Transportation and Communications Chapter 9 of The World Economy By Stutz and Warf Transport Networks: National and Global Networks facilitate interaction ..they eliminate distance decay and allay the friction of distance…. Railroads in North America brought the countries together. They created economies and bound areas together North American cities are marked by transportation; Walking and horse car era (1800-1890) Electric streetcar (1890-1920) Early auto era (1920-1945) Freeway era (1945-1970) Edge city era (1970-1990) Exurban era (1990-present) Transport/ Comm. Concepts Space/Time convergence Airliners mark the best space time convergence of any form of transport. (My Norwegian ancestors spent a couple of weeks at sea to get to the New World, I went back on a Scandinavian Airlines 767ER in about 6 hours) Infrastructure and efficiency In some areas transport and communications are very slow and difficult. Modern systems compete to be most efficient. General Properties of Transport Costs Terminal costs—the loading and unloading Line haul costs– a function of distance, and the actual moving of the goods. A recent development in addressing terminal costs is the containerization of freight. Trucks generally have lower terminal costs partly because we-the taxpayer- maintain their highways, and they are more flexible than most any form of transport. Elasticity of Demand—the responsiveness of a good or service to the changes in price. Transport carriers will generally charge what the market will bear. TVs would command a higher shipping cost based on their value, compared with, say, grain or coal. Transportation Policy Deregulation and Privatization Assured that there would always be access for new transport firms seeking to compete. Airline deregulation allowed new companies to compete and market to dictate survival of the most efficient. Deregulation also created the modern ―hub and spoke networks.‖ Rail deregulation, competition and abandonment… See the ND rail map (circa 2000). Deregulation allowed railroads to sell or abandon less profitable lines. Some lines are still operated as ―regional‖ railroads or feeders, while others have been purchased back because they‘ve since become more essential. An Early Elevator, circa 1880s This is the Bergen, ND elevator on the Soo Line Railroad. (Dec. 25, 1995 just before it was torn down) There were literally thousands of these all over the Great Plains, and many towns had multiple elevators. An example of competition: moving the harvest….. The following map illustrates how one ND elevator firm located itself to take advantage of competition between two railroads. The stars indicate the company‘s four elevators; note that one is on a competing railroad. This allows the company to ship by rail on whichever of the two companies had the best rates. Personal Mobility ND has over twice the vehicle registrations that there are people in the state! Auto versus Transit. Auto; Improving vehicle miles traveled per person Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems Multi-person transport Transit; High Speed trains and Maglev Telecommunications From Morse to Bell to AT&T to cell and ‗net. Telecommunication availability is often used as a measure of national development. Fiber optic and Satellite systems have greatly improved telecommunications Telecommunication and geography; probably one of the most dynamic areas of study in social science. Teleworking Telecommuting Telemarketing The wireless grid connects the world. The Geography of the Internet Origin and growth of the Internet Originated with U.S. Dept. of Defense as a means of communication designed to withstand a Nuclear attack. Transferred to the National Science Foundation Emerged on a global scale with the integration of existing telephone, fiber-optic , and sat systems. Transfer protocols assured that a message could be disintegrated, transmitted, and re-integrated at the receiving end. In 2005, 1.018 billion people, 15 percent of the worlds population were connected to the ‗net. The Geography of the Internet, cont. Social and spatial discrepancies in Internet Access Dial-up, cable, wireless Social networking–You on Facebook? The use of the net in world conflict– see Iran and Iraq Internet in politics The internet‘s dark side…. Electronic Data exchange Allows send and receipt of large amounts of data in real time. Companies are interconnected and in true partnership Paperless offices Collection of monies is quicker and more efficient. Future Impacts of IT Smart Cities Government functions streamlined---I e-filed my income taxes this year! Business Telecommuting—My colleague‘s wife is the 2nd highest officer in one part of an educational corporation, all from home. Telework centers Education and the virtual classroom—You‘re online now aren‘t you? Health Care—diagnosis over the ‗net, and virtual training of physicians.