Pura Gangga q                Lake Tamblingan pp140 –41 g
         Makam Jayaprana o                    Pura Meduwe Karang
         Marga 9                                pp148 –9 c
                                        N O R T H         A N D      W E S T     B A L I                        127

                                                                 G ETTING A ROUND
                                                                 A car is the ideal means of travelling around
                                                                 North and West Bali, as the distances are
                                                                 relatively great, and public transport is non-
                                                                 existent in remoter places. Along the very busy
                                                                 main road from Denpasar via Mengwi to the port
                                                                 of Gilimanuk, there are branches off to sights
                                                                 including the mountain Gunung Batukau and the
                                                                 coastal temples of Tanah Lot. The main route
                                                                 from Denpasar to Singaraja gives access to sights
                                                                 such as Pura Taman Ayun and Bedugul. Both
                                                                 these major roads are served by bemo and public
                                                                 buses, as is the north-coast road from East Bali
          Ricefield being planted near Tabanan
                                                                 to Gilimanuk via Singaraja.

                                                  •            •   AIR SANIH
                              SANGSIT •            c
                                                   PURA MEDUWE KARANG
           SINGARAJA k
                                    JAGARAGA x
                                                                                             v TEJAKULA

                                          SAWAN •
                     l LOVINA

                                 GITGIT z                                                            Tulamben and
               •   SIDETAPA             LAKE
      J                               h                                                 •   KINTAMANI
                        f        gLAKE
                              TAMBLINGAN j
                                           LAKE BRATAN                                      Gunung Batur
                                                 AND BEDUGUL

            d                 GUNUNG
           PUPUAN                                     •   BATURITI
                                                      •   PACUNG
                          JATILUWIH •

                                    •   WONGAYA
                                           PANAS          PURA

                                               SANGGEH 8
                                        MARGA 9
                                                                        The forest temple Pura Alas Kedaton, Blayu

                                        BLAYU 7
                                                                                 S EE A LSO
              KRAMBITAN 4
                                         5                                       • Where to Stay pp177–9
                                TABANAN          6 MENGWI Ubud                   • Where to Eat pp190 –91
                                  KEDIRI •
                            PEJATEN       KAPAL 2
                                                                                 K EY
                                                                                     Major road
                    TANAH LOT 1
                                                                                     Minor road

                                                                                     Scenic route
                                                      Denpasar                       River

                                                                                 J Viewpoint
128                B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K         A R E A      B Y     A R E A

                                                                            There is also some attractive
                                                                            earthenware pottery here.
                                                                              In a quiet street leading off
                                                                            the main road is Pura Sada,
                                                                            the temple of origin of the
                                                                            royal house of Mengwi (see
                                                                            p47). Damaged during an
                                                                            earthquake in 1917, it was
                                                                            rebuilt in the 1960s by a team
                                                                            of Indonesian archaeologists
                                                                            based on the 17th-century
                                                                            original. The most interesting
                                                                            part is the 11-tier stone meru
                                                                            built in the style of a Javanese
                                                                            candi. Such towers are
Crossing the rocky approach to Pura Tanah Lot at low tide                   known as prasada, and are
                                                                            very rare in Bali. This
Pura Tanah Lot             1        associated with the saint               example is a reminder of the
                                    Dang Hyang Nirartha (see                kings’ claimed descent from
Tanah Lot. Road Map B4. c           pp46 –7). He is said to have            the Majapahit (see p46). The
@ from Denpasar & Kediri.           advised its construction in             tall, 16-m- (53-ft-) high phallic
n Tabanan, (0361) 811 602. # daily. order to protect Bali                              form emphasizes its
& donation. _ temple anniversary.   against scourges and                               dedication to the
0-=®                                epidemics; these de-                               Hindu god Shiva.
                                    structive forces were                              Affixed to the sides
      NE OF BALI’S MOST heavily     thought to originate                                of the tower are
O     promoted landmarks,
Pura Tanah Lot is a temple set
                                    from the sea.                                       images of the eight
                                                                                        lords of the compass
dramatically on a small island E NVIRONS : Along the                                  directions. Vishnu
about 100 m (100 yards) off         nearby coast, numerous                           and Brahma with
the coast. It can get very          temples and shrines have                         Shiva, the deities of
crowded, and to visit the           been built to protect                             the Hindu Trimurti
temple proper it is best to         Tanah Lot. They                                   (triad), are portrayed
arrive well before sunset,          include Pura Peken-             Statuary for      on the eastern side.
when there are not too many         dungan, Pura Jero               sale at Kapal     On the lower base
visitors around. As the sun         Kandang, Pura Galuh                               of the tower are
goes down, the shrines make         and Pura Batu Bolong.                   represented the seven seers
a magnificent silhouette            The latter stands on a small            of the Hindu-Balinese
against a glowing horizon – a promontory linked to the                      cosmos. The candi bentar
memorable sight despite the         mainland by a natural bridge.           (split gate) is decorated with
throngs of visitors at this time.                                           sets of Boma (guardian
The many handicraft,                                                        spirit) heads on the front and
souvenir and refreshment              Kapal     2                           back; these are split like the
stalls at Tanah Lot are a major                                             gate itself. The closely packed
source of income for the            Road Map C4. c @ from Kediri            rows of mini-shrines in the
region’s women and children. and Denpasar. n Tabanan, (0361)                temple yard are said to
  The islet – a promontory          811 602. =                              commemorate the crew of a
until the beginning of the                                                  ship that sank while trans-
20th century – is accessible                                                porting to Bali the sacred
on foot only at low tide. It is
quickly being eroded by the
                                      T HE MOST CONSPICUOUS
                                        feature of Kapal is
                                    hundreds of shops
                                                                            effigy of a Majapahit king.

onslaught of the sea. The           selling ready-made                        Pura Sada
cliffs around the island have       temple shrines and                      Banjar Pemebetan, near Banjar Celuk,
been carefully reinforced with somewhat “kitsch”                            Kapal. # daily. & donation.
concrete, and tripods have                   cement
been sunk into the sea to act                   statues.
as breakwaters.
  As its name suggests, the
temple is situated at the
meeting-point of land (tanah)
and sea (lot). The part that
faces the sea is dedicated to
the Balinese goddess of the
sea, Betara Tengah Segara,
while the landward side is
thought to be the seat of the
gods from Gunung Batukau
(see p133). The temple is           Cluster of small shrines at Pura Sada in Kapal
                               N O R T H     A N D     W E S T        B A L I                           129

Pejaten 3                           Tabanan 5                              small river called “Sacred
                                                                           River” – a name intended to
Road Map B4. c @ from               Road Map C4. c @ from                  appeal to visitors. The surfing
Denpasar & Tanah Lot. n Tabanan,    Denpasar. n Jalan Gunung Agung,        is good and basic accom-
(0361) 811 602.                     (0361) 811 602. 0 - = ®                modation is available.

    HE VILLAGE OF PEJATEN is                     bustling commer-          O Taman Kupu Kupu
T   home to a considerable
cottage industry that produces
                                    T  HIS IS A
                                         cial town. The interesting,
                                    if somewhat rundown, Muse-
                                                                           Jalan Batukau, Sandan Wanasari.
                                                                           § (0361) 814 282. # daily.
terracotta roof tiles, earthen-     um Subak has mock-ups of               &8
ware, pots with coloured            the subak irrigation systems
glazes, and other decorative        of Bali (see pp20 –21),
objects often attractively naive    whereby associations are               Mengwi 6
in character. It is a good place    formed by owners of land
to browse and bargain.              irrigated by a common water            Road Map C4. c @ from
                                    source. Some traditional               Denpasar & Bedugul. n Tabanan,
ENVIRONS: About 3 km                farming implements are                 (0361) 811 602. 0 -
(2 miles) northeast of                also displayed.
Pejaten is the village of                                                                      was for a
Kediri, with an ornate
white statue marking its
                                       p Museum Subak
                                        Jalan Raya Kediri, Sanggulan.
                                                                           T   HIS QUIET TOWN
                                                                               long time the seat of the
                                                                           most important kingdom in
centre. Kediri is                          § (0361) 810 315. # daily.      West Bali. It held sway over
important locally for                       ¢ public holidays.             the eastern tip of Java for
its cattle market and                       & donation.                    most of the 18th century (see
colourful fabrics. The                                                     p47). The lanes of the town
road from here south to                     E NVIRONS : Located in         are a pleasant setting for a
Tanah Lot crosses         Earthenware pot       Wanasari, 7 km (4          stroll. At Mengwi is a temple
enchanting rural         produced in Pejaten miles) north on the           set in a water-garden, Pura
landscapes of Bali.                             road to Gunung             Taman Ayun (see pp130 –31).
                                    Batukau, Taman Kupu Kupu
                                    is a small butterfly park,             E NVIRONS : The road from
Krambitan           4               home to some rare species.             Mengwi to Sangeh offers
                                    Black-sand beaches line                views of ricefields and temples.
Road Map B4. c @ from Tabanan.      the coastal road to Negara             Baha, 5 km (3 miles) north of
n Tabanan, (0361) 811 602. ®        (see p134). Surabrata, also            Mengwi, is a village restored
                                    called Balian Beach, 30 km             to its traditional state, a good
     HE SMALL TOWN of               (19 miles) west of Tabanan,            place to see the house com-
T    Krambitan was an old
agrarian kingdom until the
                                    is charming. It has a fishing
                                    village set by a cliff, and a
                                                                           pounds and temples typical
                                                                           of a Balinese community.
turn of the 20th century. It
still has a village-like
atmosphere and some old
architecture. Krambitan is an
important repository of
Balinese classical culture.
   Two palaces, Puri Anyar
and Puri Agung Wisata,
operate as guesthouses.
Occasionally, “royal parties”
of Balinese dances take
place, complete with torches
and tektekan, a form of
gamelan music in which
cengceng (cymbals) are
augmented by bamboo sticks
or wooden cowbells.

T Puri Anyar and
Puri Agung Wisata
§ (0361) 812 774. # daily.
¢ public hols. & donation. F

E NVIRONS : Klating Beach, on
the coast 6 km (4 miles) south
of Krambitan, is an unspoiled
black-sand beach with some
simple losmen accommodation
available nearby.                   Ricefields in the regency of Tabanan
130              B A L I    A N D      L O M B O K   A R E A   B Y     A R E A

Mengwi: Pura Taman Ayun
                    (“Vast Garden”) temple, in its moated
    setting, symbolizes the Hindu world set in the cosmic
sea. Its meru towers represent the mountains, residence
of the gods. Located on an axis connecting the mountains
with the sea, Pura Taman Ayun is thought to ensure the
harmonious circulation of water from the mountains of
Bali to the ricefields, then to the sea, and back to the
mountains. Originally established in 1740, the temple was
restored in 1937. In it there are ancestral shrines of the
former ruling Mengwi family and their dependants, as                 . Eleven-tiered Meru
well as shrines dedicated to particular mountains, to                The tallest meru symbolizes
the sea and to agricultural deities.                                 the mountain Gunung
                                                                     Batukau (see p133).

