Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for ETOH GEC Meeting February 27 28 2007 Washington DC Richard Hess Kevin by chenmeixiu

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									Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and
       Logistics for ETOH
                      GEC Meeting
                   February 27-28, 2007
                     Washington, DC

   Richard Hess, Kevin Kenney, Chris Wright, Corey Radtke
                  Idaho National Laboratory
                        Bob Perlack
               Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                                    DOE Biorefining Industry
                                                  2030 Goals
                             Displace a significant fraction of gasoline demand
                                      ~ 60 billion gallons/year by 2030




                                  ~1.3 Billion tons/yr
                                  Biomass Potential             Sugar Platform
                                  in the U.S.
                                   Syngas Platform



http://bioenergy.ornl.gov



                   Including Corn Grain, an Estimated 600 – 700 Million Tons
                   of Biomass per Year is Needed for 60 B gal of ethanol.
                                                       Biochemical Conversion

                             Feedstock Variation                                    Enzyme Cost
                                                            Enzyme
                             Feedstock Quality
                             Feedstock Cost                Production



                                                                          HSF (Hybrid Saccharification & Fermentation)
                                                                                   Co-
                                                          Enzymatic           fermentation         Product
         Pretreatment          Conditioning                                                                          Products
                                                          Hydrolysis           of C5 & C6         Recovery
                                                                                 Sugars

                              Sugar Losses

                                                     Glucose Yield
        Xylose Yield
                                                     Solids Loading (titer)                        Residue
        Xylose Degradation
                                                                                                  Processing
        Solids Loading
        Reactor Costs
                                                                        Ethanol Yields
                                                                        Ethanol Concentration
                                                                       Rate
                                                                       Hydrolyzate Toxicity
                                                                                                  By-products



NREL. 2007. Biochemical Ethanol Process and Barriers. 30by30 (in press)
                                        Thermochemical Conversion

    Size Reduction
Storage & Handling          Feedstock
       De-watering           Interface                                             Products     Ethanol
            Drying



                                                             Gas Cleanup                                   Heat
                           Gasification                           &              Fuel Synthesis             &
                                                             Conditioning                                 Power
                                                                                            Separations
                     Partial Oxidation
                     Pressurized Oxygen                  Particulate removal                Recycle
                                                         Catalytic Reforming                Selectivity
                     Indirect/Steam
                     Technical Feasibility of               Tars
                                                            Benzene               By-products
                        Syngas Quality
                                                            Light Hydrocarbons
                                                            Methane
                                                                                   Methanol
                                                         S, N, Cl mitigation
                                                                                   n-Propanol
                                                         CO2 removal
                                                                                   n-Butanol
                                                         H2/CO adjustment
                                                                                   n-Pentanol



 NREL. 2007. Thermochemical Ethanol Process and Barriers. 30by30 (in press)
                          What is the Time-Frame for Required
                                          Feedstock Tonnages?


2012 – 2017 Time Frame:                                                                          Cumumlative Ethanol Production
                                                                        60

• Grain Ethanol >7 billion gal.                                         55
                                                                                Corn Grain

                                                                                Cellulose
                                                                        50




                                    Ethanol (Billion Gallon per Year)
• Cellulosic Ethanol 3-4 billion
                                                                                Combined Total
                                                                        45


  gal. (estimated 35-45 M tons)
                                                                        40

                                                                        35

                                                                        30

2030 Time Frame:                                                        25

                                                                        20

• Grain Ethanol 13-20 billion                                           15


  gal.                                                                  10

                                                                         5


• Cellulosic Ethanol 40-50                                               0
                                                                         2000          2005          2010       2015       2020       2025        2030

  billion gal. (estimated 400-500                                                                               Year

