DANCEE DRAFT 1 Good Environmental Practice Note for Sawmills and Wood Preservation installations in Estonia August 2004 DANCEE Good Environmental Practice Note for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation installations in Estonia August 2004 Report no. 1 Issue no. 1 Date of issue August 2004 Prepared kap Checked Approved Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 1 Table of Contents 1 BACKGROUND 3 2 INTRODUCTION 5 3 SAWMILLS 6 3.1 Process description 6 3.2 Sawmills covered by this note 7 3.3 Environmental scope 8 4 WOOD PRESERVATION INSTALLATIONS 10 4.1 Process description 10 4.2 Wood preservation installations covered by this note 10 4.3 Environmental scope 11 5 PROVISIONS AND GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE 12 5.1 Sawmills 12 5.1.1 Noise 12 Practical guidelines 13 Minimum environmental provisions: 14 5.1.2 Air pollution 14 Estonian regulation 14 Minimum environmental provisions. 16 5.1.3 Waste water 17 Minimum environmental provisions. 17 5.1.4 Waste 18 Minimum environmental provisions. 18 5.2 Wood preservation installations 19 5.2.2 Noise 19 Minimum environmental Provisions 19 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 2 5.2.3 Air pollution 19 Minimum environmental provisions 19 5.2.4 Waste 19 Minimum environmental provisions 20 5.2.5 Soil and water pollution 20 Minimum environmental provisions 21 D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 3 1 Background As part of the Latvian Branch Regulation Project a seminar was held in Estonia 13 April 2004 to explain about the concept of branch regulation and the Dan- ish/Latvian experiences. At the seminar significant interest for the concept was expressed, although it was also recognized that it will not be possible to immediately issue branch regulations in Estonia since these need legal mandates, thorough discussions etc. It was agreed that it could be a good beginning to elaborate a "good practice" document for one sector, i.e. wood processing as a first step towards ensuring less administratively heavy and more coherent and unified regulation of the sector. As the Latvian branch regulation project has some (limited) funding available it has been approved by DEPA that the project team, in co-operation with Esto- nian partners, will elaborate a first draft of such a good practice document. The document will be given to MoE, Estonia, which it self will decide how to dis- seminate, use, or further elaborate the document, and perhaps eventually de- velop it into a full-fledged legally binding branch regulation. Two outputs were agreed to be prepared: 1) A brief environmental practice document for the Estonian wood processing sector in English. The document will describe "good environmental practice" on a sawmill including planing, drying, sanding and preservation taking place on the sawmill. Other parts of the sector will not be included. Logging is not considered as part of the sector. The document will be based on the experience gained within the Latvian Branch Regulation Project and to the extent possible adapted to Estonian circumstances. 2) A brief note describing relevant references as well as some considerations made in relation to the content of the above good practice document. Inputs are provided from: COWI by: Jacob Ulrich (Project Manager, Branch Regulation Project) D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 4 Klaus Pedersen, (Environmental Regulation Specialist, Branch Regulation Pro- ject). Silvija Sile, (Environmental Regulation Specialist, Branch Regulation Project). Elle, Tallin by: Anne Vahter (title) Toomas Pallo (title) D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 5 2 Introduction The "Good Environmental Practice" Note contains legislation obligations, rec- ommendations and practical advice envisaged for relevant permitting and in- spection authorities, operators of saw mills and responsible service employees maintaining the equipment at the sawmill. The information in this "Good Environmental Practice" Note is intended to be used as a tool to assist in determining the "good practice for an operation in this sector and should not be taken to be a definitive authority on the regulation of this sector. The Note shall not be considered as a legal document. This "Good Environmental Practice" Note comprises five main sections. Fol- lowing this introduction, Section 3 is covering saw mill processes, the ac- tivities for sawmills covered by this note and the environmental scope for sawmills. Section 4 covers process description for Impregnation, processes covered by the note and environmental scope for impregnation facilities. Provisions and good environmental practice is given in Section 3, which is divided into two parts: 5.1.for saw mills and 5.2 for impregnation facilities. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 6 3 Sawmills 3.1 Process description Raw material as Logs are delivered to sawmills from the forest and stored in ponds or on land. If stored on land, the logs are usually sprayed with water to keep them moist and prevent cracking. The raw logs are debarked and then cut into cants (partially cut lumber) which are trimmed into raw lumber. As the logs are debarked, bark is used as hog fuel for boilers or sold as mulch. Shav- ings, sawdust and chips can also be used at paper mills and reconstituted wood panel manufacturing plants. The cants are cut to specific lengths or finished further depending on the final destination of the lumber product. Most lumber is dried to specific moisture content through air or kiln drying. During the humid month smaller Sawmills frequently perform surface protec- tion operations to protect lumber against sapstaining that may occur during temporary storage and transport to end user. Sapstains do affect the surface, colouring it with dark blue or black stains. This discoloration may decrease the value of the wood and its acceptance of finishes. Three major processes are used to apply surface protection chemicals to wood by sawmills: the dip process, the spray process, and the green chain process. Dipping is a batch process; green chain and spray operations are continuous processes. Only the dipping process is included in this Note Saw mills and wood processing installations can include many different proc- esses as: Storage and sorting of round timber Debarking Sawing Drying of sawn materials Planning Chipping Surface protection against sap-stain Waste management Maintenance of internal transport means D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 7 Figure 1Flow diagram for a sawmill1 3.2 Sawmills covered by this note The following types of sawmills are included in the scope of the note: • Sawmills processing round timber with input of more than 2.000 m3 of round timber per year, 1 Sector notebook project, Profile of the Lumber and wood products Industry, EPA/310-R- 95-006, Washington D.C., 1995. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 8 • Other wood processing installations where sawing, planning and other cut- ting machinery are used for remanufacturing of timber regardless of pro- duction capacity, • Installations for manufacture of fuels based on wood residue regardless of production capacity. Issues not included are: • Installations where the following activities are carried out as part of or the only activity: Production of charcoal; Installations using chemicals such as glue and lacquer such as furniture factories, etc. • Storage of fuels for internal transport equipment heating and other pur- poses. • Extraction of water and use of resources and energy. 3.3 Environmental scope This Good Environmental Practice Note for Sawmills and Wood Preservation installations in Estonia includes the following types of pollution from sawmills: • Noise, for example from loading and unloading of logs, debarking, internal transportation on outdoor areas, fans on cyclones and filters, • Air pollution, for example dust from saws, planers and chippers and from boiler houses, • Wastewater, for example from washing and high pressure washing of trucks and other transport means for internal transport of logs and timber, wastewater from sprinkling of logs, • Waste such as saw dust and bark, sludge and waste liquid from the wood preserving process. The environmental impacts mentioned may not be exhaustive but includes the main significant impacts. The scope of the Note has been set after an initial survey of the technological and environmental uniformity of the branch in EU with the focus on Latvia and Denmark. The conclusion of the survey was that the environmental aspects, the process techniques and the cleaning technology basically are the same within a very wide range of input/output capacity of the sawmills and wood processing instal- lations where the primary process is cutting and drying and that the companies, regardless of size, can be regulated by the same standardized environmental requirements. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 9 It was decided to exclude wood processing installations using chemicals, as glue and lacquer, since the technology here is more complicated and varies much more and also because these companies typically use large quantities of dangerous substances in the production. By this definition the Note is covering a broad range of sawmills and wood processing companies from very small sawmills with simple machinery and few employees to very large installations with semi automatic and automatic equipment and more employees. The exact numbers are not known by the Drafting Team. : D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 10 4 Wood preservation installations 4.1 Process description Wood is treated with preservatives to protect it from mechanical, physical and chemical influences. Preserved wood is used primarily in the construction, rail- road and utilities industries to prevent rotting when wood is exposed to damp soil, standing water or rain, and as protection against insects and marine borers. The most common preservatives include water-borne inorganics like chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), and oil- borne organics like pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote. Preservatives are applied using similar processes. More than 90 % of the wood