Water from the inner moat is used to
cleanse the temple during festivals such
as odalan (temple anniversaries).

Some of the meru towers are shrines to the deities of
Bali’s mountains, Gunung Batur (see pp120 –21),
Gunung Agung (see p114) and Gunung Batukau (see
p133); in the courtyard is a Javanese candi (shrine).

         Outer                                                          Bale
                                                                        Several bale (wooden
                                                                        pavilions) are built on
                                                                        carved stone bases.
 S TAR F EATURES                                                        One contains a lotus
                                                                        throne on which
 . Eleven-tiered Meru
                                                                        Hindu deities Shiva,
 . Kori Agung                                                           Brahma and Vishnu
                                                                        are believed to sit.
                          N O R T H       A N D      W E S T      B A L I                           131

                                                                       V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                       Mengwi. Road Map C4.
                                                                       § (0361) 756 175. @ from
                                                                       Denpasar. # 7am – 6pm daily.
                                                                       ¢ some sections closed to
                                                                       public except during festivals.
                                                                       & ^ In the courtyards. 0
                                                                       _ Odalan (temple festival) on
                                                                       Anggarkasih Medangsia of the
                                                                       Balinese calendar.

Inner Moat
Behind the main gateway, the inner courtyard is                             Stone Statues
surrounded on three sides by a moat, parts of                               Guardian figures
which are filled with lotuses.                                              derived from
                   Footpaths outside the inner                              mythology stand
                   moat are accessible to visitors                          by the main gate.
                   from the outer courtyard and
                   give views of the most sacred
                   part of the temple.

                                                                              Brick Walls
                                                                              Lavishly decorated
                                                                              walls delineate the
                                                                              main areas of the
                                                                              temple. They are
                                                                              built the traditional
                                                                              way, without mortar.

                                     The candi bentar
                                     (split gate) separates
                                     the first courtyard from the
                                     grassy areas outside. Visitors
                                     may pass through here.

                             . Kori Agung
 On the lintel of the kori agung (main gate)
is a rare carving of Sai, a guardian figure,
with gods and godly seers to each side. The
    doors are open only during ceremonies.
132                B A L I      A N D     L O M B O K        A R E A     B Y    A R E A

Blayu 7                                                           T HE B ATTLE       OF   M ARGA
Road Map C3. @ from Denpasar &                                    In February 1946, after the Japanese
Kediri. n Tabanan, (0361) 811 602.                                surrendered at the end of World
                                                                  War II, the Dutch strove to reestab-
    LAYU, LIKE NEARBY  Mambal,                                    lish their colonial authority in Bali.
B   is a scenic village on a
road lined with beautiful kori
                                                                  Local nationalists led a guerrilla war
                                                                  against them. On 20 November
house gates typical of the area.                                  1946, 94 Balinese fighters under the
Near the village is the monkey                                    command of Gusti Ngurah Rai were
forest of Alas Kedaton. In the                                    trapped by Dutch troops west of
temple, Pura Alas Kedaton,                                        Marga. Surrounded on the ground
is an ancient statue of Ganesha,                                  and strafed from the air, they fought
Hindu god of knowledge                                            to the last, in a modern repeat of
                                                                  the ritual puputan (see p51). After
  Pura Alas Kedaton                                               this bloody defeat, resistance
# daily. & 8 _ Anggarkasih                                        waned and Bali was to remain
Medangsia (29 Mar & 25 Oct 2005,         The memorial tower at    effectively under Dutch control
23 May & 19 Dec 2006, 17 July 2007).     Margarana                until the end of 1949.

                                       try to climb up on visitors’        the Margarana Monument.
                                       shoulders, and will not             Besides the graves of the 94
                                       get down unless given                guerrillas fallen at the battle
                                       something to eat.                       (rana) of Marga, the
                                       Brusque movements                        garden contains monu-
                                       can provoke them to                       ments to 1,372 heroes of
                                       bite. The animals                         the War of Independence
                                       may even take                            in the 1940s. The graves
                                       spectacles or money,                     do not resemble Christian,
                                       in which case a                           Muslim or even Hindu
                                       pawang (monkey                           graves: they are small,
                                       tamer) will retrieve the                 meru-shaped structures
                                       stolen object using a       A monkey in reminiscent of the
Meru tower at Pura Alas Kedaton,       banana as an incentive.        Sangeh      ancient temples from
in the monkey forest near Blayu                                                   the Javanese empire of
                                         Pura Bukit Sari                   Majapahit (see p46).
                                       Sangeh. # daily. &                     The central monument, not
Sangeh 8                                                                   to be mistaken for a Balinese
                                                                           meru shrine, is designed as it
Road Map C3. @ from Denpasar.          Marga        9                      is to symbolize the day of the
n Tabanan, (0361) 811 602. - =                                             proclamation of indepen-
                                       Road Map C3. c @ from Denpa-        dence, 17 August 1945. The
                       in              sar & Mengwi. n Tabanan, (0361)     four steps and five small
      many gorges and moun-
tains around Bali, and a good
                                       811 602.                            pillars at its foot represent the
                                                                           year (45); the eight tiers of its
place to see them is the                    HE VILLAGE OF MARGA is the     roof give the month (August);
monkey forest of Sangeh. It
consists of nutmeg trees,
                                       T    site of a battle between
                                       the Dutch and the Balinese
                                                                           and the height of 17 m (56 ft)
                                                                           gives the day (17). A statue of
some as high as 30 – 40 m              guerrillas in 1946. On the          Gusti Ngurah Rai (see p51)
(100 –130 ft). Monkeys can be          western side of the village is      completes the scene.
seen around a small temple,
Pura Bukit Sari, deep in the
woods, but signposted on the
main road. The monkeys are
considered sacred, a tradition
deriving from the Hindu
Ramayana epic, in which
Prince Rama allied himself
with the monkey kings Subali
and Hanoman to attack the
evil king Rawana.
   The monkeys should be
approached with caution.
People will be greeted with
mischievous grins, but it is
not advisable to get too
friendly – the monkeys may             At Marga, shrines to independence fighters at the Margarana monument
                               N O R T H       A N D    W E S T      B A L I                        133

                                                                          worshippers performing rites
                                                                          or requesting holy water from
                                                                          the temple priests.
                                                                            The charm of the temple’s
                                                                          setting lies in a blend of
                                                                          artifice and nature: the spires
                                                                          of its meru shrines and other
                                                                          dark-thatched pavilions
                                                                          appear to be engulfed by the
                                                                          forest. Trees, bushes and
                                                                          grass are all in various shades
                                                                          of green, which contrast with
                                                                          the black and reddish profile
                                                                          of the roofs and walls of the
The hot-spring resort and hotel in Yeh Panas                              temple. Hence the origin of
                                                                          the name given to the central
                                                                          deity of the temple: Sang
Yeh Panas 0                          Gunung Batukau w                     Hyang Tumuwuh, “The Ulti-
                                                                          mate Plant Grower”.
Penatahan, near Penebel.             Road Map B2. @ from Denpasar &         In the centre of a nearby
Road Map C3. @ from Denpasar &       Tabanan. n Tabanan, (0361) 811       artificial pool is a small
Tabanan. § (0361) 262 356. #         602. - =                             shrine, dedicated to the Lord
6am–8pm daily. & 0 - ® m                                                  of Gunung Batukau and the
                                                            is the        goddess of nearby Lake

   by the Yeh Panas hot
                                     G   UNUNG BATUKAU
                                           second highest peak in
                                     Bali (Gunung Agung being
                                                                          Tamblingan (see pp140 –41).

springs on the road to               the highest). On its slopes is        Pura Luhur Batukau
Gunung Batukau from                  the last remaining true              # daily. & donation. ^ some
Tabanan or Penebel. There            rainforest on the island. The        areas.
are several sulphurous               mountain is much revered by
springs in this area. The main       the Balinese as the source of        E NVIRONS : To the east of Pura
hot springs have been turned         irrigation water for areas to        Luhur Batukau on the road to
into a spa, which also has a         the south and west of it.            Baturiti are the famous rice
hotel; those which are open             The temple of Pura Luhur          terraces of Jatiluwih,
to the public are clearly            Batukau is located among             stretching down to the sea in
indicated by signs. There is         the lofty trees at its foot. It is   the far distance. Rice
also a spring temple here.           seen as very important by the        granaries line the road in the
  Hot springs are also to be         Balinese because of its              local villages. Other beautiful
found in the village of Angsri       geographical position at Bali’s      rice terraces are are to be
near Apuan. They are in a            highest western peak. There          seen in Pacung, at the turn-
pleasant, natural setting, but       is a constant stream of              off to Jatiluwih and Batukau.
have no modern facilities.

Pura Gangga q
On a small road leading through
Perean to Apuan and Baturiti. Road
Map C3. n Tabanan, (0361) 811
602. ¢ to visitors. -

    URA GANGGA is a temple on
P   the main highway to
Bedugul. It is named after the
holy river Ganges (Gangga)
in India, and is set on the
lush banks of a small river.
The temple has a seven-tier
meru with a stone base. It is
unusual in that the base is
open at the front, rather than
entirely closed in the usual
fashion. Although the temple
is not open to visitors, its
atmospheric compound and
architectural features can
easily be viewed from outside
the precincts.                       Rice-producing lands in Jatiluwih, near Gunung Batukau
134                B A L I      A N D     L O M B O K       A R E A     B Y    A R E A

                                                                         Negara t
                                                                         c @ from Denpasar & Gilimanuk.
                                                                         n Jalan Ngurah Rai, (0365) 41 193.