                                                                        Chart representing ethanol volumes predicted from the high oil case using the
  M tons)                                                               transition model for the 30x30 NREL report. Date: 09/05/06, contact – Bob
                                                                        Wooley, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
                                      Feedstock R&D to Achieve Ethanol
                                                      Production Goals
Feedstock Supply must Answer:
• What are the Feedstocks?
    – Feedstock and characteristics
    – Location
• What are the Feedstock Tonnages
  and Costs?
    – Supply potential
    – Availability and demand
• What are the feedstock locations’
  opportunities / constraints?
    – Production practices
    – Infrastructure constraints            Biorefining Capacity based
• What are the feedstock supply             on Preliminary Feedstock
  options and costs?                        Resource Estimates – Map
                                            developed by Bob Perlack, ORNL, October 2006
    – Regional engineering designs
    – Dry, wet, and woody
                                         Biomass Feedstock Resource Base

•   US land resources can provide a
    sustainable 1.3 billion ton             Forest resources                  368

    annuals biomass supply and still
    meet food, feed, and export        Agricultural resources                              621

    demands
•   Estimates are reasonable given     Perennial energy crops                 377

    trends and time for biorefinery                             0       100   200        300       400          500   600   700
    scale-up/deployment                                                             Million dry tons per year



    • Forest resources                                     • Agricultural resources
        – Logging residues                                          –    Crop residues
        – Forest thinnings (fuel treatments)                        –    Grains to biofuels
        – Fuelwood                                                  –    Perennial grasses
        – Primary wood processing mill                              –    Perennial woody crops
          residues                                                  –    Animal manures
        – Secondary wood processing mill                            –    Food/feed processing residues
          residues                                                  –    MSW and landfill gases
        – Pulping liquors
        – Urban wood residues
                                                                  Biomass Feedstock Cost
                                                                      Target and Metrics

                Grower Payment   Efficiency [$/hr]   Quality
        $/ton =                +                   + [$/ton]
                    [$/ton]      Capacity [ton/hr]
                                                 Therefore
$35/ton =                              $10-$50/ton +                     $25/ton
                                Feedstock Resource R&D Plan       Feedstock Supply System
                                  Contributes:                      R&D Plan Contributes:
 demand Cost Target (2002$)
 2012 Industry initiation/low




                                • Analysis and characterization   • Engineering Designs
                                • Projections based on            • Technology Development
                                  technology development and
                                  supply demand assumptions
                                • Technology development
                                  through “Regional” and
                                  “Office of Science”
                                  Partnerships
                                       Lignocellulosic Feedstock
                                                   Supply Types

• Dry Herbaceous – Agriculture
  Residues/Crops at less than 15%
  moisture

• Wet Herbaceous - Agriculture
  Residues/Crops greater than about 50%
  moisture

• Energy Crops – Wet, Dry, and Woody

• Woody – Forest resources and woody
  energy crops
                                                                            Feedstock Cost Reduction
                                                                              by Cost Elements (Dry)
                                       $80
                                                                                         Storage
                                       $75                                               Preprocessing
                                                                                         Transportation & Handling
                                       $70
                                                                                         Harvest & Collection
                                       $65                                               Production

                                       $60
Delivered Feedstock Cost ($/dry ton)




                                       $55

                                       $50

                                       $45

                                       $40

                                       $35

                                       $30

                                       $25

                                       $20

                                       $15

                                       $10

                                       $5

                                       $0
                                             2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010      2011       2012
                                                                            Feedstock Cost Reduction
                                                                              by Cost Elements (Wet)
                                       $80
                                                                                         Storage
                                       $75                                               Preprocessing
                                                                                         Transportation & Handling
                                       $70
                                                                                         Harvest & Collection
                                       $65                                               Production
                                       $60
Delivered Feedstock Cost ($/dry ton)




                                       $55

                                       $50

                                       $45

                                       $40

                                       $35

                                       $30

                                       $25

                                       $20

                                       $15

                                       $10

                                       $5

                                       $0
                                             2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010      2011       2012
Estimated Field Moisture Content
                                                                           Characterize Feedstock Tonnages
                                                                                   and Costs? (Resource Assessment)
                                                                                                             1,100
                                                                                                $71.15
$70            Resource Tonnage (available)

$65
               Feedstock Cost (throat of reactor)                                                            1,000