preservation in EU is performed using pressure treatment processes. The pene- tration required to adequately preserve wood can be achieved only if the wood has been conditioned properly; that is, if the moisture content of the fresh-cut wood is reduced to a point where the preservative can penetrate and be retained by the wood. Open air drying is typically used to prepare large stock for treat- ment with oil-borne preservatives. Other methods for conditioning wood prior to treatment with oil-borne preservatives include steaming, heating and vapour- drying. Kiln drying is used primarily for water-borne treatment. Conditioning is a major source of wastewater in the wood preserving industry. After the moisture content of the wood has been reduced, the wood is preserved using either non-pressure or pressure methods. Non-pressure processes include brushing, spraying, dipping, soaking and thermal processes. There are two basic types of pressure treatment processes, distinguished by the sequence in which vacuum and pressure are applied. These are "empty-cell" and "full-cell" or modified full cell" processes. The terms "empty" and "full" are measures of the level of preservative retained by the wood cells.2 4.2 Wood preservation installations covered by this note The following wood preservation installations are covered by this note: 2 Based on EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 11 Pressure preservation (high pressure impregnation), Vacuum impregnation (low pressure impregnation), Wood protection against sap-stain. 4.3 Environmental scope This Good Environmental Practice Note for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation installations in Estonia includes the following types of pollution from wood Impregnation installations: Soil and water pollution, due to potential spillage of wood preservation chemicals from handling and storage of chemicals and impregnated wood Noise, for example from loading and unloading of logs, internal transporta- tion on outdoor areas, motors on vacuum pumps Air pollution, for example Aerosols and solvents from wood preservation Waste, such as used liquid from wood preservation, sludge from bunded areas and empty bins and containers The environmental impacts regulated may not be exhaustive but includes the main significant impacts. Issues not regulated are: Household wastewater Extraction of water and use of resources and energy The scope of the note has been set after a technological survey and discussion with the branch in Latvia concerning installations in use in Latvia and the tech- nological uniformity of the branch. The conclusion of the survey was that the main part of the installations in Lat- via use high pressure technology, while only a few installations use the solvent based low pressure technology. Further a number of installations use dipping against sap-stain with for example emulsions. Companies that carry out protec- tion against sap-stain can be individual installations or installations connected to saw mills. It was decided to exclude companies using creosote as a wood preservative as this is expected to be forbidden in the near future and until then these installations should have individual permits. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 12 5 Provisions and good environmental practice 5.1 Sawmills 5.1.1 Noise Typical sources of noise in saw mills are: loading and unloading of logs, sawdust, bark and other goods on out- door areas. debarking of logs internal transportation on outdoor areas motors and fans on cyclones and filters diffuse noise from windows, doors and other openings in the buildings The current noise (immission?) limits are given in Ambient Air Protection Act (which will enter into force by the end of 2003) and its secondary acts; Public Health Act which entered into force in 1995 (RT I 1995, 57, 978) and its sec- ondary acts. Regulation of the Minister of Social Affairs No 42 of 4 March 2002 “Limit values of noise in the living and rest places, living and joint use buildings and the methods of measurement of noise level” The limit values for noise are compiled in the table below. (Figures are for Latvia) Table 1Limit values for noise D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 13 Period Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 Private Apartment Apartments, Public func- houses houses different tions, mar- functions kets, shop- ping etc. LAeq, dB(A), 07-23 50 55 60 60 LAeq dB(A), 23-07 40 45 45 - LAmax, dB(A), 07-23 65 70 70 70 LAmax dB(A), 23-07 55 60 60 - The contribution to the noise levels in surrounding areas can be controlled by model calculations. This gives the authority the possibility to check the noise levels and compare to Estonian limit values for noise in special problem cases where there are complaints over noise. Practical guidelines Loading and unloading of logs, sawdust, bark and other goods from trucks on outdoor areas contributes periodically to noise. The sources of noise are vehi- cles used for transport and handling of the logs and the logs being dropped on the storage area. During the Loading and unloading periods the contribution