                                                                                               of Negara
                                                                         T    HE REAL CHARM
                                                                               lies in the Bugis origin of
                                                                          its urban core. On both sides
                                                                          of the Ijo Gading River, south
                                                                          of the central bridge on Jalan
                                                                          Gatot Subroto, is the Bugis
                                                                          community of Loloan. A walk
                                                                          on its streets evokes the
                                                                          atmosphere of Sulawesi,
                                                                          where many early Bugis
                                                                          migrants originated (see box).
                                                                          Wooden houses with
                                                                          elaborately carved balconies
Pura Rambut Siwi, a temple on a promontory west of Medewi Beach           line the streets. The most
                                                                          beautiful are at the end of
Medewi Beach               e           Pengambangan              r        Jalan Gunung Agung and on
                                                                          nearby Jalan Puncak Jaya.
c @ from Denpasar. n Negara,        n Negara, (0365) 41 060.              Loloan boasts several
(0365) 41 060. 0 ®                                                        traditional pesantren (Islamic
                                        HIS MUSLIM settlement lies        boarding schools); many

M     EDEWI IS A surfers’ haunt
       on the west coast of
                                       Ton the bank of the Ijo
                                    Gading river. Lined up
                                                                          shipowners’ sons were trained
                                                                          as ulema (religious scholars)
Bali. The long, rolling break-      along the shore are                   in the holy city of Mecca.
ers can be 7 m (23 ft) high.        brightly painted Bugis                   Negara is also known for its
The beach is composed of            boats. Each one has a                      jegog, gamelan orchestras
black sand, over which are          miniature mosque on                            playing huge bamboo
scattered small black stones.       top of its mast, a                             instruments (see p33).
The beach is a memorable            reminder of the                                       A sport which
sight when the stones glitter       Islamic traditions of                                 was introduced
under the rays of the setting       the Bugis. Not far                                    to West Bali by
sun. On the horizon is the          away is a full-sized                                  the descendants
shape of the Javanese coast.        mosque, with                                          of the Madurese
Visitors will find some basic       Islamic arches and                                    of East Java is
hotels and restaurants here.        a shining dome.                                       the mekepung.
                                    Music with a                                          This is a race in
E NVIRONS : The Pura Rambut Middle Eastern                 The mekepung buffalo race, which jockeys
Siwi temple complex is built        flavour often            a regular event in Negara     compete in
on a promontory, 6 km (4            blares from the                                        decorated two-
miles) west of Medewi Beach. coffee shops here; the place                 wheeled chariots drawn by a
The setting offers a fine           has a particular atmosphere.          pair of water buffaloes. The
panorama over the sea. The                                                most exciting races can be
main temple was established         E NVIRONS : The village of            seen from July to October.
to venerate the priest Dang         Perancak, on the other side
Hyang Nirartha (pp46 –7),           of the river, has a mosque            E NVIRONS : A small road 4 km
after he cured the local            with tiered roof in the               (2 miles) west of Negara leads
villagers of a deadly illness.      traditional Indonesian style.         to the quiet beach of Rening,
There is a single, three-tiered
meru. A lock of hair (rambut),
believed to be the priest’s, is
kept as a relic in the pavilion
shrine, or gedong. The temple
entrance faces the sea and is
guarded by a superbly carved
statue of the demonic figure,
Rangda (see p25). There are
other smaller temples in caves
along the nearby cliff.

 Pura Rambut Siwi
6 km (4 miles) west of Medewi Beach,
then 500 m (1,650 ft) south.
# daily. & donation.                   The mosque in Perancak, across the river from Pengambangan
                              N O R T H        A N D     W E S T      B A L I                            135

                                                                          The main architectural feature
                                                                          is an enormous arched
                                                                          “gateway to Bali”, surmount-
                                                                          ed by four flaming dragons
                                                                          facing in the cardinal
                                                                          directions, with a throne of
                                                                          heaven in the centre.

                                                                          E NVIRONS : North of
                                                                          Gilimanuk at Cekik, the
                                                                          Museum Purbakala
                                                                          (Archaeological Museum),
                                                                          displays some sarcophagi
                                                                          and neolithic tools excavated
                                                                          from a nearby funerary site.
                                                                          Some promising archaeo-
North of Negara, the large Catholic church at Palasari                    logical discoveries have been
                                                                          made here showing signs of
8 km (5 miles) away, where
bungalows are available.
                                      Gilimanuk y                         pre-Bronze Age human
                                                                          settlement in this area. Also in
From the nearby Cape Rening           c @ from Denpasar & Singaraja.      Cekik is the headquarters of
there is a beautiful sunset           4 from Ketapang, Java. n Negara,    the Taman Nasional Bali
view over the mountains of            (0365) 41 193. 0 - = ®              Barat (see pp136 –7), the
eastern Java. Another good                                                nature reserve covering a
beach is Candi Kusuma, 13                             the ferry port      substantial area of West Bali.
km (8 miles) west of Negara.
   To the north are two
                                      G    ILIMANUK IS
                                           to Java. There are many
                                      warung here catering for            p Museum Purbakala
Christian villages: Palasari          travellers who sometimes            Jalan Raya. § (0365) 61 328.
(Catholic) and Blimbingsari           have to wait hours for a ferry.     # Sun – Fri. & 8
(Protestant). These were
established at the end of the
1930s on State land passed by
the Dutch to Balinese
converts to Christianity, who
were excluded from their
own community. The
religious architecture in both
villages is an interesting mix
of Balinese and Dutch-Nordic
styles. Near Palasari an
irrigation reservoir provides
tranquil landscape views.             The arched “gateway to Bali” at Gilimanuk

  T HE B UGIS       IN   B ALI
  The Bugis, who are Muslims, are a seafaring people
  known for their adventurousness. They originated in
  Sulawesi, one of the Greater Sunda islands north of
  Bali. After Makasar in Sulawesi fell to the Dutch in
  1667, thousands fled, many of them sailing to Java and
  Bali. East Java was in turmoil at the time. In both Java
  and Bali the Bugis were often hired as mercenaries.
  The estuary of the Ijo Gading River in the Balinese
  kingdom of Jembrana was a good anchorage, and in
  the 1680s a company of Bugis offered their services to
  the king. In due course they moved up-river, and
  settled next to the king’s palace at Negara. Other Bugis
  communities settled on Bali’s north coast. Bugis
  mercenaries helped the king of Buleleng, Panji Sakti,
  occupy Blambangan, Java, in 1697.
    As late as the end of the 19th century, a group of
  Bugis in South Bali were operating as pirates from
  Pulau Serangan (see p72) near Denpasar.
    The Bugis controlled Bali’s trade with Java until the
  mid-20th century, when the opening of the ferry link
  in Gilimanuk destroyed their economic power. Most of            Bugis boats painted in the traditional
  them are now impoverished fishermen.                            bright colours
136              B A L I     A N D          L O M B O K                    A R E A             B Y   A R E A

Taman Nasional Bali Barat                                                 u

                        HE FAR WEST of Bali is
                        occupied by the Taman
                    Nasional Bali Barat (“West
   Heliconia flower Bali National Park”). This is a
                    wildlife preserve established
by the Dutch in 1941, bordered by a large area
of protected, productive land. The preserve
aims to safeguard Bali’s remaining wilderness
and provides sanctuary for some threatened                                        . Mangroves and Wetlands
species. Permits are required for anyone who                                      Mangrove roots protect the coast
wants to stay overnight or to penetrate deeply                                    from erosion; the wetlands are home
into the park. Only travel on foot is allowed.                                    to fish, mudskippers and crabs.

                                                                                  The Bali Starling Breeding
                                              GUNUNG                              Facility is a haven for the
                                            PRAPAT AGUNG                          endangered birds.
                                                   332 m                          Labuhan
                                                 (1,100 ft)                                          Banyuwedang
                                                                                   Lalang            •

                                                                Teluk Terima        •
                                                                                                              Pemuteran         Pura Pulaki
                                •    Gilimanuk

                                                                              A   RK        J Jayaprana
                                                                          L P
                             Cekik                             TIO                   GUNUNG

                                                                                    BAKUNGAN               GUNUNG
                                             GUNUNG KELATAKAN                                             SANGIANG             GUNUNG
                                                                                          603 m                                MERBUK
                                                        698 m                           (1,900 ft)         1,004 m
                                                      (2,300 ft)                                          (3,300 ft)            1,385 m
                                                                                                                               (4,550 ft)
Reefs and Marine Life                                                      •   Blimbingsari

The park includes the                    Sumbersari   •                                                                                GUNUNG
marine environment                                                                                                                      MESEHE
                                                                                   Palasari                                             1,344 m
around Menjangan                                                                        •
                                                                                                                                       (4,450 ft)
                                                                •    Malaya
Island (see p138), a
good diving site rich
in fish and coral.

        Nature Walk
  A short trek, taken                                                                                                  •

   with a guide from                                                                                                   Negara

      the park head-                                                                                                                        Mendoyo   •

  quarters, passes by                                                                                       Perancak
 rivers and through                                                                                              •

  rainforest. Close to
the route are several
        forest shrines
 including one with
       a hilltop view.

                                                  . Savanna
 S TAR S IGHTS                         Along the north slopes
                                     of the central mountain
 . Mangroves and                       range grow deciduous
   Wetlands                           acacia, palm trees and
                                      arid shrubs. Plants live
 . Savanna
                                     for long periods without
 . Sambar Deer                                rain on this dry
                                          savanna grassland.
                                                   N O R T H          A N D    W E S T          B A L I                            137

                                                          Fertile grasslands stretch                 V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                          out towards the sea near                   Administered by the Indonesian
                                                          the quiet beach of Pantai                  Forestry Service (PHPA). Visitors
                                                          Gondol. A fishery                          must apply for permits at these
                                                          research project is                        offices. City Office: Jalan
                                                                                                     Suwung 40, Box 329, Denpasar.
                                                          located here.
                                                                                                     Park Headquarters: Jalan Raya
                                                                                                     Gilimanuk, Cekik. § (0365) 61
                                                                                                     060. # 8am – 2pm Mon –Thu,
                                                                                                     8 – 11am Fri, 8am –noon Sat.
                                                                                                     Ranger Station and Branch
                                                                                                     Office: Labuhan Lalang.
                                                                                                     # 8am – 6pm daily. 8 &

                                                                                                   K EY
                                                                                                          Major road

                                  . Sambar Deer                                                           Minor road
                            The forested mountain                                                         Walking trail
                          slopes are the habitat of                                                       Wildlife preserve boundary
                           these deer, which roam
                                 freely in the park.                                               J Viewpoint

Gondol                                     B A
                                               L I                                                 0 kilometres                        10
                                                              S E A
                                                                                            •      0 miles                    5