                                                                                    $62.12
               Feedstock Value (grower payment)
$60
               Resource Tonnage (demand)
                                                                                                             900     Price determined by
$55
                                                                      $53.08
                                                                                                             800
                                                                                                                     what the conversion
                                                                                                    $51.15
$50                                                                                                                  process can pay for
$45                                                      $44.04
                                                                                                             700
                                                                                                                          feedstocks
                                                                                    $40.87           675
$40                                                                                                          600

      $35.00           $35.00          $35.00                                          582
$35
                                                                                                             500
                                                                      $30.58
$30
                                                                         446                                 400
$25

                                                         $20.29
$20                                                                                                          300


$15                                                         250
                                                                                                             200
      $10.00           $10.00          $10.00
$10

                                           130                                                               100
$5
                         67
$0
      22
                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                       Line represents
2009                    2011              2012             2015         2020          2025             2030          tonnage needed for
                                                                                                                       projected yearly
        Increased tonnage due                       Increased tonnage due to improved supply /                         ethanol demand
        to advances in supply                       conversion technologies (or policies) so that
         system technologies                        more can be paid for the feedstock resource
                                                                  Characterize Feedstock Tonnages
                                                                          and Costs? (Resource Assessment)
                                                                                           1,100
                                                                                  $71.15
$70            Resource Tonnage (available)

$65
               Feedstock Cost (throat of reactor)                                          1,000

                                                                         $62.12
               Feedstock Value (grower payment)
$60                                                                                        900
               Resource Tonnage (demand)
$55
                                                             $53.08
                                                                                  $51.15   800

$50

                                                                                           700
$45                                                 $44.04
                                                                         $40.87     675
$40                                                                                        600

      $35.00           $35.00          $35.00                               582
$35
                                                                                           500
                                                             $30.58
$30
                                                                446                        400
                                                                                                    Grower Payment
$25
                                                                                                      influenced by
                                                    $20.29
$20                                                                                        300
                                                                                                       production /
$15                                                    250
                                                                                           200
                                                                                                   sustainability issues
      $10.00           $10.00          $10.00
$10

                                           130                                             100
$5
                         67
      22
$0                                                                                         0

2009                    2011              2012        2015     2020        2025       2030
                                                      Feedstock Categories and
Biomass Category (MegaTons)
                                                                Characteristics

                              250
 Available Tonnage for each



                                                         Self Sustaining
                              200
                                       Subsidized
                              150
                                                                           Spot Market
                              100

                              50

                               0
                                     35%       45%       55%       65%        75%
                                    Feedstock costs categories as a % of total ETOH
                                       production costs ($1.07/gal design target)
                                             Crop Residue Removal;
                                          Farm Budget Plan Example
Farm Statistics and Management Practices:
• 1700 acres (1200 acres wheat, 500 acres potatoes)
• 3 year crop rotation (wheat, wheat, potatoes)
• If harvested, 1 ton / acre straw removal          Straw agronomic value
• Straw Contract Price ($10-$15 / ton in the field) is offset by elimination
                                                                   of residue management
                                                      Removal                    Farm
                                           Tons       Net Cost      Biomass       Net
      Crop Rotation Removal Point        Harvested     Impact       Revenue     Returns
  No Biomass Removal                             0     ($2,800)            $0      14.0%

  Wheat-Wheat Removal                          700            $0       $7,000      14.6%

  Wheat-Potato Removal                         500    ($19,927)        $5,000      12.7%
  All Wheat Removal + Manure on Potato
  Ground                                     1,200     ($2,500)       $12,000      14.8%