of noise can contribute substantially to the noise immission to the surroundings compared with the noise generated at the site. Use of low noise trucks and logistical changes of the loading and unloading process can help to minimize the noise emission problems for surrounding neighbours. It is strongly recommended to limit loading and unloading to the daytime by logistic planning and agreements with external partners especially in populated areas. Internal transportation on outdoor areas is often done on trucks and other mo- torized vehicles and will always take place inside the borders of the company. The internal transportation is characterized as a moving source. Moving sources contributes periodically with noise in an area of the site often in a repeating pat- tern. The noise contribution to the surroundings depends on if the transportation area is separated from the surroundings by buildings or other noise damping screens. Use of low noise trucks and changing the driving patterns can help to minimize the noise immission to surrounding areas. Debarking of logs is either done at the outdoor storage area in batches or in the very beginning of the production line before the first saw and often in open air. Debarking machinery in the production line operates in the same operation in- tervals as the rest of the production line on the saw mill. For both machineries the noise can be limited by covering the machinery with a shelter of sound damping material. If debarking is done in batches the work should be limited to the daytime. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 14 Motors and fans on cyclones and filters which are mounted outside the build- ings are the main stationary source of noise outdoors on the saw mill. The fans are often placed high over the terrain for technical reasons. Noise from motors and fans are often caused by outdated equipment and reduc- tion of the noise level can be done simply by changing or repairing the motor. Alternatively local damping of the motor by mounting a noise screen on the motor can reduce the noise. Diffuse noise from windows, doors and other openings in the buildings Diffuse noise from openings in the production buildings shall be avoided. Doors and windows must no be used as ventilation system. Minimum environmental provisions: Saw mills and wood processing installations must not cause noise levels in surrounding areas exceeding the limit values currently in force in Es- tonia. 5.1.2 Air pollution The following parts of the process may give rise to particulate matter in the form of dust: indoor wood processing machinery, for example, sawing, sanding, shaping, turning, and planning transfer of wood particles created by sawing/machining operations, for ex- ample into holding areas or vehicles size reduction operations, for example, granulation of wood offcuts stockpiles, for example, woodchips arrestment plant outlets, for example, cyclones and bag filtration units bagging of sawdust / wood chips from arrestment plant outlet points pits or containers where sawdust / wood chips are stored on site, for exam- ple, prior to removal from site Other sources of air pollution: Emission from boiler houses Estonian regulation The current limit values are given in: Ambient Air Protection Act. Passed 22 April 1998, (RT I 1998, 41/42, 624), entered into force 1 January 1999.Ambient Air Protection Act*. Passed 5 May 2004 (RT I 2004, 43, 298, enters into force 30 September 2004. Regulation No. 88 of the Minister of En- vironment of 13 July 2000. The emission levels of pollutants and capacities of plants used; in case of lower emission levels or capacities of plants used, an ambient air pollution permit is not required. Regulation No. 44 of the Minister of Environment of 4 July 2002. Limit values of emissions of pollut- D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 15 ant per production unit or unit of energy in production of the cellulose, cement and timber. The emission limit value used in this note (as the Latvian Branch regulation) is taken from the Danish regulation of the same type of branch, and the approach for stack height from general Danish permit experience. The emission limit value is in the note set different for new and existing installations. The approach includes no calculation of dispersion, monitoring or calculation of mass flow and emission, only visual control, recommendations of "good maintenance practice" of the air cleaning equipment. This approach is consid- ered appropriate for the regulation because it is very simple and even the smaller companies would be able to comply. If this approach shall be efficient, documentation of the equipment as instruc- tion manuals, filter- and cyclone specifications from manufacturer are essential. This information shall be used in the day to day management of the air-cleaning equipment, ensuring a proper operation of the equipment. Difference pressure meters are one of the very simple methods for control of filter efficiency. By mounting the pressure meter over the filter it can be meas- ured when the filter efficiency is falling and action can be taken to either change