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					                                                                                                                 nd
                                                                                             Pre-RFP Toolkit 2        Edition

                                                                                                      Glossary of Terms

    The terms defined here are meant to provide context for, and are specific to, public safety,
    homeland security, criminal justice, and the information-sharing environment. Key procurement
    terms are also included.
    Source: http://www.state.mn.us/mn/jsp/Minnesota/microsite/1073750952/CriMNet%20Glossary%20of%20Terms.doc


A
AAFS                    American Academy of Forensic Sciences
ABA                     American Bar Association
Abet                    The act of encouraging or inciting another to do a certain thing, such as a crime. For
                        example, many countries will equally punish a person who aids or abets another to
                        commit a crime.
Abduction               To take someone away from a place without that person's consent or by fraud.
ABFO Scales             American Board of Forensic Odontology scales. An L-shaped piece of plastic used
                        in photography that is marked with circles, black and white bars, and 18-percent gray
                        bars to assist in distortion compensation and provide exposure determination. For
                        measurement, the plastic piece is marked in millimeters.
Abstract                In the context of an XML Schema, an XML element or Schema type may be declared
                        abstract, meaning that it may not be used directly. An abstract element may not be
                        directly used in an instance, but must have a non-abstract element in its substitution
                        group (e.g., an abstract element ‗Address‘, which defines the contents of an
                        address). A non-abstract ‗HomeAddress‘ element that is substitutable for ‗Address‘
                        can be used as an XML element. The ‗HomeAddress‘ structure reuses the previously
                        defined ‗Address‘ contents, but the tag provides a specific context. Schema types
                        may also be declared abstract. Similar to abstract elements, abstract types may not
                        be directly used to reference elements, but must have a non-abstract type that
                        extends/restricts from it. The non-abstract type can then be used to reference XML
                        elements. The concept of abstractness is taken from object-oriented programming,
                        where an abstract class may be defined; requiring sub-typing prior to instantiation.
ACA                     American Correctional Association
Access                  To approach, view, instruct, communicate with, store data in, retrieve data from, or
                        otherwise make use of computers or information resources. Access is simply being
                        able to get to what you need. Data access is being able to get to (usually having
                        permission to use) particular data on a computer. Web access means having a
                        connection to the World Wide Web through an access provider or an online service
                        provider such as America Online.
Access Control          A set of protective measures to prevent unauthorized access to computerized
                        information resources. The process of preventing unauthorized access to the
                        resources of an IT product, programs, processes, systems, or other IT products.




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Access Control   An access control list (ACL) is a table that tells a computer operating system which
List (ACL)       access rights each user has to a particular system object, such as a file directory or
                 individual file. Each object has a security attribute that identifies its access control
                 list. The list has an entry for each system user with access privileges. The most
                 common privileges include the ability to read a file (or all the files in a directory), to
                 write to the file or files, and to execute the file (if it is an executable file, or program).
                 Microsoft Windows NT/ 2000, Novell‘s NetWare, Digital‘s OpenVMS, and Unix-based
                 systems are among the operating systems that use access control lists. The list is
                 implemented differently by each operating system.
Access Data      The ability to see data in the system based on the identity of the requestor and the
                 classification of the data.
Access Log       An access log is a list of all the requests for individual files that people have
                 requested from a web site. These files will include the HTML files, their imbedded
                 graphic images, and any other associated files that are transmitted. The access log
                 (sometimes referred to as the ―raw data‖) can be analyzed and summarized by
                 another program. In general, an access log can be analyzed to tell you:
                                                       -time requests) to a home page
                 The origin of the visitors in terms of their associated server‘s domain name (for
                 example, visitors from .edu, .com, and .gov sites and from the online services)
                 How many requests for each page at the site, which can be presented with the
                 pages with most requests listed first
                 Usage patterns in terms of time of day, day of week, and seasonally
Access           A set of permissions associated with every file and directory that determines who
Permissions      can read it, write to it, or execute it.
Account          A set of privileges for authorization to system access, which are associated with a
                 userid.
Accreditation    A formal process of approval. It is usually applied and required by bureaucracies and
                 large organizations before the purchase of computer hardware and/or software.
                 Specialist staff should undertake the accreditation process, and the hardware or
                 software should be evaluated against a formal list of requirements and
                 considerations. In many cases, the vendor itself, as well as the products under
                 consideration, will need to be accredited.
ACJA             American Criminal Justice Association
ACJS             Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Acquittal        The finding of not guilty.
ACSR             Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction




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ActiveX®      ActiveX is code that defines Microsoft‘s interaction between Web servers, clients,
              add-ins and Microsoft Office applications. ActiveX applications can have full access
              to your system. In most instances, this access will be quite legitimate, but a
              malicious ActiveX application is extremely worrying. The danger in malicious
              ActiveX code is when it has the capability to access and siphon data from your hard
              drive. A graphic illustration of this was given by the Chaos Club in Germany who
              demonstrated live on television a transfer of money from one bank account to
              another using an internet-installed add-in - without the knowledge of the bank or the
              account holders.
ADA           Americans with Disabilities Act
ADAM          NIJ‘s Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program has been expanded and enhanced.
              Renamed ADAM (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring), the program will increase the
              number of drug-testing sites, and its role as a ―platform‖ for studying drug-related
              crime will grow.
Ad Hoc        Latin: for this purpose; for a specific purpose. An ad hoc committee, for example, is
              created with a unique and specific purpose or task and once it has studied and
              reports on the matter, it stands disbanded.
Adjudicated   The term used to indicate that a subject has gone through the judicial process and a
              finding has been made for the charges. In juvenile court, ―adjudicated delinquent‖ is
              used to indicate that a juvenile has been found to have committed a delinquent act.
Ad Litem      Latin: for the suit. A person appointed only for the purposes of prosecuting or
              defending an action on behalf of another such as a child or mentally challenged
              person. Also called a guardian ad litem.
ADM AX        Administrative maximum; the term used by the federal government to denote ultra—
              high-security prisons.
Admit         The juvenile court equivalent of a guilty plea in adult court.
ADNET         AntiDrug Network; a secure information network connecting selected military, law
              enforcement, and intelligence counterdrug components.
ADNET-U       DoD Defense Information Systems Agency‘s Anti-Drug Network-Unclassified
ADR           Alternative Dispute Resolution
ADR Act       Alternative Dispute Resolution Act of 1998
Adult         In criminal justice usage, a person who is within the original jurisdiction of a criminal,
              rather than a juvenile, court because his or her age at the time of an alleged criminal
              act was above a statutorily specified limit.




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AES             The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an encryption algorithm for securing
                sensitive but unclassified material by U.S. Government agencies and, as a likely
                consequence, may eventually become the de facto encryption standard for
                commercial transactions in the private sector. (Encryption for the US military and
                other classified communications is handled by separate, secret algorithms.) In
                January of 1997, a process was initiated by the National Institute of Standards and
                Technology (NIST), a unit of the U.S. Commerce Department, to find a more robust
                replacement for the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and to a lesser degree Triple
                DES. The specification called for a symmetric algorithm (same key for encryption
                and decryption) using block encryption (see block cipher) of 128 bits in size,
                supporting key sizes of 128, 192 and 256 bits, as a minimum. The algorithm was
                required to be royalty-free for use worldwide and offer security of a sufficient level to
                protect data for the next 20 to 30 years. It was to be easy to implement in hardware
                and software, as well as in restricted environments (for example, in a smart card)
                and offer good defenses against various attack techniques.
AFCC            Association of Family and Conciliation Courts
AFDA            Association of Federal Defense Attorneys
AFIP            American Forces Institute of Pathology
AFIS            Automated Fingerprint Identification System. A database of digitized fingerprint
                files. A user can enter a fingerprint and a computer will generate a list of possible
                matches within minutes. The matches are then examined and verified by a
                fingerprint expert.
AFTE            Association of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners
Agency          A unit, body, consortium, department, office, division, or district of government. In
                the narrowest sense, a governmental unit of the executive branch.
Agile           National Institute of Justice's Agile Program
Aggravated      An unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or
Assault         aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault is usually accompanied by the use of a
                weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm.
Aggravating     Circumstances relating to the commission of a crime that cause its gravity to be
Circumstances   greater than that of the average instance of the given type of offense.
AISLE           Accelerated Information Sharing for Law Enforcement
AJA             American Judges Association
                American Jail Association
AJI             American Justice Institute
AJS             American Judicature Society
ALF             Animal Liberation Front. See Special-interest Domestic Terrorism.
Algorithm       The term algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving
                a problem. A mathematical process for performing a certain calculation; in the
                information security field, generally used to describe an encryption process.
Alias           Any name used for an official purpose that is different from a person's legal name.


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Alternate Light    Equipment used to produce visible and invisible light at various wavelengths to
Source             enhance or visualize potential items of evidence (fluids, fingerprints, clothing fibers,
                   etc.).
Anonymous FTP Using the Internet‘s File Transfer Protocol (FTP), anonymous FTP is a method for
              giving users access to files so that they do not need to identify themselves to the
              server. Using an FTP program or the FTP command interface, the user enters
              ―anonymous‖ as a user ID. Usually, the password is defaulted or furnished by the
              FTP server. Anonymous FTP is a common way to get access to a server in order to
              view or download files that are publicly available.
ANSI               American National Standards Institute. See Standards Organizations.
Anti-virus (AV)    Deployed at the desktop or on the server to eliminate viruses.
Tools
APB                NCIC Advisory Policy Board
APHIS              Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
API                Application Program Interface - an interface that enables programs to communicate
                   with each other.
APPA               American Probation and Parole Association
APPC               Advanced Program-to-Program Communication—IBM‘s solution for program-to-
                   program communication, distributed transaction processing and remote data access
                   across the IBM product line.
Appeal             The act of seeking a higher court‘s review of a lower court‘s decision.
Appearance         The act of showing up in court as either plaintiff, defendant, accused or any other
                   party to a civil or criminal suit. It implies that you accept the power of the court to try
                   the matter (i.e. "jurisdiction"). Lawyers on their client‘s behalf most often make
                   appearances and any appearance by a lawyer binds the client. You can make a
                   limited appearance called a "special appearance" in which your presence is not to
                   imply acceptance of the court's jurisdiction but, rather, to challenge the jurisdiction
                   of the court. An example of the usefulness of a "special appearance" would be
                   where you want to raise the fact that you were never properly served with the court
                   papers.
Appellant          The person who contests the correctness of a court order, judgment, or other
                   decision and who seeks review and relief in a court having appellate jurisdiction, or
                   the person in whose behalf this is done.
Appellate Court    A court of which the primary function is to review the judgments of other courts and
                   of administrative agencies.
Appellate          The lawful authority of a court to review a decision made by a lower court.
Jurisdiction
Apple             Apple file format for storing and displaying compressed video sequences.
QuickTime™
movie format
(MOV file format)




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A2A                A form of enterprise application integration in which two or more applications,
(Application-to-   usually but not exclusively within the same organization, are linked.
Application
Integration)
Applet             An applet is a little application. Prior to the World Wide Web, the built-in writing and
                   drawing programs that came with Windows were sometimes called ―applets.‖ On the
                   Web, using Java, the object-oriented programming language, an applet is a small
                   program that can be sent along with a Web page to a user. Java applets can
                   perform interactive animations, immediate calculations, or other simple tasks
                   without having to send a user request back to the server.
APRI               American Prosecutors Research Institute
Architecture       Those characteristics of a network, operating system, application program, and/or
                   enterprise that facilitate the interchange of information.
Archiving          An archive is a collection of data that is stored for a relatively long period. Archiving
                   is the act of placing data into an archive. Archives are necessary to support audit
                   trails and can be used to provide ‗forensic‘ evidence if needed.
Arraignment        In USA criminal law, the formal appearance of an accused person to hear, and to
                   receive a copy of, the charge against him or her, in the presence of a judge, and to
                   then enter a plea of guilty or not guilty. The arraignment is the final preparatory step
                   before the criminal trial.
Arraignment        At the arraignment, hearing the subject is informed of the charges and possible
Hearing            consequences, advised of their rights as a defendant, and asked to enter a plea to
                   the charges.
Arrest (UCR)       In Uniform Crime Reports terminology, all separate instances where a person is
                   taken into physical custody, notified, or cited by a law enforcement officer or
                   agency, except those relating to minor traffic violations.
Arrest &           An order issued by the court or a probation officer for the arrest and detention of a
Detention Order    subject who has been previously placed on probation and is alleged to have violated
(A&D)              conditions of probation.
Arrest Rate        The number of arrests reported for each unit of population.
Arrest Warrant     A document issued by a judicial officer that directs a law enforcement officer to
                   arrest an identified person who has been accused of a specific offense.
Arresting          The agency arresting an individual. (This may or may not be the same as the
Agency             booking and/or controlling agency.)
Arson              The intentional damaging or destruction or attempted damaging or destruction, by
                   means of fire or explosion of the property of another without the consent of the
                   owner, or of one‘s own property or that of another with intent to defraud.
                   In Uniform Crime Reports terminology, the burning or attempted burning of property
                   with or without intent to defraud.
ASCA               Association of State Correctional Administrators
ASCLD              American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors



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ASCII             American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The most common format for
                  text files in computers and on the Internet. In an ASCII file, each alphabetic,
                  numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of
                  seven 0s or 1s). 128 possible characters are defined. Unix and DOS-based
                  operating systems use ASCII for text files. Windows NT and 2000 use a newer
                  code, Unicode. IBM‘s S/390 systems use a proprietary 8-bit code called EBCDIC.
                  Conversion programs allow different operating systems to change a file from one
                  code to another. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) developed
                  ASCII.
ASFA              Adoption and Safe Families Act
ASLET             American Society of Law Enforcement Trainers
ASP               Application Service Provider. Companies that allow business customers to rent or
                  lease the use of e-business applications over secured Internet connections.
Assault           The touching of another person with intent to harm, without that person's consent.
                  Unlawful intentional inflicting, or attempted or threatened inflicting, of injury upon the
                  person of another.
Assault on a      A simple or aggravated assault, where the victim is a law enforcement officer
Law               engaged in the performance of his or her duties.
Enforcement
Officer
Assurance         Confidence that the security implementation accurately reflects and imposes the
                  security policy.
Asynchronous   A form of communication by which applications can operate independently, so that
Communications they do not have to be running or available simultaneously. A process sends a
               request and may or may not wait for a response. It is a non-blocking
               communications style.
ATF               Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
ATIX              Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange
ATSA              Aviation and Transportation Security Act
Attack            An attempt to subvert or bypass a system‘s security.
Attendant         The facts surrounding an event.
Circumstances
ATTF              Anti-Terrorism Task Force
Attribute         Data model descriptor/category for a piece of information that characterizes an
                  entity or a relationship. See Entity and Relationship.
Audit             The process of compiling a list of all software and/or hardware installed on one or
                  more PCs.




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Audit Trail (audit A record showing who has accessed a computer system and what operations he or
log)               she has performed during a given period of time. Audit trails are useful both for
                   maintaining security and for recovering lost transactions. Most accounting systems
                   and database management systems include an audit trail component. In addition,
                   there are separate audit trail software products that enable network administrators to
                   monitor use of network resources.
Authentication      The process whereby a user or information source proves its identity, and verifying
                    that a user is who he or she purports to be. The process of identifying an individual
                    usually based on a username and password. In security systems, authentication is
                    distinct from authorization, which is the process of giving individuals access to
                    system objects based on their identity. Authentication merely ensures that the
                    individual is who he or she claims to be, but says nothing about the access rights of
                    the individual. Any of the methods used to assure that the alleged source of the
                    received data is the actual source, and that the message received is the same as the
                    one sent in every respect.
Authenticode™       Microsoft‘s cabinet file signing technology to provide protection against dangers such
                    as ActiveX misuse. An Authenticode signature ensures that a driver package came
                    from its publisher, and it protects the package from alteration after publication. It
                    consists of a catalog file that a vendor signs using Authenticode.
Authorization       The process of granting privileges to an authenticated user or entity.
Authorized          Possessing the right, provided by the "owner/steward" of a computerized information
                    resource, to access, install software on, or attach hardware to, a computerized
                    information resource.
Automated           A database of digitized offender fingerprint files. A user can enter a fingerprint and
Fingerprint         a computer will generate a list of possible matches within minutes. The matches
Identification      are then examined and verified by a fingerprint expert.
System (AFIS)
Automatic           Describes the action when an RPC client stub locates a specific server on a list of
Binding             servers.
Automatic           Any firearm that shoots, or is designed to shoot, more than one shot at a time by a
Weapon              single pull of the trigger without manual reloading.
AVI                 Audio/Video Interlaced. A sound and motion picture file that conforms to the
                    Microsoft Windows Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) specification. AVI files
                    (which end with an .avi extension) require a special player that may be included with
                    your Web browser or may require downloading.
AVL                 Automatic Vehicle Locator. Uses Global Positioning System technology to locate
                    the position of patrol cars on a digital map. This information assists the dispatcher
                    in knowing which calls should be assigned to which officers.
AVR                 Automated Voice Response System
B




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Backbone            A series of connections that forms a major communications pathway within a
                    network. At the center of a typical network is the ―integration backbone,‖ that
                    supports two key functions. First, it provides the connections and interfaces that
                    make previously standalone criminal justice applications available to authorized
                    users throughout a criminal justice community. Secondly, the backbone also acts as
                    a registry of shared data.
Back Door           A way into a software system that the programmer or administrator of that system
                    has deliberately left for him or herself.
Back End            The portion of a computer system that is usually hidden from view in a computer
                    room.
Backlog (court)     The number of cases awaiting disposition in a court that exceed the court's capacity
                    for disposing of them within the period of time considered appropriate.
Back Orifice (BO) A program developed and released by The Cult of the Dead Cow (cDc). It is not a
                  virus. It is often described as a Trojan (which it may be). But it is definitely a remote
                  administration tool with great potential for malicious misuse.
Backup              To make copies of computerized information resources.
Backup Files        To copy files to a second medium (a disk or tape) as a precaution in case the first
                    medium fails. One of the cardinal rules in using computers is: Back up your files
                    regularly. Even the most reliable computer is apt to break down eventually. Many
                    professionals recommend that you make two, or even three, backups of all your
                    files. To be especially safe, you should keep one backup in a different location from
                    the others. You can back up files using operating system commands, or you can
                    buy a special-purpose backup utility. Backup programs often compress the data so
                    that backups require fewer disks. The term backup usually refers to a disk or tape
                    that contains a copy of data.
Bail                To effect the release of an accused person from custody, in return for a promise that
                    he or she will appear at a place and time specified and submit to the jurisdiction and
                    judgment of the court, guaranteed by a pledge to pay to the court a specified sum of
                    money or property if the person does not appear.
                    The money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to
                    affect the release of a person from legal custody.
Bail Bond           A document guaranteeing the appearance of the defendant in court as required and
                    recording the pledge of money or property to be paid to the court if he or she does
                    not appear, which is signed by the person to be released and any other persons
                    acting in his or her behalf.
Bail Bondsman       A person, usually licensed, whose business it is to effect release on bail for persons
                    charged with offenses and held in custody, by pledging to pay a sum of money if a
                    defendant fails to appear in court as required.
Bailiff             The court officer whose duties are to keep order in the courtroom and to maintain
                    physical custody of the jury.
Bail Revocation     The court decision withdrawing the status of release on bail previously conferred
                    upon a defendant.




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Balancing Test   A principle developed by the courts, and applied to the corrections arena by the
                 1974 case of Pell v. Procunier, which attempts to weigh the rights of an individual as
                 guaranteed by the Constitution, against the authority of states to make laws or
                 otherwise restrict a person's freedom in order to protect its interests and its citizens
Ballistics       The analysis of firearms, ammunition, projectiles, bombs, and explosions.
Bandwidth        The amount of data that can be sent through a connection; usually measured in bits
                 per second (bps). A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits in one second – about
                 a page of English text.
BBS              Bulletin Board System. A bulletin board system (BBS) is a computer or an
                 application dedicated to the sharing or exchange of messages or other files on a
                 network. A BBS may be accessible from a dial-up modem, Telnet, or the Internet.
                 Because it originated before the graphical user interface (GUI) became prevalent,
                 the BBS interface was text-based. Although recent Web-based versions have a
                 graphical, interactive user interface, the text-only interface preferred by BBS purists
                 can often be accessed by Telnet. According to Justin Scott, co-founder of Sceiron
                 Interactive and a former sysop, a Web-based BBS is essentially a Web site that is
                 powered by BBS software rather than a Web server.
BCBP             Bureau of Customs and Border Protection
BCIS             Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services
Bench            A judge in court session.
Bench Warrant    An order issued by the court for the arrest of an individual who is pending
(BW)             disposition of criminal charges, and who has failed to comply with court directives
                 related to the resolution of those matters.
                 A document issued by a court directing that a law enforcement officer bring the
                 person named therein before the court, usually one who has failed to obey a court
                 order or a notice to appear.
Beyond a         A standard of proof required in order to convict a person of a crime. The jury has a
Reasonable       high degree of certainty about the defendant‘s guilt, although they need not be 100
Doubt            percent convinced.
Bias Crimes      See Hate Crimes.
Bias Motivated   No person, whether or not acting under color of law, shall by force or threat of force,
                 willfully injure, intimidate, interfere with, oppress, or threaten any other person or,
                 shall knowingly deface, damage, or destroy the real or personal property of any
                 other person for the purpose of intimidating or interfering, with the free exercise or
                 enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him or her by the Constitution or laws
                 of this state or by the Constitution or laws of the United States because of the other
                 person's race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, disability, gender, or sexual
                 orientation, or because he or she perceives that the other person has one or more
                 of those characteristics.




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Binding            The association of a client and a server. A term frequently used in reference to XML
                   applications taken from the field of computer science. In the context of applications
                   that have a public interface that communicates in XML (such as the case with a web
                   service), binding refers to the information required and the process by which an
                   external source connects to, and interacts with it to get data in XML. Binding can
                   also refer to the process and application required to connect a software module
                   (e.g. a Java class, or COM object) to a public XML interface, or the way in which the
                   public XML is related to an underlying data source (such as a relational database).
Bindle Paper       Clean paper folded to use to contain trace evidence, sometimes included as part of
                   the packaging for collecting trace evidence.
Bind Over          To require by judicial authority that a person promise to appear for trial, appear in
                   court as a witness, or keep the peace. The decision by a court of limited jurisdiction
                   requiring that a person charged with a felony appear for trial on that charge in a
                   court of general jurisdiction, as the result of a finding of probable cause at a
                   preliminary hearing held in the limited jurisdiction court.
BinHex             BinHex is a utility for converting (encoding) Macintosh files into files that will travel
                   well on networks either as files or email attachments. Like Uuencode, BinHex
                   encodes a file from its 8-bit binary or bit-stream representation into a 7-bit ASCII set
                   of text characters. The recipient must decode it at the other end. Older e-mail
                   utilities sometimes cannot handle binary transmissions so text encoding ensures
                   that a transmission will get to an older system. BinHex specifically handles both
                   resource and data forks in Macintosh files (which Uuencode doesn‘t). BinHex files
                   have a suffix of ―.hqx‖. (Earlier versions have the suffix ―.hex‖.)
Biohazard Bag      A container for materials that have been exposed to blood or other biological fluids
                   and have the potential to be contaminated with hepatitis, AIDS, or other viruses.
Biological Attack The deliberate release of germs or other biological substances that can make you
                  sick.
Biological Fluids Fluids that have human or animal origin, most commonly encountered at crime
                  scenes (e.g., blood, mucus, perspiration, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid, urine).
Biological         A perspective on criminological thought that holds that criminal behavior has a
School             physiological basis. Genes, foods and food additives, hormones, and inheritance
                   are all thought to play a role in determining individual behavior. Biological thinkers
                   highlight the underlying animalistic aspect of being human as a major determinate of
                   behavior.
Biological         Biological agents used to threaten human life (e.g., anthrax, smallpox, or any
Weapon             infectious disease).
Biometric          Generally, the study of measurable biological characteristics. In computer security,
                   biometrics refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical
                   characteristics that can be automatically checked. Examples include computer
                   analysis of fingerprints or speech. Though the field is still in its infancy, many people
                   believe that biometrics will play a critical role in future computers, and especially in
                   electronic commerce. Personal computers of the future might include a fingerprint
                   scanner where you could place your index finger. The computer would analyze
                   your fingerprint to determine who you are and, based on your identity, authorize you
                   different levels of access. Access levels could include the ability to use credit card
                   information to make electronic purchases.

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Biometric         The automatic identification or identity verification of an individual quantified by
Identification    biological characteristics both physiological and behavioral. Common physiological
                  biometrics include face, eye (retina or iris), finger (fingertip, thumb, finger length or
                  pattern), palm (print or topography), hand geometry, wrist vein or thermal images,
                  tissue analysis (DNA). Behavioral biometrics include voiceprints, handwritten
                  signatures and keystroke/signature dynamics.
BIOS              Basic Input/Output System. Controls the startup of the machines or computers and
                  other functions such as the keyboard, display, and disk drive. The BIOS is stored
                  on read only memory and is not erased when the computer is turned off. The BIOS
                  on newer machines is stored on flash read-only memory, allowing it to be erased
                  and rewritten to update the BIOS. The set of routines stored in read-only memory
                  that enables a computer to start the operating system and to communicate with the
                  various devices in the system such as the disk drives, keyboard, monitor, printer,
                  and communication ports.
Bivens Action     The name given to civil suits, based upon the case of Bivens v. Six Unknown
                  Named Defendants, brought against federal government officials for denial of the
                  constitutional rights of others.
BizTalk           A Microsoft sponsored set of guidelines for how to publish schemas in XML and
                  how to use XML messages to easily integrate software programs together in order
                  to build new solutions.
BJA               Bureau of Justice Assistance
BJS               Bureau of Justice Statistics
Blocking       A synchronous messaging process where the requestor of a service must wait until
Communications a response is received.
Blood borne       Infectious, disease-causing microorganisms that may be found or transported in
Pathogen          biological fluids.
Blue - Guarded    Homeland Security Advisory. This condition is declared when there is a general risk
Condition         of terrorist attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in the Green Threat
                  Condition (see Green-Low Condition), Federal departments and agencies should
                  consider the following general measures in addition to the agency-specific
                  Protective Measures that they will develop and implement: Checking
                  communications with designated emergency response or command locations;
                  Reviewing and updating emergency response procedures; and Providing the public
                  with any information that would strengthen its ability to act appropriately.
BMP               Bitmap File. A bitmap is a grid of colored dots (pixels), which combine to make an
                  image.
Bomb, Actual      All violations of regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing,
                  furnishing, and manufacturing of explosives and explosive devices.
Bomb, Threat      The reporting of a bomb or explosive device that has or will be placed in any public
                  or private place, knowing that such information is false.