                                             $10/ton straw value adds the equivalent of
                 Potato yield impact         $0.10/bu to the wheat crop gross returns
                                                                   Agronomic Factors Limiting
                                                                         Corn Crop Potential
Limiting factor   Issue(s)-addressed section         Proposed solution – addressed           Guideline – addressed section
                             2.0                              section 3.0                                 2.0
Loss of soil      Supply/replenish SOC             Restrict stover removal to the amount     This is the meat of work. Must be
carbon            Soil quality                     exceeding that needed to maintain         strong, but not long. We need to
                  Future production capacity       SOC. Develop situation specific           inform, not bore, a “lay” audience.
                                                   guidelines and tools to estimate the
                                                   amount of stover needed to maintain
                                                   SOC. That is, create a “RUSLE” for
                                                   SOC/soil quality management.
                                                   Fractional or selective harvest.
Soil erosion      Water erosion and runoff         Restrict stover removal to the amount     Keep this short. NRCS has this
                  management                       exceeding that needed to keep soil        covered. It’s not our main issue,
                  Wind erosion management          loss to less than T, use                  but we have to cover it for
                  Off-site effects                 RUSLE/RUSLE2 and NRCS                     completeness.
                                                   guidelines and procedures to identify
                                                   practices
Loss of plant     Increased fertilizer             Retain stover                             Secondary issue. May need to find
nutrients         application and production       Improve nutrient use efficiency           some data on indicate how
                  costs                            Return ligneous conversion by-            quickly nutrients in stover are
                                                   product or boiler ash to land             cycled into plant-available forms.
                                                   (??). Fractional or selective harvest.
Soil              Compaction of soil due to        Agronomic solutions?? Single pass         Reduce or eliminate harvest
Compaction        increase field traffic for       harvesting systems                        operations to reduce field traffic.
                  residue removal and/or
                  transition to no-till cropping
                  system
Soil Water and    Retains soil seasonal            Maintain stover cover to retain           Need driven by climatic
Temperature       moisture / residue prevents      moisture or remove stover cover to        conditions.
                  rapid soil warming               reduce moisture and raise soil temp.
Environmental     Off-site erosion impacts         These “issues” seem linked to the         May need to write this as part of
degradation       Nutrient loss to surface water   erosion limiting factor. If nothing new   other topic. If so, best delay until
                                                   to add here we should discuss under       next version
                                                   erosion
                            Management Strategy Studies; Fractional
                                    Single-Pass vs. Mow and Rake




• Single-pass High cut harvested 72% of stover produced (i.e., 12% more
  stover collected per acre than billion ton study assumptions), so
• 70% removed with combine
    • Low moisture
    • Reduced pretreatment severity
    • Short soil half-life (Kumar and Goh, 2000; Eiland et al. 2001)
• 30% of stalk left behind
    • High moisture
    • Highly recalcitrant
    • Long soil half-life
• 40% removed with mow and rake – mostly stalk material
                                                                     Feedstock Supply System
                                                                   Barriers and Interface Point




                                                                                                       Feedstock Interface
Biomass Production              Performance Metrics:
• Agricultural Resources:
   – Crop Residues              • Efficiency ($/hr)
   – Energy Crops
• Forest Resources:             • Equipment Capacity (ton/hr)
   – Logging Residues
   – Harvested for Energy       • Biomass Quality ($/ton)
                                                                                     Handling                                Conversion Pathway’s
        Harvest                                                                         and                                  Reactors:
          and             Storage         Preprocessing         Transportation        Queuing                                • Agricultural Residues
        Collection                                                                     at the                                • Energy Crops
                                                                                     Biorefinery                             • Forest Products
                                    •   Equipment Capacity
• Equipment Capacity                •   Material Bulk Density




                                                                                                         Boundary
• Compositional Impacts             •   Compositional Impacts             • Handling efficiencies
• Pretreatment Impacts              •   Pretreatment Impacts              • Handling compaction
                                                                          • Material Bulk Properties

           •   Shrinkage
           •   Compositional Impacts             • Truck Capacity
           •   Pretreatment Impacts              • Loading compaction
           •   Soluble Sugar Capture             • Loading efficiencies
                                         Feedstock Supply System Models
                                                   and Business Elements
                                          Centralized Agri-business Storage


                   Distributed On-farm
                         Storage




Bale-Based Feedstock
Supply System



                                         Farm Gate
                        Agriculture                    Agri business


Bulk Feedstock
Supply System

                       Bales or other
                       formats
                                                                   Harvest and Collection
               Location                 Capital     Capital   Operating   Labor   Feedstock
                                      Investment     Costs     Costs      Costs     Costs
        Idaho $35 Straw                   $45.44     $5.37      $4.08     $1.05    $10.50