          GUNUNG MUSI
                                                                                  Munduk         T HE B ALI S TARLING
             1,244 m
            (4,100 ft)                                                                           The Bali starling (Leucopsar
                                                                                                 rothschildi), also known as
                                      GUNUNG PATAS
                                                                                                 Rothschild’s mynah, is the only
                                            1,412 m                                              surviving bird endemic to Bali
                                           (4,650 ft)                                            and one of the world’s most
                                                                                                 endangered bird species.
                                                                                                 Numbers surviving in the wild
                                                                                                 have declined to less than ten
                                                                                    PUPUAN       during the last few years.
                                                                                                   The conservation project in
                               TED                                                               the West Bali National Park is
                                           DUC                                                   an internationally supported
                                                         LAND                                    attempt to save the species, by
                                                                                                 breeding the birds in captivity
                                                                                                 before releasing them to the
                                                                                                 wild. At the breeding facility,
                                                                                                 Bali starlings are protected
                                                                                                 from poaching, the principal
                                                                                                 cause of their declining
                                                                                                 numbers in the wild.
                                       •      •   Pekutatan

                                                                      DENPASAR & TABANAN

                                                        Balinese Sapi
                                                        These local cattle,
                                                        descended from the wild
                                                        banteng, now rare, have
                                                        been domesticated for                    The endangered Bali starling
                                                        heavy work in the ricefields.
138               B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K         A R E A       B Y     A R E A

                                                                           E NVIRONS : A little west of
                                                                           Pemuteran is the small bay of
                                                                           Banyuwedang. The name is
                                                                           Balinese for “hot springs”.
                                                                           There are many springs along
                                                                           this shore, supposedly with
                                                                           curative powers. They are
                                                                           alternately covered and
                                                                           exposed by the tide. A spa
                                                                           resort, Mimpi Resort
                                                                           Menjangan (see p178), has
                                                                           been built over one of them.
                                                                              Pura Pulaki, about 5 km
                                                                           (3 miles) east of Pemuteran,
                                                                           is a coastal temple near a
Shrine dedicated to a romantic hero at Makam Jayaprana                     point where a mountain ridge
                                                                           plunges abruptly into the sea,
Menjangan Island i                     panoramic view over Gunung
                                       Raung in Java, Menjangan
                                                                           almost blocking the coastal
                                                                           passage. It is associated with
c @ to Labuhan Lalang from             Island and Gilimanuk is             the priest Dang Hyang
Denpasar & Seririt. 4 from Labuhan     ample reward for the effort.        Nirartha (see pp46 –7) who is
Lalang. n Labuhan Lalang, (0365)       The shrine was built on the         said to have turned the local
61 060. & 8                            burial site of Jayaprana, a         inhabitants into gamang
                                       romantic hero of Balinese           (ghosts). Living around it are
    OR DIVING and snorkelling          folklore. According to legend,      monkeys, often mischievous;
F   in a pristine environment,         Jayaprana had married a
Menjangan Island is not to be woman named Layonsari, of
                                                                           they are regarded as holy.

missed. Technically part of            such extreme beauty that the          Pura Pulaki
Taman Nasional Bali Barat              Lord of Kalianget decided to        Banyu Poh. # daily. & donation.
(see pp136 –7), it owes its            get rid of him and marry her.       ^ certain areas.
name to the Java deer (men-                        The king pretended
jangan), which                                     that Bugis pirates
wander across from                                 had landed in Gili-      Pantai Gondol a
the mainland at low                                 manuk and sent
tide. There are                                     Jayaprana with a        6 km (4 miles) west of Grogak, across
eight main diving                                  body of soldiers to      the field next to the Fisheries Research
points around the                                 repel them. When          Project (Perikanan). c @
island, each with                              they came to their           n Singaraja, (0362) 25 141.
its own marine                                  destination the soldiers
life. The best is                               killed Jayaprana.                               is located at
perhaps the
Anchor Wreck,
                        A lionfish and coral    However, resisting the
                       off Menjangan Island advances of the king,
                                                                            G    ONDOL BEACH
                                                                                 the foot of a small pro-
                                                                            montory, the Gondol Cape.
named for the                                  Layonsari killed herself     With beautiful white sand and
encrusted anchor on the reef. to rejoin her beloved Jayapra-                coral, it is a good, uncrowded
   Labuhan Lalang, on the              na in death.                         spot for snorkelling and
bay of Teluk Terima, is Bali’s            Today, suitors ask for            diving. However, there are
nearest point of access to             favours of love at the grave.        no visitor facilities here.
Menjangan Island. Boat                 It is decorated with statues
tickets may be bought at the           of Jayaprana and Layonsari.
office of the Department of
Forestry here. The last boats
leave for Menjangan Island at        Pemuteran             p
11am and return at dusk.
There is basic accom-                  c @ n Singaraja, (0362) 25 141.
modation at Labuhan Lalang.            0-®

                                                      a fast-growing
Makam Jayaprana o                    P   EMUTERAN IS
                                         coastal resort and fishing
                                     village with the best white-
Teluk Terima. c @ from Denpasar      sand beach in North Bali. It
& Seririt. n Singaraja, (0362) 25    has beautiful coral reefs with
141. # daily. & 8                    a profusion of tropical fish.
                                     There are good diving and
                                     snorkelling spots, and a turtle
    (“Jayaprana Mausoleum”)
is also a temple. It has to be
                                     sanctuary. It is a convenient
                                     place for visitors to Menjan-
reached by a climb from the          gan Island to stay overnight;          The beach at Pantai Gondol, still
road (see p136); however the         a boat can be rented here.             pleasantly undeveloped
                              N O R T H        A N D      W E S T    B A L I                          139

Air Panas at Banjar, a natural hot spring popular with visitors

Banjar s                              There are three pools; in the      was unknown here until
                                      highest one the water is hot.      recently. Whereas the
Road Map A1. c @ to Seririt,          Eight carved dragon-heads          Balinese generally build a
then own transport. n Singaraja       spurt out greenish-yellow,         whole range of shrines for
(0362) 25 141. 0 - =                  sulphurous water believed to       gods and ancestors behind
                                      be therapeutic for complaints      their houses, the people of
     ANJAR IS A TOWN of historic      of the skin. The hot water is      Pedawa build a single
B    significance, set on the
coastal plain with the North
                                      considered sacred by the
                                      locals – a temple has been
                                                                         bamboo structure.
                                                                           There are two routes from
Bali uplands as a backdrop.           built around the spring,           Banjar to Pedawa: both run
In 1871, when still a semi-           which is set in cool and           through stunning mountain
independent kingdom run by            shady surroundings.                and plantation landscapes.
a brahman family, it put up                                                In Sidatapa, a village on
strong resistance to Dutch            E NVIRONS : From Banjar one        another road running inland
encroachment. This confron-           can visit Pedawa, 10 km            from Banjar, there still remain
tation is known as the Banjar         (6 miles) inland. This remote      some interesting old houses
War. The ruling family was            place is a Bali Aga village        constructed of bamboo.
eliminated in one of Bali’s           (see p46). It was one of the
first recorded puputan, or            villages which rebelled              Brahma Vihara Ashrama
“fights to the last” (see p48).       against the Javanese               Between Banjar and Pedawa.
   The brahmans from Banjar           occupation of 1343, and has        § (0362) 92 954. # daily.
are famous for their literary         retained Hindu cultural            & donation. 8
talents. In the 19th century          features dating from before
they adapted texts from               that time. Indeed, the Hindu       s Air Panas Banjar
classical Kawi (Old Javanese)         triad of Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva       # daily. & donation. m
into common Balinese.
   Brahma Vihara Ashrama
(see p23) is a Buddhist
monastery built in 1970 by a
powerful local brahman,
Bhikku Giri Rakhita, who
converted to Theravada Bud-
dhism, the form of Buddhism
prevalent in Thailand. The
temple contains many Thai
iconographic features. There
is an impressive view from
the monastery over a nearby
valley and the shoreline.
   Another highlight of Banjar
is the Air Panas hot spring,
popular with both locals and
visitors from nearby Lovina.          The Buddhist monastery of Brahma Vihara Ashrama at Banjar
140               B A L I     A N D    L O M B O K       A R E A     B Y     A R E A

                                                                       Munduk f
                                                                       Road Map B2. c @ from
                                                                       Singaraja & Seririt. n Singaraja,
                                                                       (0362) 25 141. 0 = ®

                                                                       M    UNDUK IS A
                                                                             village amid plantations
                                                                       of coffee and cloves. It is set
                                                                       on a high ridge near the
                                                                       volcanic lakes of Tamblingan,
                                                                       Buyan and Bratan. In the area
                                                                       there are still a few rest-
A large bunutan tree spanning the road near Pupuan                     houses from the 1920s, built
                                                                       in a mixed Dutch Colonial-
Pupuan d                           forested pass 790 m (2,600 ft)
                                   high into lush spice-growing
                                                                       Chinese style. In the village
                                                                       it is possible to visit the
Road Map B2. c @ from              countryside. It then winds          workshop of I Made Trip,
Denpasar & Singaraja. n Tabanan,   down to Blimbing and Bajra          Bali’s most famous maker of
(0361) 811 602. 0                  before passing rice terraces,       bamboo instruments.
                                   with rice barns along the              Munduk is an ideal base for
    UPUAN IS BALI’S vegetable-     road. The road southwest to         exploring on rented bicycles,
P   growing centre, situated in
the rainiest part of the whole
                                   Pekukatan passes a coffee
                                   plantation area, and at one
                                                                       for mountain walks to
                                                                       Pedawa, for ricefield walks to
island. The area around it is      point is arched by the roots        Uma Jero, or for a tour of
cool and mountainous. The          of a huge bunutan tree.             Lake Tamblingan and Lake
road from Seririt to Antosari                                          Bratan. There are several
travels through some of Bali’s     E NVIRONS : At Blimbing,            waterfalls in the area – the
most beautiful landscape,          12 km (7 miles) to the south,       most spectacular, 30 m (100
with excellent coastal views.      is the nearest accommoda-           ft) high, can be found 1 km
It climbs steeply via Busung-      tion; there are panoramic           (half a mile) along the road
biu, Pupuan, and through a         views and a restaurant.             eastwards to Bedugul.

                                                                                    Pura Ulun Danu
   Lake Tamblingan Tour g                                                           Tamblingan 3
                                                                                    The walk begins with
       HIS TOUR OF the mountain lakes
   T   incorporates a boat trip, a walk and a
   scenic drive. From Gubug, fishermen
                                                                                    a flight of steps to
                                                                                    the temple. From a
                                                                                    courtyard the trail
   take visitors across Lake Tamblingan in a                                        leads into the forest.
   dugout canoe, skirting the north shore
   where dense forest descends to the edge
   of the water. The lake is the most
   unspoiled one on the island and is
   located in a volcanic caldera. It is
   surrounded by primary forest with                                                                  3         5
   monkeys and many species of birds to                                              2

   discover. The forest resounds with

                                                       MUNDUK                                         6
   birdsong, especially that of barbets.