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Booking            An administrative step taken after an arrested individual is brought to a police
                   station or detention facility, which involves entry of the individual's name and other
                   relevant facts on the police "blotter", and which may also include photographing
                   fingerprinting and the like.
                   A law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an
                   entry into detention after arrest, and identifying the person, the place, time, and
                   reason for the arrest, and the arresting authority.
Booking Agency The agency where the booking is completed after an individual has been arrested.
               (This may or may not be the same as the arresting and/or controlling agency.)
Bookmark           To mark a document or a specific place in a document for later retrieval. Nearly all
                   Web browsers support a bookmarking feature that lets you save the address (URL)
                   of a Web page so that you can easily re-visit the page at a later time.
Border Patrol      The United States Border Patrol is the mobile uniformed law enforcement arm of the
                   Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Boundaries         The perimeter or border surrounding potential physical evidence related to the
                   crime.
BPSS               The Business Process Specification Schema was developed as part of the ebXML
                   project as a schema for describing a business process in an XML instance. In may
                   be created from UML models of business processes developed according to the
                   UMM as described in the technical report, Business Process and Business
                   Information Analysis Overview v1.0. The BPSS is available in either DTD format or
                   XML Schema (Candidate Recommendation) format.
Broken Windows A perspective on crime causation that holds that physical deterioration in an area
Thesis         leads to increased concerns for personal safety among area residents, and to
               higher crime rates in that area.
Buffer             An area of memory often referred to as a ―cache,‖ used to speed up access to
                   devices. It is used for temporary storage of data read from or waiting to be sent to a
                   device such as a hard disk, CD-ROM, printer, or tape drive.
Buffered Queue     A message queue that resides in memory.
Burden of Proof    A party‘s duty to prove a disputed fact.
Burglary           By the narrowest and oldest definition, trespassory breaking and entering of the
                   dwelling house of another in the nighttime with the intent to commit a felony.
                   Burglary (UCR) -- Unlawful entry of any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel used for
                   regular residence, industry, or business, with or without force, with intent to commit a
                   felony, or larceny.
Business           The ability to resume business after an outage. This is critical to the ability to service
Resumption         customers.
Business Term      The ebXML specifications refer to a business term as a commonly used term
                   referencing a commonly understood concept within a specific domain. To enhance
                   understandability, it is appropriate to use business terms as XML Element names
                   (when they exist), rather that the often esoteric ISO 11179 syntax.
Byrne              Edward Byrne Memorial Stare and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Act Formula
                   Grant Program

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C
CA                 Certification Authority. A trusted third-party organization or company that issues
                   digital certificates used to create digital signatures and public-private key pairs. The
                   role of the CA in this process is to guarantee that the individual granted the unique
                   certificate is, in fact, who he or she claims to be. Usually, this means that the CA
                   has an arrangement with a financial institution, such as a credit card company,
                   which provides it with information to confirm an individual‘s claimed identity. CAs
                   are a critical component in data security and electronic commerce because they
                   guarantee that the two parties exchanging information are really who they claim to
                   be.
CAC                Child Advocacy Centers
CAD                Computer-Aided Dispatch. This computer system supports the handling of
                   emergency calls at the various emergency dispatch centers. The computer system
                   assists 911 call takers and dispatch personnel in handling and prioritizing calls.
                   Enhanced 911 will send the location of the call to the CAD system, which will
                   automatically display the address of the 911 caller on a screen in front of the call
                   taker. Complaint information is then entered into the computer and is easily
                   retrievable. They system may be linked to MDT‘s in patrol cars allowing a
                   dispatcher and officers to communicate without using voice. The system may also
                   be interfaced with NCIC, AVL, or a number of other programs.
CALEA              Commission of Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies
Calendar           A program that enables you to record events and appointments on an electronic
                   calendar. Computer calendars act like date books, but they have several
                   advantages over traditional date books, including automatic entries for regular
                   events: You can specify, for example, that the first Thursday of every month is
                   bridge night, and the calendar program will automatically fill in the appropriate days.
                   Another feature is signaling of upcoming events: Most calendars will let you know
                   that an event is approaching by issuing beeps. Clean deletion is another feature.
                   With an electronic calendar, you can erase an appointment without leaving a trace.
Call Back          A security procedure for identifying a remote device. When a remote device
                   attempts to dial in, the host system disconnects the call and then dials the number
                   associated with the authorized user in order to reestablish the connection.
Camel Case         A convention in which names of elements and attributes are all lower case with the
                   exception of the beginning of a new word, which is in uppercase. ebXML
                   differentiates between upper camel case—where the first letter of the name is also
                   capitalized—and lower camel case, where it is not. Example of an upper camel case
                   name: UpperCamelCase. A lower or just camel case name:
                   lowerCamelCase. Camel case is emerging as the industry norm for XML element
                   naming. ebXML specifies elements to be in upper and attributes to be in lower
                   camel case, while BizTalk, RosettaNet, and Oasis use straight camel case for both
                   elements and attributes.
Capacity (legal)   In criminal justice usage, the legal ability of a person to commit a criminal act; the
                   mental and physical ability to act with purpose and to be aware of the certain,
                   probable, or possible results of one's conduct.



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Capacity           See Prison Capacity.
(prison)
Capital Offense    A criminal offense punishable by death. In some penal codes, an offense which may
                   be punishable by death or by imprisonment for life.
Capital            Another term for the death penalty. Capital punishment is the most extreme of all
Punishment         sentencing options.
CAPPS II           Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System
CAPWIN             Capital Wireless Integrated Network
Cardinality        A quantity relationship between elements. For example, one-to-one, one-to-many
                   and many-to-one express cardinality.
Career Criminal    In prosecutorial and law enforcement usage, a person having a past record of
                   multiple arrests or convictions for serious crimes, or an unusually large number of
                   arrests or convictions for crimes of varying degrees of seriousness.
Carjacking         The stealing of a car while it is occupied.
CASA               Court Appointed Special Advocates
Case               An action brought in the name of the State, contending that a crime has been
                   committed.
                   The evidence and arguments presented by each side during a hearing or trial.
Case File          The collection of documents comprising information concerning a particular
                   investigation. (This collection may be kept in case jackets, file folders, ring binders,
                   boxes, file drawers, file cabinets, or rooms. Sub-files are often used within case files
                   to segregate and group interviews, media coverage, laboratory requests and
                   reports, evidence documentation, photographs, videotapes, audiotapes, and other
                   documents.)
Case Identifiers   The alphabetic and/or numeric characters assigned to identify a particular case.
Case Integration   This is one of the integration backbone entities, which will provide the referencing
Information        and indexing information for court cases statewide. The case integration
                   information works as an umbrella structure that brings together the individual being
                   charged in the case, all of the incidents that are being charged in the case, and all
                   of the charges identified as a result of the incidents; as well as references to all of
                   the agencies which may be involved with each of the charges.
Case Law           That body of judicial precedent, historically built upon legal reasoning and past
                   interpretations of statutory laws, which serves as a guide to decision making,
                   especially in the courts.
Caseload           The total number of clients registered with a correctional agency or agent on a given
(corrections)      date or during a specified time period, often divided into active supervisory cases
                   and inactive cases, thus distinguishing between clients with whom contact is
                   regular, and those with whom it is not.
Caseload (court) The number of cases requiring judicial action at a certain time or the number of
                 cases acted upon in a given court during a given time period.
CCH                Computerized Criminal History. The state‘s central repository for data on subjects
                   arrested for gross misdemeanor and felony offenses.

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CCH Agency      An application that will allow agencies to edit data previously submitted to the CCH
Interface       database of their agency. This application will also provide a means to immediately
                notify an agency when a record goes into the Suspense database.
CCJ             Conference of Chief Justices
CDA             Compound Document Architecture. Used by the Microsoft Office™ suite of
                programs for the internal structure of documents, it provides an environment where
                different document types can be embedded within each other.
CDC             Center for Disease Control
cDNA            Complementary DNA
CDPD            Cellular Digit Packet Data. A data transmission technology that uses unused
                cellular phone channels to transmit data in packets.
CD-R            Compact Disk-Recordable. A disk to which data can be written but not erased.
CD-RW           Compact Disk-Rewritable. A disk to which data can be written and erased.
CERT            Computer Emergency Response Team. CERT (pronounced SUHRT), officially
                called the CERT Coordination Center, is the Internet‘s official emergency team. The
                Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) formed CERT (originally
                called the ―Computer Emergency Response Team‖ in November 1988 after the
                Internet was assaulted in the Internet worm incident. Today, CERT focuses on
                security breach and denial-of-service incidents, providing alerts and incident-
                handling and avoidance guidelines. CERT also conducts an ongoing public
                awareness campaign and engages in research aimed at improving security
                systems.
Certification   A decision made by a judge to try a juvenile in adult court. Formal evaluation of a
                security system to determine whether the system conforms to a specified set of
                security requirements and standards.
Certiorari      See Writ of Certiorari.
CEVI            Children‘s Exposure to Violence Initiative (DOJ)
CFR             Code of Federal Regulations
CGI             Common Gateway Interface. Abbreviation of common gateway interface, a
                specification for transferring information between a World Wide Web server and a
                CGI program. A CGI program is any program designed to accept and return data
                that conforms to the CGI specification. The program could be written in any
                programming language, including C, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic. CGI programs are
                the most common way for Web servers to interact dynamically with users. Many
                HTML pages that contain forms, for example, use a CGI program to process the
                form‘s data once it is submitted. Another increasingly common way to provide
                dynamic feedback for Web users is to include scripts or programs that run on the
                user‘s machine rather than the Web server. These programs can be Java applets,
                Java scripts, or ActiveX controls. These technologies are known collectively as
                client-side solutions, while the use of CGI is a server-side solution because the
                processing occurs on the Web server.
CGI-Bin         The usual name of the server directory in which CGI programs are held.



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Chain of          A process used to maintain and document the chronological history of the evidence.
Custody           (Documents should include name or initials of the individual collecting the evidence,
                  each person or entity subsequently having custody of it, dates the items were
                  collected or transferred, agency and case number, victim‘s or suspect‘s name, and
                  a brief description of the item.)
Challenge/Respo A one-time password generating device, token, or SmartCard used in place of a
nse Password    reusable password.
Change            Change management refers to documented procedures used to control the revision
Management        of applications and or operating systems in computing environments. These controls
                  should involve a separate group (not the original programmers) to control the
                  changes to application and/or operating system code.
Change of         The movement of a case from the jurisdiction of one court to that of another court
Venue             that has the same subject matter jurisdictional authority but is in a different
                  geographic location.
Charge            1) In criminal justice usage, an allegation that a specified person(s) has committed a
                  specific offense, recorded in a functional document such as a record of an arrest, a
                  complaint, information or indictment, or a judgment of conviction.
                  2) The process of accusing the defendant of a crime.
Charging          The document used to charge a subject with a statute violation (citation, tab charge,
Instrument        criminal complaint, and delinquency petition).
Checksum          A simple error-detection scheme in which each transmitted message is
                  accompanied by a numerical value based on the number of set bits in the message.
                  The receiving station then applies the same formula to the message and checks to
                  make sure the accompanying numerical value is the same. If not, the receiver can
                  assume that the message has been garbled.
Chemical Attack   The deliberate release of a toxic gas, liquid or solid that can poison people and the
                  environment.
Chemical          The use of chemicals that react with specific types of evidence (e.g., blood, semen,
Enhancement       lead, fingerprints) in order to aid in the detection and/or documentation of evidence
                  that may be difficult to see.
Chemical Threat   Compounds that may pose bodily harm if touched, ingested, inhaled, or ignited.
                  These compounds may be encountered at a clandestine laboratory, or through a
                  homemade bomb or tankard leakage (e.g., ether, alcohol, nitroglycerin, ammonium
                  sulfate, red phosphorus, cleaning supplies, gasoline, or unlabeled chemicals).
Chief Terminal    In each state, the single person responsible for intrastate connections with the
Officer (CTO)     information systems and networks provided by the FBI.
Child Abuse       The illegal physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment of a child by his or her
                  parent(s) or guardian(s).
Child Neglect     The illegal failure by a parent(s) or guardian(s) to provide proper nourishment or
                  care to a child.
CHIPS             Children in Need of Protection or Services. These are children whose cases have
                  been brought into Juvenile Court, usually by the social services agency, as the
                  result of a dependency or neglect petition.

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CIA                Central Intelligence Agency
CIAC               Computer Incident Advisory Capability. A group with a role similar to CERT. See
                   CERT.
CII                Critical Infrastructure Information
CINC               Commander in Chief; a Department of Defense (DoD) term for the military officer in
                   charge of one of the United States regional or strategic military commands.
CIO                Chief Information Officer. The CIO is usually the highest state level person
                   responsible for policy concerning information systems and telecommunications
                   systems.
Ciphertext         Ciphertext is encrypted text; plaintext is what you have before encryption, and
                   ciphertext is the encrypted result. The term cipher is sometimes used as a synonym
                   for ciphertext, but it more properly means the method of encryption rather than the
                   result.
Circumstantial     1) Evidence that requires interpretation, or that requires a judge or jury to reach a
Evidence           conclusion based upon what the evidence indicates. From the close proximity of a
                   smoking gun to the defendant, for example, the jury might conclude that she pulled
                   the trigger.
                   2) Facts or testimony not based on actual personal knowledge or observation, by
                   which other non-substantiated facts can be reasonably inferred.
CISP               Criminal Intelligence Support Program; an FBI searchable database.
CITA               Crime Identification Technology Act
Citation (to       A written order issued by a law enforcement officer directing an alleged offender to
appear)            appear in a specific court at a specified time in order to answer a criminal charge,
                   and not permitting forfeit of bail as an alternative to court appearance.
Citizen's Arrest   The taking of a person into physical custody, by a witness to a crime other than a
                   law enforcement officer, for the purpose of delivering him or her to the physical
                   custody of a law enforcement officer or agency.
Civil Death        The legal status of prisoners in some jurisdictions who are denied the opportunity to
                   vote, hold public office, marry, or enter into contracts by virtue of their status as
                   incarcerated felons. While civil death is primarily of historical interest, some
                   jurisdictions still place limits on the contractual opportunities available to inmates.
Civil Law          That part of the law that governs relationships between parties.
Civil Lawsuit      A lawsuit brought by individuals, companies or agencies against other individuals,
                   companies or agencies to obtain relief for injuries suffered, such as monetary loss,
                   physical injury, etc.
CJ                 Criminal Justice
CJDN               Criminal Justice Data Network
CJIS               Criminal Justice Information System
CJIS/APB           FBI‘s CJIS Advisory Policy Board




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CJIS-WAN           Criminal Justice Information Service Wide Area Network. A nationwide state-to-
                   federal network operated by the FBI to serve fingerprint-based information
                   exchange.
CJRA               Civil Justice Reform Act of 1990
Class              A software component that provides instructions for the creation of an object.
                   Applications are said to create instances of a class (―objects―) through a process
                   referred to as instantiation. In the context of XML, a schema is a ―class‖ that
                   describes XML instances (data ―objects‖).
Classical School   A perspective on criminological thought that centered on the idea of free will and
                   held that punishment, if it was to be an effective deterrent, had to outweigh the
                   potential pleasure to be derived from criminal behavior. Classical thinkers, who had
                   their roots in the intellectual enlightenment that swept Europe a few centuries ago,
                   highlighted the role that rationality and free choice play in determining human
                   behavior.
Clean/sanitize     The process of removing biological and/or chemical contaminants from tools and/or
                   equipment (e.g., using a mixture of 10-percent household bleach and water).
Clearance          The solution of a particular crime, either by the arrest of the offender or through an
                   exceptional clearance.
Clearance By       When an offender has been identified, sufficient evidence to formally charge the
Arrest             suspect has been obtained, and the offender has been ordered to appear in court.
Clearance Rate     A traditional measure of investigative effectiveness that compares the number of
                   crimes reported and/or discovered to the number of crimes solved through arrest or
                   other means (such as the death of a suspect).
Clemency           In criminal justice usage the name for the type of executive or legislative action
                   where the severity of punishment of a single person or a group of persons is
                   reduced or the punishment stopped, or a person is exempted from prosecution for
                   certain actions.
CLET               Certified Law Enforcement Trainer
Client/Server      A network model in which a computer or process (server) provides services to the
Architecture       workstations (clients) connected to that computer (server). This architecture allows
                   the client to share resources such as files, printers, and processing power with other
                   clients.
Clik! ™            A portable disk drive, also known as a PocketZip disk. Iomega Corporation is no
                   longer manufacturing this product, although some may be available through a
                   variety of sources.
Closing            A speech to the jury by the attorneys for the parties to try to convince the jurors how
Argument           the evidence proves his or her side of the case. An oral summation of a case
                   presented to a judge, or to a judge and jury, by the prosecution or by the defense in
                   a criminal trial.
CLP                Clipboard File. Windows has a virtual clipboard that transparently saves anything
                   you Cut (Ctrl-X) or Copy (Ctrl-C) from one application until you Paste (Ctrl-V) it into
                   another. The clipboard contains one object at a time, but may store many different
                   representations of the object.


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Cluster (lost)    A group of disk sectors. The operating system assigns a unique number to each
                  cluster and then keeps track of files according to which clusters they use.
                  Occasionally, the operating system marks a cluster as being used even though it is
                  not assigned to any file. This is called a lost cluster. You can free up disk space by
                  reassigning lost clusters, but you should first make sure that the clusters do not, in
                  fact, contain valuable data. In DOS and Windows, you can find lost clusters with the
                  ScanDisk utility. DOS and Windows keep track of clusters with the file allocation
                  table (FAT). The size of each cluster depends on the disk‘s partition size.
CMMI              Capabilities Maturity Model Integration
CNC               Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Crime and Narcotics Center; the element of
                  the Central Intelligence Agency responsible for counterdrug intelligence support.
CNCMS             Counternarcotics Command Management System; a secure USSOUTHCOM
                  communications system.
CNII              Committee on Narcotics Intelligence Issues; an Intelligence Community committee.
CN-IWG            Counter-Narcotics Interagency Working Group; an Office of National Drug Control
                  Policy (ONDCP) committee.
COACT             COACT, Inc. is a privately owned, 3rd party independent test facility for testing
                  security products and systems.
CODIS             Combined DNA Index System. The FBI Laboratory's Combined DNA Index System
                  (CODIS) blends forensic science and computer technology into an effective tool for
                  solving violent crimes. CODIS enables federal, state, and local crime labs to
                  exchange and compare DNA profiles electronically, thereby linking crimes to each
                  other and to convicted offenders.
Cohort            In statistics, the group of individuals having one or more statistical factors in
                  common in a demographic study.
Cohort Analysis   A social scientific technique that studies a population that shares common
                  characteristics, over time. Cohort analysis usually begins at birth and traces the
                  development of cohort members until they reach a certain age.
Collect/          The process of detecting, documenting, or retaining physical evidence.
collection
Collective Data   Distinguished from transaction data. A collective data object contains data from
                  several transactions (e.g., an incident description plus the outcomes of the incident,
                  or all incidents in a time period with their outcomes).
COM               Component Object Model—Microsoft‘s standard for distributed objects, an object
                  encapsulation technology that specifies interfaces between component objects
                  within a single application or between applications. It separates the interface from
                  the implementation and provides APIs for dynamically locating objects and for
                  loading and invoking them (see DCOM).
Commitment        A court order placing an individual in a residential mental health or chemical
(civil)           dependency treatment facility.




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Commitment         A court order specifying a term of incarceration. The action of a judicial officer
(criminal)         ordering that a person subject to judicial proceedings be placed in a particular kind
                   of confinement or residential facility, for a specific reason authorized by law; also,
                   the result of the action, the admission to the facility.
                   In the case of juveniles, it is the legal action of the juvenile court taken when the
                   court has determined that the adjudicated juvenile should be placed in a state
                   juvenile corrections facility operated under the jurisdiction of the Commissioner of
                   Corrections. In the course of this action, the child‘s custody is transferred to the
                   Commissioner of Corrections.
Common Law         Law originating from usage and custom rather than from written statutes. The term
                   refers to a body of judicial opinion originally developed by English courts, and which
                   is based upon non-statutory customs, traditions, and precedents.
Common Native      Information sharing technique that relies on multiple databases but a single data
Language           dictionary.
Communications Software that provides inter-application connectivity based on communication styles
Middleware     such as message queuing, ORBs, and publish/subscribe.
Communications A formally defined system for controlling the exchange of information over a network
Protocol       or communications channel.
COM Object         The Common Object Model is a Microsoft sponsored interface specification for
                   creating interoperable software components. Distributed COM or DCOM is
                   Microsoft‘s COM interface standard for distributed computing, i.e., where an
                   ―application‖ consists of software ―objects‖ distributed across nodes of a network.
                   DCOM is similar to the Java based EJB specification, but works only for Microsoft
                   operating systems. DCOM objects can communicate via TCP/IP and their own
                   proprietary messaging framework (Windows Distributed iNternet Architecture or
                   DNA). Alternatively, COM objects can communicate with other non-COM/non-
                   Window‘s objects such as Java Classes or EJBs via XML and SOAP.




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Comparison      A generic term used to describe physical material/evidence discovered at crime
Samples         scenes that may be compared with samples from persons, tools, and physical
                locations. Comparison samples may be from either an unknown/questioned or a
                known source.
                Samples whose source is unknown/questioned are of three basic types:
                1. Recovered crime scene samples whose source is in question (e.g., evidence left
                by suspects, victims).
                2. Questioned evidence that may have been transferred to an offender during the
                commission of the crime and taken away by him or her. Such questioned evidence
                can be compared with evidence of a known source and can thereby be
                associated/linked to a person/vehicle/tool of a crime.
                3. Evidence of an unknown/questioned source recovered from several crime scenes
                may also be used to associate multiple offenses that were committed by the same
                person and/or with the same tool or weapon.
                Samples whose source is known are of three basic types:
                A standard/reference sample is material of a verifiable/documented source which,
                when compared with evidence of an unknown source, shows an association or
                linkage between an offender, crime scene, and/or victim (e.g., a carpet cutting taken
                from a location suspected as the point of transfer for comparison with the fibers
                recovered from the suspect‘s shoes, a sample of paint removed from a suspect
                vehicle to be compared with paint found on a victim‘s vehicle following an accident,
                or a sample of the suspect‘s and/or victim‘s blood submitted for comparison with a
                bloodstained shirt recovered as evidence).
                A control/blank sample is material of a known source that presumably was
                uncontaminated during the commission of the crime (e.g., a sample to be used in
                laboratory testing to ensure that the surface on which the sample is deposited does
                not interfere with testing. For example, when a bloodstain is collected from a carpet,
                a segment of unstained carpet must be collected for use as a blank or elimination
                sample).
                4. An elimination sample is one of known source taken from a person who had
                lawful access to the scene (e.g., fingerprints from occupants, tire tread impressions
                from police vehicles, footwear impressions from emergency medical personnel) to
                be used for comparison with evidence of the same type.
Community       A collaborative effort between the police and the community that identifies problems
Policing        of crime and disorder and involves all elements of the community in the search for
                solutions to these problems.
Community       A sentencing alternative that requires offenders to spend at least part of their time
Service         working for a community agency.
Community       A probation sanction under which a convicted offender is allowed to ―work off‖
Work Service    his/her fine by volunteering for unpaid work at a community agency (hospital,
                nursing home, the Salvation Army, etc.) for a specified number of hours.
Comparative     One who studies crime and criminal justice on a cross-national level.
Criminologist



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Compelling         A legal concept that provides a basis for suspicion-less searches (urinalysis tests of
Interest           train engineers, for example) when public safety is at issue. It is the concept upon
                   which the Supreme Court cases of Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives'
                   Association (1988) and National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Rabb (1989)
                   turned. In those cases, the Court held that public safety might provide a sufficiently
                   compelling interest such that an individual's right to privacy can be limited under
                   certain circumstances.
Complaint          The written document charging an alleged criminal defendant with a crime.
                   A legal written document by a person bringing a civil lawsuit stating his or her claims
                   against the defendant.
Compliance         A document used to obtain a promise from a computer user that the user shall abide
Statement          by system policies and procedures.
Compliant          The ability of hardware and software to satisfy a particular requirement such as
                   manipulation of four-digit dates.
Compressed File A file that has been reduced in size through a compression algorithm to save disk
                space. The act of compressing a file will make it unreadable to most programs until
                the file is uncompressed.
Compromise         Data is said to be compromised if unauthorized access to or disclosure of that
                   information may have taken place.
Computer Abuse Any incident without color of right associated with computer technology in which a
               victim suffered or could have suffered loss and/or a perpetrator by intention made or
               could have made gain.
Computer-Aided     This computer system supports the handling of emergency calls at the various
Dispatch (CAD)     emergency dispatch centers. The computer system assists 911 call takers and
                   dispatch personnel in handling and prioritizing calls. Enhanced 911 will send the
                   location of the call to the CAD system, which will automatically display the address of
                   the 911 caller on a screen in front of the call taker. Complaint information is then
                   entered into the computer and is easily retrievable. They system may be linked to
                   MDT‘s in patrol cars allowing a dispatcher and officers to communicate without using
                   voice. The system may also be interfaced with NCIC, AVL, or a number of other
                   programs.
Computer Crime     Also cyber-crime. A popular name for crimes committed by use of a computer or
                   crimes involving misuse or destruction of computer equipment or computerized
                   information, sometimes specifically theft committed by means of manipulation of a
                   computerized financial transaction system, or the use of computer services with
                   intent to avoid payment.
Computer Crime     Allows a department to display calls for service on a computerized pin map, which
Mapping            aids in crime analysis efforts.
Computer-related Any illegal act for which knowledge of computer technology is involved for its
Crime            investigation, perpetration, or prosecution.
Computer Virus     A computer program that is designed to secretly invade systems and modify either
                   the way in which they operate or alter the information they store. Viruses are
                   destructive software that may effectively vandalize computers of all sizes.



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Computerized        Electronic data, applications, and technology.
Information
Resources
COMS                Correctional Operations Management System. Prison inmate data system.
Concept of          A description at a relatively high level of the participants in information sharing, the
Operations          information flows involved and the functional requirements at each step of sharing.
Concurrence         The coexistence of an act in violation of the law, and a culpable mental state.
Concurrent          A sentence that is one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time after
Sentence            conviction for more than one offense and to be served at the same time, or a new
                    sentence imposed upon a person already under sentence(s) for a previous
                    offense(s), to be served at the same time as one or more of the previous sentences.
Conditional         Release of a defendant prior to trial or sentencing under specific conditions imposed
Release             by the court in lieu of ―no bail required‖ (NBR). The conditions are monitored by
                    Adult Field Services – Investigation Section Pre-Trial staff.
                    The release by executive decision from a federal or state correctional facility, of a
                    prisoner who has not served his or her full sentence and whose freedom is
                    contingent upon obeying specified rules of behavior.
Conditions of       Community-based sanctions imposed on a subject who has been placed on
Probation           probation by the court as the result of being convicted of a misdemeanor, gross
                    misdemeanor, or felony offense. These conditions vary widely, depending upon the
                    nature and circumstances of the offense. Some common examples of conditions
                    are: pay restitution to the victim, complete outpatient alcohol counseling, have no
                    new violations for one year, report to your probation officer as instructed, submit to
                    random UA testing, serve six months in jail, etc.
                    The general (state-ordered) and special (court- or board-ordered) limits imposed
                    upon an offender who is released on probation. General conditions tend to be fixed
                    by state statute, while special conditions are mandated by the sentencing authority
                    and take into consideration the background of the offender and circumstances
                    surrounding the offense.
Confidential Data A classification for information defined as data that is not made public by statute or
                  federal law and is inaccessible to the subject of the data.
Confinement         In correctional terminology, physical restriction of a person to a clearly defined area
                    from which he or she is lawfully forbidden to depart and from which departure is
                    usually constrained by architectural barriers and/or guards or other custodians.