        Kansas Straw                      $33.67     $5.41      $4.42     $2.18    $12.02

        Kansas Stover                     $49.45     $7.79      $6.78     $3.60    $18.17

        Kansas $35 Stover                 $14.51     $1.57      $1.01     $1.29     $3.87

Description:
• ID Straw: combine, bale (4’x4’x8’), roadside
• KS Straw: combine, (4’x4’x8’), roadside
• KS Stover: combine, swath, bale (4’x4’x8’), roadside
Explanation of Difference: Logistics
• Swathing cost for stover
• Equipment utilization (ID: 1 crop, KS: 3 crops)
• Roadside distance (ID: 0.5 mi., KS: 5 mi.)
• Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $
• Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield,
feedstock type and operational size assumptions.
                                                                    Harvest and Collection
                                                                              (Continued)
                Location                  Capital    Capital   Operating   Labor     Feedstock
                                        Investment    Costs     Costs      Costs       Costs
          Idaho $35 Straw                  $45.44     $5.37      $4.08     $1.05      $10.50

          Kansas Straw                     $33.67     $5.41      $4.42     $2.18      $12.02

          Kansas Stover                    $49.45     $7.79      $6.78     $3.60      $18.17

          Kansas $35 Stover                $14.51     $1.57      $1.01     $1.29       $3.87


 Needed Improvements:
 • Single-Pass/Selective Harvest – full
   bulk system
 • Eliminate swathing ($5.78/dTon)
 • Eliminate baling ($8.52/dTon)

                                                                             Sweet Corn Harvester
                                                                              (Photo Not Available)
• Costs in $/dry ton,, 2002 $
• Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield,
feedstock type and operational size assumptions.
                                                                                             Storage
           Location         Capital      Capital    Operating        Labor            Feedstock
                          Investment      Costs      Costs           Costs              Costs
      Idaho $35 Straw         $0           $0          $1.69            $0               $1.69

      Kansas Straw           $1.30        $0.36        $7.53            $0               $7.89

      Kansas Stover          $1.30        $0.36        $7.85            $0               $8.20

      Kansas $35 Stover      $0.70        $0.18        $5.43            $0               $5.61


Description:
• Costs include shrinkage, insurance, land rent for stack, stack
   maintenance, and cover
Explanation of Difference: Location (Environment)
• ID: Low precipitation , no cover needed
• KS: Higher precipitation, bale wrap for loss mitigation
• KS Stover: Higher harvest & collection cost results in higher
   shrinkage cost
 Needed Improvements:
• GIS/weather-data based method for determining loss               • Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $
   mitigation requirements. 100% mitigation is not necessary       • Cost per ton estimates can vary based on
   KS $35 Stover assumes 50% of feedstock inventory does not       yield, feedstock type and operational size
   need cover.                                                     assumptions.
                                                                                              Feedstock/Process Interface
                                                                                           Quantify changes in wet storage
                                                                                          Sugar Losses in 3 different wet storage scenarios
                                                                       $1.45

                                                                                                   Ensiling can adversely affect sugar content and
R&D Details:                                                           $1.40              Water
                                                                                                   Ultimately ethanol yield and cost.
                                                                                                   The interface task will address these issues and look for
• Verify ensiled                                                                                   processing advantages like increased digestibility.