                                                     Sacred Spring 2
                                                     Inside a cave, marked           7
                                                     by parasols and only
                                                     accessible by water,
                                                     there is a sacred spring.

                                                     Gubug 1
                                                     A warung in the village of
                                                     Gubug gives information on                            GUNUNG
                                                     the area. There is no trail                           LESONG

                                                     along the north shore and
                                                     travel by canoe is necessary to
   Dugout canoe crossing Lake Tamblingan             see parts of Lake Tamblingan.
                                  N O R T H             A N D   W E S T      B A L I                               141

                                                                                setting for the Pura Ulun
                                                                                Danu Bratan temple, built on
                                                                                a small island. The 17th-
                                                                                century temple is dedicated to
                                                                                the goddess of the lake, Dewi
                                                                                Danu. There is a small stupa-
                                                                                shaped shrine for Buddhist
                                                                                worshippers, with statues of
                                                                                Buddhas occupying niches
                                                                                that mark the four points of
                                                                                the compass. The panorama
                                                                                includes an 11-tiered meru
                                                                                located on the shore across a
                                                                                wooden bridge.
                                                                                   The 155-ha (390-acre) Eka
  Paragliding, one of the water activities available at Lake Bratan             Karya Botanic Gardens
                                                                                contains 320 species of
  Lake Buyan h                            Lake Bratan and                       orchids, a herbarium, a fern
                                                                                garden and a collection of
  Road Map B2 & C2. c @ from
                                          Bedugul j                             plants used for making jamu
  Singaraja. n Singaraja, (0362) 25                                             (traditional medicines).
                                          Road Map C2. c @ from
  141. 0 = ®                                                                       To the north of Lake Bratan,
                                          Singaraja & Denpasar. n Tabanan,
                                                                                the well-manicured Bali
                                          (0361) 811 602. 0 - = ®
      HERE ARE GREAT VIEWS over                                                 Handara Kosaido Country
  T   the lake from the moun-
  tain road – dense forest scrub          L  AKE BRATAN offers a variety
                                              of water activities such as
                                                                                Club (see p204) is renowned
                                                                                for having one of the world’s
  vanishes at the shoreline into          parasailing and water-skiing.         best golf courses.
  the water. Boats can be hired           Visitors can hire boats by the
  from fishermen and treks                lake and there are guides for         O Eka Karya Botanic
  organized to a cave on the              treks to the peaks, such as           Gardens
  slopes of Gunung Lesong,                Gunung Puncak Manggu and              Kebun Raya, west of Candi Kuning.
  to Gesing or to Munduk.                 Gunung Catur. The lake is the         § (0368) 21 273. # daily. - m

                                      Pura Pekemitan Kangin 4
                                      This temple on the ridge, up a
                                                                               T IPS   FOR   WALKERS
                                      long winding flight of steps,            Start point: Gubug by canoe.
                                      overlooks the narrow forested            End point: Return to Gubug on
                                      isthmus separating the two lakes.        foot and proceed by pre-
                                                                               arranged vehicle on the scenic
            8                                                                  road along the top of the ridge,
                                           Rainforest 5                        heading west to Bedugul.
                                           Many trails lead into the dense     Getting there: Own transporta-
                                           tropical rainforest extending       tion via Bedugul or Munduk.
                                           towards Lake Buyan. The             When to go: Mornings. Avoid
                                           vegetation is characterized by      the rainy season when trails are
                              BEGUGUL      vines, creepers and massive         slippery and infested by leeches.
                                           trees with huge buttress roots.     Tour time: 2 – 3 hours.

                                             Pura Dalem Gubug 6
  Gubug 7                               A short trail leads to this lake-
  From here, the tour                    side temple, which has a tall
  continues by car on                   meru on a small promontory.
  the ridge-top road.                       A path then leads through
                                        open pasture back to Gubug.

  Lake Buyan 8                        K EY
  As you travel along the
                                            Boat trip
  road, you can enjoy
  views of the lakes from                   Walk route
  the caldera rim.
                                            Drive route

  0 kilometres            2                 Minor road

  0 miles            1
144              B A L I     A N D     L O M B O K          A R E A      B Y       A R E A

Street-by-Street: Singaraja                             k

                      ITH ITS WATERFRONT MOSQUES, temples,
                W    market and well-ordered streets,
               Singaraja is a pleasant place to stroll
                                                                This bustling commercial
                                                                area is where banks
                                                                and businesses are
               around. The harbour has not been                 concentrated.
               dredged for 60 years and its business has
 Ornament sold mostly shifted to Celukang Bawang,
 in the market 38 km (24 miles) to the west. However,

                                                                                   M A

               this area is still one of the most                              A H

interesting parts of the town, occupied by communities                     N
                                                                       L A

                                                                   J A

of trading minorities – Chinese, Bugis (see p135)
                                                           To Lake
and other Muslims. The Balinese community lives Bratan and
further east, while the modern commercial centre        Bedugul
is near the market, Pasar Anyar, around Jalan
Ahmad Yani and Jalan Diponegoro.

                                                                                             J A
                                                                                              L A

                                                                                                       I M
View of River Buleleng
From the bridge, the old residential houses of                                                          A
Singaraja can be seen along the river banks.
                                                                   J A
                                                                      L A
                                                                             S A
                                                                                   D D
                                                                                       I N

. Chinese Temple
This temple with its classical red roof
tiles, decorated with tablets in gold
calligraphy, betokens the presence
and influence of the Chinese trading
community in this part of Singaraja.

                                                   To bus
 S TAR S IGHTS                                   terminal

 . Chinese Temple
                                      Buleleng River
 . Masjid Nur
                                    K EY
 . Independence
   Monument                                      Suggested route

  Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, a temple dedicated to the lake goddess (see p141)
                          N O R T H        A N D           W E S T     B A L I                          145

                                          Masjid Agung Jamik
                                          The minaret and                   V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                          gleaming dome are                 Road Map B1. c terminal on
                                          prominent features of             Jalan Surapati, Jalan Ahmad Yani
                                          this mosque set within            & at Sangket. @ n Jalan
                                          a large compound.                 Veteran 2, (0361) 25 141.
        N I                                                                 0-=®
    Y A

                           Pasar Anyar

                           is a food and crafts

                           market with a wealth of
     I A

                             busy stalls housed in

                               four buildings.

                                                               . Masjid Nur
                                                               This mosque was built in a style
                                         J A

                                                               influenced by Indian architecture.
                                          L A
                                                   I P
                                                       E G
                                                           R O

                                       G A

                                   N G                               Pabean Harbour
                               L A
                           E R                                       The old harbour attracted settle-

                  L A
              J A
     J O

                                                                     ments of traders from elsewhere
                                                                     in the Indonesian Archipelago;

                                                                     their descendants still live here.

                                                                                   . Independence
                                                                                   The statue com-
                                                                                   memorates Ketut
                                                                                   Merta. During the
                                                                                   struggle just after
                                                                                   World War II, he
                                                                                   was shot from a
                                                                                   patrol boat as he
              0 metres              50
                                                                                   raised an Indone-
                                                                                   sian flag in place of
              0 yards          50                                                  the Dutch colours.
146                    B A L I        A N D                 L O M B O K                                 A R E A                         B Y                         A R E A

Exploring Singaraja
   INGARAJA, NORTH BALI’S   main commercial centre, was
S   the administrative capital of Bali in colonial times.
Colonial-style architecture remains in streets south of
the centre, but buildings erected under the New Order
(see p51), such as the Pura Jagat Natha temple,
combine monumental scale with traditional style. Singa
means “lion”; raja means “king”. The city’s identity is
expressed in the prominent modern statue of a winged
lion where Jalan Veteran meets Jalan Ngurah Rai. The
former palace of the kingdom of Buleleng, housing the
administrative offices of the regency, was damaged by
fire in the brief political disturbances of 1999.
                                                                                                                                                 A street scene in Singaraja
 Pura Jagat Natha                                     These are specially cut palm
Jalan Pramuka. & donation.                            leaves inscribed with a stylus                                                             Silk and cotton ikat cloth is
Pura Jagat Natha, the terri-                          and rubbed with blacking to                                                                sold in the adjacent shop.
torial Hindu temple of the                            make the script legible. The
Buleleng regency, is a large                          same technique is used to                                                                  E NVIRONS : In the village of
complex of buildings covered                          make prasi, illustrations of                                                               Nagasepaha, 8 km (5 miles)
in fine stone carvings; its                           traditional stories. Gedong                                                                south of Singaraja, glass-
towering padmasana shrine                             Kertya, which contains many                                                                painting is practised. Its
(see p26) is typical of Bali-                         thousand such manuscripts,                                                                 initiator was a local puppet-
nese temples built from the                           is frequented mainly by Bali-                                                              master, Jero Dalang Diah. He
1970s on. There are gamelan                           nese in search of their                                                                    used to carve the characters
rehearsals in the evenings in                         genealogical origins or potent                                                             for his stories out of buffalo
one of the courtyards.                                medicinal recipes.                                                                         or cow leather before paint-
                                                                                                                                                 ing them. In 1950, he was
T Gedong Kertya                                       T Puri Sinar Nadiputra                                                                     inspired by a Japanese glass-
Jalan Veteran 20 & 22. § (0362)                       Jalan Veteran, next to Gedong Kertya.                                                      painting and from that time
22 645. # Mon–Sat.                                    # Mon–Thu & Sat.                                                                           he began to paint on glass,
& donation.                                           In a former palace is the Puri                                                             using images from Balinese
Gedong Kertya is a library                            Sinar Nadiputra weaving                                                                    wayang stories (see p30). Now,
founded by the Dutch in 1928                          factory, where one can look                                                                his descendants and several
for the preservation of                               at the textile-making process,                                                             neighbours practise this art-
Balinese lontar manuscripts.                          and buy the products.                                                                      form and sell their works.