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Configuration      The way a system is set up, or the assortment of components that make up the
                   system. Configuration can refer to either hardware or software, or the combination
                   of both. For instance, a typical configuration for a PC consists of 32MB (megabytes)
                   main memory, a floppy drive, a hard disk, a modem, a CD-ROM drive, a VGA
                   monitor, and the Windows operating system. Many software products require that
                   the computer have a certain minimum configuration. For example, the software
                   might require a graphics display monitor and a video adapter, a particular
                   microprocessor, and a minimum amount of main memory. When you install a new
                   device or program, you sometimes need to configure it, which means to set various
                   switches and jumpers (for hardware) and to define values of parameters (for
                   software). For example, the device or program may need to know what type of video
                   adapter you have and what type of printer is connected to the computer. Thanks to
                   new technologies, such as plug-and-play, much of this configuration is performed
                   automatically.
Conflict Model     A perspective on the study of criminal justice that assumes that the system's
                   subcomponents function primarily to serve their own interests. According to this
                   theoretical framework, "justice" is more a product of conflicts among agencies within
                   the system, than it is the result of cooperation among component agencies.
Connectionless Communications that do not require a dedicated connection or session between
Communications applications.
ConOps             Shorthand for Concept of Operations.
Consecutive        A sentence that is one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after
Sentence           conviction for more than one offense, and which is served in sequence with the
                   other sentences, or a new sentence for a new conviction, imposed upon a person
                   already under sentence(s) for previous offense(s), which is added to a previous
                   sentence(s), thus increasing the maximum time the offender may be confined or
                   under supervision.
Consensus          A perspective on the study of criminal justice that assumes that the system's
Model              subcomponents work together harmoniously to achieve that social product we call
                   "justice."
Consolidation      Information sharing technique that relies on tightly coupled application programs
                   interacting with a single database.
Contingency        A definition of the emergency actions to be taken in the event of damage, failure,
Plan               and/or other disabling events that could occur to systems.
Constitutive       The study of the process by which human beings create an ideology of crime that
Criminology        sustains it (the notion of crime) as a concrete reality.
Contamination      The unwanted transfer of material from another source to a piece of physical
                   evidence.
Contempt of        Intentionally obstructing a court in the administration of justice, or acting in a way
Court              calculated to lessen its authority or dignity, or failing to obey its lawful orders.
Control/blank      See Comparison Samples.
Sample
Control Terminal In each state, the single agency responsible for intrastate connections with the
Agency (CTA)     information systems and networks provided by the FBI.

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Controlled      A specifically defined bioactive or psychoactive chemical substance that is
Substance       proscribed by law.
Controlling     The agency within whose reporting jurisdiction an incident occurred. (This may or
Agency          may not be the same as the arresting and/or booking agency.)
Controlling     The NCIC Identifier (ORI) of the Controlling Agency.
Agency Number
(CAG)
Conversion      Translating valid values into another format on a permanent basis; for example
                translating two digit years to four digit year values.
Conviction      The judgment of a court based on the verdict of a jury or judicial officer, or on the
                guilty pleas or nolo contendere pleas of the defendant, that the defendant is guilty of
                the offense(s) with which he or she has been charged.
Cookie          Data created by a Web server that is stored on a user's computer. It provides a way
                for the Web site to keep track of a user's patterns and preferences and, with the
                cooperation of the Web browser, to store them on the users own hard disk. A
                message given to a web browser by a web server. The browser stores the message
                in a text file. The message is then sent back to the server each time the browser
                requests a page from the server. The main purpose of cookies is to identify users
                and possibly prepare customized web pages for them. When you enter a web site
                using cookies, you may be asked to fill out a form providing such information as
                your name and interests. This information is packaged into a cookie and sent to
                your web browser that stores it for later use. The next time you go to the same web
                site, your browser will send the cookie to the web server. The server can use this
                information to present you with custom web pages. So, for example, instead of
                seeing just a generic welcome page you might see a welcome page with your name
                on it. The name cookie derives from UNIX objects called magic cookies. These are
                tokens that are attached to a user or program and change depending on the areas
                entered by the user or program.
COPS            Community Oriented Policing Services; a Department of Justice (DOJ)-funded
                activity.
                Community Outreach through Police in Schools
COPS MORE       Making Officer Redeployment Effective (COPS MORE) Grants
CORBA           1. Common Object Request Broker Architecture—a standard maintained by the
                OMG.
                2. Common Object Request Broker Architecture. CORBA is a framework created by
                the Object Management Groupxix (OMG) to facilitate platform/ operating
                system/programming language-neutral distributed computing. Software components
                or ―objects‖ interact in client-server relationships, with an Object Request Broker
                (ORB) software component acting as intermediary. Via the IIOP, CORBA-based
                distributed applications can operate across the Internet. CORBA is most commonly
                used with the Java language, although it is language independent.




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Core               One goal of the ebXML effort is to define a set of universal core components that
Components         are contextually neutral and can be used across all domains to express semantics
                   of common business concepts. Core components may be information entities,
                   defined in the ebXML Core Component Dictionary technical reports, or process
                   components discussed in the ebXML Business Process technical reports. Note that
                   the core component technical reports do not address how an information
                   component will be expressed in XML. This was an intentional omission on the part
                   of ebXML. It was felt that prior to defining rules for creation of XML, a necessary first
                   step was to create a schema neutral standard for defining components in business
                   terminology. The work of defining how core components map to XML is being
                   undertaken by the Core Component Project Team of the UN/CEFACT sponsored
                   Electronic Business Transition Working Group (eBTWG).
Corpus Delicti     The "body of crime." Facts that show that a crime has occurred.
Correctional       A federal, state, or local criminal or juvenile justice agency, under a single
Agency             administrative authority of which the principal functions are the intake screening,
                   supervision, custody, confinement, treatment, or pre-sentencing or predisposition
                   investigation of alleged or adjudicated adult offenders, youthful offenders,
                   delinquents, or status offenders.
Corrections        A generic term that includes all government agencies, facilities, programs,
                   procedures, personnel, and techniques concerned with the intake, custody,
                   confinement, supervision, or treatment, or pre-sentencing or predisposition
                   investigation of alleged or adjudicated adult offenders, delinquents, or status
                   offenders.
Corruption         Behavior deviation from an accepted ethical standard.
COSCA              Conference of State Court Administrators
Countermeasure A measure designed to reduce or eliminate a security threat or vulnerability.
Court              An agency or unit of the judicial branch of government authorized or established by
                   statute or constitution, and consisting of one or more judicial officers, which has the
                   authority to decide upon cases, controversies in law, and disputed matters of fact
                   brought before it.
Court Calendar     The court schedule; the list of events comprising the daily or weekly work of a court,
                   including the assignment of the time and place for each hearing or other item of
                   business, or the list of matters which will be taken up in a given court term.
Court Deputy       The individual in the courtroom who helps the judge manage the evidence and
                   maintain order in the courtroom. Same as Deputy Sheriff.
Court              For statistical reporting purposes, generally, the judicial decision terminating
Disposition        proceedings in a case before judgment is reached, or the judgment; the data items
                   representing the outcome of judicial proceedings and the manner in which the
                   outcome was arrived at.
Court of Record    A court in which a complete and permanent record of all proceedings or specified
                   types of proceedings is kept.
Court Order        A mandate, command, or direction issued by a judicial officer in the exercise of his
                   or her judicial authority.



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Court Probation    A criminal court requirement that a defendant or offender fulfill specified conditions
                   of behavior in lieu of a sentence to confinement, but without assignment to a
                   probation agency's supervisory caseload.
CPI-C              Common Programming Interface-Communications—IBM‘s SNA peer-to-peer API
                   that can run over SNA and TCP/IP. It masks the complexity of APPC.
CPO                County Probation Officer
                   Chief Privacy Officer
CPS                Child Protection Services
CPU                Central Processing Unit. The computational and control unit of a computer.
Cracker            Someone who breaks into a computer system. The term was coined in the mid-80s
                   by hackers who wanted to differentiate themselves from individuals whose sole
                   purpose is to sneak through security systems. Whereas crackers‘ sole aim is to
                   break into secure systems, hackers are more interested in gaining knowledge about
                   computer systems and possibly using this knowledge for playful pranks. Although
                   hackers still argue that there‘s a big difference between what they do and what
                   crackers do, the mass media has failed to understand the distinction, so the two
                   terms — hack and crack — are often used interchangeably.
CRAMM              CCTA Risk Analysis and Management Method. A methodology for risk analysis.
Crime              Conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or of a
                   local jurisdiction, for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse.
                   Also, an act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it
                   for which the possible penalties for an adult upon conviction include incarceration,
                   for which a corporation can be penalized by fine or forfeit, or for which a juvenile can
                   be adjudged delinquent or transferred to criminal court for prosecution.
Crime Control      A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of
Model              criminal offenders.
Crime Index        In Uniform Crime Reports terminology, a set of numbers indicating the volume,
                   fluctuation, and distribution of crimes reported to local law enforcement agencies,
                   for the United States as a whole and for its geographical subdivisions, based on
                   counts of reported occurrences of UCR Index Crimes.
Crime Rate         The number of index offenses reported for each unit of population.
Criminal           The formal accusation charging that a person has committed an offense.
Complaint
Criminal           The name of the UCR category that includes and is limited to all offenses of causing
Homicide (UCR)     the death of another person without justification or excuse.
Criminal Incident In National Crime Victimization Survey terminology, a criminal event involving one
                  or more victims and one or more offenders.
Criminal Justice   In its broadest sense, those aspects of social justice which concern violations of the
                   criminal law. In the strictest sense, the criminal (penal) law, the law of criminal
                   procedure, and that array of procedures and activities having to do with the
                   enforcement of this body of law.



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Criminal Justice   The aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that
System             perform criminal justice functions. The basic divisions of the operational aspect of
                   criminal justice are law enforcement, courts, and corrections.
Criminal Law       That branch of modern law that concerns itself with offenses committed against
                   society, members thereof, their property, and the social order. Another term for
                   criminal law is penal law.
Criminal           Behavior in which a person fails to reasonably perceive substantial and unjustifiable
Negligence         risks of dangerous consequences.
Criminal           The regular and orderly steps, as directed or authorized by statute or a court of law,
Proceedings        taken to determine whether an adult accused of a crime is guilty or not guilty.
Criminalist        The term applied to police crime scene analysts and laboratory personnel versed in
                   criminalistics.
Criminalistics     The use of technology in the service of criminal investigation; the application of
                   scientific techniques to the detection and evaluation of criminal evidence.
Criminology        The scientific study of crime causation, prevention, and the rehabilitation and
                   punishment of offenders.
Critical           Any information essential to an agency's activities, the destruction, modification, or
Information        unavailability of which would cause serious disruption to the agency's mission.
Cross-             The unwanted transfer of material between two or more sources of physical
contamination      evidence.
Cryptanalysis      Cryptanalysis refers to the study of ciphers, ciphertext, or cryptosystems (that is, to
                   secret code systems) with a view to finding weaknesses in them that will permit
                   retrieval of the plaintext from the ciphertext, without necessarily knowing the key or
                   the algorithm. This is known as breaking the cipher, ciphertext, or cryptosystem.
Cryptography       The art of protecting information by transforming it (encrypting it) into an unreadable
                   format, called cipher text. Only those who possess a secret key can decipher (or
                   decrypt) the message into plain text. Encrypted messages can sometimes be broken
                   by cryptanalysis, also called code breaking, although modern cryptography
                   techniques are virtually unbreakable. As the Internet and other forms of electronic
                   communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly
                   important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information,
                   and corporate data. One of the most popular cryptography systems used on the
                   Internet is Pretty Good Privacy because it is effective and free. Cryptography
                   systems can be broadly classified into symmetric-key systems that use a single key
                   that both the sender and recipient have, and public-key systems that use two keys, a
                   public key known to everyone and a private key that only the recipient of messages
                   uses.
Cryptology         The study of techniques that can be used to conceal information, or reveal
                   information that has been previously concealed; that is the combination of
                   cryptanalysis, cryptography, and steganography. The discipline of writing or
                   deciphering messages in code.
Cryptosystem       A working cryptographic system in its entirety. It could be purely software if it is a
                   cryptosystem designed to run on a standard computer; or it could be a specialist
                   hardware and software combination.

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CSG               Council of State Governments
CSI               Crime Scene Investigation
                  Container Security Initiative
CSN               Children‘s Safety Network
CSS               Cascading Style Sheet, used to format structured data for display or printing. See
                  also XSL.
                  Cascading Style Sheets. A set of W3C recommendations for styling HTML and XML
                  documents based on the application of formatting instructions in a linear, cascading
                  fashion. CSS is an alternative to styling XML with XSL, but CSS does not have the
                  transformational component of XSLT.
CSWF              Clinical Social Work Foundation
CTA               Control Terminal Agency. In each state, the single agency responsible for intrastate
                  connections with the information systems and networks provided by the FBI.
CTC               Counter-Terrorism Center
CTG               Center for Technology in Government
                  Court Technology Conference
CTO               Chief Terminal Officer. In each state, the single person responsible for intrastate
                  connections with the information systems and networks provided by the FBI.
Culpability       Blameworthiness; responsibility in some sense for an event or situation deserving of
                  moral blame.
                  In Model Penal Code (MPC) usage, a state of mind on the part of one who is
                  committing an act, which makes him or her potentially subject to prosecution for that
                  act.
Curtilage         A legal term that describes the area surrounding a residence that can reasonably be
                  said to be a part of the residence for Fourth Amendment purposes.
Custody           Legal or physical control of a person or thing; legal, supervisory, or physical
                  responsibility for a person or thing.
CWI               Child Welfare Institute
CWLA              Child Welfare League of America
CY                Calendar Year
Cyber-crime       Crime committed with the use of computers. Another term for computer crime.
Cyber-terrorism   Terrorism that involves computers, networks, and the information they contain.
                  Computer networks have been attacked during recent conflicts in Kosovo, Kashmir,
                  and the Middle East, but the damage has mostly been limited to defaced Web sites
                  or blocked Internet servers. However, with American society increasingly
                  interconnected and ever more dependent on information technology, terrorism
                  experts worry that cyber-terrorist attacks could cause as much devastation as more
                  familiar forms of terrorism.
Cyberwoozle       This refers to the practice of siphoning data from users‘ PCs as they surf the
                  Internet.

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D
Daemon            Pronounced DEE-mun or DAY-mun. A process that runs in the background and
                  performs a specified operation at predefined times or in response to certain events.
                  The term daemon is a UNIX term, though many other operating systems provide
                  support for daemons, though they are sometimes called other names. Windows, for
                  example, refers to daemons, System Agents, and services. Typical daemon
                  processes include print spoolers, e-mail handlers, and other programs that perform
                  administrative tasks for the operating system. The term comes from Greek
                  mythology, where daemons were guardian spirits.
Danger Laws       Those intended to prevent the pretrial release of criminal defendants judged to
                  represent a danger to others in the community.
Dangerous Drugs A term used by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to refer to "broad
                categories or classes of controlled substances other than cocaine, opiates, and
                cannabis products." Amphetamines, methamphetamines, PCP (phencyclidine), LSD,
                methcathinone, and "designer drugs" are all considered "dangerous drugs."
Dangerousness     The likelihood that a given individual will later harm society or others.
                  Dangerousness is often measured in terms of recidivism, or as the likelihood of
                  additional crime commission within a five-year period following arrest or release from
                  confinement.
Data              The raw material of information. Data may be structured or unstructured; dynamic or
                  static; textual or graphic. Raw data plus its associated metadata equals information.
                  Data is a representation of facts or concepts that may be stored, communicated,
                  interpreted, or processed by any means.
Database          Often abbreviated DB. A collection of information organized in such a way that a
                  computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a
                  database as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organized by
                  fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one
                  complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone
                  book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of
                  three fields: name, address, and telephone number.
Database          Allow clients to invoke SQL-based services across multi-vendor databases. This
Middleware        middleware is defined by de facto standards such as ODBC, DRDA, RDA, etc.
Data              Compression is the reduction in size of data in order to save space or transmission
Compression       time. For data transmission, compression can be performed on just the data content
                  or on the entire transmission unit (including header data) depending on a number of
                  factors. Content compression can be as simple as removing all extra space
                  characters, inserting a single repeat character to indicate a string of repeated
                  characters, and substituting smaller bit strings for frequently occurring characters.
                  This kind of compression can reduce a text file to 50% of its original size.
                  Compression is performed by a program that uses a formula or algorithm to
                  determine how to compress or decompress data.
Data              An ethical requirement of social scientific research which stipulates that research
Confidentiality   data not be shared outside of the research environment.




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Data Dictionary   A file that defines the basic organization of a database. It will contain a list of all files
                  in the database, the number of records in each file, and the names and types of each
                  field.
Data Encryption   Methods used to encode computerized information.
Data Encryption   A popular symmetric-key encryption method developed in 1975 and standardized by
Standard (DES)    ANSI in 1981 as ANSI X.3.92. DES uses a 56-bit key and is illegal to export out of
                  the U.S. or Canada if you do not meet the BXA requirements.
Data Esperanto    Information sharing technique that relies on the ability of each sharing system to
                  transform from its own database format to a single transfer format, and from that
                  transfer format to its own format.
Data Integrity    The assurance that data is an accurate, complete representation of the data as
                  created or modified by its originator, and that computerized information resources
                  remain configured as intended by the person responsible for them.
Data Knowledge    Using IT technology and information to both measure and improve an organization's
and Decision      performance.
Support
Data Level        A form of EAI that integrates different data stores to allow the sharing of information
Integration       among applications. It requires the loading of data directly into the database via its
                  native interface and does not involve the changing of business logic.
Datamaxx, Inc.    The company that creates and distributes the Linxx user interface.
Data Model        A data model is a representation of the information required to support a particular
                  business function, or set of functions. As analysis is being done for the business
                  requirements of a system, the information requirements are also identified and
                  captured in a data model.
Data Schema       Definition of the permissible data to be included in a specified data element, or by
                  extension, to all data elements of a file, table, or document See Semantic Data.
Data Security/    Those measures, procedures, or controls, which provide an acceptable degree of
computer          confidentiality, integrity, and availability for information resources.
security/
information
security
Data Standards    Agreed upon terms for defining and sharing data.
Data              A key requirement of EAI and message brokers. There are two basic kinds:
Transformation    syntactic translation changes one data set into another (such as different date or
                  number formats), while semantic transformation changes data based on the
                  underlying data definitions or meaning.
Data Warehouse    Information-sharing technique that relies on a separate database created by
                  transforming data from several sources into a single database, along with
                  application programs to retrieve the transformed data.
Date Rape         Unlawful forced sexual intercourse with a female against her will that occurs within
                  the context of a dating relationship.
Daubert           A test of scientific acceptability applicable to the gathering of evidence in criminal
Standard          cases.

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DCE                 Distributed Computing Environment—from the Open Software Foundation, DCE
                    provides key distributed technologies such as RPC, distributed naming service, time
                    synchronization service, network security, and a distributed file system.
DCFS                Dispatched Calls for Service
                    Department of Children and Family Services
DCI                 Director of Central Intelligence; the cabinet position occupied by the Director, CIA,
                    through which he exercises oversight and direction of the Intelligence Community.
DCOM                Distributed Component Object Model—Microsoft‘s protocol that enables software
                    components to communicate directly over a network in a reliable, secure, and
                    efficient manner. DCOM is based on the DCE-RPC specification and works with
                    both Java applets and ActiveX components through its use of the COM.
DDDS                The Defense Data Dictionary System defines standard data elements per the DoD
                    8320 series of documents. The DDDS provides definitions of Standard Data
                    Elements (SDEs) from core data models across all DoD data domains. The DDDS
                    elements are mainly logical in nature, and may be used to express logical, semantic
                    relationships between XML elements. XML Schema data types may be used to
                    express relationships to DDDS standard data elements.
DEA                 Drug Enforcement Administration
Deadly Force        Force likely to cause death or great bodily harm.
Deadly Weapon       An instrument designed to inflict serious bodily injury or death, or capable of being
                    used for such a purpose.
Deconstructioni     Emerging approaches which challenge existing criminological perspectives to
st Theories         debunk them, and which work toward replacing them with concepts more applicable
                    to the postmodern era.
Decree              A final judgment or determination of a court.
Decriminalization The redefinition of certain previously criminal behaviors into regulated activities,
                  which become "ticketable" rather than "arrestable."
Decryption          The process by which an encrypted message is rendered readable or usable
                    (reverses the encryption process); the process of decoding data that has been
                    encrypted into a secret format. Decryption requires a secret key or password.
Default             Occurs when a defendant fails to appear at the trial allowing the plaintiff to win a
                    civil action.
Default             A password contained in a system when first delivered and installed. If you accept
Password            delivery of any product containing a default password, hardware or software, you
                    should change the password as soon as possible.
Defendant           Person who is sued in a civil case or accused in a criminal case.
                    In criminal justice usage, a person formally accused of an offense(s) by the filing in
                    court of a charging document.
Defense Counsel Also defense attorney. A licensed trial lawyer hired or appointed to conduct the
                legal defense of an individual accused of a crime and to represent him or her before
                a court of law.


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Defenses (to a      Evidence and arguments offered by a defendant and his or her attorney(s) to show
criminal charge)    why that person should not be held liable for a criminal charge.
Defensible          The belief that an area's physical features may be modified and structured so as to
Space Theory        reduce crime rates in that area, and to lower the fear of victimization which area
                    residents experience.
Deleted File        To remove or erase. For example, deleting a character means removing it from a
                    file or erasing it from the display screen. Deleting a file means erasing it from a disk.
                    Note that, unlike cutting, deleting does not necessarily place the removed object in a
                    buffer from where it can be recovered.
Delinquency         In the broadest usage, juvenile actions or conduct in violation of criminal law,
                    juvenile status offenses, and other juvenile misbehavior.
                    A term used to describe juvenile behavior that is judged to be antisocial or in
                    violation of the law.
Delinquency         Used in place of a criminal complaint in the juvenile justice system.
Petition
Delinquent          A child who is at least 10 years of age, but not more than 18 years of age, who has
                    committed an act that would be a crime if committed by an adult.
                    A juvenile who has been adjudged by a judicial officer of a juvenile court to have
                    committed a delinquent act.
Delinquent Act      An act committed by a juvenile for which an adult could be prosecuted in a criminal
                    court, but for which a juvenile can be adjudicated in a juvenile court, or prosecuted
                    in a court having criminal jurisdiction if the juvenile court transfers jurisdiction;
                    generally, a "felony" or "misdemeanor"-level offense in states employing those
                    terms.
Delinquent Child A child who has engaged in activity that would be considered a crime if the child
                 were an adult. The term "delinquent" is applied to such a child in order to avoid the
                 stigma that comes from application of the term "criminal."
Denial of Service A type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by
(DoS)             flooding it with useless traffic. Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and
                  Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in the TCP/IP protocols. For all known DoS
                  attacks, there are software fixes that system administrators can install to limit the
                  damage caused by the attacks. But, like viruses, new DoS attacks are constantly
                  being dreamed up by hackers.
Deny                The juvenile court equivalent of a not-guilty plea in adult court.
Dependency          A term used to describe a child whose parents are willing, but unable, to provide
                    necessary care and supervision.
Deputy Sheriff      The individual in the courtroom who helps the judge manage the evidence and
                    maintain order in the courtroom. Same as Court Deputy
Design Capacity     The number of inmates that a correctional facility was originally designed to house,
(or Bed             or currently has the capacity to house as a result of later, planned modifications,
Capacity)           exclusive of extraordinary arrangements to accommodate overcrowded conditions.
Designer Drugs      New substances designed by slightly altering the chemical makeup of other illegal
                    or tightly controlled drugs.

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Detainee             Usually, a person held in local, very-short-term confinement while awaiting
                     consideration for pretrial release or first appearance for arraignment.
Detention            The temporary holding of a subject in either a secure or non-secure facility, until the
                     next appearance in court.
                     The legally authorized confinement of a person subject to criminal or juvenile court
                     proceedings, until the point of commitment to a correctional facility or until release.
Detention            The hearing at which the juvenile court judge determines if the child is to be held in
Hearing              detention until the next court appearance.
                     In juvenile justice usage, a hearing by a judicial officer of a juvenile court to
                     determine whether a juvenile is to be detained, continue to be detained, or be
                     released, while juvenile proceedings in the case are pending.
Determinate          Also called fixed sentencing. A model of criminal punishment in which an offender
Sentencing           is given a fixed term that may be reduced by good time or earned time. Under the
                     model, for example, all offenders convicted of the same degree of burglary would be
                     sentenced to the same length of time behind bars.
Deterrence           A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes
                     similar to the one for which an offender is being sentenced.
Deviance             Also deviant behavior. A violation of social norms defining appropriate or proper
                     behavior under a particular set of circumstances. Deviance often includes acts that
                     are criminal.
DHS                  U.S. Department of Homeland Security
DIA                  Defense Intelligence Agency
Dial-in/ Dial-out/   The process of communicating with another system over public phone lines.
Dial-up
Digital Evidence     Information stored or transmitted in binary form that may be relied upon in court.
Digital Signature Digital signature means a transformation of a message using an asymmetric
                  cryptosystem such that a person having the initial message and the signer's public
                  key can accurately determine:
                     whether the transformation was created using the private key that corresponds to the
                     signer's public key; and
                     whether the initial message has been altered since the transformation was made.
                     A digital code that can be attached to an electronically transmitted message that
                     uniquely identifies the sender. Like a written signature, the purpose of a digital
                     signature is to guarantee that the individual sending the message really is who he or
                     she claims to be. Digital signatures are especially important for electronic commerce
                     and are a key component of most authentication schemes. To be effective, digital
                     signatures must be unforgeable. There are a number of different encryption
                     techniques to guarantee this level of security.
Diminished           Also called diminished responsibility. A defense based upon claims of a mental
Capacity             condition which may be insufficient to exonerate a defendant of guilt, but that may
                     be relevant to specific mental elements of certain crimes or degrees of crime.