                        Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) ($/gal)
                                                                       $1.35

  biomass value                                                        $1.30

• Verify values of                                                                                Biological
                                                                       $1.25
  biomass fractions
• Measure levels of                                                    $1.20



  inhibitors                                                           $1.15
                                                                                                                             Molasses

• Screen with                                                          $1.10
                                                                                                                                                            2002 Design
                                                                                                                                        Dry (Initial)
  upgraded SSF                                                         $1.05
                                                                                                                                                              Report



  system                                                               $1.00
                                                                           40%            45%          50%             55%              60%              65%          70%
                                                                                                          Biomass Structural Sugars (wt%)




                                                                                                                                                        Radtke, INL
  LAB + Enz     Water                                                          Molasses
                                                                                                                                                        Ibsen, NREL
                                                            Distributed Grinding
         Location          Capital    Capital    Operating            Labor            Feedstock
                         Investment    Costs      Costs               Costs              Costs
     Idaho $35 Straw       $6.93       $1.01       $1.61               $1.59              $4.21

     Kansas Straw          $8.18       $1.12       $1.59               $1.62              $4.33

     Kansas Stover         $8.18       $1.12       $1.59               $1.85              $4.56

     Kansas $35 Stover     $8.18       $1.12       $1.59               $1.85              $4.56


Description:
• Grinding occurs at the stack
• Current grinder performance: Capacity = 26
   tons/hr, Bulk Density = 8 lbs/ft3,
Explanation of Difference: Economies of Scale
• Equipment utilization (grinders are under-
   utilized in KS scenario)
 Needed Improvements:
• Increase grinder capacity 25% (32.4 tons/hr)
                                                           • Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $
                                                           • Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield,
                                                           feedstock type and operational size assumptions.
                                                   Bulk Biomass Handling and
                                                              Transportation
           Location         Capital      Capital    Operating            Labor            Feedstock
                          Investment      Costs      Costs               Costs              Costs
      Idaho $35 Straw        $8.38        $1.00       $1.75               $3.11              $5.85

      Kansas Straw           $9.84        $1.20       $2.16               $4.06              $7.42

      Kansas Stover          $9.84        $1.20       $2.16               $4.62              $7.98

      Kansas $35 Stover      $8.37        $1.03       $1.87               $4.00              $6.90


Description:
• Self-unloading belt trailers, trailer configuration
    varies to maximize load
Explanation of Difference: Location (State Regulations)
• State road limits:
     Idaho: 105 ft., 115,500 GVW
     Kansas: 85 ft., 85,500 GVW
 Needed Improvements:
• Increase truck-loaded densities to 14 lb/ft3 to gross-
    out trucks (increase by 25%)
                                                              • Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $
• Increase conveyor-loaded densities to 10.4 lb/ft3           • Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield,
    (increase by 100%)                                        feedstock type and operational size assumptions.
                                                  Bulk Receiving and Handling
           Location         Capital      Capital     Operating              Labor            Feedstock
                          Investment      Costs       Costs                 Costs              Costs
      Idaho $35 Straw       $13.90        $1.04          $0.40               $0.33              $1.77

      Kansas Straw          $21.87        $1.64          $0.59               $0.52              $2.75

      Kansas Stover         $21.87        $1.64          $0.59               $0.52              $2.75

      Kansas $35 Stover     $21.87        $1.64          $0.59               $0.52              $2.75


Description:
• 72-hr inventory
• Eurosilo storage
• Conveyor density 5.2 lb/ft3, bin density 14.1 lb/ft3
Explanation of Difference: Economies of Scale
• Economies of scale favor larger Idaho biorefinery
• Idaho: 95 tons/hr; 943,000 ft3 inventory
• Kansas: , 38 tons/hr; 389,000 ft3 inventory
Needed Improvements:
• Increase conveyor-loaded bulk density                          • Costs in $/dry ton, 2002 $
• Improve rheological properties                                 • Cost per ton estimates can vary based on yield,
                                                                 feedstock type and operational size assumptions.
                                               Biochem Feedstock Fractions
                                                                   Quality




  Wet Storage      Dry Storage Selective Harvest Preprocessing
   Feedstock value for $1.07/gal cost target:
   • Wet storage conditions affecting composition changes
     created a $28* range in feedstock value
   • Dry storage conditions affecting composition changes
     created a $22* range in feedstock value
   • Selective harvest composition changes created a $10* range
     in feedstock value
   • Mechanical Preprocessing and fractionation composition
     changes created a $12* range in feedstock value
*Value estimations based on NREL Aspen model analysis
Biorefining Depends on
             Feedstock

								
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