    S INGARAJA                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                                         1                                               GGA                JAGARAGA
    Chinese Temple 1                                                                                                               JALA
                                                                                                                                       N                  ERLA                              KINTAMANI

    Gedong Kertya 6                                                                                                                                       c                                 AMLAPURA
    Independence Monument and                                                                                                                                  le

      Pabean Harbour 2


    Pasar Anyar 3

                                                                             J AL


    Pura Jagat Natha 4


    Puri Sinar Nadiputra 7


    Winged Lion Statue 5

                                                                                                                                OR O

    0 metres      500
                                                     c                                                                                             TKO

                                                             NI                                                                               N LE
                                                                                                                                          JALA ISNU


    0 yards      500                                   D
                                                     MA                                                           IKA
                                                AH                                                             RT
                                            N                                                                SA


                                                                                                                                       JALAN NGU


                                                                                                                                                                            N G

    K EY                                                               DIR


    c Bus terminal


    n Tourist information

    a Hospital

        Street-by-Street pp144 –5
                                                                                                                 JALAN                         5          VETERAN

                                                                                                                                                                           6n                GITGIT

                                                                                                                                                                                             LAKE BRATAN
                                 N O R T H      A N D      W E S T      B A L I                           147

Lovina l
Road Map B1. c @ n Kalibuk-
buk, (0362) 41 910. 0 - = ®

    HE NAME LOVINA means “I
T   love Indonesia”, and is
often used for a long stretch
of the coast encompassing
a series of villages, from
Tukadmungga in the east to
Kaliasem in the west. The
beach resort area has quiet,
black-sand coves lined with
coconut trees. Outriggers add          Pura Beji, a highly decorated temple in Sangsit, near Jagaraga
to the nostalgic charm, and
dolphins can often be seen in          E NVIRONS : Pegayaman, 4 km           12 km (8 miles) from Sangsit,
the sea. For snorkellers, there        (3 miles) north of Gitgit, main-      is a small beach resort named
are still pristine coral reefs.        tains some 17th-century Java-         after a spring. There is a
   The tourist facilities of Lovi-     nese traditions. On the Proph-        pleasant beach restaurant and
na are on Jalan Binaria, which         et’s birthday (see p43), Muslim       basic accommodation.
leads to a modern sculpture            villagers parade a tumpeng
of dolphins. To the north are          (mountain-shaped offering).             Pura Beji
ricefields, coconut groves and                                               Sangsit. # daily.
hotels; to the south, roads
lead to small villages with the        Jagaraga x
mountain looming in the
background. From the village           Road Map C1. @ from Singaraja.
of Temukus, you can trek to            n Singaraja, (0362) 25 141.
the Singsing Waterfall.
                                         AGARAGA WAS THE SITE of a
                                       J battle in 1849, in which the
Gitgit z                               war hero Patih Jelantik held
                                       the Dutch to a long stand-off         Relief in the Pura Dalem, Jagaraga,
Road Map C1. c @ from Singa-           before he was defeated. The           showing a man driving a car
raja & Bedugul. n Singaraja, (0362)    relationship between the
25 141. & to waterfall. 0 = ®          Balinese and the Dutch is
                                                                             Pura Meduwe
                                       reflected in the lively reliefs
               is the location         of the local temple of the            Karang c
    of an impressive waterfall,
45 m (149 ft) high, about 400
                                       dead, Pura Dalem. These
                                       were carved in the early dec-         See pp148 –9.
m (450 yds) from the main              ades of the 20th century. The
road and surrounded by lush            subjects include aircraft, ships
vegetation. Another waterfall,         and a European in a car being         Tejakula v
1 km (half a mile) up the hill,        held up by an armed man.
is not quite as high, but there                                              Road Map D1. c @ from Singa-
are fewer visitors there.                Pura Dalem                          raja. n Singaraja, (0362) 25 141. ®
                                       Jagaraga. # daily. & donation. 8
                                       E NVIRONS : The central gate
                                       of Pura Beji in Sangsit, 4 km
                                                                             T   HE OLD VILLAGE OF
                                                                                 is famous for its silver
                                                                             jewellery and its ancient
                                       (3 miles) from Jagaraga, is           wayang wong dance (see
                                       famous for its ornamentation.         p31). This eastern part of the
                                       Garudas (mythical birds) are          regency of Buleleng is one of
                                       carved half in the round, half        the most unspoiled areas of
                                       in low relief. The nearby             Bali. At Tejakula itself there
                                       Pura Dalem has some grim              are some quiet black beaches
                                       depictions of the tortures in         and idyllic coconut groves.
                                       hell inflicted on those who
                                       infringe moral rules.                 E NVIRONS : Nearby are several
                                         The country around Sawan,           Bali Aga villages (see p46).
                                       4 km (3 miles) south of               One of them, Sembiran
                                       Jagaraga, is said to produce          (a short way up the mountain
                                       some of Bali’s best rice. There       road west of Tejakula), has
                                       are impressive river gorges in        the characteristic stone-paved
                                       the area. Sawan is also known         roads, some megalithic
At Gitgit, Bali’s highest waterfall,   for its northern dance and            remains, and good views
a refreshing stop for sightseers       music tradition. Air Sanih,           down to the north coast.
148            B A L I   A N D   L O M B O K          A R E A      B Y   A R E A

Pura Meduwe Karang                      c

                   HE LARGE TEMPLE is notable for
              T    its statuary and carved panels
                which can be examined at close
               quarters. Although not the most
             extreme example, the temple shows
           a flowery style of decoration
Frangipani characteristic of North Bali. There are
  flower   successive split gates and a set of two
symmetrical gedong, or pavilions. The highest
point is the towering, elaborately decorated
Betara Luhur Ing Angkasa shrine.                          Split Gates
                                                          At each level of the temple the ascent
                                                          to the main shrine passes through a
                                                          candi bentar (split gate) decorated
                                                          with relief carvings.
                                              The long pavilion                        (stone
                                              at the side of the                       posts)
                                              forecourt is used for
                                              gatherings during
                                              festival celebrations.

                                            Terraces at
                                            different levels are
                                            linked by steps.

. Ramayana Sculptures
The grand parade of 34 stone figures
lined up on the entrance terrace are
all characters from the
Indian Ramayana epic.


 . Ramayana

 . Relief Carvings

 . Main Shrine                   Entrance
                          N O R T H   A N D   W E S T      B A L I                       149

                                                                V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                                                Kubutambahan. Road Map C1.
                                                                c @ from Singaraja.
                                                                # 8am –5pm daily. & 8
                                                                _ Purnama Sasih Kawulu (Feb).

                                                        The Cyclist
                                                        On the side of the main shrine is
                                                        depicted a westerner on a bicycle.
                                                        He is believed to be the Dutch
                                                        artist W O J Nieuwenkamp, who
                                                        came here in 1904.

                                                                     . Relief Carvings
                                                                     This local priest is
                                       Ornate columns
                                                                     typical of the subject
                                       in place of walls             matter of reliefs
                                       distinguish this              adorning the courtyard
                                       temple from                   walls, which show
                                       others in Bali.               people and scenes from
                                                                     everyday life.

   The walls of the
   courtyard are
   reinforced at
   intervals by pillars
   topped with carved
                                                            . Main Shrine
                                                            The impressive Betara Luhur
                                                            Ing Angkasa shrine honours the
         Wall Sculpture                                     “Lord possessing the ground”.
With subjects taken from                                    Offerings are also made at the
   Balinese legend, these                                   shrine to the sun-god Surya and
decorate the walls round                                    to Mother Earth for fertility of
   the central courtyard.                                   the agricultural land.
                B A L I     A N D      L O M B O K        A R E A       B Y   A R E A     151


            LISTENING PADDY FIELDS , verdant hills, rugged mountains and
          long stretches of white sandy beach make up the landscape
          of Lombok. A mix of Muslim Sasaks and Hindu Balinese pro-
vides a rich diversity of cultures. In terms of both the local economy
and facilities for visitors, Lombok is much less developed than Bali,
but easily accessible and rewarding to visit.
The Sasaks are the                                                  cultures can be seen in
indigenous people                                                    architecture and cere-
of Lombok. Num-                                                      monies. While Muslim
bering about two million,                                          Javanese architectural
they are thought to be                                             influences can best be
descended from a hilltribe of North                                seen in the mosques, the
India and Myanmar. The minority                      Sasaks provided the distinctive shape
Balinese population, about 100,000,                  of the lumbung (rice barn), more rarely
live mostly near the west coast.                     seen now than in the past.
  Lombok’s identity has been formed                    Lombok appeals to visitors for its
by two major influences. Javanese                    natural beauty more than for its archi-
arrivals in the 14th century brought                 tectural heritage. The island’s varied
Islam and Middle-Eastern influences,                 geography provides ideal conditions
while the Balinese Hindus, who were                  for trekking, wave- and wind-surfing,
the colonial masters of the island from              diving, snorkelling and game-fishing.
the 16th century until the 1890s, have               A chain of volcanic mountains in the
been an important presence.                          north is dominated by Gunung
  The Sasaks and the Balinese provide                Rinjani, which offers good trekking
the island with a rich heritage of                   country. Sandy beaches punctuated
dialects and languages, traditional                  by extinct volcanic peaks and huge
dance, music, rituals and crafts.                    cliffs plunging straight into the Indian
Beautiful pottery is made and cloth                  Ocean make for a spectacular south
woven, using skills passed down                      coast. The east coast is blessed with
through the generations. The influ-                  calm seas, peaceful beaches, sheltered
ence of Javanese, Hindu and Islamic                  coves and beautiful coral islands.

Sunset over the Lombok Strait seen from Senggigi beach, a resort area on the west coast

 A mosque set in a plantation near Sapit, southeast of Gunung Rinjani
 152              B A L I    A N D                   L O M B O K             A R E A   B Y       A R E A

   Exploring Lombok
        OT FAR FROM the ferry terminal at Lembar is
   N    Mataram, the provincial capital. From here a
   road runs from west to east taking in the sights of
   Narmada, Lingsar, and the hill-station area of
   Tetebatu. A road to the south coast leads to Kuta, a
   surfing spot and ideal base for exploring the rugged
   southern coast, which has many beautiful and
   remote beaches. Lombok’s main resort area is                                            A mosque in the town of Selong
   Senggigi beach, north of Mataram. Easily accessible
   from Senggigi are the Gili Isles, an excellent diving                                                                SEGENTER 9
   and snorkelling location. North central Lombok is
   dominated by Gunung Rinjani, a huge volcanic peak
   surrounded by a national park, with opportunities
   for trekking in remote areas.
                                                                                             •   GONDANG            •
                                                                             TANJUNG 8                 •
                                                                                                       TIU PUPAS
                                        GILI 7                                                         WATERFALL
                                             BANGSAL •
                                                                        •   PEMENANG

                                                                                                  q TAMAN           NASIONAL

                                                      6 SENGGIGI
                                       S T R A I T

                                                     AMPENAN                           LINGSAR
                                                                •                            NARMADA
                                                              MATARAM            3           4
   Cultivation of kangkung, a kind                                               SWETA

   of watercress, near Tanjung                                                                                           •   MANTANG
                                    B O

                                                       GUNUNG J
   0 kilometres       10                                            •
                                O M

                                                 BANYUMULEK 2
   0 miles        5

                                                                                   SUKARARA u
                                                                                                              •   PRAYA
                                                               1 LEMBAR
   •                                                                                       PENUJAK i

f BANGKO                                              •
  BANGKO                       SEKOTONG
                                                                                                                    •   SENGKOL

                                                                              SELONG                REMBITAN o
                                                          •   SEPI            BLANAK
                                                                                   s                       SADE •

                                                                 PENGANTAP                                          GERUPUK
   S EE A LSO                                                       BAY
                                                                                            MAWUN J
                                                                                                              p               a
                                                          I N                                                 KUTA
   • Where to Stay p179                                       D I                                                              •
                                                                  A N            O C E A N
   • Where to Eat p191                                                                                                   DESERT
                                                           L O M B O K                                                153

            G ETTING A ROUND
            There are bus and bemo services on some
            main roads in Lombok, particularly the
            main east-west route from Mataram, and
            the road to Senggigi. There is little trans-
            port elsewhere, even on the road south to
            Kuta. Independent travellers are strongly
            recommended to rent their own vehicle,
            preferably with a driver. Remoter roads
            can be steep, narrow, or badly surfaced.