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Direct Evidence   Evidence that, if believed, directly proves a fact. Eyewitness testimony (and, more
                  recently, videotaped documentation) account for the majority of all direct evidence
                  heard in the criminal courtroom.
Direct            Also called podular/direct and new generation jails. Temporary confinement
Supervision       facilities that eliminate many of the traditional barriers between inmates and
Jails             correctional staff. Physical barriers in direct supervision jails are far less common
                  than in traditional jails, allowing staff members the opportunity for greater interaction
                  with, and control over, residents.
Directed Patrol   A police management strategy designed to increase the productivity of patrol
                  officers through the application of scientific analysis and evaluation to patrol
                  techniques.
Directory         A way for clients to locate services. Usually contained in a single system image of
Services          available servers.
Dirty Bomb        A ―dirty bomb,‖ also known as a radiological weapon, is a conventional explosive
                  such as dynamite packaged with radioactive material that scatters when the bomb
                  goes off. A dirty bomb kills or injures through the initial blast of the conventional
                  explosive and by airborne radiation and contamination—hence the term ―dirty.‖ Such
                  bombs could be miniature devices or as big as a truck bomb.
Discharge         In criminal justice usage, to release from confinement or supervision or to release
                  from a legal status imposing an obligation upon the subject person.
Disclosure        To provide access to data as authorized by its classification and based on the
                  identity of the requestor.
Discretion        The opportunity that individual law enforcement officers have for the exercise of
                  choice in their daily activities. The decision whether to affect an arrest or release a
                  suspect is a primary example of discretion in law enforcement activity.
Discretionary     A mechanism for the enforcement of user-defined file sharing.
Access Control
(DAC)
Disorderly        An offense that disturbs the peace and tranquility of the community in general.
Conduct
Disposition       Includes administering all of the sanctions that have been specified during
                  adjudication, such as probation/supervised release, incarceration, fines, etc.
                  In criminal justice usage, the action by a criminal or juvenile justice agency which
                  signifies that a portion of the justice process is complete and jurisdiction is
                  terminated or transferred to another agency, or which signifies that a decision has
                  been reached on one aspect of a case and a different aspect comes under
                  consideration, requiring a different kind of decision.
Disposition       The hearing at which the juvenile court judge decides the appropriate sanctions and
Hearing           necessary follow-up programming for an ―adjudicated delinquent.‖ Similar to the
                  sentencing hearing in adult court.
                  A hearing in juvenile court, conducted after an adjudicatory hearing and subsequent
                  receipt of the report of any predisposition investigation, to determine the most
                  appropriate form of custody and/or treatment for a juvenile who has been adjudged
                  a delinquent, a status offender, or a dependent.

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Dispute           Informal hearing infrastructures designed to mediate interpersonal disputes without
Resolution        need for the more formal arrangements of criminal trial courts.
Centers
Disturbing the    Fighting, or challenging to fight, in a public place; disturbing others by loud and
Peace             unreasonable noise; or using offensive words likely to produce violent reaction.
Diversion         An alternative to formal prosecution in which a subject is required, and agrees to
                  satisfy, certain conditions such as undergoing counseling, drug rehabilitation,
                  payment of restitution, etc., in exchange for withdrawal of charges.
                  The official suspension of criminal or juvenile proceedings against an alleged
                  offender at any point after a recorded justice system intake but before the entering
                  of a judgment and referral of that person to a treatment or care program
                  administered by a non-justice or private agency, or no referral.
DLL               Dynamic Link Library. A library of executable functions or data that can be used by
                  a Windows application. Typically, a DLL provides one or more particular functions
                  and a program accesses the functions by creating either a static or dynamic link to
                  the DLL. A static link remains constant during program execution while a dynamic
                  link is created by the program as needed. DLLs can also contain just data. DLL files
                  usually end with the extension .dll,.exe, .drv, or .fon.
DNA               Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Found in all nucleated cells in the body. With the exception
                  of identical twins, each person‘s DNA is unique. Sources of DNA include: Blood,
                  Saliva, Skin Cells, Bones/Teeth, Semen, Tissue, Hairs, and Urine. Some Potential
                  Items Containing DNA Evidence include: Masks, Combs/Brushes,
                  Envelopes/Stamps, Clothing, Weapons, Jewelry, Pop Cans, Hats, Bedding, and
                  Cigarette Butts.
DNA Fingerprint   The distinctive patterns of an individual‘s DNA, used as a means of identification.
DNA Profiling     The use of biological residue found at the scene of a crime for genetic comparisons
                  in aiding the identification of criminal suspects.
DNS               Domain Name System. An Internet service that translates domain names into IP
                  addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they are easier to remember.
                  The Internet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a
                  domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the
                  corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name www.example.com might
                  translate to 198.105.232.4.
DOC               Department of Corrections
                  Document File. Microsoft Word document files usually contain just document data.
                  However, they may also contain programs (called ―macros‖) written in a high-level
                  programming language that is part of Word itself.
DOCEX             Document Exploitation; the extraction of information from records obtained during
                  an investigation.
Docket            See Court Calendar.
Docking Station   A device to which a laptop or notebook computer can be attached for use as a
                  desktop computer, usually having a connector for externally connected devices
                  such as hard drives, scanners, keyboards, monitors, and printers.


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Document        An information-exchange message for structured information; the document
                structure, data content and edit requirements are pre-defined before the information
                exchange takes place.
Documentation   Written notes, audio/videotapes, printed forms, sketches, and/or photographs that
                form a detailed record of the scene, evidence recovered, and actions taken during
                the search of the scene.
Document Type   A declaration at the beginning of an XML document indicating a DTD to which the
Declaration     instance must conform.

DoD             Department of Defense
DoE             Department of Energy
DOJ             Department of Justice
DOM             Document Object Model - a platform- and language-neutral interface that will allow
                programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and
                style of documents.
                The Document Object Model. The set of W3C DOM recommendations form
                application programming interface (API) descriptions for expressing the contents of
                XML or HTML ―documents‖ as hierarchical tree-like models of information with data
                forming the ―leaves‖ of the tree. XML Processors that implement the DOM interface
                parse an entire XML document, creating a data tree in memory. Applications that
                call a DOM parser access data from the XML object tree through a set of
                programmatic instructions defined by the specifications. The instructions allow
                applications to ―walk the document tree‖, searching for elements and attributes that
                meet query criteria (XPath expressions). Results are returned to the calling
                application and assigned to application variables for further processing.
Domain          A group of computers and devices on a network that are administered as a unit with
                common rules and procedures. Within the Internet, domains are defined by the IP
                address. All devices sharing a common part of the IP address are said to be in the
                same domain.
Domain Name     A name that identifies one or more IP addresses. For example, the domain name
                microsoft.com represents about a dozen IP addresses. Domain names are used in
                URLs to identify particular Web pages. For example, in the URL
                http://www.pcwebopedia.com/index.html, the domain name is pcwebopedia.com.
                Every domain name has a suffix that indicates which top-level domain (TLD) it
                belongs to. There are only a limited number of such domains. For example: gov -
                .Government agencies; edu - Educational institutions; org - Organizations
                (nonprofit) ; mil - Military; com – commercial business; net - Network organizations;
                ca - Canada; th.- Thailand.




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Domestic           Just as differing definitions of terrorism are offered by government agencies and
Terrorism          other experts, so the meaning of domestic terrorism is also hard to pin down. The
                   FBI, the lead federal agency dealing with domestic terrorism, has defined it as ―the
                   unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence by a group or individual based
                   and operating entirely within the United States or its territories without foreign
                   direction committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a
                   government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of
                   political or social objectives.‖ The U.S.A. Patriot Act, passed in the wake of the
                   September 11 attacks, defines domestic terrorism as criminal acts that are
                   ―dangerous to human life‖ and seem to be meant to scare civilians or affect policy.
                   Civil rights groups have expressed concern that this definition is overly broad. Not
                   all politically motivated violence qualifies as terrorism (for instance, the FBI and
                   some terrorism experts did not regard the Unabomber, who says his anti modern
                   beliefs were behind a 17-year mail-bombing campaign, as a terrorist), nor do all
                   groups that espouse extremist ideas turn to terrorist acts. Experts do not consider
                   all political assassinations or hate crimes to be terrorist attacks, and some critics
                   note that politics often helps determine what gets labeled domestic terrorism as
                   opposed to criminal activity. The FBI classifies domestic terrorist threats mostly by
                   political motive, dividing them into three main categories: left-wing, right-wing, and
                   special-interest. Religious sects have also been connected with terrorist incidents.
Dongle             Also called a hardware key, a dongle is a copy protection device supplied with
                   software that plugs into a computer port, often the parallel port on a PC. The
                   software sends a code to that port and the key responds by reading out its serial
                   number, which verifies its presence to the program. The key hinders software
                   duplication because each copy of the program is tied to a unique number, which is
                   difficult to obtain, and the key has to be programmed with that number.
Double Jeopardy A common law and constitutional prohibition against a second trial for the same
                offense.
DPD                The Dignitary Protective Division (DPD) is a major division within the United States
                   Secret Service.
DRDA               IBM‘s Distributed Relational Database Architecture
Drug Abuse         Illicit drug use that results in social, economic, psychological, or legal problems for
                   the user.
Drug Law           The unlawful sale, purchase, distribution, manufacture, cultivation, transport,
Violation          possession, or use of a controlled or prohibited drug, or attempt to commit these
                   acts.
DS                 Bureau of Diplomatic Security
DSL                Digital Subscriber Line. Protocols designed to allow high-speed data
                   communication over the existing telephone lines between end-users and telephone
                   companies.
DTD                Data Type Declaration in SGML and XML. See Semantic Data.
                   Document Type Definition. A document that defines the required structure of an
                   XML document and the constraints on its content.




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Due Process         The notion, grounded in the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments to the U. S.
                    Constitution, of rights in most court and administrative proceedings to receive
                    sufficient notice of the proceeding, to be allowed to defend oneself in an orderly
                    proceeding adapted to the nature of the case, and that every person have the
                    protection of a day in court and the benefit of general law.
                    A right guaranteed by the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S.
                    Constitution, and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of
                    legal proceedings according to the rules and forms that have been established for
                    the protection of private rights.
Due Process         A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of
Model               justice system processing.
DUF                 NIJ‘s Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program has been expanded and enhanced.
                    Renamed ADAM (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring), the program will increase the
                    number of drug-testing sites, and its role as a ―platform‖ for studying drug-related
                    crime will grow.
Duplicate Digital   A duplicate is an accurate digital reproduction of all data objects contained on the
Evidence            original physical item.
DUI                 Driving Under the Influence. The driving or operating of any vehicle while under the
                    influence of liquor or drugs.
DV                  Domestic Violence
DVD                 Digital Versatile Disk. Similar in appearance to a compact disk, but can store larger
                    amounts of data.
Dying               Statements made by a person who believes he or she is about to die, concerning the
Declaration         cause or circumstance surrounding his or her impending death.
Dynamic             A password that changes each time a user logs-into a computer system (typically
Password            accomplished via tokens or smart cards).
E
EAB                 Executive Advisory Board; previously provided intelligence production guidance to
                    the National Drug Intelligence Center.
EAI                 Enterprise Application Integration is a set of technologies that allows the movement
                    and exchange of information between different applications and business
                    processes, within and between organizations.
ebXML               A global framework for e-business data exchange.
ECC Memory          Short for Error-Correcting Code memory, a type of memory that includes special
                    circuitry for testing the accuracy of data as it passes in and out of memory.
ECPA                Electronic Communications Privacy Act
ECRC                End of Confinement Review Committee
EDI                 Electronic Data Interchange. A term referring to the conduct of eBusiness through
                    the exchange of electronic messages. Two message standards exist as rigorously
                    defined sets and segments, one maintained by the U.S. led ANSI X12 body, and the
                    second led by UN/EDIFACT.


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EFTS              Electronic Fingerprint Transmissions Specifications. FBI specification of how to
                  electronically transmit fingerprints based on NIST standards.
EICAR             European Institute for Computer Anti-Virus Research. A harmless test file that most
                  anti-virus products identify as a virus. Useful for testing the effective status of anti-
                  virus software.
800 MHz           800 Megahertz. Refers to public safety radio systems using channels located in or
                  near the 800 MHz band. Approximately 300 channels located in the 800 MHz
                  spectrum band have been assigned for use by state and local public safety entities.
                  The disadvantage is that this higher frequency has less range and so a greater
                  infrastructure is needed to cover the same range as lower frequencies. Currently
                  there are problems with incompatibility between different 800 MHz trunked systems
                  built by different vendors.
EIS               Epidemic Intelligence Service
EJB               Enterprise Java Beans. EJB is an interface specification which a Java class may
                  implement. Software objects that implement the EJB interface may interoperate in
                  an enterprise (distributed) environment—even across the Internet via TCP/IP and
                  the CORBA IIOP. In this fashion, an ―application‖ may consist of a number of
                  independent software components (―objects―) that are physically separated at
                  different nodes of a network, but functioning together as a single application similar
                  to the Microsoft (D)COM specification.
Element of a      Any conduct, circumstance, condition, or state of mind which in combination with
Crime             other conduct, circumstances, conditions, or states of mind constitutes an unlawful
                  act.
                  The basic components of crime.
                  In a specific crime, the essential features of that crime as specified by law or statute.
Electromagnetic   The field of force associated with electric charge in motion having both electric and
Fields            magnetic components and containing a definite amount of electromagnetic energy.
                  Examples of devices that produce electromagnetic fields include speakers and radio
                  transmitters frequently found in the trunk of the patrol car.
Electronic        A device that operates on principles governing the behavior of electrons.
Device
Electronic        Standard for electronically encoding and transmitting fingerprint image,
Fingerprint       identification, and arrest data.
Transmissions
Specifications
(EFTS)
Electronic        Alternative method of confinement that utilizes an electronic bracelet placed on a
Monitoring        convicted individual‘s ankle, rather than placing that individual in the county jail or
                  workhouse. The bracelet is connected electronically to a radio transmitter, which is
                  connected to the telephone. If the person goes outside of the effective monitoring
                  radius of the transmitter, an alarm is sounded at a central control monitoring point
                  and the local probation agency is notified.
Electronic        An electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with a
Signature         record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.


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ELF              Earth Liberation Front. See Special-interest Domestic Terrorism.
Elimination      See Comparison Sample.
Sample
E-mail           Short for electronic mail, e-mail is the transmission of messages over
                 communications networks. The messages can be notes entered from the keyboard
                 or electronic files stored on disk. Most mainframes, minicomputers, and computer
                 networks have an e-mail system. Some electronic mail systems are confined to a
                 single computer system or network, but others have gateways to other computer
                 systems, enabling users to send electronic mail anywhere in the world. Companies
                 that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast, flexible,
                 and reliable. Most e-mail systems include a rudimentary text editor for composing
                 messages, but many allow you to edit your messages using any editor you want.
                 You then send the message to the recipient by specifying the recipient‘s address.
                 You can also send the same message to several users at once. This is called
                 broadcasting. Sent messages are stored in electronic mailboxes until the recipient
                 fetches them. To see if you have any mail, you may have to check your electronic
                 mailbox periodically, although many systems alert you when mail is received. After
                 reading your mail, you can store it in a text file, forward it to other users, or delete it.
                 Copies of memos can be printed out on a printer if you want a paper copy.
Embezzlement     The illegal taking, misapplying, or misappropriating of money, or other things of
                 value that have been entrusted to his/her care, custody, or control.
                 The misappropriation, or illegal disposal of legally entrusted property, by the
                 person(s) to whom it was entrusted, with intent to defraud the legal owner or
                 intended beneficiary.
Emergency        Those searches conducted by the police without a warrant, that are justified on the
Searches         basis of some immediate and overriding need, such as public safety, the likely
                 escape of a dangerous suspect, or the removal or destruction of evidence.
Encoded Files    Encoding involves changing data from eight-bit to seven-bit to enable it to travel
                 over the SMTP channel, which was historically a seven-bit only channel.
Encryption       Any of the methods used to protect the contents of a message from all but the
                 intended authorized users. Encryption is a program that translates plain text into a
                 code. The reader of an encrypted file must have a key to decrypt the file. The
                 translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to
                 achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret
                 key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text;
                 encrypted data is referred to as cipher text. There are two main types of encryption:
                 asymmetric encryption (also called public-key encryption) and symmetric
                 encryption.
Encryption Key   A secret password or bit string used to control the algorithm governing an encryption
                 process.
End-user         A user who employs computers to support agency activities.
Enterprise       The computer, network, and software architecture for the entire organization. It sets
Architecture     the standard for all connected devices, protocol, data, and software in it.




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Entity              An information-sharing unit. Data model descriptor/category for principal data
                    objects such as people, places, things, and events about which information is
                    collected. They are usually concrete, tangible objects. A particular occurrence of
                    an entity is called an entity occurrence or an entity instance.
                    In the context of a DTD, an entity is a declarative construct defining or referencing
                    text, or a binary file. Entities are defined in the DTD, and referenced elsewhere in
                    the DTD (parameter entity) or in the body of the XML (general entity). A validating
                    parser encountering a reference to a previously defined entity during the validation
                    process will insert the entity‘s value in place of the entity reference. Internal entities
                    are declared in the DTD and may be general or parameter. External entities point to
                    an external file containing the entity declaration via URI reference; they also may be
                    internal or external. A parsed entity is some form of encoded text and is therefore
                    processed by a parser. An unparsed entity is a reference to a binary file that will not
                    be parsed. Unparsed entities are always external. Through entities, DTDs may
                    declare a common construct once, and reuse it many times throughout the DTD or
                    in the instance. A common use for parameter entities is to declare a common set of
                    attributes in the DTD. Assigning the attributes to an element only requires a
                    reference to the parameter entity, versus retyping the entire attribute list many
                    times. A second use retyping the entire attribute list many times. A second use of
                    external unparsed general entities is to make reference to a binary file (such as an
                    image or sound file) within an XML instance.
Entrapment          The deliberate use of apparent security weaknesses with the specific purpose of
                    detecting those who are likely to exploit any genuine weaknesses.
                    An improper or illegal inducement to crime by agents of enforcement. Also, a
                    defense that may be raised when such inducements occur.
Environmental       An emerging perspective that emphasizes the importance of geographic location
Criminology         and architectural features as they are associated with the prevalence of criminal
                    victimization. (Note: as the term has been understood to date, environmental
                    criminology is not the study of environmental crime, but rather a perspective which
                    stresses how crime varies from place to place.)
EPA                 Environmental Protection Agency
EPIC                Evidence Photographers' International Council
                    Electronic Privacy Information Center
                    El Paso Intelligence Center; a DEA-administered, multi-agency law enforcement
                    support activity; located in El Paso, Texas.
Equal Protection This refers to the notion, grounded in the U. S. Constitution, that no person or class
                 of persons be denied the same protection of the laws, which is enjoyed by other
                 persons, or other classes in like circumstances in their lives, liberty, property, and in
                 their pursuit of happiness.
Equity              A sentencing principle, based upon concerns with social equality, which holds that
                    similar crimes should be punished with the same degree of severity, regardless of
                    the social or personal characteristics of offenders.
Espionage           The "gathering, transmitting or losing" of information related to the national defense
                    in such a manner that the information becomes available to enemies of the United
                    States and may be used to their advantage.

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Evacuation       The process of leaving a potentially dangerous area.
Event/Business   Institutional or subject action that triggers the exchange (e.g., arrest, issuance of
Event            warrant, sentencing, correctional discharge, etc.)
Evidence         Anything useful to a judge or jury in deciding the facts of a case. Evidence may take
                 the form of witness testimony, written documents, videotapes, magnetic media,
                 photographs, physical objects, and so on.
Evidence         Tape, labels, containers, and string tags used to identify the evidence, the person
Identifiers      collecting the evidence, the date the evidence was gathered, basic criminal offense
                 information, and a brief description of the pertinent evidence.
Exceptional      Made when an investigation has established an offender, there is enough
Clearance        information to support an arrest charge, and the location of the offender is known,
                 but there is a reason outside police control that prevents arresting, charging and
                 prosecuting the offender.
Exchange Point   An event within a process at which information sharing does, or should, occur;
                 information that is useful to another agency may be collected, or information from
                 another agency may be required, or both.
Exclusionary     The understanding, based on Supreme Court precedent, that incriminating
Rule             information must be seized according to constitutional specifications of due process,
                 or it will not be allowed as evidence in criminal trials.
Excuses          A category of legal defenses in which the defendant claims that some personal
                 condition or circumstance at the time of the act was such that he or she should not
                 be held accountable under the criminal law.
EXE              Executable File. EXE files contain programs that you can run directly.
Expert Systems   Computer hardware and software which attempt to duplicate the decision-making
                 processes used by skilled investigators in the analysis of evidence and in the
                 recognition of patterns that such evidence might represent.
Expert Witness   A person who has special knowledge recognized by the court as relevant to the
                 determination of guilt or innocence. Expert witnesses may express opinions or draw
                 conclusions in their testimony, unlike lay witnesses.
Ex Post Facto    Latin for "after the fact." The Constitution prohibits the enactment of ex post facto
                 laws that make acts punishable as crimes that were committed before the laws in
                 question were passed.
Exposure         The degree of vulnerability to loss resulting from accidental or intentional disclosure,
                 modification, or destruction of information resources.
Expunge          Expunge means to strike, blot out, erase or obliterate. Expungements require a
                 subject to petition the Court to receive an order to remove a specific arrest from the
                 criminal history record.
Extended         A statutorily created category of felony offenders between 14 and 17 years of age,
Juvenile         who may be subject to dual sentencing in the juvenile and adult courts. The juvenile
Jurisdiction     must comply with the juvenile court sentencing conditions. If those conditions are
(EJJ)            not met, the court can invoke the adult sanction.




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eXtensible        eXtensible Markup Language, Like HTML, is a subset of Standard Generalized
Markup            Markup Language, a standard for defining descriptions of structure and content in
Language (XML)    documents. However, where HTML is concerned with the presentation of
                  information on a web page (without context or dynamic behavior), XML provides
                  context and gives meaning to data. See Markup Language, XSL.
Extradition       The surrender by one state to another of an individual accused or convicted of an
                  offense in the second state.
Extranet          A network that links an enterprise to its various divisions and partners, which uses
                  secured Internet links. In this way, it has the advantages of a private network at the
                  cost of a public one. See VPN.
F
FAA               Federal Aviation Administration
FAC               Federal Advisory Committee
FACT              Forum on the Advancement of Court Technology
Factoring         The strength of modern encryption systems often relies on the fact that it is very
                  difficult to factor large numbers.
Fail Safe (fail   The principle that states that in the event of an unexpected failure or shutdown, the
secure)           system should be left in a secure and protected state.
Family Offense    Any non-violent offense by a member of the family that threatens the unity, physical
                  welfare, economic welfare, or morals of members of the family.
FAT               File Allocation Table. A table that the operating system uses to locate files on a
                  disk. Due to fragmentation, a file may be divided into many sections that are
                  scattered around the disk. The FAT keeps track of all these pieces.
Fatal Error       [From the XML 1.0 specification] ―An error that a conforming XML parser must
                  detect and report to the application. After encountering a fatal error, the parser may
                  continue processing the data to search for further errors and may report such errors
                  to the application. In order to support correction of errors, the processor may make
                  unprocessed data from the document (with intermingled character data and markup)
                  available to the application. Once a fatal error is detected, however, the processor
                  must not continue normal processing (i.e., it must not continue to pass character
                  data and information about the document‘s logical structure to the application in the
                  normal way).‖ In other words, upon detecting a fatal error (such as a well-
                  formedness violation), the parser is unable to provide information from the XML
                  document to the calling application such that the application may continue
                  functioning normally.
Fatal Injury      Any injury that results in death.
FAX               Facsimile Transmission Files. Sometimes called ―telecopying,‖ a fax is the
                  telephonic transmission of scanned-in printed material (text or images), usually to a
                  telephone number associated with a printer or other output device. The original
                  document is scanned with a fax machine, which treats the contents (text or images)
                  as a single fixed graphic image, converting it into a bitmap. In this digital form, the
                  information is transmitted as electrical signals through the telephone system. The
                  receiving fax machine reconverts the coded image and prints a paper copy of the
                  document.

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FBI                Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBI Crime Index    Seven offenses chosen to serve as an index for gauging fluctuations in the overall
Offenses           volume and rate of crime. Known jointly as the Crime Index, these offenses include
                   the violent crimes of murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery,
                   aggravated assault, and the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle
                   theft, and arson.
FDA                Food and Drug Administration
FDIN               Federal Drug Interdiction Number; a unique number assigned to a drug seizure.
FDSS               Federal-wide Drug Seizure System; administered by DEA to monitor drug seizures.
FedCIRC            Federal Computer Incident Response Center
Federal Court      The three-tiered structure of federal courts, involving U.S. district courts, U.S. courts
System             of appeal, and the U.S. Supreme Court.
Federal Interest   Those that (1) are the property of the federal government, (2) belong to financial
Computers          institutions, or (3) are located in a state other than the one in which the criminal
                   perpetrator is operating.
Federal Law        FLETC offers basic investigative training to law enforcement officers.
Enforcement
Training Center
(FLETC)
Federal XML        Activities developing XML within the government are required to submit a specially
Registration       formatted package of information to the FXR containing metadata about the
Package            components registered.
Federal XML        The Federal XML Registry provides a baseline set of XML components developed
Registry           through coordination and approval among the federal XML community. The Registry
                   allows you to browse, search, and retrieve data that satisfy your requirements.‖
                   Draft Federal XML policy requires that all activities developing XML register
                   components be developed with the appropriate Federal XML Namespace.
Federal XML        The Federal XML Registry is divided into ―Namespaces‖. A Namespace is a
Registry           collection of people, agencies, activities, and system builders who share an interest
Information        in a particular problem domain or practical application. This implies a common
                   worldview as well as common abstractions, common data representations, and
                   common metadata. The Federal XML Registry allows Namespaces to publish their
                   existence and their available information resources so that outsiders may discover
                   them and assess whether they want to share.‖ Federal XML Registry Information is
                   an extension of the Federal XML
                   Registry concept.
Federal XML        Each Federal XML Namespace has a central activity responsible for it. The
Registry           individual responsible for coordinating and administering the Namespace is the
Information        Registry Information Manager.
Manager




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Federal XML     Each Federal XML Namespace has been assigned a three-letter prefix that may be
Registry        used as XML Namespace qualifiers in XML instances and Schemas.
Information
Prefix
Felony          A criminal offense punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility. The
                most serious category of criminal offenses. With penalties of imprisonment ranging
                from a year and a day to life, or in some states, punishable by death.
FEMA            Federal Emergency Management Agency
Feminist        A developing intellectual approach that emphasizes gender issues in the subject
Criminology     matter of criminology.
FGIPC           Federation of Government Information Processing Councils
FID             Flame Ionization Detector
Filing          The initiation of a criminal case in a court by formal submission to the court of a
                charging document, alleging that one or more named persons have committed one
                or more specified criminal offenses.
FIMA            Federal Insurance & Mitigation Administration
Financial       Protection of financial information was enacted in the Financial Modernization
Modernization   Services Act.
Services Act
FinCEN          Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; a component of the Department of the
                Treasury; located in Vienna, Virginia.
Finding         The determination of fact by a judge.
Fine            The penalty imposed upon a convicted person by a court, requiring that he or she
                pay a specified sum of money to the court. The monetary penalty assessed against
                a defendant in a criminal case.
Finger          A UNIX program that takes an e-mail address as input and returns information about
                the user who owns that e-mail address. On some systems, finger only reports
                whether the user is currently logged on. Other systems return additional information,
                such as the user‘s full name, address, and telephone number. Of course, the user
                must first enter this information into the system. Many e-mail programs now have a
                finger utility built into them.
Firewall        A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network.
                Often used to prevent internet users from accessing private networks connected to
                the Internet. A logical barrier stopping computer users or processes from going
                beyond a certain point in a network unless these users or processes have
                authorization (such as providing a dynamic password). Firewalls can be
                implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are
                frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private
                networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or
                leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and
                blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.