or empty the filter before the dust is bypassing the filter. Filters shall be used where risk for spreading of dust particles to the surround- ings are obvious. This is typically in the part of the production where process- ing of dried wood takes place. In the green part of the production it is sufficient to collect sawdust in cyclones or just in pits under the machinery. Cyclones may remain acceptable in the following scenarios: in circumstances when wood is processed for which the water content is above 20% of the solid content by weight, the particulate matter produced tends to be large wood particles and the high water content may damage fil- ter fabric. In these circumstances cyclones are likely to remain acceptable, provided that no other timber is worked, or provided that only very minor amounts of such timber are worked on an occasional basis; in cases where arrestment plant only serves operations which produce emis- sions mainly comprising large particles; and in cases where a process is undertaken at a location well away from housing or other populated areas. Automatic shut down of arrestment plant in the event of malfunction / blockage should be considered. In most circumstances fabric filters of an appropriate specification or a combi- nation of cyclones in line with fabric filters, or cyclo-filters should be fitted in preference to cyclones as they are significantly more efficient for the control of emissions of wood particles. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 16 However, as the moisture content of the material processed increases fabric fil- ters will begin to clog, reducing both their efficiency and lifespan, and requir- ing more maintenance. The size range and moisture content of wood particles consequently varies widely between operators. Figure ….illustrates moisture content and particle size variation. (It should NOT be taken that sawmills produce only large parti- cles and furniture manufacturers produce only fine particles.) Figure 2 Moisture content and particle size variation Daily visual control and the annual maintenance check is an essential part of "good maintenance practice". Control of the filter efficiency shall be part of the daily visual control. So shall the control of the cyclone´s functionality and dust pits under the cyclones. The daily control will expose the damages on the equipment and nonconformity can be avoided as can the expensive shut down situations where part of the production must be unproductive for a longer pe- riod. Minimum environmental provisions. Indoor wood processing mashinery, causing emission of sawdust, shall be equipped with air suction devices for collection of sawdust. The air from suction shall be cleaned in cyclones and/or bagfilters before be- ing discharged to the surroundings to prevent the dispersion of dust particles. Air-cleaning equipment shall work in accordance with specifications and procedures given in the manufacturer's instruction manuals. The D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 17 manuals/instructions shall be present and followed at the site. Filters shall be equipped with differential pressure meters to control proper operation of the equipment. The concentration of wood dust in the removed air shall not exceed 50 mg/Nm3 (0 C, 101,3 kPa, dry gas) for new companies and 75 mg/Nm3 (0 C, 101,3 kPa, dry gas) for existing companies, measured as the mean value per one hour. In residential areas the height of emission discharge point shall be no less than 2 metres above the highest roof ridge of the installation and no lower than the highest building occupied by people more than 6 hours per day which exists or is approved to be built within the dis- tance of 50 metres from the site of emission. The rate of emission air flow in the stack shall be no less than 8 metres per second at the mini- mum load of the suction device, and its air flow shall be directed up- wards. The air cleaning equipment shall daily be controlled visually to assure that the function is in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction manuals. If nonconformity is observed the production shall be shut down immediately by the operator and the equipment repaired. The de- tails of the nonconformity and the repair shall be reported in the log- book. At least once a year, all cleaning equipment shall have a maintenance check. All damages shall be repaired and reported to the logbook. Boiler houses on sawmill or wood processing installation shall comply with the requirements in the Estonian legislation, which sets environ- mental provisions for boiler houses (incineration installations). Waste incineration in a boiler house is prohibited excluding wood waste of not impregnated and surface protected materials. 5.1.3 Waste water Sources of wastewater in saw mills are: water from paved areas water from paved areas for sprinkling of timber Wastewater and surface run off originating from areas where leaks of oil prod- ucts or petrol may take place shall be treated in an oil separator before dis- charged to sewer. Minimum environmental provisions. Areas for sprinkling of timber and logs shall be paved and designed for collection of storm- and surfacewater if the annual input capacity of round timber is more than 50.000 m3.Storm and surfacewater from these areas shall be reused for sprinkling purposes and may not be disposed without biological treatment. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 18 5.1.4 Waste Typical waste fractions from saw mills are: sawdust, bark, sludge from storm and sprinkling water, sludge and bottom sediment from sap stain protection tank. Sawdust is the largest fraction of waste from saw mills and wood processing industries where up to 30% of the raw material will end as either sawdust or irregular cuts. The sawdust is not considered harmful for the environment but prevention of dissemination of sawdust by wind to the neighbouring territories is however important to avoid nuisance of neighbours and the following com- plaints. Saw dust has become more and more popular as either raw material for produc- tion of fuel pellets or direct use in boilers for heating of buildings or as process heat. The use of sawdust and chips from saw mills depends of the distance from the saw mill to the market and in some parts of the country deposition of the sawdust on landfills is more common than other parts. Use of sawdust and other bio-fuel is more environmental friendly than use of fossil fuel as oil or coal, and the sawdust can be fired into even smaller boilers. To get the right price for the sawdust it can be necessary to collect it over a cer- tain time. In this Note it is stated that storage on site is limited to 1 year. If stor- age for more than 1 year is needed, the company must ask for a written ap- proval from competent Authority. Bark is often used for coverage of soil between trees and bushes in parks and gardens but can also be used as fuel. Sludge from storm and sprinkling water can contain high concentrations of oil and phenols and shall be handled, stored and treated as hazardous waste. Sludge and bottom sediment from sap stain protection tank is typically filled with sawdust and other particles. The sludge shall be disposed off in accor- dance with the description in the safety data sheet for the surface protectant. Solid or liquid hazardous waste like used oil and hydraulic liquid shall be stored under roof. The storage of waste on-site shall be constructed so that no pollution of air, water or soil is caused. The packaging of the waste shall be properly labelled. Solid or liquid hazardous waste may not be stored on site for more than 12 months. Minimum environmental provisions. Wood waste (bark, saw dust, wood dust) shall, to the extent possible, be reused or used for energy or fuel production. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 19 Wood waste as sawdust and shavings shall be stored and handled in a way that will prevent it from being spread to the surroundings, and may not be stored on site for more than 12 months. Storage for more than 12 month requires a written approval from the Competent Author- ity. Bottom sediment sludge from treatment or pre-treatment of storm- and sprinkling water from paved sprinkling areas in companies with an- nual input capacity of round timber on more than 50.000 m3shall be handled and disposed as hazardous waste. Bottom sediment from the tanks for surface protection against sap- stain shall be handled and treated as it is prescribed in the safety data sheets of the product. 5.2 Wood Impregnation installations 5.2.2 Noise Sources of noise in wood preservation installations are: Noise, for example from loading and unloading of logs, internal transporta- tion on outdoor areas, motors on vacuum pumps Minimum environmental Provisions The noise emission from wood impregnation installations shall not exceed the limit values determined in the normative acts. 5.2.3 Air pollution Sources of air pollution in wood preservation installations are: For example Aerosols and solvents from wood preservation fluids Minimum environmental provisions Air emissions from vacuum pumps in high pressure impregnation shall be bubbled through a water bath to avoid emission of aerosols with impregnation chemicals. Air emissions from low pressure impregnation, using solvents shall be emitted through a stack with a height calculated according to Annex of this regulation. 5.2.4 Waste Sources of waste wood preservation installations are: D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 20 Used liquid from wood preservation, sludge from bunded areas and empty bins and containers. Minimum environmental provisions Hazardous waste (wood preservatives, solvents, oils, sludge from impregnation containing hazardous substances, polluted packing materials from chemicals,etc) shall be collected separately for recycling or disposal at an external installation that holds a relevant permit. Containers and bins with oil waste and other hazardous waste and used, polluted containers for wood preservatives must be stored in bunded areas with a volume at least 110 % of the biggest container stored. The bunding shall be impervious and made of, or sealed with, a substance resistant to the chemicals that it might contain. It