        ANYAR                B A
                                 L I
                                           S E
       BAYAN                                                   The majestic landscape of Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani

                             w SEMBALUN

  A NA K

 GUNUNG RINJANI                        J
                                        e SAPIT

                                                                   r LABUHAN
                               AIKMEL                                                       Traditional Sasak dance

                     t                                                               K EY
   •   LOYOK                                                                             Major road
                                                                           I T

                    •   MASBAGIK
                                                                                         Minor road

                                •                                                        Scenic route


                                                                                     J Viewpoint

                        LABUHAN HAJI •

                                                                                     k Airport


                                                   S IGHTS AT A G LANCE
                               d TANJUNG           Bangko Bangko f
                                    LUAR                                                 Segenter 9
                                                   Banyumulek 2                          Selong Blanak s
                                                   Gerupuk a                             Sembalun w
                                                   Gili Isles 7                          Senaru 0
                                                   Kuta p                                Senggigi 6
                                    TANJUNG        Labuhan Lombok r                      Sukarara u
  •   BATU NAMPAR                   RINGGIT
                                            •      Lembar 1                              Sweta 3
   E K A S                                         Mataram p155 5                        Taman Nasional Gunung
   B A Y                                           Narmada 4                               Rinjani pp158 –9 q
                                                   Penujak i                             Tanjung 8
                                                   Pringgasela t                         Tanjung Luar d
                                                   Rembitan and Sade o                   Tetebatu y
                                                   Sapit e
154                B A L I    A N D    L O M B O K        A R E A     B Y    A R E A

                                                                      Sweta 3
                                                                      c @ n Mataram, (0370) 634
                                                                      800. 0 - =
                                                                            NE OF LOMBOK’S  oldest
                                                                      O      temples, Pura Lingsar,
                                                                      is in Sweta. First built in 1714,
                                                                      the large complex has both
                                                                      Balinese Hindu and Sasak
                                                                      Wetu Telu (Muslim) shrines,
                                                                      as well as a pond containing
                                                                      sacred albino eels. At the
                                                                      Bertais Market, fruits, vege-
Panoramic view from the hilltop of Gunung Pengsong                    tables and spices – onions,
                                                                      garlic, bright red chillies in
                                    the remote coral islands of       every size imaginable – are dis-
Lembar 1                            Gili Gede and Gili Nanggu.        played in all their colours. One
                                    Accommodation on the              can also bargain for baskets,
c @ 4 from Padang Bai & Benoa
                                    islands is basic, and visitors    textiles, bamboo products, and
Harbour. n ferry terminal. =
                                    mostly provide their own          bridles and stirrups.
  OMBOK’S MAIN   sea port, in a     entertainment and food.              The bus terminal serving
L    bay surrounded by hills,
is the gateway to the island
                                                                      Mataram is at Sweta.

for passenger car-ferries and       Banyumulek 2                        Pura Lingsar
a jetfoil from Bali. Crowds of                                        North of Sweta. # daily. 8
merchants and other travellers      @ from Mataram. n Mataram,        _ Perang Topat (Rice Cake War) &
mill around Lembar’s ferry          (0370) 634 800. =                 Pujawali (Nov – Dec).
terminus. Much lively hag-
gling takes place over prices           HIS VILLAGE OF wooden
of seats in overloaded buses
and vans travelling to other
                                    T   huts with thatched roofs is
                                    a centre for the production of
                                                                       Narmada 4
destinations on Lombok.             handmade terracotta pots.          c @ n Mataram, (0370) 634
There is a small tourist office,    Here, visitors can see how         800. # daily. _ Duck Catching
some phones and a few food          they are made and roam             Festival (17 Aug).
stalls. At the docks, beautiful     among the displays of pots,
Bugis schooners (see p135)          some decorated with textiles            ARMADA, BUILT IN 1805,
and small steamers load and
unload cargo.
                                    and rattan. Buyers of pots too
                                    large to carry can have them
                                                                       N    was originally a raja’s
                                                                       (king’s) summer palace. In
                                    shipped abroad if necessary.       the gardens is a lake said to
E NVIRONS : The roads around                                           represent the crater lake of
Lembar run through lush,            E NVIRONS : About 3 km (2          Gunung Rinjani (see
rural scenery. The coast road,      miles) west of Banyumulek,         pp158 –9). When no longer
skirting the peninsula towards      an easy climb up Gunung            able to climb the mountain
Sekotong some 10 km                 Pengsong leads to a good           and see the lake, the raja
(6 miles) to the south, has         view. From the Hindu shrine        gazed on its likeness. Lotus-
good views of the bay and its       at the top, Bali’s Gunung          filled ponds and terraced
bagan, stationary fishing           Agung and Lombok’s Gunung          gardens recall royal
platforms standing in the sea.      Rinjani are visible in opposite    splendours of the past.
Fishermen lower huge nets           directions. On one side the
into which they attract fish        plain of Mataram stretches to
with the aid of lanterns. From      the sea and on the other is
here skiffs take passengers to      an arc of rugged mountains.

                  L OMBOK ’ S P OTTERY T RADITION
                   Pottery is the main product of several
                   villages. Traditionally no potter’s wheel is
                   used. Some pots are formed by hand using
                  tools known as “stone and paddle”, others
                  are built up by coiling lengths of clay. Water
                  decanters, decorated plates and saucers,
                 vases, huge water containers and lamps are
                all created by hand. Banyumulek’s pots are
                simple in design and devoid of embellish-
                ments; Masbagik specializes in distinctive
    Vase from    geometric patterns; and Penujak (see p161)
     Penujak     produces pots decorated with animal motifs.          Lotus pond in Narmada, a 19th-
                                                                      century royal water palace
                                                                                                                                  L O M B O K                                                                                                                                           155

     Mataram                                                   5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                V ISITORS ’ C HECKLIST
                                             ATARAM, AMPENAN AND CAKRANEGARA
                                                      run                                                                                                                                                                       k Selaparang Airport. c Sweta.
                    together without a break; the whole
              conurbation is commonly known as Mataram.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                @ n Department of Tourism,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Art & Culture, Jalan Singosari 2,
               Mataram proper is the capital of the Indonesian                                                                                                                                                                  Mataram, (0370) 634 800.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                F Peresean (stick fight) (Aug).
                province of West Nusa Tenggara. Its large,
                white-washed, high-roofed houses hark back
                to Dutch colonial days. Ampenan, to the west,
                was once Lombok’s main port and a vital link                                                                                                                                                                    Pura Meru
                in the spice trade. Cakranegara, to the east,                                                                                                                                                                Jalan Selaparang, Cakranegara.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             # daily. 8
    City tourism was the royal capital until a century ago;
        logo     today, it is a bustling commercial centre.                                                                                                                                                                  With its three slender, multi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tiered shrines representing the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Hindu Trimurti of Vishnu,
     Exploring Mataram                                                                        p Museum Negeri                                                                                                                Shiva and Brahma, this is
     Mataram is characterized by                                                              Jalan Panji Tilar Negara 6. § (0370)                                                                                           Lombok’s largest Hindu
     its parks and wide, tree-lined                                                           637 503. # Tue –Sun. ¢ Mon and                                                                                                 temple complex.
     streets with buildings which                                                             public hols. & 8
     echo traditional Sasak styles.                                                           The provincial state museum
     There are several monu-                                                                  displays local textiles and
     ments, such as the Kencana                                                               ceramics, copperwork and
     Warga Mahardika, a tribute to                                                            woodcarvings, as well as
     outstanding citizenship.                                                                 artefacts relating to the history
        Along the winding streets                                                             and geography of the islands
     of Ampenan are homes and                                                                 of West Nusa Tenggara and
     businesses of Arab and Chi-                                                              paintings representing the
     nese merchants. Some of the                                                              variety of ethnic cultures.
     buildings, now turned into
     attractive restaurants and                                                               T Mayura Water Palace
     cafés, show an Art Deco                                                                  Jalan Selaparang, Cakranegara.
     influence. At sunset, visitors                                                           § (0370) 624 442. # daily. 8
     head down to the bustling                                                                This complex was built in
     beach and have a drink in the                                                            1844 under the Balinese
     old colonial bank building.                                                              Karangasem dynasty.
         At the Lombok Pottery                                                                The centrepiece is a lake,
     Centre (see pp194 –5), pottery                                                           surrounded by a park dotted                                                                                                     Pura Meru seen from the Mayura
     and other handicrafts are sold.                                                          with shrines and fountains.                                                                                                     Water Palace

               M ATARAM                                                                                                                                                                                                       K EY
               Kencana Warga Mahardika                                                                                                                                                                                        n Tourist information
               Civic Monument 2                                                                                                 Airport                                                                                       a Hospital
               Lombok Pottery Centre 3                                                                                                                                           SENGGIGI

               Museum Negeri 1
               Pura Meru 5                                                                                                                                                                                                   0 metres                1,000


               Mayura Water Palace 4

                                                                                                                                                                          A M IN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0 yards               1,000



                                                                                Kali Jan
                                                                                                                                                                      O KRO


                                                                                                               JALAN UD

                                                                                                                                                                    H OS C


                                                                                LANG                                                                                                                                                 LA
                                                                                    KO                                                                                                                                                  N
                                                  N SUPR

                                                                                                                                                                             JALA                                                           TR NSMIGRASI
                                                                                                                                                                                      N PARIWISA                                              A
                                                                                                                                   JA L A
                                                                                PENDID                                                      N
                                                                                      IKAN                                                                        PEJAN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     JALAN GEDE NGURAH