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First             Also called initial appearance. An appearance before a magistrate which entails the
Appearance        process whereby the legality of a defendant's arrest is initially assessed, and he or
                  she is informed of the charges on which he or she is being held. At this stage in the
                  criminal justice process bail may be set or pretrial release arranged.
First             The initial responding law enforcement officer(s) and/or other public safety official(s)
Responder(s)      or service provider(s) arriving at the scene prior to the arrival of the investigator(s) in
                  charge.
FISH              Forensic Information System for Handwriting
FLEOA             Federal Law Enforcement Officers‘ Association
FLETC             Federal Law Enforcement Training Center; a component of the Department of the
                  Treasury; located in Glynco, Georgia. FLETC offers basic investigative training to
                  law enforcement officers.
FOIA              Freedom of Information Act
Forcible Rape     The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. See, also, carnal
(UCR)             knowledge.
Forensic          The application of anthropological principles and techniques in the service of
Anthropology      criminal investigation.
Forensic          That branch of psychiatry having to do with the study of crime and criminality.
Psychiatry
Forfeiture        Also called asset forfeiture. The authorized seizure of money, negotiable
                  instruments, securities, or other things of value. In federal anti-drug laws, the
                  authorization of judicial representatives to seize all moneys, negotiable instruments,
                  securities, or other things of value furnished or intended to be furnished by any
                  person in exchange for a controlled substance, and all proceeds traceable to such
                  an exchange.
Forgery           The creation or alteration of a written or printed document, which if validly executed
                  would constitute a record of a legally binding transaction, with the intent to defraud
                  by affirming it to be the act of an unknowing second person; also the creation of an
                  art object with intent to misrepresent the identity of the creator.
Formatting Data   Metadata that expresses the appearance of data on a page or screen. XSL and
                  CSS style sheets contain formatting data.
FPS               Federal Protective Service
Fraud             The conversion and obtaining of money or property by false pretense.
Fraud Offense     The crime type comprising offenses sharing the elements of practice of deceit or
                  intentional misrepresentation of fact, with the intent of unlawfully depriving a person
                  of his or her property or legal rights.
Front End         The portion of a computer system that is available to users.
Fruit of the      A legal principle that excludes from introduction at trial any evidence eventually
Poisoned Tree     developed as a result of an originally illegal search or seizure.
Doctrine




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Frustration-     Holds that frustration, which is a natural consequence of living, is a root cause of
aggression       crime. Criminal behavior can be a form of adaptation when it results in stress
Theory           reduction.
FSD              Secret Service Forensic Services Division
FTP              File Transfer Protocol. The protocol used on the Internet for sending files.
FTTTF            Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force
Function         A capability of an application program, for example case initiation, meeting
                 notification, decision outcome recording, etc.
Functional       A formal description of a software system that is used as a blueprint for
Specifications   implementation. Specifications should state the purposes of the program, provide
                 implementation details and describe the specific functions of the software from the
                 user‘s perspective.
Future           The study of likely futures as they impinge on crime and its control.
Criminology
FY               Fiscal Year. The Federal fiscal year is 1 October through 30 September.
G
GAC              Global Information Sharing Advisory Committee. The GAC advises the nation's
                 highest-ranking law enforcement officer, the U.S. Attorney General. Advisory body
                 to the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs, and the United States
                 Attorney General, created to support broad-scale exchange of pertinent justice
                 information.
Gambling         Unlawful engaging in playing, operating, or assisting in operating a game of chance
                 for money or some other stake.
Gateway          A hardware and/or software setup that performs translations between disparate
                 protocols.
GCIP             General Counterdrug Intelligence Plan
GC/MS            Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer
General          A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes
Deterrence       similar to the one for which a particular offender is being sentenced by making an
                 example of the person sentenced.
GIF              Graphical Interchange Format. A bit-mapped graphics file format used by the World
                 Wide Web, CompuServe and many BBSs. GIF supports color and various
                 resolutions. It also includes data compression, but because it is limited to 256
                 colors, it is more effective for scanned images such as illustrations rather than color
                 photos.
GIG              Global Information Grid
GIS              Geographic Information System. Organizes large amounts of data into a map to
                 facilitate analysis, decision-making and planning. For criminal justice purposes, a
                 GIS may use or include a CAD system, crime-mapping program, AVL system, and
                 GPS.



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GISWG            Global Infrastructure/ Standards Working Group. The Global Justice Information
                 Sharing Initiative (Global) Infrastructure/ Standards Working Group (GISWG) is
                 implementing a coordination process to identify information sharing standards within
                 the justice community. This effort includes publishing, cataloging, and sharing these
                 standards to promote collaborative efforts and offer blueprints to those beginning
                 the information exchange planning process.
GIWG             Global Intelligence Working Group. The Global Information Sharing Initiative
                 (Global) Intelligence Working Group (GIWG) was formed to serve as the Criminal
                 Intelligence Coordinating Council as described in the ''Criminal Intelligence Sharing:
                  A National Plan for Intelligence-Led Policing at the Local, State, and Federal Levels
                 -- Recommendations from the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)
                 Intelligence Summit.'' Goals of the GIWG include seamless sharing of intelligence
                 information between systems, allowing for access to information throughout the law
                 enforcement and public safety communities; creating an intelligence sharing plan;
                 determining standards for intelligence sharing; developing model policies;
                 determining training need; and creating an outreach effort to inform law enforcement
                 of the result of this effort. Committees have been formed to accomplish these
                 goals.
Global           U. S. Attorney General‘s Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative; Global Justice
                 Information Network; a DOJ automation initiative.
Good Faith       A possible legal basis for an exception to the exclusionary rule. Law enforcement
                 officers who conduct a search, or seize evidence, on the basis of good faith (that is,
                 where they believe they are operating according to the dictates of the law) and who
                 later discover that a mistake was made (perhaps in the format of the application for
                 a search warrant) may still use evidence seized as the result of such activities in
                 court.
Good Time        In correctional usage, the amount of time deducted from time to be served in prison
                 on a given sentence(s) and/or under correctional agency jurisdiction, at some point
                 after a prisoner's admission to prison, contingent upon good behavior and/or
                 awarded automatically by application of a statute or regulation.
Good Times       The result is a flurry of unnecessary email. Even if you receive an e-mail that
(virus hoaxes)   provides accurate information about a genuine new virus threat, you should resist
                 the temptation to forward it to as many people as possible. This creates an Internet
                 chain letter, which does little more than waste bandwidth.
Governance       A model that describes the roles and responsibilities for making decisions
Model            concerning the ongoing management and maintenance of the information
                 integration effort.
GPIQWG           Global Privacy and Information Quality Working Group. The GPIQWG assists
                 government agencies, institutions, and other justice entities in ensuring that
                 personal information is appropriately collected, used, and disseminated within
                 integrated justice information systems. The GPIQWG addresses accuracy and
                 reliability issues involved in updating criminal history records with subsequent
                 events (e.g., prosecution, adjudication) when those events cannot be linked to an
                 arrest notation previously entered into the criminal history repository. This work
                 includes exploring biometric technologies and addressing the privacy and
                 information quality issues these technologies present.


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GPS           Global Positioning System. GPS is a satellite navigation system operated by the
              U.S. Department of Defense. It provides coded satellite signals that can be
              processed by a GPS receiver enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity
              and time.
Grand Jury    A body of persons who have been selected according to law and sworn to hear the
              evidence against accused persons and determine whether there is sufficient
              evidence to bring those persons to trial, to investigate criminal activity generally, and
              to investigate the conduct of public agencies and officials.
Granularity   Granularity is the relative size, scale, level of detail, or depth of penetration that
              characterizes an object or activity. It may help to think of it as: which type of
              ―granule‖ are we looking at? This term is used in astronomy, photography, physics,
              linguistics, and fairly often in information technology. It can refer to the level of a
              hierarchy of objects or actions, to the fineness of detail in a photograph, or to the
              amount of information that is supplied in describing a person‘s age. Its meaning is
              not always immediately clear to those unfamiliar with the context in which it‘s being
              used.




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Graphics      Pertains to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of
              displaying and manipulating pictures. For example, laser printers and plotters are
              graphics devices because they permit the computer to output pictures. A graphics
              monitor is a display monitor that can display pictures. A graphics board (or graphics
              card) is a printed circuit board that, when installed in a computer, permits the
              computer to display pictures. Many software applications include graphics
              components. Such programs are said to support graphics. For example, certain
              word processors support graphics because they let you draw or import pictures. All
              CAD/CAM systems support graphics. Some database management systems and
              spreadsheet programs support graphics because they let you display data in the
              form of graphs and charts. Such applications are often referred to as business
              graphics. The following are also considered graphics applications:

              stored as bitmaps and can easily be edited.

              programs, particularly for drawing curved lines. The images are usually stored in
              vector -based formats. Illustration/design programs are often called draw programs.
              presentation graphics software: Lets you create bar charts, pie charts, graphics, and
              other types of images for slide shows and reports. The charts can be based on data
              imported from spreadsheet applications.
              animation software: Enables you to chain and sequence a series of images to
              simulate movement. Each image is like a frame in a movie.
              CAD (computer aided design) software (different for computer aided dispatch):
              Enables architects and engineers to draft designs.
                                                            -processing features as well as fine
              control over placement of text and graphics, so that you can create newsletters,
              advertisements, books, and other types of documents.
              In general, applications that support graphics require a powerful CPU and a large
              amount of memory. Many graphics applications — for example, computer animation
              systems require more computing power than is available on personal computers
              and will run only on powerful workstations or specially designed graphics
              computers. This is true of all three-dimensional computer graphics applications.
Green - Low   Homeland Security Advisory. This condition is declared when there is a low risk of
Condition     terrorist attacks. Federal departments and agencies should consider the following
              general measures in addition to the agency-specific Protective Measures they
              develop and implement:
              Refining and exercising as appropriate preplanned Protective Measures;
              Ensuring personnel receive proper training on the Homeland Security Advisory
              System and specific preplanned department or agency Protective Measures; and
              Institutionalizing a process to assure that all facilities and regulated sectors are
              regularly assessed for vulnerabilities to terrorist attacks, and all reasonable
              measures are taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities.
Grievance     Formalized arrangements, usually involving a neutral hearing board, whereby
Procedure     institutionalized individuals have the opportunity to register complaints about the
              conditions of their confinement.

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Groupware        A collection of technologies that allows the representation of complex processes
                 that center around collaborative human activities. It is a model for client/server
                 computing based on five foundation technologies: multimedia document
                 management, workflow, e-mail, conferencing and scheduling.
GS               Government Service
GSWG             Global Security Working Group. The Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative
                 (Global) Security Working Group pursues security measures necessary for today's
                 enhanced information sharing abilities. Of particular importance is determining
                 effective security standards for legacy networks/systems, as well as the new and
                 enhanced networks and systems to which they are joined.
GTRI             Georgia Tech Research Institute
Guardian Ad      A person appointed by the juvenile court to represent the best interests of a child in
Litem            a court proceeding.
GUI              Graphical User Interface. Often pronounced ―gooey‖. A program interface that
                 uses a computer‘s graphic systems to make a program more user friendly. A GUI
                 may include standard formats for representing text and graphics which makes it
                 easier to share data between programs running on the same GUI.
Guilty Plea      A defendant's formal answer in court to the charge(s) contained in a complaint,
                 information, or indictment, claiming that he or she did commit the offense(s) listed.
Guilty Verdict   See Verdict.
H
Habeas Corpus    See Writ of Habeas Corpus.
Habitual         A person sentenced under the provisions of a statute declaring that persons
Offender         convicted of a given offense, and shown to have previously been convicted of
                 another specified offense(s), shall receive a more severe penalty than that for the
                 current offense alone.
Hacker           A slang term for a computer enthusiast, i.e., a person who enjoys learning
                 programming languages and computer systems and can often be considered an
                 expert on the subject(s). Among professional programmers, depending on how it
                 used, the term can be either complimentary or derogatory, although it is developing
                 an increasingly derogatory connotation. The pejorative sense of hacker is becoming
                 more prominent largely because the popular press has co-opted the term to refer to
                 individuals who gain unauthorized access to computer systems for the purpose of
                 stealing and corrupting data. Hackers, themselves, maintain that the proper term for
                 such individuals is cracker. See Cracker.
                 Computer hobbyists or professionals, generally with advanced programming skills.
                 Today the term "hacker" has taken on a sinister connotation, and includes those
                 hobbyists who are bent on illegally accessing the computers of others, or who
                 attempt to demonstrate their technological prowess through computerized acts of
                 vandalism.




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Hands-off       An historical policy of nonintervention with regard to prison management that
Doctrine        American courts tended to follow until the late 1960s. For the past 20 years, the
                doctrine has languished as judicial intervention in prison administration has
                dramatically increased, although there is now growing evidence of a return to a new
                hands-off doctrine.
Hardware        Objects such as a computer, screen, keyboard, disk and printer that are used to
                store and run software.
Hashing         Producing hash values for accessing data or for security. A hash value (or simply
                hash) is a number generated from a string of text. The hash is substantially smaller
                than the text itself, and is generated by a formula in such a way that it is extremely
                unlikely that some other text will produce the same hash value.
Hate Crimes     Criminal offenses in which the defendant's conduct was motivated by hatred, bias,
                or prejudice, based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin,
                ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals.
HAZCAT          Hazard Categorizing
HAZM AT         Hazardous Materials
Hearing         A proceeding in which arguments, witnesses, or evidence are heard by a judicial
                officer or administrative body.
Hearsay         Something that is not based upon the personal knowledge of a witness. Witnesses
                who testify, for example, about something they have heard, are offering hearsay by
                repeating information abut a matter of which they have no direct knowledge.
Hearsay Rule    The long-standing American courtroom precedent that hearsay cannot be used in
                court. Rather than accepting testimony based upon hearsay, the American trial
                process asks that the person who was the original source of the hearsay information
                be brought into court to be questioned and cross-examined. Exceptions to the
                hearsay rule may occur when the person with direct knowledge is dead or is
                otherwise unable to testify.
HEPA            High Efficiency Particulate Air
Heterogeneity   A typical enterprise information system today includes many types of computer
                technology, from PCs to mainframes. These include a wide variety of different
                operating systems, application software and in-house developed applications. EAI
                solves the complex problem of making a heterogeneous infrastructure more
                coherent.
Heuristic       The ability of a virus scanner to identify a potential virus by analyzing the behavior
Analysis        of the program, rather than looking for a known virus signature.
HHS             Health and Human Services
Hidden Data     Many computer systems include an option to protect information from the casual
                user by hiding it. A cursory examination may not display hidden files, directories, or
                partitions to the untrained viewer. A forensic examination will document the
                presence of this type of information.




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Hidden File        A file with a special hidden attribute turned on, so that the file is not normally visible
                   to users. For example, hidden files are not listed when you execute the DOS DIR
                   command. However, most file management utilities allow you to view hidden files.
                   DOS hides some files, such as MSDOS.SYS and IO.SYS, so that you will not
                   accidentally corrupt them. You can also turn on the hidden attribute for any normal
                   file, thereby making it invisible to casual snoopers. On a Macintosh, you can hide
                   files with the ResEdit utility.
HIDTA              High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area; an ONDCP-designated area.
Hierarchy Rule     A standard UCR scoring practice in which only the most serious offense is counted
                   in a multiple-offense situation.
HIFCA              High-Risk Money-Laundering and Related Financial Crimes Area; identified in the
                   1999 Money Laundering Strategy.
High-              Violations of the criminal law whose commission depends upon, makes use of, and
Technology         often targets, sophisticated and advanced technology. See also cyber crime and
Crime              computer crime.
Hijacking          Hijacking is a type of network security attack in which the attacker takes control of a
(network           communication - just as an airplane hijacker takes control of a flight - between two
security attack)   entities and masquerades as one of them. In one type of hijacking (also known as a
                   man in the middle attack), the perpetrator takes control of an established connection
                   while it is in progress. The attacker intercepts messages in a public key exchange
                   and then retransmits them, substituting their own public key for the requested one,
                   so that the two original parties still appear to be communicating with each other
                   directly. The attacker uses a program that appears to be the server to the client and
                   appears to be the client to the server. This attack may be used simply to gain
                   access to the messages, or to enable the attacker to modify them before
                   retransmitting them.
HIPAA              Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Enacted to regulate information
                   sharing in health field.
History            In a web browser, the history is a detailed list of web sites the computer has visited
                   which remains in a computer‘s memory for a pre-determined number of days. (The
                   number of days the computer retains its history can be set in the browser‘s
                   preferences.) History can be used to backtrack where you have gone on the web;
                   the list of web sites in a browser‘s history can be viewed by date, time of day, title,
                   address (URL), alphabetical order, or number of repeat visits. Many parent groups
                   advocate checking the history of a family computer to monitor where children have
                   gone online. Internet Explorer history can be viewed by clicking on the History icon
                   (which resembles a sun dial) in the browser toolbar. Netscape history can be viewed
                   by clicking on the word ―Communicator‖ followed by ―Tools‖ and then ―History‖.
HMEP               Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness
HMR                Hazardous Materials Regulations
Home               House arrest. Individuals ordered confined in their homes are sometimes monitored
Confinement        electronically to be sure they do not leave during the hours of confinement (absence
                   from the home during working hours is often permitted).




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Home            The electronic supervision of pre-trial detainees and convicted subjects in their
Monitoring      homes, rather than in the Adult Detention Center (ADC) or the Adult Corrections
Program         Facility (ACF).
Homicide        The killing of one human by another. The criminal code provides for murder in the
                first, second and third degrees as well as manslaughter and criminal vehicular
                homicide. M.S. chapter 609.
Host Computer   A system that provides a service or application that users access through a network
                connection. Historically the term has been used to refer to large mainframe
                computers. In this document, the term includes computers of any size and servers in
                client-server environments.
HRU             Hearings and Release Unit – A special unit in the Department of Corrections that
                evaluates a subject‘s behavior and recommends restructuring of release dates and
                terms.
HTCIA           High Technology Crime Investigation Association
HTML            Hypertext Markup Language is the set of markup symbols inserted in a file intended
                for display on a World Wide Web browser. The markup instructs the Web browser
                how to display a Web page. The authoring language used to create documents on
                the World Wide Web. See Markup Language.
HTTP            Hypertext Transmission Protocol is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide
                Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions
                Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For
                example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP
                command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web
                page. See Transmission Protocols.
Hung Jury       A jury that after long deliberation is so irreconcilably divided in opinion that it is
                unable to reach any verdict.
Hypothesis      An explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further
                investigation.
                Something that is taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation.
I
IAAI            International Association of Arson Investigators
IABTI           International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators
IACP            International Association of Chiefs of Police
IAEA            International Atomic Energy Agency
IAFIS           Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. This is a new (July 1999)
                national on-line fingerprint and criminal history database run by the FBI. Criminal
                justice agencies that submit urgent electronic requests for identification will receive
                a response within two hours.
IAI             International Association for Identification
IAWP            International Association of Women Police



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IBIS             Integrated Biometric Identification System. The mobile identification system is a
                 Pocket PC based hand held unit that scans index finger prints and wirelessly
                 communicates with the BCA. Searches are performed against existing fingerprint
                 records, and matching is done automatically by computer systems. Identification
                 results are returned to the IBIS device in three minutes or less. IBIS scans
                 fingerprints for identification only and does not store them. IBIS can also take a
                 small picture of the subject.
IC               Intelligence Community; a term that includes: CIA, DIA, the National Security
                 Agency (NSA), the offices within DoD for the collection of specialized national
                 foreign intelligence, the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of
                 State, the intelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, the
                 FBI, the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Energy, and the Staff
                 elements of the Director of Central Intelligence.
ICCA             International Community Corrections Association
ICJIS            Integrated Criminal Justice Information System
ICMA             International City/County Management Association
ICON             Intelligence Community Collaborative Operations Network; an Intelligence
                 Community automation imitative.
ICSIA            International Crime Scene Investigators Association
IDE              Identity File. These are add-on files for Sophos Anti-Virus® which allow the product
                 to be updated quickly to detect and disinfect new viruses.
IDEA             IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption algorithm developed
                 at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. It uses a block cipher with a 128-bit key, and is
                 generally considered to be very secure. It is considered among the best publicly
                 known algorithms. In the several years that it has been in use, no practical attacks
                 on it have been published despite of a number of attempts to find some. IDEA is
                 patented in the United States and in most of the European countries. The patent is
                 held by Ascom-Tech. Non-commercial use of IDEA is free. Commercial licenses
                 can be obtained by contacting AscomTech.
Identity Theft   Enacted to deal with the relatively new crime of identity theft.
Act
IDIS             Interim Distributed Imaging System. Web-based fingerprint card scanning process
                 that complies with established standards for electronic fingerprint and demographic
                 information interchange with the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint
                 Identification System (IAFIS).
IETF             Internet Engineering Task Force. See Standards Organizations.
IHIA             International Homicide Investigators Association
III              Interstate Identification Index. Run by the FBI, this system as part of IAFIS,
                 contains criminal history records for almost 30 million offenders and can be queried
                 using a name, birth date and other information.




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IIOP               Internet Inter-ORB Protocol—a standard that ensures interoperability for objects in a
                   multi-vendor ORB environment.
                   Internet Inter-Orb Protocol. A TCP/IP based protocol that facilitates communication
                   between CORBA ORBs. Via IIOP, CORBA client objects at one location on the
                   Internet can communicate with CORBA server objects at another node and vice
                   versa.
IIPO               Information Integration Program Office
IIR                Institute for Intergovernmental Research
IJIS               Integrated Justice Information Systems
IJIS Institute     Integrated Justice Information Systems Institute
IJIS IWG           Integrated Justice Information Systems (IJIS) Industry Working Group (IWG)
ILJ                Institute for Law and Justice
Illegal Search     An act in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution: "The right of
and Seizure        people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against
                   unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall
                   issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly
                   describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized."
Illegally Seized   Evidence seized in opposition to the principles of due process as described by the
Evidence           Bill of Rights. Most illegally seized evidence is the result of police searches
                   conducted without a proper warrant, or of improperly conducted interrogations.
Image              Image compression is minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file without
Compression        degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level. The reduction in file
                   size allows more images to be stored in a given amount of disk or memory space. It
                   also reduces the time required for images to be sent over the Internet or
                   downloaded from Web pages.
Image              In computer graphics, the process of improving the quality of a digitally stored image
Enhancement        by manipulating the image with software. It is quite easy, for example, to make an
                   image lighter or darker, or to increase or decrease contrast. Advanced image
                   enhancement software also supports many filters for altering images in various
                   ways. Programs specialized for image enhancement are sometimes called image
                   editors.
Image              Analyzing and manipulating images with a computer. Image processing generally
Processing         involves three steps:
                   1. Import an image with an optical scanner or directly through digital photography.
                   2. Manipulate or analyze the image in some way. This stage can include image
                   enhancement and data compression, or the image may be analyzed to find patterns
                   that are not visible (to) the human eye. For example, meteorologists use image
                   processing to analyze satellite photographs.
                   3. Output the result. The result might be the image altered in some way or it might
                   be a report based on analysis of the image.
IMDG Code          International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code



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Immunity           Freedom from, or protection against, penalty. For example, an accused person may
                   agree to give testimony in return for immunity from the prosecution.
Impression         Objects or materials that have retained the characteristics of other objects that have
Evidence           been physically pressed against them.
Imprisonment       The placement of an individual in a jail or prison.
IMS                Incident Management System
IMWS               Integration Middleware and Web Services. A web-based solution that provides an
                   integrated criminal and juvenile justice system that exists within an extranet.
INA                Immigration and Nationality Act
Incapacitation     The use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an offender
                   will be capable of committing future offenses.
Incapacitating     Any injury other than fatal that prevents normal activities and generally requires
Injury             hospitalization.
Inchoate Offense One not yet completed. Also, an offense consisting of an action or conduct that is a
                 step toward the intended commission of another offense.
Incident           Reported activity, which potentially involves law breaking, and which will be
                   processed as a criminal action.
Incident-Based     A less restrictive and more expansive method of collecting crime data (as opposed
Reporting          to summary reporting) in which all the analytical elements associated with an
                   offense or arrest are compiled by a central collection agency on an incident-by-
                   incident basis.
Incident           This is one of the integration backbone entities, which will provide the referencing
Integration        and indexing information for incidents that have occurred statewide. The incident
Information        integration information works as an umbrella structure containing information about
                   all of the individuals involved in an incident (with their roles), and all of the offenses
                   identified for each of the individuals who has a role of subject.
Incident           Includes emergency response functions and law enforcement functions that capture
Reporting          information about reported and observed crime, and support the operational needs
                   of a law enforcement officer in the field.
Included Offense An offense that is made up of elements that are a subset of the elements of another
                 offense having a greater statutory penalty, and the occurrence of which is
                 established by the same evidence or by some portion of the evidence that has been
                 offered to establish the occurrence of the greater offense.
Incompetent to     In criminal proceedings, the finding by a court that a defendant is mentally incapable
Stand Trial        of understanding the nature of the charges and proceedings against him or her, of
                   consulting with an attorney, and of aiding in his or her own defense.
Indeterminate      A type of sentence to imprisonment where the commitment, instead of being for a
Sentence           specified single time quantity, such as three years, is for a range of time, such as
                   two to five years or five years maximum and zero minimum.
Indeterminate      A model of criminal punishment that encourages rehabilitation via the use of general
Sentencing         and relatively unspecific sentences (such as a term of imprisonment of "from one to
                   ten years").

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Index Crimes        Because of their seriousness and frequency of occurrence, eight offenses (murder,
                    rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson)
                    are designated as Index Crimes. They serve as indicators of the nation‘s crime
                    experience. See Crime Index.
Indictment          A written accusation charging that a person has committed a crime.
                    A formal, written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury, alleging that a
                    specified person(s) has committed a specified offense(s), usually a felony.
Individual          A legal entity, which is of interest to, or is involved in the criminal justice system. An
                    individual may be either a single person or a group, which is considered singly; for
                    example, an offender, a victim, a business or a religious organization. An individual
                    is most strongly typed as an alleged offender, and much of the elemental
                    description is associated with this role.
Individual          One of the integration backbone entities, which will provide the unique identifier for
Integration         a person statewide. The identification may be based on biometric data, or may be
Information         based on name/date of birth/etc. data. The unique identifier, which is assigned
                    within the individual integration information, is then used within the incident
                    integration information and the case integration information to associate the correct
                    individual to the incident and case.
Individual Rights Those rights guaranteed to all members of our society by the U.S. Constitution
                  (especially as found in the first ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the
                  Bill of Rights). These rights are especially relevant to criminal defendants facing
                  formal processing by the criminal justice system.
Information         See Data. Data and information are sometimes used interchangeably, if that can be
                    done without affecting clarity.
                    In criminal justice usage, a formal written accusation submitted to the court by a
                    prosecutor, alleging that a specified person(s) has committed a specified offense(s).
Information         See Architecture.
Architecture
Information         Refers to the privacy of one‘s personal information. See Personal Information.
Privacy
Information         The procedures, equipment, facilities, software and data that are designed, built,
Resources           operated and maintained to collect, record, process, store, retrieve, display and
                    transmit information.
Information         Computer hardware, software, and personnel directed toward the collection,
System              organization, and dissemination of information.
Informed            An ethical requirement of social scientific research which specifies that research
Consent             subjects will be informed as to the nature of the research about to be conducted,
                    their anticipated role in it, and the uses to which the data they provide will be put.
Infraction          An offense punishable by a fine or other penalty, but not by incarceration.
                    A minor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other
                    penalty, but not by incarceration, or by a specified, usually limited term of
                    incarceration.



