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					Cellular Biology I
Generalized Cell Interactions
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Cell-Environment
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Cell Theory
Cytoskeleton
6. Lysomes: Digestive compartments; memb-
Endomembrane System: from cell’s substances
    Microtubules: Radiate Interactive system
1. Endoplasmic reticulum: Network center, of
4. Types of diffusion:a. Simple:Nonpolar of memb-
Membrane transport
3. Active sac fibers throughout concentratesto
5. Golgi Processes: Active Transport:through &
4. RER:Transport (Active):(has ribosomessub-
6. Bulk Protein synthesis a. Exocytosis:
ranous of receptors and Functions that
Membranecell shape, providecytoplasm
Networkapparatus: Modifies, inside cell uses
Specializedcontaining hydrolytic enzymes
Cytoplasm: Cellular material tracksCell
membranes that interact directly a. for
7. soluble) Structures through lipid bilayer
Concepts:
(lipid           pass directly
determine membrane (cisternae) within the
1. Membranessubstances acrossmovement &
Types contact or indirectly permeable
Function proteins: selectively area;
Fluid a are the are cellular function; contains
Mitochondria:functional proteins: into units of
    NucleoliRERTransduce energy membrane,
           tubulesfor for support,throughuseable
2. Cellsof movemodel + proteins),histone poly-
ranousframeworksacs andof macromolecules
form mosaicIncrease globular (membranous
1. Digest of
3. Microvilli: types
a. Chromatin—DNA     &
packagesallsecretory surface the exterior
energy tocentermolecules (CAMS) absorption
synthesizesignaling ofcan diffuse if theyvesicles
ControlisThreeparticles fibers: growing fit
Cell-adhesion productsvesicle here can
Structures major classes with the
Carbohydrates associated structural
physical released frominvovled in separation
    Contact & active
    Most
stance cellular activitiessolutes
                                occur
(polar &chargedWaterprocesses are forced
  5. Filtration: Double& flat proteins; spansacs
organelle movementandwith differentenvelope
    Passive envelope cells unit single
2. Membranes are mosaic energy structure
a.Nucleosome: Site membranejunctions:
a. No organisms stacked, Tight membrane
        membrane
cellular work.junctions: a. ofmembranous the
cytoplasm:moleculesthrough have fromthat are
regulationcell toH+ matrix &nuclear c. Seque-
    OrganelleContinuous (thickest)
genetic material, EC utilize
      Ribosomes: most Voltage-gated ATP
b. Transportthreaded inof protein synthesis to
b. Transport signaling:from cytosol), other
a. Integral:the of:membrane&releases channels
1. Anchor(pumpFundamentalER sacschromatin
1. Vesicle: transmembrane division proteins
peptidepores),b. Osmosis: Diffusion of solvent via
living is
2. Membraneofmembrane
through of with during cell to of
    Nuclear Membrane-enclosed each contents
    Acidic 1. Microtubules
    Comprised against Diffusion:
    Electrical
sac: Fusesmovement:concentration by
surfaceto a membranemembranea.gradients, c.
    chromosomes
of Enzyme interior (channels &bilayer
  througheightsmooth ER and roughMovement
b. Themoleculessubunitsoris Desmosomes:
3. Passivepermeablephospholipidthe protein
sters of site)
pumpregions: a.Outer Innerwith largeouter
similarComplexes of(thoseand(hypertonic, hypo-
are embeddedEndocytosis:assembled here
Functions: portions RNA from (permeable),
    Ribosomes wrapped by dependent ER,
              PM, into membrane proteinamount
,two1. activity junctions,membranes cytosol
hydrophobic ofin in cisternal& outer:moving
2. Cytosol: Fluid a whichNeurotransmitter &
nucleus,off signaling: b. Largecarriers)
(cisternae) b. cells ofa. (thinnest) on both
(unitsdestructive enzymes space,
(receptor2. Microfilamentsother components
selectivelylarge
a. Glycolipids organism         capillary
                              areDNA molecule)
a. Double membrane:
Impermeable
2. outside),
3. Cell migration
pinchedsystems(symport&antiport)d.Na+-K+ cont-
1. Chemical pressure: Pressure gradient
to Microfilaments (thinnest): Made substances
2. Hydrophilicnot cells) of proteins&lipids,
of Peripheral: osmolarityto bound inofup of RBC
  hydrostatic supportbe osmotic ER surface
Coupled membrane contains embedded prn.s
b. Receptorjunctions; plaquesattach with pump:
(largeisotonic, down face:to digestioncells that
of Inner receptors to activity intogradient:
    substance Intracellular
        into membraneconcentration cell:
3. Cell in growingconformation,division, Phag-
SER2. Freeribosomes (synthesistheshape c.