                                                                                                                                                                                                             2                                                                     4

                                                                                                                                                JALAN A R HAKIM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               JALAN PEJANGGIK

                                JAL A N

                                                                                                                                                                                      a                          JA                                                      5


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        N   PANCA
                            PAN JI TILAR NEGARA





                                                                                                                                                                                             B U N G KA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                JALAN        BRAWIJAYA
                                                                                                                     JALAN              SR IWIJAYA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Bus Terminal

                                                                                                                                   GUNUNG PENGSONG                                                                              PRAYA KUTA
156               B A L I       A N D    L O M B O K        A R E A      B Y     A R E A

                                                                           colourful marine life in the
                                                                           coral reefs and crystal clear
                                                                           waters around them. They
                                                                           are all accessible from
                                                                           Bangsal by a short boat trip.
                                                                           The best time for diving here
                                                                           is late April to late August.
                                                                              Gili Air (“ai-year”), closest
                                                                           to the mainland and with the
                                                                           largest resident population,
                                                                           is quiet around the secluded
                                                                           hotels, but elsewhere on the
                                                                           island the local village life is
                                                                           quite lively. A few bars are
                                                                           mixed in with the tropical
                                                                           trees and shrubs, and lodging
                                                                           tends towards the upper end
                                                                           of the range. This is a good
                                                                           place for families.
The beach resort area in Senggigi, a major tourist centre of Lombok           Gili Meno, which offers a
                                                                           real sense of escape, is the
Senggigi 6                           Bolong, 3 km (2 miles) from
                                     central Senggigi. Here, Hindu
                                                                           smallest and least developed
                                                                           of the islands. It has fewer
c @ from Lembar & Mataram.           devotees make their offerings         accommodation options, but
n Mataram, (0370) 640 691.           at dusk. The crimson sunsets          the places to stay are mostly
_ Cultural Appreciation Month        are beautiful, with the silhou-       more up-market than those
(Aug). 0 - = ®                       ette of Bali’s Gunung Agung           on the other two islands.
                                     faintly visible in the distance.         Gili Trawangan, the
             is the most popular                                           largest and furthest from the
    resort in Lombok, attracting
visitors with its white sandy        Gili Isles 7
                                                                           mainland, is the party island.
                                                                           A foreshore strip of bars
beaches and small palm-                                                    and restaurants tucked in
fringed bays. Although very          c @ from Senggigi & Mataram to        among many simple losmen
much less developed than             Bangsal. 4 from Bangsal. n Mata-      (see p166) churn out music
Kuta in Bali, Senggigi has a         ram, (0370) 640 691. 0 - = ®          till the early hours. The other
broad range of accommo-                                                    side of the island is quieter.
dation, restaurants and                  HESE THREE ISLANDS, each no       Except for a few very up-
entertainment facilities.
   Although Senggigi Beach
                                     T  more than 2–3 km (1–2
                                     miles) across, are visited
                                                                           market hotels, prices here are
                                                                           low, a fact reflected in the
is strictly speaking two             primarily because of the              limited range of creature
glistening bays, separated by        diversity and abundance of            comforts on offer.
a thrust of white coral jutting
out into the ocean, the area
now known as Senggigi is a              M ARINE L IFE      IN THE       G ILI I SLES
6-km (4-mile) strip of road             Divers (see pp210 –11) who want to see sharks can
and beachfront. Restaurants             generally do so within a day’s diving off the Gili Isles.
and small cafés line the                Reef sharks, which have no interest in humans, are often
colourful main beach road.              encountered. The coral is fine, despite damage caused by
   The views up and down the            fish-bombing in past years. Over 3,500 species of marine
coast, and out across the sea                                           life survive around the Gilis,
to Bali, which can be enjoyed                                           compared with 1,500 off the
by driving along the coastal                                            Great Barrier Reef. In these
road, are majestic. Swimming                                            waters can be seen the
off the beach is safe; and                                              orange-and-white striped
waves suitable for younger,                                             clown fish, the brightly
less experienced wave-riders                                            coloured parrot fish and the
peel to the left and right off                                          majestic moorish idol. There
the reef. Many people also                                              are two endangered turtle
enjoy windsurfing here.                                                 species, the green turtle and
   Around the reef itself is a                                          the hawksbill, living in
variety of marine life and                                              these waters. Divers at all
beautiful coral. This is a good                                         levels of ability will find a
spot for relaxed snorkelling.                                           rich variety of reef fish and
                                                                        other underwater life.
E NVIRONS : An atmospheric
temple shrine stands on a                                                  Brightly coloured coral in the
black outcrop of rock reach-                                               waters off the Gili Isles
ing out into the sea at Batu
                                             L O M B O K                                            157

                                    see the people going about          climbs up the mountain (see
                                    their daily lives. The inhabi-      pp158 –9). Arrangements for
                                    tants are less pushy and            a trek through the Gunung
                                    commercially minded than            Rinjani national park and up
                                    those around Senggigi.              the volcano can be made:
                                       In the late morning, many        camping equipment, tent
                                    villagers can be seen resting       and sleeping-bag rental are
                                    in the “guest huts”, open           available, and food and other
                                    structures with platforms           necessities can be bought.
                                    raised above ground level, set      Porters and guides can be
                                    between rows of the larger          engaged here.
                                    thatched houses which make
                                    up the village as a whole.          E NVIRONS : An easy 30-
                                       The people of Segenter           minute walk to the west of
A drum known as a kecimol,          lead an almost self-sufficient      Senaru leads to the dramatic
at a Muslim wedding in Tanjung      life; they produce most of the      40-m- (132-ft-) high
                                    staple food necessary for           Sendanggile Waterfalls,
Tanjung 8                           their daily needs and plant         where water comes straight
                                    cotton, rice and tobacco to         off one of the highest peaks
c @ from Mataram. n Mataram,        sell at the market.                 in Southeast Asia. Here is the
(0370) 640 691. - = ®                                                   chance to wade in what must
                                                                        be the cleanest and freshest
    ANJUNG’S LIVELIHOOD    is                                           water in Indonesia. A little
T    based on fishing as well
as the agricultural products of
                                                                        further uphill is the Tiu
                                                                        Kelep waterfall, with a lovely
the countryside. It is a large                                          pool perfect for swimming.
village on the road north to the                                           Another short 30-minute
Gunung Rinjani foothills, with                                          walk from the village centre
a twice-weekly cattle market.                                           is Payan, with thatched huts
It is surrounded by lush coun-                                          and a megalithic appearance:
try in which coconut groves         A house in Segenter, constructed    this is one of Lombok’s few
alternate with ricefields and       from parts of the coconut palm      remaining Wetu Telu villages
vegetable gardens. In the river                                         (see p23). Although some-
shallows grows kangkung                                                 what commercialized, it is
(a leafy vegetable rather like      Senaru 0                            an example of Lombok’s
watercress), one of Lombok’s                                            aboriginal village traditions.
favourite dishes.                   @ from Sweta & Tanjung. n Mata-     The women wear traditional
                                    ram, (0370) 640 691. 0 - = ®        sarongs and black shirts for
E NVIRONS : The road north                                              weaving and during Muslim
runs along the black-sand                           of over 400 m       ceremonies. The Muslim
beach and the terrain
becomes distinctly arid. Four
                                    A  T A HEIGHT
                                         (1,320 ft) on the lower
                                    slopes of Gunung Rinjani,
                                                                        practices observed here
                                                                        contain both Balinese and
km (2 miles) from Tanjung on        Senaru is braced by cool            Hindu elements.
the coast is Krakas, famous         refreshing air.
for fresh, cool spring water.       From here one
The spring is located under         will be rewarded
water 400 m (1,320 ft) off-         with perfect views
shore at a depth of about           of Rinjani to the
10 m (33 ft). Local fishermen,      south and the
who will take visitors out in       ocean to the west.
their boats for a small fee,          Once a secluded
collect the water, which is         mountain settle-
drinkable. Further north,           ment sheltered
just past the small town of         from the outside
Gondang, are the Tiu Pupas          world, this village
waterfall and seven caves.          with its traditional-
                                    style houses is fast
Segenter 9                          becoming a week-
                                    end escape from
@ from Mataram. n Mataram,
                                    the heat of the
(0370) 640 691. # 9am –5pm daily.
                                    coastal regions.
& donation.
                                      Senaru has
                                    many simple
                                    guesthouses and
                         of         restaurants. It is
    Segenter is a typical, tradi-
tional Lombok community, a
                                    the most popular
                                    departure point
good place to wander, and           for treks and          The Sendanggile Waterfalls near Senaru
158            B A L I        A N D   L O M B O K           A R E A         B Y       A R E A

Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani                                               q

    HIS NATIONAL PARK is a magnet for experienced trekkers,
T   and for nature lovers. Gunung Rinjani is a volcano
3,726 m (12,224 ft) high, important in the religions and
folklore of both the Hindus and the Sasaks of Lombok.
Rinjani itself is not active; the smaller Gunung Baru has
erupted several times over the last 100 years. In 1995, the
skies rained ash, tremors shook the island, and activities in
the National Park were halted. There have been no such
problems since. The tourist information office at Mataram
can advise on current conditions. Climbs to the caldera rim
and to the summit, which are quite challenging, can be
arranged in Mataram, Senggigi or Senaru. Sembalun Lawang
is another starting point, but there are fewer facilities here.                   The ebony leaf-monkey,
                                                                                  frequently seen in Lombok

                                                                            BATU KOQ
                                                                             & BAYAN      •   Batu Koq

                                                                             Senaru   •

                                                                                              •   Sendanggile Waterfall


                                                                                Base Camp                   GUNUNG
                                                                                                        SENKEREANG JAYA
                                                                                      Campsite      •

                                       •                                                                      2,902 m
                                       Tiuteja Waterfall                                                     (9,550 ft)
                                                                                                        J             •   Hot Springs

                                                                                GUNUNG PLAWANGAN

                                                                                           2,612 m                        GUNUNG BARU
                                                                                          (8 600 ft)
                                                                                                                              2,351 m
                                                                                        GUNUNG                               (7,750 ft)
Trekking from Senaru                                    GUNUNG                        TANAKLAYUR
Climbs can be arranged with                           BUANMANGGE
                                                                                           2,664 m
many operators working out                                   1,916 m                      (8,800 ft)
of local homestays.                                         (6,300 ft)

0 kilometres              5
                                                           BUKIT KETIMUNAN
0 miles               3
                                                                1,602 m
                                                               (5,200 ft)

                                                                                . Danau Segara Anak
                                                                                The blue-green waters of
                                                                                this lake are surrounded
                                                                                by the steep walls of the