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Initial            In criminal proceedings, the first appearance of an accused person in the first court
Appearance         having jurisdiction over his or her case. See also first appearance.
Initial Plea       Also called first plea. The first plea to a given charge entered in the court record by
                   or for the defendant. The acceptance of an initial plea by the court unambiguously
                   indicates that the arraignment process has been completed.
Initial            The first law enforcement officer(s) to arrive at the scene.
Responding
Officer(s)
Injunction         An order by the court issued to prohibit certain future conduct.
Innocence          The Innocence Project provides pro bono legal assistance to inmates who are
Project            challenging their convictions based on DNA testing of evidence, though clients must
                   obtain finding for testing.
INS                Immigration and Naturalization Service, Department of Justice.
Insanity           The inability to know what one is doing, and to decide if the action is right or wrong.
Insanity Defense A defense that claims that the person charged with a crime did not know what they
                 were doing, or that they did not know that what they were doing was wrong.
Institutional      An officially stated number of inmates that a confinement or residential facility is or
Capacity           was intended to house.
Intake             The step in juvenile process during which a decision is made either to detain the
                   juvenile at a detention center, or to release to the parents.
                   The process by which a juvenile referral is received by personnel of a probation
                   agency, juvenile court, or special intake unit and a decision made to close the case
                   at intake, or refer the juvenile to another agency, or place him or her under some
                   kind of care or supervision, or file a petition in a juvenile court.
Integration        Within the context of this report, the integration backbone refers to the logical
Backbone           entities that provide for the referencing and indexing structure that allows
                   information to be shared between agencies. Those entities are: the incident
                   integration information, the individual integration information, and the case
                   integration information.
Integration        A system for applications that includes a message transport, rules engine and
Broker             formatting engine.
Integrity          In a client/server environment, integrity means that the server code and server data
                   are centrally maintained, and therefore secure and reliable.




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Intelligence      Generically the term refers to information related to subjects of interest to a
                  government agency. When used to refer to either Intelligence Community or law
                  enforcement community intelligence, the context in which it is used is critical to its
                  intended meaning, as each community uses the same word to mean different
                  things.
                  Intelligence Community ―intelligence‖ is information resulting specifically from
                  Intelligence Community collections actions and relating to the capabilities,
                  intentions, and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons (Executive
                  order 12333).
                  Law enforcement ―intelligence‖, also referred to as investigative information, is
                  sensitive information that is part of a law enforcement inquiry, matter, or case,
                  usually developed as a byproduct of law enforcement investigative and interdiction
                  efforts and subject to being divulged, as required, to support the arrest and
                  prosecution of the subject(s) of the investigation.
Intensive         A form of probation supervision involving frequent face-to-face contacts between the
Supervision       probationary client and probation officers.
Intent            The state of mind or attitude with which an act is carried out; the design, resolve, or
                  determination with which a person acts to achieve a certain result.
Interdiction      The interception of drug traffic at the nation's borders. Interdiction is one of the
                  many strategies used to stem the flow of illegal drugs into the United States.
Interface         1. A program or device, which connects programs and/or devices.
                  2. The process by which a software application interacts with other software or
                  users. In object-oriented programming an (software) ―object‘s‖ interface is often
                  described separately from the internal logic in a process know as ―encapsulation‖.
                  Essentially the interface encapsulates and hides the internal logic. This allows
                  flexibility to change and improve object code without affecting other objects. An
                  interface description is made public so other objects/applications know how to
                  interact. Software is said to ―implement‖ an interface if it conforms to the behavior as
                  defined in an interface description. The Object Management Group (OMG) has
                  defined a formal syntax (language) for defining interfaces in a programming
                  language neutral fashion. This is called the OMG Interface Description Language
                  (OMG IDL). This IDL is used to define interface specifications such as the DOM API
                  and CORBA. For developers implementing public XML interfaces, it is a good idea
                  to document exactly how other applications connect, query, and receive (i.e. bind to)
                  your application. While it is not necessary to go to the trouble of writing a formal IDL
                  interface description, some kind of formal document will greatly aid other
                  applications desiring to share data.
Interim           Web-based fingerprint card scanning process that complies with established
Distributed       standards for electronic fingerprint and demographic information interchange with
Imaging Syste m   the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS).
(IDIS)
Intermediate      An appellate court of which the primary function is to review the judgments of trial
Appellate Court   courts and the decisions of administrative agencies, and whose decisions are in turn
                  usually reviewable by a higher appellate court in the same state.



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Intermediate        Also called alternative sanction.
Sanction
                    A sanction that is less severe than straight incarceration, yet more stringent than
                    straight probation. Fines, community work service, electronic monitoring, etc. are all
                    intermediate sanctions.
                    The use of split sentencing, shock probation and parole, home confinement, shock
                    incarceration, and community service in lieu of other, more traditional, sanctions
                    such as imprisonment and fines. Intermediate sanctions are becoming increasingly
                    popular as prison crowding grows.
Internet            A decentralized global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100
                    countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. Unlike online
                    services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design.
                    Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose
                    which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the
                    global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly
                    well.
INTERPOL            An acronym for the International Police Association. INTERPOL began operations in
                    1946, and today has 137 members.
Interrogation       The information gathering activities of police officers that involve the direct
                    questioning of suspects. The actions of officers during suspect interrogation are
                    constrained by a number of Supreme Court decisions, the first of which was Brown
                    v. Mississippi (1936).
Interstate          Also referred to as Triple I or III; name based system.
Identification
Index
Interstate          When a subject is sentenced and is serving probation in one state, the probation
Transfer            carries to another state if the subject moves.
In the Wild         According to noted computer virus expert Paul Ducklin, in order for a virus to be
                    considered in the wild, ―it must be spreading as a result of normal day-to-day
                    operations on and between the computers of unsuspecting users.‖ Although there
                    are an estimated 47,000 computer viruses, fewer than 600 are said to be circulating
                    outside of laboratories and research facilities - hence, in the wild. Experts say these
                    wild viruses pose the most significant threat to computers. Wild viruses typically
                    contain a damaging payload and the ability to wipe out all computer files, sometimes
                    even damaging a computer‘s BIOS.
Intimidation        To discourage, inhibit, or frighten by threats.
Intranet            A secure private network, which uses TCP/IP protocols.
Invasive            An implementation approach that requires changes or additions to existing
Integration         applications. Opposite of non-invasive integration.
Investigation       Includes the process of investigating reported and observed crime, along with
                    handling all of the supporting evidence and crime-related property.
Investigator(s) in The official(s) responsible for the crime scene investigation.
Charge



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IP                 Internet Protocol. IP specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the
                   addressing scheme. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called
                   Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection
                   between a destination and a source. IP by itself is something like the postal system.
                   It allows you to address a package and drop it in the system, but there is no direct
                   link between you and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a
                   connection between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a
                   period of time. See Transmission Protocols.
IP Address         An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the
                   TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The
                   format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers
                   separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 1.160.10.240
                   could be an IP address.
IPB                Intelligence Priorities Board; previously provided intelligence production prioritization
                   to the National Drug Intelligence Center.
IPD-CMM            Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model
IPSEC              Internet Protocol Security standards.
IPTM               Institute of Police Technology and Management
IRC                Internet Relay Chat. A chat system developed by Jarkko Oikarinen in Finland in the
                   late 1980s. IRC has become very popular as more people get connected to the
                   Internet because it enables people connected anywhere on the Internet to join in
                   live discussions. Unlike older chat systems, IRC is not limited to just two
                   participants.
Irrelevant Facts   Evidence that does not tend to prove or disprove any issue of fact involved in a
                   case.
IRS                Internal Revenue Service, Department of Treasury
ISAC               NCC Information Sharing and Analysis Center
ISDN               Integrated Services Digital Network. A high-speed digital telephone line for high-
                   speed network communications.
ISN                Information Systems Network
ISO                International Standards Organization. See Standards Organizations.
ISO 11179          Information Technology - Specification and Standardization of Data Elements is a 6-
                   part ISO standard providing a framework and methodologies for developing,
                   documenting, and registering standard data elements. Of interest to XML
                   developers is Part 5: Naming And Identification Principles For Data Elements upon
                   which the ebXML naming convention is based. The specifications are available from
                   the ISO Store under section 35.040 - Character Sets And Information Coding for a
                   small fee.
ISO 8859-1         International standard for an 8-bit character set. The first 128 characters (7 bits) are
                   the same as ANSI/ASCII codes.
Isolated           A computer which is not connected to a network or any other computer; a stand-
Computer           alone personal computer is an example.


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ISP                Internet Service Provider. An organization that provides access to the Internet.
                   Small Internet service providers provide service via modem and ISDN, while the
                   larger ones also offer private line hookups (e.g., T1, fractional T1).
ISPV               Institute for the Study and Prevention of Violence
IT                 Information Technology
ITA                Information Technology Architecture
ITDS               International Trade Data System
IT FORUM           Information Technology Forum
ITI                International-to-International transit program
IT-ISAC            Information Technology - Information Sharing and Analysis Center
IWG                Industry Working Group
J
JAG                Justice Assistance Grant
JAIBG              Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grant
Jail               A confinement facility administered by an agency of local government, typically a
                   law enforcement agency, intended for adults but sometimes also containing
                   juveniles, which hold persons detained pending adjudication and/or persons
                   committed after adjudication, usually those committed on sentences of a year or
                   less.
Jail Commitment A sentence of commitment to the jurisdiction of a confinement facility system for
                adults which is administered by an agency of local government and of which the
                custodial authority is usually limited to persons sentenced to a year or less of
                confinement.
Jail Management A software application specifically designed to electronically record information
System (JMS)    critical to effectively operating a prison, jail or holding facility.
Java               A high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java was
                   originally called OAK, and was designed for handheld devices and set-top boxes.
                   Oak was unsuccessful so in 1995 Sun changed the name to Java and modified the
                   language to take advantage of the burgeoning World Wide Web. Java is an object-
                   oriented language similar to C++, but simplified to eliminate language features that
                   cause common programming errors.
JavaScript         A scripting language developed by Netscape to enable Web authors to design
                   interactive sites. Although it shares many of the features and structures of the full
                   Java language, it was developed independently. JavaScript can interact with HTML
                   source code, enabling Web authors to spice up their sites with dynamic content.
                   JavaScript is endorsed by a number of software companies and is an open
                   language that anyone can use without purchasing a license. Recent browsers from
                   Netscape and Microsoft support it, though Internet Explorer supports only a subset,
                   which Microsoft calls Jscript.
Java Stripping     The process of removing Java tags from HTML pages during download in order to
                   prevent the Java code from executing on the client machine.


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Jaz®               A high-capacity removable hard disk system.
JEDDI              Judicial Electronic Document and Data Interchange
JETWAY             An EPIC-based domestic drug interdiction training program.
JIATF-E            Joint Interagency Task Force-East; a military and law enforcement operational
                   coordination activity in Key West, Florida
JIATF-W            Joint Interagency Task Force-West; a military and law enforcement operational
                   coordination activity in Alameda, California.
JIC                Joint Information Center
JICC               Joint Information Coordination Center; an EPIC-based initiative designed to
                   consolidate information on suspect aircraft and maritime craft.
JICLE              Joint Intelligence Community/Law Enforcement working group; legal policy
                   guidelines and procedures approved in 1997 by the DCI and the Department of
                   Justice regarding coordination between the intelligence and law enforcement
                   communities.
JIEM               Justice Information Exchange Model
JISP               Justice Information Sharing Professionals
JMS                Jail Management System. A software application specifically designed to
                   electronically record information critical to effectively operating a prison, jail or
                   holding facility.
JPEG               Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG is a lossy compression technique for
                   color images. Although it can reduce files‘ sizes to about 5% of their normal size,
                   some detail is lost in the compression.
JPEG 2000          An image compression process currently under development.
JRSA               Justice Research and Statistics Association
JSC or             DOJ OJP Justice Standards Clearinghouse for Information Sharing
Clearinghouse
JTC                Justice Training Center, Quantico, Virginia.
JTTF               Joint Terrorism Task Force
J2EE               The Java 2 platform, Enterprise Edition
Judge              An elected or appointed public official who presides over a court of law, and who is
                   authorized to hear and sometimes to decide cases, and to conduct trials.
Judgment           The official decision of the court.
                   The statement of the decision of a court, that the defendant is acquitted or convicted
                   of the offense(s) charged.
Judgment           A court-ordered sentencing alternative that results in the convicted offender being
Suspending         placed on probation.
Sentence
Judicial Officer   Any person authorized by statute, constitutional provision, or court rule to exercise
                   those powers reserved to the judicial branch of government.

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Judicial Review    The power of a court to review actions and decisions made by other agencies of
                   government.
Jural Postulates   Propositions developed by the famous jurist Roscoe Pound that hold that the law
                   reflects shared needs without which members of society could not co-exist. Pound's
                   jural postulates are often linked to the idea that the law can be used to engineer the
                   social structure to ensure certain kinds of outcomes (such as property rights as
                   embodied in the law of theft do in capitalistic societies).
Jurisdiction       The geographical range of authority.
                   The territory, subject matter, or persons over which lawful authority may be
                   exercised by a court or other justice agency, as determined by statute or
                   constitution. See also Venue.
Jurisprudence      The philosophy of law; the science and study of the law.
Juror              A member of a trial or grand jury, selected for jury duty, and required to serve as an
                   arbiter of the facts in a court of law.
Jury               A group of citizens that decides the outcome of a civil case, or decides whether the
                   defendant is guilty or not guilty in a criminal case. In a felony case, the jury will
                   consist of 12 persons. In a misdemeanor or civil case, the jury consists of 6
                   persons. In a criminal case, the jury must reach a unanimous verdict.
Just Desserts      As a model of criminal sentencing, one that holds that criminal offenders deserve
                   the punishment they receive at the hands of the law, and that punishments should
                   be appropriate to the type and severity of crime committed.
Justice            The principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity.
Justice            Resource that was specifically compiled in 2002 to help justice administrators
Information        balance public safety, public access, and privacy in their information sharing
Privacy            systems.
Guideline
Justice Model      A contemporary model of imprisonment in which the principle of just deserts forms
                   the underlying social philosophy.
JusticeXML         The Justice Extensible Markup Language (XML) produces standards to facilitate
                   information sharing and technology integration in the justice and public safety
                   communities.
Justifications     A category of legal defenses in which the defendant admits committing the act in
                   question, but claims it was necessary in order to avoid some greater evil.
JUSTNET            Justice Technology Information Network
Juvenile           In the context of the administration of justice, a person subject to juvenile court
                   proceedings because a statutorily defined event or condition caused by or affecting
                   that person was alleged to have occurred while his or her age was below the
                   statutorily specified age limit of original jurisdiction of a juvenile court.




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Juvenile Court      The court which handles criminal and some civil proceedings against human beings
                    under the age of 18, who are alleged to be delinquent, neglected, dependent, or
                    traffic offenders; the juvenile court is a subdivision of the district court.
                    The name for the class of courts that have, as all or part of their authority, original
                    jurisdiction over matters concerning persons statutorily defined as juveniles.
Juvenile Court      The juvenile court decision terminating an adjudicatory hearing, that the juvenile is a
Judgment            delinquent, status offender, or dependent, or that the allegations in the petition are
                    not sustained.
Juvenile            A county or groups of counties operating a secure juvenile detention center are
Detention           eligible to receive a subsidy from the state of up to $1,200 per year for each secure
Subsidy             bed. These funds must be expended for alternative juvenile detention programs.
Juvenile            The decision of a juvenile court, concluding a disposition hearing, that an
Disposition         adjudicated juvenile be committed to a juvenile correctional facility, or placed in a
                    juvenile residence, shelter, or care or treatment program, or required to meet certain
                    standards of conduct, or released.
Juvenile Justice    A government agency, or subunit thereof, of which the functions are the
Agency              investigation, supervision, adjudication, care, or confinement of juvenile offenders
                    and non-offenders subject to the jurisdiction of a juvenile court; also, in some
                    usages, a private agency providing care and treatment.
Juvenile Justice    Government agencies that function to investigate, supervise, adjudicate, care for, or
System              confine youthful offenders and other children subject to the jurisdiction of the
                    juvenile court.
Juvenile Petition A document filed in juvenile court alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent, a status
                  offender, or a dependent, and asking that the court assume jurisdiction over the
                  juvenile, or asking that an alleged delinquent be transferred to a criminal court for
                  prosecution as an adult.
JWICS               Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System; a DoD-managed secure
                    telecommunications network.
JXDD                Justice XML Data Dictionary
K
Kerberos            An authentication system developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
                    (MIT). Kerberos is designed to enable two parties to exchange private information
                    across an otherwise open network. It works by assigning a unique key, called a
                    ticket, to each user that logs on to the network. The ticket is then embedded in
                    messages to identify the sender of the message.
Kermit              A communications protocol and set of associated software utilities developed at
                    Columbia University. Kermit can be used to transfer files or for terminal emulation. It
                    is frequently used with modem connections, although it also supports
                    communications via other transport mechanisms such as TCP/IP.
Kidnapping          Transportation or confinement of a person without authority of law and without his or
                    her consent, or without the consent of his or her guardian, if a minor.
Known               See Comparison Samples.
L

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LAN             Local Area Network. Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers.
                Each node (individual computer) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes
                programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This
                means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well
                as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-
                mail or engaging in chat sessions.
Laptop          A computer that has capabilities beyond that of the Mobile Data Computer (MDC).
                It may contain report writing and accident reconstruction programs.
Larceny         Unlawful taking or attempted taking of property other than a motor vehicle from the
                possession of another, by stealth, without force and without deceit, with intent to
                deprive the owner of the property permanently.
Larceny-theft   Unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away by stealth of property, other than a
(UCR)           motor vehicle from the possession or constructive possession of another, including
                attempts.
Latent          Present, although not visible, but capable of becoming visible.
Latent Print    A print impression not readily visible, made by contact of the hands or feet with a
                surface resulting in the transfer of materials from the skin to that surface.
Law             A rule of conduct, generally found enacted in the form of a statute, which proscribes
                and/or mandates certain forms of behavior. Statutory law is often the result of moral
                enterprise by interest groups that, through the exercise of political power, are
                successful in seeing their valuative perspectives enacted into law.
Law             The generic name for the activities of the agencies responsible for maintaining
Enforcement     public order and enforcing the law, particularly the activities of prevention, detection,
                and investigation of crime and the apprehension of criminals.
Law             A federal, state, or local criminal justice agency or identifiable subunit of which the
Enforcement     principal functions are the prevention, detection, and investigation of crime, and the
Agency          apprehension of alleged offenders.
Law             An employee of a law enforcement agency who is an officer sworn to carry out law
Enforcement     enforcement duties.
Officer
LAWN            Local Area Wireless Network. A LAN that uses high frequency radio waves rather
                than wires to communicate between nodes.
Lay Witness     An eyewitness, character witness, or any other person called upon to testify who is
                not considered an expert. Lay witnesses must testify to facts alone and may not
                draw conclusions or express opinions.
LDAP            Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A standardized way to connect with a
                directory that might hold passwords, addresses, public encryption keys, and other
                exchange-facilitating data.
LE              Law Enforcement
LEA             Law Enforcement Agency
LEAA            Law Enforcement Alliance of America



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Leading            A question that instructs the witness how to answer, puts words into the witness‘s
Question           mouth, or suggests the desired answer.
Learning Theory The general notion that crime is an acquired form of behavior.
Legacy             An application that has been in existence for some time. It often refers to
Application        mainframe and ERP applications; however, as users abandoned DOS and Windows
                   3.1 for Windows 95/98 and NT, they too are called legacy applications. In today's
                   world of the Internet, virtually anything not Web related is often thought of as a
                   legacy app.
Legacy Data        Critical organizational data stored in mainframes and minis (legacy systems).
Legacy System      Older software and hardware systems still in use and generally proprietary. An older
                   computer system such as a mainframe or minicomputer. It may also refer to only
                   the software. See Legacy Application.
Legal Cause        A legally recognizable cause. The type of cause that is required to be demonstrated
                   in court in order to hold an individual criminally liable for causing harm.
Legalistic Style   A style of policing that is marked by a strict concern with enforcing the precise letter
                   of the law. Legalistic departments, however, may take a "hands-off" approach to
                   otherwise disruptive or problematic forms of behavior that are not violations of the
                   criminal law.
Legalization       (of drugs). Eliminates the laws and associated criminal penalties that prohibit the
                   production, sale, distribution, and possession of a controlled substance.
LegalXML           LegalXML produces standards for electronic court filing, court documents, legal
                   citations, transcripts, criminal justice intelligence systems, and others.
LEIM               Law Enforcement Information Management
LEIN               Law Enforcement Information Network
LEIS               Law Enforcement Intelligence System; an automated information system operated
                   by the U.S. Coast Guard.
LEITSC             Law Enforcement Information Technology Standards Council
LEMS               Law Enforcement Message Switch
LEO                FBI‘s Law Enforcement Online
LEOKA              Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Assaulted. FBI/UCR form used by law
                   enforcement agencies to report line-of-duty felonious or accidental killings and
                   assaults.
LETI               Law Enforcement Training Institute
LEVA               Law Enforcement/Emergency Services Video Association
Lex Talionis       The law of retaliation, often expressed as "an eye for an eye," or like for like.
Life Course        Explanations for criminality that recognize that criminogenic influences have their
Theories           greatest impact during the early stages of life, and which hold that experiences
                   which children have shape them for the rest of their lives.




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Line-up            A tool used by laws enforcement where a group of subjects is assembled and
                   reviewed by a witness to help identify the perpetrator. The group of subjects can
                   also be a collection of digital images.
Linxx              A product of Datamaxx, Inc.
LiveScan           A machine that replaces ink and roll fingerprints. Fingers are rolled across a plate,
                   scanned into a computer and then converted to a digital form of storage. Fingerprint
                   cards are then printed out on a laser printer. The machine will automatically reject
                   low quality prints. Electronic optical devices for fingerprint image capture utilizing a
                   positive biometric identifier that can greatly decrease the opportunity to produce
                   multiple identities.
LLEBG              Local Law Enforcement Block Grant
Load Balancing     Automatic balancing of requests among replicated servers to ensure that no server
                   is overloaded.
Log File           A file that lists actions that have occurred. For example, web servers maintain log
                   files listing every request made to the server. Log file analysis tools; provide the
                   ability to get a good idea of where visitors are coming from, how often they return,
                   and how they navigate through a site. By using cookies, webmasters can log even
                   more detailed information about how individual users access a site.
LogonID/Loginid/ A character string that uniquely identifies a user on a computer system. This term is
Userid           mainly used in reference to a mainframe.
LSI                Level of Service Inventory. A risk assessment tool conducted on many adult
                   offenders by probation staff. This is a validated assessment tool that determines risk
                   and need level.
LS-120             Laser Servo-120 is a floppy disk technology that holds 120MB. LS-120 drives use a
                   dual-gap head, which reads and writes 120MB disks as well as standard 3.5-inch
                   1.44MB and 720KB floppies.
LU6.2              Logical Unit 6.2—IBM‘s device-independent process-to-process protocol. Provides
                   the facilities for peer-to-peer communications between two programs and also
                   supports asynchronous networking.
LZW                Lempel-Ziv-Welch. Popular data compression technique developed in 1977 by J.
                   Ziv and A Lempel, and later refined by Terry Welch. It is the compression algorithm
                   used in the GIF graphics file format, which is one of the standard graphic formats
                   used by CompuServe® and the World Wide Web.
M
MAC                Mandatory Access Control. A mechanism that enforces the corporate policy or
                   security rules that deal with the sharing of data.
Macro Virus        A type of computer virus that is encoded as a macro embedded in a document.
                   Many applications, such as Microsoft Word and Excel, support powerful macro
                   languages. These applications allow you to embed a macro in a document, and
                   have the macro execute each time the document is opened.




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MAGLOCLEN        Middle Atlantic-Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network. The
                 MAGLOCLEN geographical region includes Delaware, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan,
                 New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia. The
                 center also has member agencies in England, the Canadian provinces of Ontario
                 and Quebec, and Australia.
Magnetic Media   A disk, tape, cartridge, diskette, or cassette that is used to store data magnetically.
Mail Bomb        A mail bomb is the sending of a massive amount of e-mail to a specific person or
                 system. A huge amount of mail may simply fill up the recipient‘s disk space on the
                 server or, in some cases, may be too much for a server to handle and may cause
                 the server to stop functioning. In the past, mail bombs have been used to ―punish‖
                 Internet users who have been egregious violators of netiquette (for example, people
                 using e-mail for undesired advertising, or spam).
Mailing List     A list of e-mail addresses identified by a single name, such as mail-
                 list@sandybay.com. When an e-mail message is sent to the mailing list name, it is
                 automatically forwarded to all the addresses in the list.
Mala in se       Acts that are regarded, by tradition and convention, as wrong in themselves.
Mala prohibita   Acts that are considered "wrongs" only because there is a law against them.
Malware          A generic term increasingly being used to describe any form of malicious software;
                 e.g., viruses, Trojan horses, malicious active content, etc.
Mandatory        A statutory requirement that a certain penalty shall be set and carried out in all
Sentence         cases upon conviction for a specified offense or series of offenses.
Mandatory        A structured sentencing scheme that allows no leeway in the nature of the sentence
Sentencing       required, and under which clearly enumerated punishments are mandated for
                 specific offenses, or for habitual offenders convicted of a series of crimes.
Markup           Special characters used by Markup Languages (SGML, XML, HTML) to differentiate
                 data from metadata. SGML allows document authors the flexibility of specifying
                 which characters are used for markup, where as in XML the markup characters are
                 fixed. Markup characters may not be used in data text (unless special precautions
                 are taken). In the tags definition example, the markup characters are ‗<‗(greater
                 than), ‗>‗(less than), and ‗/‘ (forward slash). The XML specification defines start tag
                 markup as opening with a ‗<‗and ending with a ‗>‗. It specifies that end tag markup
                 opens with ‗</‘ and ends with ‗>‗.
Markup           A method of providing context to a message. The context may provide a description
Language         of how each portion of the message should appear on paper or in print (SGML,
                 HTML, XML), or the semantic data (q.v.) for each portion of the message (XML).
                 The method for providing the context is to enclose each message portion in
                 beginning and ending markers called tags, thus the description ―tagged field
                 formats.‖
Mass Murder      The illegal killing of four or more victims at one location, within one event.
MATRIX           Multi-state Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange. MATRIX project is a pilot effort to
                 increase and enhance the exchange of sensitive terrorism and other criminal activity
                 information between local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies.