tonic,lacksnativecontinuous with linkers;
2. Mechanicalis(cisprior& receives transport
individual bysites
    Has signaling embedded;
    cytoplasm)collective filaments b.phospho-
          polarityportions
Anchoring stimulates to maintain (phagocy-
b. Glycocalyx:cytosol orto cellof to glycopro-
1. membranemembrane&taken& pressure),
folds one3. Intermediateas ligands,ERBinding
d. suspendedattached multinucleate,
    Chromosomes: act another phosphoryla-
3. Functions: have ATP formation, in contact
are binding in (actin), attach cytoplasmic side
from protein  and
hormone over distance in particular
enclosedsolute-containingproteins direction,
2. Associated with chromatin region associa-
Na+
ractile in activityLipid insoluble water(folds of
                    lacking & c. fluid
  pushes condenses nucleus out
Changesfrom to change shapechromosomes
involved that organismtransCHO metabolism,to
Facilitated diffusion: work form cristae added
c. Allowsmaximally& structure) junctions:
         only cellular
phospholipids cellular to withto moleculesoff
tein; extracellularsteroids, face:which
                    &
ipidsoligosaccharides&changematerial (auto-
4. IntercellularRER system includes: releases
(enzymaticconformational receptor-mediated
is theare cellfilaments organic (creates force
    nuclear cell junctions change pinches
2. Endomembrane exposed
chromatin pores (selectively permeable) too
vesicles pinocytosis enzymatically
tosis), recycle
intermediate
comprise
2. PM,
b. Organelles
causes conformational
ocytosis,                         Gap
                        matrix rRNA:cell contraction
with to help muscle& for Inner membrane
tion causes
large diffuse coding localizeddeparts in
of Hydrophobic portions kineticpores can move
b. Associated through membrane nonaqueous
detoxifiesprogrammed determineenergy:
    Results from
5. Cell-celldrugsintrinsic are Golgi biochemical
ted secretory protein, protein between
the innerDNAstructuresc. Fluidin Nuclear
the with membrane),phosphate chemicals sub-
Na+, K+ binding with calcium channel, activates
phagy) & of(coated pitER, storage)
vesicles) opens & motilityclathrin) apparatus,
a. Nuclear recognition cell c. Selective (specific)
3. Subcellular chemicals between adjacent
b. Inclusions: Non-functioning release, pump
“muscle”, &cisterna: & size, stable
3. Perinuclear
Movement envelope,closes death (autolysis)as
                        or
endocytosis carrier molecules: c.the & act
c. Intermediatecauses b. Most Random
3.                   filaments:
passively with inside (DNA regions) attachment
Temperature ER conformation & modified specific
organizing cells molecular arefrom the ERenz.s
space,rough rolepinched offmatrix released
          to of regions principle
          d. original
              Mitochondrial diseases(lack
c. TheconnexonsStorage matrix: Contains
transportdisease: e.inmembrane given of asfrom
6.Cytoskeletal&extracellularto K+ is cell type
environment mayproducts of complementarity)
e.limited c.number transmitting signals
4. Regulatory protein-linked receptors(second
enzyme), vesicle pulling forces on the
    membranes (i.e.,Vacuoles
returns inthat & be unique
cells; byto resistof carriers (saturation) cell &
activities
d. Role
& Lysosomessteps of cellular respiration
      wires G
stances movement, d. Dynamic equilibrium
guymetabolic
molecular through interior
for move ofto its Golgi apparatus Pompe’s:
cell’s
they surface substrate accumulation:
enzymes causes life has a cellular basis
4. Continuity position
messenger, signaling cascade is initiated)
fix organelle & Tay-Sachs: lipids in brain Home
   Exit
glycogen in liver
         BASIM ZWAIN LECTURE NOTES

				
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