must also be strong enough to withstand the hydrostatic pressure when the bund is full of liquid. The bunded area must not be equipped with drain and all spillages shall be collected for final disposal. Areas where surface protection against sap-stain take or may take place and areas where the surface protectants (antiseptics) are stored shall be designed so as to prevent the permeation of such substances into the soil and ground water, under roof and with a spill collection system. The spill collection system must not be connected to the waste water or rain water system. The collected spillage can be reused or disposed as described in article 19 in this regulation The treated wood must be placed on a drip pad with spill collection system directly after preservation and must be drip-free prior to trans- fer from the drip pad to the storage yard. 5.2.5 Soil and water pollution Sources of soil and water pollution in wood preservation installations are: Spillage of wood preservation chemicals from handling and storage of chemi- cals and impregnated wood. Requirements to protect soil and water from protection against sap-stain are similar to the requirements set for sap-stain protection in the chapter for wood processing installations. Unloading of wood preservative chemicals may take place only on bunded area directly connected to the impregnation plant or alternatively on a small sealed area remote from the impregnation installation, and with insufficient capacity in case of a major spillage. In the last case the operator shall have equipment ready in case of a large spillage to ensure that the chemical will not be dis- charged to surface water or similar, for example a fixed system to pump the spillage to the bunded areas at the impregnation plant. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 21 Provisions to protect soil and water from high pressure impregnation installa- tions in this Note are based on requirements in the UK Code of Practice for Safe Design and Operation: "Timber Treatment Installations 2003" published by the UK Environment Agency. Minimum environmental provisions Wood preservatives used must comply with Regulation No. from 200X: "Restrictions and Prohibitions on Use and Marketing of Dangerous Chemical Substances and Dangerous Chemical Products" Installations including impregnation tank, presevative storages, preservative working tanks, associated unloading area(s) and fixation of impregnated wood shall be located within collecting area provided by bunding (bunded area), with a volume at least 110 % of the working tank. The bunded area, mentioned in article 4, shall be impervious and made of, or sealed with, a substance resistant to the chemicals that it might contain. It must also be strong enough to withstand the hydrostatic pressure when the bund is full of liquid. The bund shall be in a covered and enclosed area to avoid the collection of rainwater and the possible contamination with wood- preservative treatment fluid. Preservation chemicals collected in the bunded area, shall be reused in the process or disposed as chemical hazardous waste as appropriate. The high-pressure treated wood must not be moved from the fixation area to the holding area before the wood is dripfree. Areas where surface protection against sap-stain take or may take place and areas where the surface protectants are stored shall be designed so as to prevent the permeation of such substances into the soil and ground water. It shall be bounded sealed area under roof. The collected spillage can be reused or disposed together with bottom sediment. The sap-stain treated wood must be placed over the dipping tank or on a drip pad with spill collection system directly after preservation and must be drip-free prior to transfer from the drip pad to the storage yard. All impregnated wood shall be labelled at each package with the following information: Date for preservation, name of preservation chemical used, the chemical preservation class (according to EN 351- 1). The labels shall be weather resistant. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC . Good Environmental Practice for Sawmills and Wood Impregnation in Estonia 22 In case of bulk deliveries of wood preservative by tank cars, unloading shall be done at sealed areas, with a capacity to contain any potential spillage from the tanker and from unloading of wood preservative. Tankers that deliver chemicals in bulk shall unload to storage via a lockable fixed coupling. Bulk storage tanks shall be fitted with a content indicator to warn of over fill. If basins, pipelines and areas for collecting or handling of chemicals are damaged, they must immediately be repaired to avoid any pollution. The Environmental Inspector shall immediately be informed in case of accidents or disturbances that cause pollution of the surroundings, and a written description of the accident or disturbance shall be forewarded to the regional board within a week, including description of the improvements that will be made on the plant to avoid repetition of the accident or disturbance. D:\Docstoc\Working\pdf\4063776d-0149-4f3c-9956-375dc69c83d5.DOC .