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Maximum          In legal usage, the maximum penalty provided by law for a given criminal offense,
Sentence         usually stated as a maximum term of imprisonment or a maximum fine.
                 In correctional usage in relation to a given offender, any of several quantities
                 (expressed in days, months, or years) which vary according to whether calculated at
                 the point of sentencing or at a later point in the correctional process, and according
                 to whether the time period referred to is the term of confinement or the total period
                 under correctional jurisdiction.
MDC              Mobile Data Computer. A PC/CJDN device used in squad cars. A microcomputer
                 used by law enforcement to access databases for information on persons and
                 property. The MDT uses wireless communication and allows an officer to exchange
                 information with the dispatcher and other officers without using voice channels.
MDP              Multidisciplinary Practice
MDT              Mobile Data Terminal, a ―dumb‖ CJDN device used in squad cars.
Measurement      An object showing standard units of length (e.g., ruler) used in photographic
Scale            documentation of an item of evidence.
Medical Model    A therapeutic perspective on correctional treatment that applies the diagnostic
                 perspective of medical science to the handling of criminal offenders. Rehabilitation
                 is seen as a cure, and offenders are treated through a variety of programs in order
                 to reduce their antisocial tendencies.
Mens rea         The state of mind that accompanies a criminal act. Also, guilty mind.
Message Broker   A key component of EAI, a message broker is an intelligent intermediary that directs
                 the flow of messages between applications, which become sources and consumers
                 of information. Message brokers provide a very flexible communications backbone
                 and provide such services as data transformation, message routing and message
                 warehousing.
Message          Software that provides an interface between applications, allowing them to send
Oriented         data back and forth to each other asynchronously. Data sent by one program can
Middleware       be stored in a queue and then forwarded to the receiving program when it becomes
(MOM)            available to process it. Without using a common message transport and queuing
                 system such as this, each application must be responsible for ensuring that the data
                 sent is received properly.
Message          A form of communication between programs. Application data is combined with a
Queuing          header (information about the data) to form a message. Messages are stored in
                 queues, which can be buffered or persistent (see Buffered Queue and Persistent
                 Queue). It is an asynchronous communications style and provides a loosely coupled
                 exchange across multiple operating systems.
Message          A super-application process where messages are routed to applications based on
Routing          business rules. A particular message may be directed based on its subject or actual
                 content.
Message          A central repository for temporarily storing messages for analysis or transmission.
Warehousing




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Metadata             Data about data. There are at least three types of metadata of interest in this
                     report: semantic data, which gives the meaning of the ―raw‖ data; formatting data,
                     which describes the appearance of the data on-screen or on-page; and, intellectual
                     property data, which describes data ownership conditions. Metadata describes how
                     and when and by whom a particular set of data was collected, and how the data is
                     formatted. Metadata is essential for understanding information stored in data
                     warehouses.
                     Data about data. For example, for the data ‗3000N‘, the metadata might be ‗latitude‘.
                     Markup languages such as SGML and XML encapsulate data with tags that contain
                     text describing the metadata. See the example provided in the XML tags definition.
Middleware           Software that facilitates the communication between two applications. It provides an
                     API through which applications invoke services and it controls the transmission of
                     the data exchange over the network. There are three basic types: communications
                     middleware, database middleware, and systems middleware.
MIME                 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension. A set of Internet standards used to express, in
                     e-mail format, data that does not fit the limitations of the basic standard; a
                     specification for formatting non-ASCII messages so that they can be sent over the
                     Internet. Many e-mail clients now support MIME, which enables them to send and
                     receive graphics, audio, and video files via the Internet mail system. In addition,
                     MIME supports messages in character sets other than ASCII.
Minor Traffic        Includes any violation of a state or local traffic law, ordinance, or regulation, or a
Offenses             federal, state, or local water traffic law not included within the provisions of the Adult
                     Court traffic offense.
Miranda Rights       The set of rights that a person accused or suspected of having committed a specific
                     offense has during interrogation, and of which he or she must be informed prior to
                     questioning, as stated by the U.S. Supreme Court in deciding Miranda v. Arizona
                     and related cases.
Miranda Warning After arrest and before questioning, arrested persons must be warned that: 1) they
                have the right to remain silent; 2) any statement they make may be used as
                evidence against them; 3) they have a right to the presence of an attorney; and, 4) if
                they cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for them prior to any
                questioning, if they so desire.
Misdemeanor          A crime punishable by imprisonment in a county jail, by fine, or by both. Under
                     certain conditions, a felony crime can be treated as a misdemeanor.
                     An offense punishable by incarceration, usually in a local confinement facility, for a
                     period of which the upper limit is prescribed by statute in a given jurisdiction,
                     typically limited to a year or less.
Misnamed Files/      One simple way to disguise a file‘s contents is to change the file‘s name to
files with altered   something innocuous. For example, if an investigator was looking for spreadsheets
extensions           by searching for a particular file extension, such as ―.XLS,‖ a file whose extension
                     had been changed by the user to ―.DOC‖ would not appear as a result of the search.
                     Forensic examiners use special techniques to determine if this has occurred.
Mistrial             A trial that has been terminated and declared invalid by the court because of some
                     circumstances which create a substantial and uncorrectable prejudice to the
                     conduct of a fair trial, or which makes it impossible to continue the trial in
                     accordance with prescribed procedures.
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Mitigating         The opposite of aggravating circumstances: Circumstances surrounding the
Circumstances      commission of a crime that do not in law justify or excuse the act, but which in
                   fairness may be considered as reducing the blameworthiness of the defendant.
Mixed Sentence     One that requires that a convicted offender serve weekends (or other specified
                   periods of time) in a confinement facility (usually a jail), while undergoing probation
                   supervision in the community.
MLAT               Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty
M'Naghten Rule     A rule for determining insanity that asks whether the defendant knew what he was
                   doing, or whether he knew that what he was doing was wrong.
MOCIC              Mid-States Organized Crime Information Center. The MOCIC geographical region
                   includes Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South
                   Dakota, and Wisconsin. The center also has member agencies in Canada.
Modality           Or optionality shows that a relationship may be empty, that is, optional or that the
                   relationship must exist, that is, it is mandatory.
Model Court        The Model Court Interpreter Act is based on a review and synthesis of federal law
Interpreter Act    and statutes in states where comprehensive study and reform of practices and laws
                   relating to the use of interpreters has taken place. The Model Court Interpreter Act
                   discusses policy declaration; definitions; implementation of responsibilities;
                   requirements for a certified interpreter; waiver of interpreter; interpreter oath;
                   removal of an interpreter in individual cases; cost of interpreter services; and
                   appropriation. For the full version of the Model Court Interpreter Act, please refer to
                   William E. Hewitt, Court Interpretation: Model Guides for Policy and Practice in the
                   State Courts (Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts, 1995).
Model Penal        A generalized modern codification of that which is considered basic to criminal law,
Code               published by the American Law Institute in 1962.
MOM                See Message Oriented Middleware.
Money              The process of converting illegally earned assets, originating as cash, to one or
Laundering         more alternative forms to conceal such incriminating factors as illegal origin and true
                   ownership.
Moral Enterprise The process undertaken by an advocacy group in order to have its values
                 legitimated and embodied in law.
MORE               Making Officer Redeployment Effective; a DOJ-funded initiative.
Motion             An oral or written request made to a court at any time before, during, or after court
                   proceedings, asking the court to make a specified finding, decision, or order.
Motive             A person's reason for committing a crime.
Motor Vehicle      Unlawful taking or attempted taking, of a self-propelled road vehicle owned by
Theft (UCR)        another, with the intent to deprive him or her of it permanently or temporarily.
MOU                Memorandum of Understanding




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MPEG               Motion Pictures Experts Group. MPEG achieves high compression rate by storing
                   only the changes from one frame to another, instead of each entire frame. The
                   video information is then encoded using a technique called DCT. MPEG uses a type
                   of lossy compression, since some data is removed. But the diminishment of data is
                   generally imperceptible to the human eye.
MP3                Motion Picture Experts Group Audio Layer 3 File. Is the file extension for MPEG,
                   audio layer 3. Layer 3 is one of three coding schemes (layer 1, layer 2 and layer 3)
                   for the compression of audio signals. Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding and
                   psycho-acoustic compression to remove all superfluous information (more
                   specifically, the redundant and irrelevant parts of a sound signal- the stuff the
                   human ear doesn‘t hear anyway). It also adds a MDCT (Modified Discrete Cosine
                   Transform) that implements a filter bank, increasing the frequency resolution 18
                   times higher than that of layer 2. The result in real terms is layer 3 shrinks the
                   original sound data from a CD (with a *bitrate of 1411.2 kilobits per one second of
                   stereo music) by a factor of 12 (down to 112-128kbps) without sacrificing sound
                   quality. Bitrate denotes the average number of bits that one second of audio data
                   will consume.
MRC                Medical Reserve Corps
MS-DOS®            Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM, MS-DOS was the standard operating
                   system for IBM-compatible personal computers.
Multi-Functional   Pertaining to an information exchange that crosses between two entities that have
                   different operational objectives. School-to-probation exchanges are multi-functional;
                   school-to-school district exchanges are not multi-functional.
Multiple Scenes    Two or more physical locations of evidence associated with a crime (e.g., in a crime
                   of personal violence, evidence may be found at the location of the assault and also
                   on the person and clothing of the victim/assailant, the victim‘s/assailant‘s vehicle,
                   and locations the victim/assailant frequents and resides).
Murder and         Intentionally causing the death of another without legal justification or excuse, or
Nonnegligent       causing the death of another while committing or attempting to commit another
Manslaughter       crime.
(UCR)
N
NAAG               National Association of Attorneys General
NABCJ              National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice
NACD               National Association of Chemical Distributors
NACDL              National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers
NACM               National Association for Court Management
NACo               National Association of Counties
NACJD              National Archive of Criminal Justice data
NADCP              National Association of Drug Court Professionals
NADDIS             Narcotics And Dangerous Drugs Information System; a DEA-maintained automated
                   database.

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NAJIS            National Association for Justice Information Systems
NAMI             National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
NAPO             National Association of Police Organizations
Narcoterrorism   According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), narcoterrorism refers to
                 terrorist acts carried out by groups that are directly or indirectly involved in
                 cultivating, manufacturing, transporting, or distributing illicit drugs. The term is
                 generally applied to groups that use the drug trade to fund terrorism. However, it
                 has also sometimes been used to refer to the phenomenon of increasingly close ties
                 between powerful drug lords motivated by simple criminal profit and terrorist groups
                 with political agendas, particularly in Colombia.
Narcotics        State and local offenses relating to the unlawful possession, sale, use, growing, and
                 manufacturing or narcotic drugs.
NASA             National Association of Sentencing Advocates
NASADAD          National Association of State Alcohol/Drug Abuse Directors
NASBO            National Association of State Budget Officers
NASCIO           National Association of State Chief Information Officers
NASIRE           National Association of State Information Resource Executives. This association
                 represents the chief information officers of the states. This organization is now
                 known as the National Association of State Chief Information Officers or NASCIO.
NASP             National Association of Safety Professionals
NASPO            National Association of State Procurement Officials
NASTD            Association for Telecommunications & Technology Professionals Serving State
                 Government
National         The National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence was established by the
Commission on    Attorney General to maximize the value of forensic DNA evidence in the criminal
the Future of    justice system.
DNA Evidence
Natural Law      Rules of conduct inherent in human nature and in the natural order which are
                 thought to be knowable through intuition, inspiration, and the exercise of reason,
                 without the need for reference to man-made laws.
NAWJ             National Association of Women Judges
NCADI            National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information
NCADV            National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
NCC              National Coordinating Center for Telecommunications
NCCD             National Council on Crime and Delinquency
NCCEV            National Center for Children Exposed to Violence
NCFS             National Center for Forensic Science
NCFV             National Clearinghouse on Family Violence
NCHIP            National Criminal History Improvement Program

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NCIC        National Crime Information Center. An information system and nationwide network
            serving local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies. A computer system
            maintained by the FBI, which can be queried by local agencies via state computer
            systems known as ―control terminal agencies‖. NCIC contains 17 files with over 10
            million records, plus 24 million criminal history records contained within the
            Interstate Identification Index (one of the 17 files). Files include the III, the Missing
            Persons File, the Unidentified Persons File, the U.S. Secret service Protective File
            and the Violent Gang/Terrorist File.
NCIC 2000   A system in development that will improve upon the current NCIC system. NCIC
            2000 will allow for the electronic transmission of photographs, mugshots,
            photographs of stolen property and fingerprint data. It will have an AFIS capability
            that will identify someone based on a right index fingerprint when the subject
            presents no identification or is suspected of presenting a false I.D. NCIC 2000 will
            also include expanded fields that will allow for additional information, improved
            search techniques and a capability to link all records relating to the same crime. A
            mobile imaging unit installed inside police cars will contain: a hand-held fingerprint
            scanner, a hand-held digital camera, and a small printer.
NCIT        National Crime Investigation & Training
NCJA        National Criminal Justice Association
NCJFCJ      National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges
NCJJ        National Center for Juvenile Justice
NCJP        National Criminal Justice Planners
NCJRS       National Criminal Justice Reference Service
NCMEC       National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
NCOVR       National Consortium On Violence Research
NCPA        National Center for Policy Analysis
NCPC        National Crime Prevention Council
NCR         National Capital Region
NCS         National Communications System
NCSC        National Center for State Courts
NCSD        National Cyber Security Division
NCSL        National Conference of State Legislatures
NCSPP       National Crime Scene Planning Panel
NCVC        National Center for Victims of Crime
NCVS        National Crime Victimization Survey
NCWP        National Center for Women and Policing
NDAA        National District Attorney Association
NDACAN      National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect


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                  National Drug Intelligence Center; a component of the Department of Justice located
NDIC
                  in Johnstown, Pennsylvania.
NDMS              National Disaster Medical System
NDPIX             National Drug Pointer Index; an interagency automated database that provides
                  Federal, state and local law enforcement officers with pointer information relative to
                  active drug targets.
NEDSS             National Electronic Disease Surveillance System
Need-to-know      A security concept, which limits access only to information and information
                  processing resources that are required to perform one's normal business related
                  duties.
Neglect           A term that describes a child whose parents neglect or refuse to provide neede d
                  care and supervision of their child.
Neglected Child   A child who is not receiving the proper level of physical or psychological care from
                  his or her parents or guardian, or who has been placed up for adoption in violation of
                  the law.
Negligence         In legal usage, generally, a state of mind accompanying a person's conduct such
                  that he or she is not aware, though a reasonable person should be aware, that there
                  is a risk that the conduct might cause a particular harmful result.
Negligent         Causing death of another by recklessness or gross negligence.
Manslaughter
(UCR)
NENA              National Emergency Number Association
NESPIN            New England State Police Information Network. The NESPIN geographical region
                  includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and
                  Vermont. The center also has member agencies in Canada.
NetWare®          A popular local-area network (LAN) operating system developed by Novell
                  Corporation. NetWare is a software product that runs on a variety of different types
                  of LANs, from Ethernets to IBM token-ring networks. It provides users and
                  programmers with a consistent interface that is independent of the actual hardware
                  used to transmit messages.
Network           Two or more computers joined by some type of transmission media (i.e. cable,
                  telephone lines or satellite) to share storage devices and peripherals; s group of
                  computers connected to one another to share information and resources
Networked         A computer connected to a network.
System
Network           The attempt or successful act of bypassing the security mechanisms of a system.
Penetration
Newsgroup         Same as forum, an on-line discussion group. On the Internet, there are literally
                  thousands of newsgroups covering every conceivable interest. To view and post
                  messages to a newsgroup, you need a news reader, a program that runs on your
                  computer and connects you to a news server on the Internet.
NFPA              National Fire Protection Association

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NFS           Network File System. A client/server application designed by Sun Microsystems
              that allows all network users to access shared files stored on computers of different
              types. NFS provides access to shared files through an interface called the Virtual
              File System (VFS) that runs on top of TCP/IP. Users can manipulate shared files as
              if they were stored locally on the user‘s own hard disk.
NFSTC         National Forensic Science Technology Center
NGA           National Governors Association
NIAID         National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
NIBIN         National Integrated Ballistic Information Network. This is a database of images of
              casings or bullets recovered at crime scenes and casings or bullets from testfires of
              recovered firearms. When new images are entered, the system searches the
              database for possible matches. When the search finds a possible match, firearms
              examiners recover and compare the items of evidence to confirm the match.
NIBRS         National Incident-Based Reporting System. NIBRS is an incident based reporting
              system, run by the FBI, through which data are collected on each single crime
              occurrence. NIBRS data are designed to be generated as a by-product of local,
              state and federal automated systems. NIBRS collects data on each single incident
              and arrest within 22 offense categories made up of 46 specific crimes called Group
              A offenses. For each of the offenses coming to the attention of law enforcement,
              specific facts are collected. In addition to the Group A offenses there are 11 Group
              B offense categories for which only arrest data are reported. NIBRS is expected to
              eventually replace UCR. NIBRS incident-based law enforcement crime reporting
              system, works through the city, county, state, and federal Uniform Crime Reporting.
              Incident-based reporting views a crime and its components as an ―incident.‖ NIBRS
              was developed in the late 1970s in response to the growing volume, diversity, and
              complexity of crime.
NIC           National Institute of Corrections
NIH           National Institute of Health
NIJ           National Institute of Justice
NIOSH         National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NIST          National Institute of Standards and Technology. Mission is to develop and promote
              measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade
              and improve the quality of life.
NIST Packet   An electronic file that conforms to the FBI standard for electronically encoding and
              transmitting fingerprint image, identification, and arrest data.
NLADA         National Legal Aid & Defender Association
NLC           National League of Cities
NLEC          National Law Enforcement Council
NLECTC        National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers




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NLETS               National Law Enforcement Telecommunication System; a combined Federal and
                    state communications network. A high-speed communications network and
                    message switching that connects almost every law enforcement agency in the
                    country. It allows local agencies to make inquiries into state databases, to access
                    criminal history records, vehicle registration records, driver‘s license files, etc.
                    NLETS also interfaces with NCIC and other national files and allows states to
                    exchange information with each other. Not-for-profit organization that provides a
                    nationwide network for interstate communication among local, state and federal
                    criminal justice agencies.
NOBLE               National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives
Node                In a network, a node can be a computer or some other device such as a printer.
                    Every node has a unique network address.
Nolle Prosequi      A formal entry upon the record of the court, indicating that the prosecutor declares
                    that he or she will proceed no further in the action. The terminating of adjudication of
                    a criminal charge by the prosecutor's decision not to pursue the case, in some
                    jurisdictions requiring the approval of the court.
Nolo Contendere A plea of "no contest." A no contest plea may be used where the defendant does
                not wish to contest conviction. Because the plea does not admit guilt, however, it
                cannot provide the basis for later civil suits that might follow upon the heels of a
                criminal conviction.
Non-blocking   An asynchronous messaging process whereby the requestor of a service does not
Communications have to wait until a response is received from another application.
Non-invasive        An implementation approach that does not require changes or additions to existing
Integration         applications.
Nonporous           Packaging through which liquids or vapors cannot pass (e.g., glass jars or metal
Container           cans).
Nonpublic Data      Data not on humans that is made by statute, federal law not accessible to the public
                    and accessible to the subject of the data.
Non-repudiation     The process by which the sender of data is provided with proof of delivery, and the
                    receiver is assured of the sender‘s identity. This is non-repudiation, so that neither
                    party can deny either sending or receiving the data in question.
Normative           A term frequently used by software specifications to mean required, mandatory, or
                    representing the only way to accomplish something. Often references are cited as
                    normative, meaning that the requirements of these references apply to the
                    document being read, or as non-normative, meaning they are provided as
                    information only.
Not Guilty by       The plea of a defendant or the verdict of a jury or judge in a criminal proceeding,
Reason of           that the defendant is not guilty of the offense(s) charged because at the time the
Insanity            crime(s) was committed the defendant did not have the mental capacity to be held
                    criminally responsible for his or her actions.
Nothing Works       The belief, popularized by Robert Martinson in the 1970s, that correctional
Doctrine            treatment programs have little success in rehabilitating offenders.
Not Public Data     A classification of data under the Data Practices Act.


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No True Bill    The decision by a grand jury that it will not return an indictment against the
                person(s) accused of a crime(s) on the basis of the allegations and evidence
                presented by the prosecutor.
NOVA            National Organization for Victim Assistance
NPSTC           National Public Safety Telecommunications Council
NRC             National Response Center
                Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NRCSS           National Center for Safe Schools
NSA             National Sheriffs Association
                National Security Agency
NSC             National Security Council
NSDD            National Security Decision Directive
NSDI            National Spatial Data Infrastructure
NS/EP           National Security and Emergency Preparedness
NSF             National Strike Force
NSGIC           National States Geographic Information Councils
NSIE            Network Security Information Exchange
NSTAC           National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee
NSVRC           National Sexual Violence Resource Center
NTSB            National Transportation Safety Board
Nuclear Blast   An explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave and
                widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground
                surfaces for miles around.
Nurturant       A crime control strategy which attempts "to forestall development of criminality by
Strategy        improving early life experiences and channeling child and adolescent development"
                into desirable directions.
NWP             Neighborhood Watch Program
NW3C            National White Collar Crime Center. A support system for the prevention,
                investigation, and prosecution of economic crimes, the NW3C serves law
                enforcement, prosecution, and regulatory agency members.
NYGC            National Youth Gang Center. The NYGC annually surveys law enforcement
                agencies to determine the scope of the youth gang problem in the U.S. The Center
                publishes topical reports and reviews of gang literature, and operates an electronic
                discussion forum. NYGC also provides technical assistance and training to
                communities that participate in gang-related demonstration programs.
O
OAG             Open Applications Group. An industry consortium formed to promote the easy and
                cost-effective integration of key business application software components.

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OASIS             Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
Object            A term used frequently in relation to XML and computer science. Strictly speaking,
                  an object is a run-time software construct that resides in the Random Access
                  Memory (RAM) of the host computer. Objects are created by applications from code
                  that defines the object‘s behavior; this code is called a class. In object-oriented
                  programs, objects interact with other objects to create the behavior of the
                  application. An object‘s behavior is described by an Interface consisting of methods
                  and properties. A method can be thought of as a behavior of the object that can be
                  triggered by calling it and optionally passing parameters. For instance, the object
                  ‗myAccount‘ might have the method ‗getBalance(accountNumber)‘. Object oriented
                  languages use the ‗dot‘ notation to refer to objects and methods. From the previous
                  example, ‗currentBalance == myAccount.getBalance(accountNumber)‘ is a code
                  snippet that assigns to the ‗current-Balance‘ variable the balance returned from the
                  ‗myAccount‘ object when the ‗getBalance()‘ method is called by passing in the
                  ‗accountNumber‘ variable. Object properties are similar to methods, but instead of
                  calling a behavior, a property call to an object returns a previously set value of the
                  property. Returning to the example, ‗myName == myAccount.accountOwner‘ sets
                  the ‗myName‘ variable equal to the ‗accountOwner‘ property of the ‗myAccount‘
                  object, conversely ‗myAccount.accountOwner == myName‘ sets the ‗accountOwner‘
                  property of the ‗myAccount‘ object to the value of the ‗myName‘ variable. XML that
                  has been parsed by an XML processor implementing the DOM API is transformed
                  into a set of objects that may be used by the calling application to extract data from
                  the XML. Also, an application may construct a DOM tree of objects in memory then
                  transmit the data to another application or object as a textually encoded string of
                  XML. The receiving object then accesses the data via the DOM or SAX APIs. Since
                  the XML format is neutral, a CO M object created by a Windows application may
                  interact with an EJB object running on a Unix platform for true cross-platform,
                  language-independent distributed computing.
Object            Allow clients to invoke methods or objects that reside on a remote server. This
Middleware        middleware revolves around OMG‘s CORBA, and Microsoft‘s DCOM.
Object Oriented   Combines data structures and functions (computer directions) to create ―objects‖.
Programming       Makes it easier to maintain and modify software.
Occupational      Any act punishable by law that is committed through opportunity created in the
Crime             course of an occupation that is legal.
OCDETF            Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force
ODBC              Open Database Connectivity. A Windows standard API for SQL communication.
ODP               Office for Domestic Preparedness
OEP               Office of Emergency Preparedness
Offender          An adult who has been convicted of a criminal offense.
Offense           A violation of the criminal law, or, in some jurisdictions,
                  A minor crime, such as jaywalking, sometimes described as "ticketable."
Offenses Known    Reported occurrences of offenses, which have been verified at the police level.
to Police (UCR)



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OHM or OHMS     The Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, which is within the United States
                Department of Transportation's Research and Special Programs Administration, is
                responsible for coordinating a national safety program for the transportation of
                hazardous materials by air, rail, highway and water.
OIG             Office of the Inspector General
OJIN            Ohio Justice Information Network
OJJDP           Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
OJP             U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs
Omerta          The informal, unwritten code of organized crime that demands silence and loyalty,
                among other things, of family members.
OMG             Object Management Group—a consortium of object vendors, and the founders of
                the CORBA standard.
ONCRC           Office of National Capitol Region Coordination
ONDCP           Office of National Drug Control Policy
One-time Pad    In cryptography, a one-time pad is a system in which a private key generated
                randomly is used only once to encrypt a message that is then decrypted by the
                receiver using a matching one-time pad and key. Messages encrypted with keys
                based on randomness have the advantage that there is theoretically no way to
                ―break the code‖ by analyzing a succession of messages. Each encryption is unique
                and bears no relation to the next encryption so that some pattern can be detected.
                With a one-time pad, however, the decrypting party must have access to the same
                key used to encrypt the message and this raises the problem of how to get the key
                to the decrypting party safely or how to keep both keys secure. One-time pads have
                sometimes been used when the both parties started out at the same physical
                location and then separated, each with knowledge of the keys in the one-time pad.
                The key used in a onetime pad is called a secret key because if it is revealed, the
                messages encrypted with it can easily be deciphered. Onetime pads figured
                prominently in secret message transmission and espionage before and during
                World War II, and in the Cold War era. On the Internet, the difficulty of securely
                controlling secret keys led to the invention of public key cryptography.
ONI             Office of Naval Intelligence
Open            The system design allows it to easily be connected to devices and programs made
Architecture    by other manufacturers.
OpenDoc         A set of shared class libraries with platform-independent interfaces.
Open Standard   Standard arrived at under the aegis of a Standards Organization (q.v.). So-called
                proprietary standards are not open, nor are most so-called industry standards.
Opening         The initial statement of an attorney (or of a defendant representing himself or
Statement       herself) made in a court of law to a judge, or to a judge and jury, describing the facts
                that he or she intends to present during trial in order to prove his or her case.




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Operating          The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose
System             computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems
                   perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to
                   the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling
                   peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the
                   operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic
                   cop — it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do
                   not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security,
                   ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system.
Operational        Highly perishable raw or analyzed information derived from any source that
                   supports immediate interdiction or law enforcement actions.
Operational        The number of inmates a prison can effectively accommodate based upon
Capacity           management considerations.
Opinion            The official announcement of a decision of a court together with the reasons for that
                   decision.
Opportunity        A perspective that sees delinquency as the result of limited legitimate opportunities
Theory             for success available to most lower-class youth.
Orange - High      Homeland Security Advisory. A High Condition is declared when there is a high risk
Condition          of terrorist attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in the previous
                   Green, Blue and Yellow Threat Conditions (see Green-Low Condition; Blue-
                   Guarded Condition; and Yellow-Elevated Condition), Federal departments and
                   agencies should consider the following general measures in addition to the agency-
                   specific Protective Measures that they will develop and implement:
                   Coordinating necessary security efforts with Federal, State, and local law
                   enforcement agencies or any National Guard or other appropriate armed forces
                   organizations;
                   Taking additional precautions at public events and possibly considering alternative
                   venues or even cancellation;
                   Preparing to execute contingency procedures, such as moving to an alternate site
                   or dispersing their workforce; and
                   Restricting threatened facility access to essential personnel only.
ORB                Object Request Broker. Software that allows objects to dynamically discover each
                   other and interact across machines, operating systems, and networks. A high-
                   capacity removable disk system. ORB drives use magnetoresistive (MR) read/write
                   head technology. ORB drives are marketed by Castlewood Systems™.
Organized Crime The unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association
                engaged in supplying illegal goods and services, including but not limited to
                gambling, prostitution, loan-sharking, narcotics, labor racketeering, and other
                unlawful activities of members of such organizations.
ORI                The identifying number assigned to a criminal justice agency by the FBI NCIC.
Original           Physical items and those data objects that are associated with those items at the
Electronic         time of seizure.
Evidence


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Original           The lawful authority of a court to hear or act upon a case from its beginning and to
Jurisdiction       pass judgment on the law and the facts.
OSIS               Open Source Information System
OS/2®              OS/2 is an IBM operating system for the personal computer that was initially
                   intended to provide an alternative to Microsoft Windows for both enterprise and
                   personal PC users. The latest version of OS/2 Warp, Warp 4, has a Netscape based
                   Web browser that exploits OS/2‘s existing speech recognition capability. IBM has
                   also enhanced OS/2 to provide server functions for e-business.
OTF                Offender Tracking Form (OTF) is the key to forwarding crucial data known as the
                   linking identifiers from the arrest fingerprint card through the criminal justice system.
                   Since the linking identifiers from arrest fingerprint cards must match as the case
                   goes through the system, the OTF is instrumental in keeping records out of
                   suspense. The OTF should be used when applying for a felony, gross misdemeanor
                   or targeted misdemeanor complaint or for a juvenile felony or gross misdemeanor
                   petition.
Other              Individuals who are involved in an aspect of the crime scene, such as perimeter
Responders         security, traffic control, media management, scene processing, and technical
                   support, as well as prosecutors, medical personnel, medical examiners, coroners,
                   forensic examiners, evidence technicians, and fire and rescue officers.
OVC                DOJ OJP Office for Victims of Crime
OVW                Office on Violence Against Women
Owner/steward      The agent responsible and accountable for specific agency computerized information
                   resources.
P
Packet             A piece of a message transmitted over a packet-switching network... One of the key
                   features of a packet is that it contains the destination address in addition to the data.
                   In IP networks, packets are often called datagrams.
Parens Patriae     A Latin term that refers to the legal basis upon which delinquent children may be
                   removed from the home and supervised by the state. It means, in effect, that the
                   state assumes responsibility for the welfare of problem children.
Parole             This refers to juveniles who are released by the Commissioner of Corrections from
                   the state juvenile correctional facilities in Red Wing and/or the facility designated by
                   the DOC for female offenders. Similar to the status of an adult, who is released from
                   a state prison, these juveniles are supervised in the community by juvenile
                   probation officers.
Part I Offenses    In Uniform Crime Reports terminology, the group of offenses, also called "major
                   offenses," for which UCR publishes counts of reported instances, and which consist
                   of those that meet the following five-part criterion: (1) are most likely to be reported
                   to police, (2) police investigation can easily establish whether a crime has occurred,
                   (3) occur in all geographical areas, (4) occur with sufficient frequency to provide an
                   adequate basis for comparison, (5) are serious crimes by nature and/or volume.
Part II Offenses   In Uniform Crime Reports terminology, a set of offense categories used in UCR data
                   concerning arrests.


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Participatory        A relatively informal type of criminal justice case processing which makes use of
Justice              local community resources rather than requiring traditional forms of official
                     intervention.
Partitioning (not To divide memory or mass storage into isolated sections. In DOS systems, you can
hidden partition) partition a disk, and each partition will behave like a separate disk drive. Partitioning
                  is particularly useful if you run more than one operating system. For example, you
                  might reserve one partition for Windows and another for UNIX. In addition,
                  partitioning on DOS and Windows machines can improve disk efficiency. This is
                  because the FAT system used by these operating systems automatically assigns
                  cluster size based on the disk size: the larger the disk, the larger the cluster.
                  Unfortunately, large clusters can result in a wasted disk space, called slack space.
                  There is an entire sector of the software industry devoted to building utilities that let
                  you partition your hard disk. On Apple Macintosh computers, there are two types of
                  partitioning: hard and soft. Hard partitioning is the same as DOS partitioning—the
                  disk is physically divided into different sections. Soft partitioning, on the other hand,
                  does not physically affect the disk at all, but it fools the Finder into believing that the
                  disk is partitioned. The advantage of this is that you can partition the disk without
                  affecting the data on it. With hard partitioning, it is usually necessary to reformat the
                  entire disk. (A partition is) a section of main memory or mass storage that has been
                  reserved for a particular application.
PASS                 Personnel Alert Safety System
Passphrase           A passphrase is a string of characters longer than the usual password (which is
                     typically from four to 16 characters long) that is used in creating a digital signature
                     (an encoded signature that proves to someone that it was really you who sent a
                     message) or in an encryption or a decryption of a message. For example, Phil
                     Zimmermann‘s popular encryption program, Pretty Good Privacy, requires a
                     passphrase when you sign or decrypt a message. Passphrases are often up to 100
                     characters in length.
Password             Any secret string of characters, which serves as authentication of a person's identity
                     (personal password). Access password may be used to grant or deny access to
                     private, confidential, nonpublic, protected nonpublic or shared data. A password is a
                     secret series of characters that enables a user to access a file, computer, or
                     program. On multi-user systems, each user must enter his or her password before
                     the computer will respond to commands. The password helps ensure that
                     unauthorized users do not access the computer. In addition, data files and programs
                     may require a password.
Password             A password attack is an attempt to obtain or decrypt the legitimate user‘s password
Attacks              key into the system.
Password         A computerized or manual process whereby various possible passwords are
Guessing Attack/ provided to a computer in an effort to gain unauthorized access.
Brute force
attack




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Password-       A secret series of characters that enables a user to access a file, computer, or
protected       program. On multi-user systems, each user must enter his or her password before
                the computer will respond to commands. The password helps ensure that
                unauthorized users do not access the computer. In addition, data files and programs
                may require a password. Ideally, the password should be something that nobody
                could guess. In practice, most people choose a password that is easy to remember,
                such as their name or their initials. This is one reason it is relatively easy to break
                into most computer systems.
Password        The use of a sniffer to capture passwords as they pass across a network.
Sniffing
PAVNET          Partnerships Against Violence
Payload (XML)   Protocols and frameworks such as SOAP, BizTalk, and ebXML use XML to markup
                message header information necessary for binding, reliable messaging, and
                security. The term ‗payload‘ refers to the XML being transmitted that contains the
                actual business information being communicated.
PCCN            President‘s Council on Counter-Narcotics
PCR             Polymerase Chain Reaction
PDD-39          Presidential Decision Directive 39 mandates that the FBI coordinate the efforts of
                law enforcement agencies to ensure a coordinated and vigorous response to
                terrorism.
PDD-62          Presidential Decision Directive 62 reaffirms the FBI as the lead federal agency in
                both preventing terrorist attacks and investigating those attacks when they occur
                within the United States, in international waters (not involving the flag vessel of a
                foreign country), or against U.S. persons and establishments overseas.
PDIT            Project Development and Implementation Training. The PDIT Program offers
                information and strategies to increase the awareness and capability of criminal
                justice practitioners and local, state, and tribal agencies to successfully implement,
                manage, and sustain federally funded criminal justice initiatives.
PDM             Pre-Disaster Mitigation program
Peace Model     An approach to crime control that focuses on effective ways for developing a shared
                consensus on critical issues that have the potential to seriously affect the quality of
                life.
Peacemaking     A perspective which holds that crime control agencies and the citizens they serve
Criminology     should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus
                reduce crime.
Penal Code      The written, organized, and compiled form of the criminal laws of a jurisdiction.
Penal Couple    A term that describes the relationship between victim and criminal. Also, the two
                individuals most involved in the criminal act–the offender and the victim.
Penal Law       See Criminal Law.
Penitentiary    A prison. Also see Pennsylvania Style.




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                                                                                       Glossary of Terms

Pennsylvania       A form of imprisonment developed by the Pennsylvania Quakers around 1790 as an
Style              alternative to corporal punishments. The style made use of solitary confinement and
                   resulted in the nation's first penitentiaries.
Peremptory         The right to challenge a juror without assigning a reason for the challenge. In most
Challenge          jurisdictions each party to an action, both civil and criminal, has a specified number
                   of such challenges and after using all his peremptory challenges he is required to
                   furnish a reason for subsequent challenges.
PERF               Police Executive Research Forum
Peripheral         An auxiliary device such as a printer, modem, or data storage system that works in
Devices            conjunction with a computer.
Perjure            To knowingly and willfully give false testimony under oath.
Perjury            The intentional making of a false statement as part of testimony by a sworn witness
                   in a judicial proceeding on a matter material to the inquiry.
Perp               See Perpetrator.
Perpetrator        The chief actor in the commission of a crime, that is, the person who directly
                   commits the criminal act.
Persistent         A message queue that resides on a permanent device, such as a disk, and can be
Queue              recovered in case of system failure.
Personal           Is synonymous with personally identifiable information, that is, information that is
Information        identified or linked to a specific person. Such personal information can include
                   basic information (e.g., social security number, address, and date of birth) such as
                   educational history, financial information, criminal history, health information, vehicle
                   information, and home ownership information. Information privacy includes the
                   power to choose ―...when, how, and to what extent you share information about
                   yourself.‖ (Quote from Justice Information Privacy Guideline.)
Personal        Articles such as disposable gloves, masks, and eye protection that are utilized to
Protective      provide a barrier to keep biological or chemical hazards from contacting the skin,
Equipment (PPE) eyes, and mucous membranes and to avoid contamination of the crime scene.
Petit Jury         See Trial Jury.
Petition           The legal document that describes the alleged offense committed by the child.
                   Similar to a complaint in adult court.
                   A written request made to a court asking for the exercise of its judicial powers or
                   asking for permission to perform some act where the authorization of a court is
                   required.
PGP                Pretty Good Privacy. A technique for encrypting messages developed by Philip
                   Zimmerman. PGP is one of the most common ways to protect messages on the
                   Internet because it is effective, easy to use, and free. PGP is based on the public-
                   key method, which uses two keys — one is a public key that you disseminate to
                   anyone from whom you want to receive a message. The other is a private key that
                   you use to decrypt messages that you receive.




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Phenomenologic A perspective on crime causation that holds that the significance of criminal behavior
al Criminology is ultimately knowable only to those who participate in it. Central to this school of
               thought is the belief that social actors endow their behavior with meaning and
               purpose. Hence, a crime might mean one thing to the person who commits it, quite
               another to the victim, and something far different still to professional participants in
               the justice system.
Phreak             Closely related to hacking, using a computer or other device to trick a phone system.
                   Typically, phreaking is used to make free calls or to have calls charged to a different
                   account.
Physical           (Or physical dependence). Dependence upon drugs marked by a growing tolerance
Addiction          of a drug's effects so that increased amounts of a drug are needed to obtain a
                   desired effect, and by the onset of withdrawal symptoms over periods of prolonged
                   abstinence. Also, a craving for a specific drug that results from long-term substance
                   abuse. Dependence upon drugs is marked by a growing tolerance of a drug's effects
                   so that increased amounts of a drug are needed to obtain a desired effect and by the
                   onset of withdrawal symptoms over periods of prolonged abstinence.
Physical           Anything that is used, moved, altered, or contaminated by a suspect or victim.
Evidence
Physical Security The application of material barriers and control procedures as preventive measures
                  or countermeasures against threats to computerized information resources.
PID                Photo-Ionization Detector
PING               A utility to determine whether a specific IP address is accessible. It works by
                   sending a packet to the specified address and waiting for a reply. PING is used
                   primarily to troubleshoot Internet connections. There are many freeware and
                   shareware Ping utilities available for personal computers. It is often believed that
                   ―Ping‖ is an abbreviation for Packet Internet Groper, but Ping‘s author has stated
                   that the names comes from the sound that a sonar makes.
Ping of Death      On the Internet, ping of death is a denial of service (DoS) attack caused by an
                   attacker deliberately sending an IP packet larger than the 65,536 bytes allowed by
                   the IP protocol. One of the features of TCP/IP is fragmentation; it allows a single IP
                   packet to be broken down into smaller segments. In 1996, attackers began to take
                   advantage of that feature when they found that a packet broken down into
                   fragments could add up to more than the allowed 65,536 bytes. Many operating
                   systems did not know what to do when they received an oversized packet, so they
                   froze, crashed, or rebooted.
PIPELINE           An EPIC-based domestic drug interdiction training program.
PIQ                Privacy and Information Quality
Piracy             The unauthorized copying of software. Most retail programs are licensed for use at
                   just one computer site or for use by only one user at any time. By buying the
                   software, you become a licensed user rather than an owner. You are allowed to
                   make copies of the program for backup purposes, but it is against the law to give
                   copies to friends and colleagues. See software piracy.




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PKI                  Public Key Infrastructure. A system of digital certificates, Certificate Authorities, and
                     other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party
                     involved in an Internet transaction. PKIs are currently evolving and there is no single
                     PKI nor even a single agreed-upon standard for setting up a PKI. However, nearly
                     everyone agrees that reliable PKIs are necessary before electronic commerce can
                     become widespread.
Plaintext            In cryptography, plaintext is ordinary readable text before being encrypted into
                     ciphertext or after being decrypted.
Plaintiff/Petition   A person who starts a civil lawsuit. The party seeking to be paid for an injury or
er                   because his or her rights have been violated.
                     A person who initiates a court action.
Plain View           A legal term describing the ready visibility of objects that might be sized as evidence
                     during a search by police in the absence of a search warrant specifying the seizure
                     of those objects. In order for evidence in plain view to be lawfully seized, officers
                     must have a legal right to be in the viewing area, and must have cause to believe
                     that the evidence is somehow associated with criminal activity.
Platform             Underlying hardware or software for a system. The term is often used as a
                     synonym for operating system.
Plea                 A statement of guilty/not guilty, or admission/denial of the charge(s), made by the
                     defendant.
                     In criminal proceedings, a defendant's formal answer in court to the charge
                     contained in a complaint, information, or indictment, that he or she is guilty or not
                     guilty of the offense charged, or does not contest the charge.
Plea Bargaining      The negotiated agreement between defendant, prosecutor, and the court as to what
                     an appropriate plea and associated sentence should be in a given case. Plea
                     bargaining circumvents the trial process and dramatically reduces the time required
                     for the resolution of a criminal case.
Plea Negotiation     An agreement between the court, prosecutor, and defense attorney that define the
                     circumstances under which the defendant agrees to plead guilty or admit the
                     criminal allegation.
PMI                  Project Management Institute
PNR                  Passenger Name Record
POE                  Ports of Entry
Police               An area of emerging police activity that stresses the need for the community and the
Community            police to work together effectively and emphasizes the notion that the police derive
Relations (PCR)      their legitimacy from the community they serve. PCR began to be of concern to
                     many police agencies in the 1960s and 1970s.
Police Culture       Also subculture. A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior
                     characteristic of American police, and with which the police profession strives to
                     imbue new recruits. Socialization into the police subculture commences with recruit
                     training, and is ongoing thereafter.
Police Ethics        The special responsibility for adherence to moral duty and obligation inherent in
                     police work.

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Police             The administrative activities of controlling, directing, and coordinating police
Management         personnel, resources, and activities in the service of crime prevention, the
                   apprehension of criminals, and the recovery of stolen property, and the performance
                   of a variety of regulatory and helping services.
Police             The increasing formalization of police work, and the rise in public acceptance of the
Professionalism    police that accompanies it. Any profession is characterized by a specialized body of
                   knowledge and a set of internal guidelines that hold members of the profession
                   accountable for their actions. A well-focused code of ethics, equitable recruitment
                   and selection practices, and informed promotional strategies among many agencies
                   contribute to the growing level of professionalism among American police agencies
                   today.
Police Working     All aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior evidenced by police
Personality        officers that have been effectively socialized into the police subculture.
                   Characteristics of the police personality often extend to the personal lives of law
                   enforcement personnel.
Porous Container Packaging through which liquids or vapors may pass (e.g., paper bags, cloth bags).
Port               An interface by which a computer communicates with another device or system.
                   Personal computers have various types of ports. Internally, there are several ports
                   for connecting disk drives, display screens, and keyboards. Externally, personal
                   computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral
                   devices.
Port Replicator    A device containing common PC ports such as serial, parallel, and network ports that
                   plugs into a notebook computer. A port replicator is similar to a docking station but
                   docking stations normally provide capability for additional expansion boards.
Portable           Portable computers include any computing device not intended for use in any one
Computers          location. Examples are laptops, notebooks, PDA's, etc.
Positivism         The application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals.
POST               Peace Officer Standards and Training
Postconviction     The procedure or set of procedures by which a person who has been convicted of a
Remedy             crime can challenge in court the lawfulness of a judgment of conviction or penalty or
                   of a correctional agency action, and thus obtain relief in situations where this cannot
                   be done by a direct appeal.
Post-crime         Refers to problems in living that tend to follow from initial victimization.
Victimization or
Secondary
Victimization
Postmodern         A brand of criminology which developed following World War II, and which builds
Criminology        upon the tenants inherent in postmodern social thought.
Power-control      A perspective which holds that the distribution of crime and delinquency within
Theory             society is to some degree founded upon the consequences which power
                   relationships within the wider society hold for domestic settings, and for the everyday
                   relationships between men, women, and children within the context of family life.




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PPE               Personal Protective Equipment. Articles such as disposable gloves, masks, and eye
                  protection that are utilized to provide a barrier to keep biological or chemical hazards
                  from contacting the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes and to avoid contamination
                  of the crime scene.
PPP               Point to Point Protocol. A method of connecting a computer to the Internet. PPP is
                  more stable than the older SLIP protocol and provides error-checking features.
                  Working in the data link layer of the OSI model, PPP sends the computer‘s TCP/IP
                  packets to a server that puts them onto the Internet.
PPTP              Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. A new technology for creating Virtual Private
                  Networks (VPNs) developed jointly by Microsoft Corporation, U.S. Robotics, and
                  several remote access vendor companies, known collectively as the PPTP Forum. A
                  VPN is a private network of computers that uses the public Internet to connect some
                  nodes. Because the Internet is essentially an open network, the Point-to-Point
                  Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is used to ensure that messages transmitted from one
                  VPN node to another are secure. With PPTP, users can dial in to their corporate
                  network via the Internet.
Precedent         A legal principle that operates to ensure that previous judicial decisions are
                  authoritatively considered and incorporated into future cases.
Pre-Disposition   Also known as a Social History Report. This report is prepared for a juvenile, and is
Report            comparable to the pre-sentence investigation done for an adult.
Preliminary       The proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided–
Hearing           whether a crime was committed, whether the crime occurred within the territorial
                  jurisdiction of the court, and whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that
                  the defendant committed the crime.
Pre-Placement     This is a group of professionals familiar with child placement options who review
Screening Team    potential out of home placements for juvenile offenders. The probation officer
                  updates the group on what has happened in the community and what services have
                  been tried and what placement is being recommended. Typically, this group makes
                  a recommendation supporting or offering other suggestions to the probation officer
                  and to the local Judge.
Pre-Plea          The report prepared for the court by a probation officer that provides various
Investigation     background information and assessment data on a subject; information that the
                  court, prosecutor, and defense attorney may use during plea negotiation.
Preponderance     The standard of proof that requires the majority of the evidence to prove the case.
of the Evidence   This is the standard used in most civil cases.
Pre-Sentence      The formal report prepared for the court by a probation officer that provides various
Investigation     background information and assessment data on a subject; information that the
(PSI)             court uses in deciding the appropriate sanctions and follow-up
                  treatment/programming needs of the subject.
                  The examination of a convicted offender's background prior to sentencing. Pre-
                  sentence examinations are generally conducted by probation/parole officers and
                  submitted to sentencing authorities.
Presentment       Historically, written notice of an offense taken by a grand jury from their own
                  knowledge or observation; in current usage, any of several presentations of alleged
                  facts and charges to a court or a grand jury by a prosecutor.

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Presumptive         A model of criminal punishment that meets the following conditions: (1) the
Sentencing          appropriate sentence for an offender in a specific case is presumed to fall within a
                    range of sentences authorized by sentencing guidelines that are adopted by a
                    legislatively created sentencing body, usually a sentencing commission; (2)
                    sentencing judges are expected to sentence within the range or provide written
                    justification for departure; (3) the guidelines provide for some review, usually
                    appellate, of the departure.
Presumptive         A non-confirmatory test used to screen for the presence of a substance.
Test
Pre-Trial           Any period of confinement occurring between arrest or other holding to answer a
Detention           charge and the conclusion of prosecution.
Pre-Trial           In criminal proceedings, disclosure by the prosecution or the defense prior to trial of
Discovery           evidence or other information which is intended to be used in the trial.
Pre-Trial           An alternative to adjudication or sentencing in which the subject agrees to
Diversion           conditions set by the prosecutor (e.g., to receive counseling, pay restitution, etc.) in
                    exchange for withdrawal of charges. This is also known as pre-charging diversion.
Pre-Trial           An evaluation of the subject by Community Corrections that occurs before any court
Evaluation          appearances. The evaluation helps determine bail amounts, if the subject is eligible
                    for the services of a public defender, or if there should be any conditions associated
                    with a pre-trial release.
Pre-Trial Hearing A hearing where the trial date is set and the issues and evidence in the criminal
                  case are reviewed by the judge. The issues to be tried are narrowed, and certain
                  facts and admissions are agreed upon in order to speed up the trial.
Pre-Trial Release The release of an accused person from custody, for all or part of the time before or
                  during prosecution, upon his or her promise to appear in court when required.
Printer Spool       Acronym for simultaneous peripheral operations on-line, spooling refers to putting
Files               jobs in a buffer, a special area in memory or on a disk where a device can access
                    them when it is ready. Spooling is useful because devices access data at different
                    rates. The buffer provides a waiting station where data can rest while the slower
                    device catches up. The most common spooling application is print spooling. In print
                    spooling, documents are loaded into a buffer (usually an area on a disk), and then
                    the printer pulls them off (of) the buffer at its own rate. Because the documents are
                    in a buffer accessible by the printer, you can perform other operations on the
                    computer while the printing takes place in the background. Spooling also lets you
                    place a number of print jobs on a queue instead of waiting for each one to finish
                    before specifying the next one.
Prison              A state or federal confinement facility having custodial authority over adults
                    sentenced to confinement.
Prison Argot        The slang characteristic of prison subcultures and prison life.
Prison Capacity     The size of the correctional population an institution can effectively hold.
Prison              A sentence of commitment to the jurisdiction of a state or federal confinement facility
Commitment          system for adults, of which the custodial authority extends to persons sentenced to
                    more than a year of confinement, for a term expressed in years or for life, or to await
                    execution of a death sentence.

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Prisoner            A person in physical custody in a confinement facility, or in the personal physical
                    custody of a criminal justice official while being transported to or between
                    confinement facilities. A person in physical custody in a state or federal confinement
                    facility.
Prisonization       The process whereby newly institutionalized individuals come to accept prison
                    lifestyles and criminal values. While many inmates begin their prison experience with
                    only a modicum of values supportive of criminal behavior, the socialization
                    experience they undergo while incarcerated leads to a much wider acceptance of
                    such values.
Prison              The values and behavioral patterns characteristic of prison inmates. Prison
Subculture          subculture has been found to have surprising consistencies across the country.
Privacy             In this context refers to individuals‘ interests in preventing the inappropriate
                    collection, use, and release of information that identifies them personally.
Private Data        Data on humans that are made by statute or federal law not available to the public
                    and accessible to the subject of the data.
Private Key         In cryptography, a private or secret key is an encryption/decryption key known only
                    to the party or parties that exchange secret messages. In traditional secret key
                    cryptography, a key would be shared by the communicators so that each could
                    encrypt and decrypt messages. The risk in this system is that if either party loses the
                    key or it is stolen, the system is broken. A more recent alternative is to use a
                    combination of public and private keys. In this system, a public key is used together
                    with a private key.
Private Prisons     Correctional institutions operated by private firms on behalf of local and state
                    governments.
Private Security    Those self-employed individuals and privately funded business entities and
                    organizations providing security-related services to specific clientele for a fee, for the
                    individual or entity that retains or employs them, or for themselves, in order to protect
                    their persons, private property, or interests from various hazards.
Private Security    An independent or proprietary commercial organization which provides protective
Agency              services to employers on a contractual basis, and whose activities include employee
                    clearance investigations, maintaining the security of persons or property, and/or
                    performing the functions of detection and investigation of crime and criminals and
                    apprehension of offenders. Also known as private protective services.
Privatization       The movement toward the wider use of private prisons.
Privilege/Rights/   An authorized ability to perform a certain action on a computer, such as read a
Permissions         specific computer file.
Privileged User-    A user-id that has been granted the ability to perform special activities, such as shut
ID                  down an application or system.
Probable Cause      A strong belief, based on facts that a crime has been committed, that a particular
                    person has committed the crime, and that evidence related to the crime exists.
                    A set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and
                    prudent person to believe that a particular person had committed a specific crime;
                    reasonable grounds to make or believe an accusation. Probable cause is needed
                    for a "full blown" search or arrest.

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Probation          A disposition that places the adjudicated subject back into the community under the
                   supervision of a probation officer. The conditions could include; some local jail or
                   workhouse time, drug rehabilitation, chemical dependency counseling, etc.
Probationer        A person who is placed on probation status and required by a court or probation
                   agency to meet certain conditions of behavior, who may or may not be placed under
                   the supervision of a probation agency.
Probation          A person employed by the state or county who provides supervision and counseling
Officer            of subjects who have been adjudicated delinquent by juvenile court, or have been
                   convicted by adult court, and have been placed on probation by the court. Most
                   probation officers are also responsible for the supervision of convicted felons
                   released from prison. There really is no distinction between a probation officer and
                   a parole officer.
Probation          A court order in response to a violation of conditions of probation, taking away a
Revocation         person's probationary status, and usually withdrawing the conditional freedom
                   associated with the status.
Probation          The ending of the probation status of a given person by routine expiration of
Termination        probationary period, by special early termination by court, or by revocation of
                   probation.
Probation          An act or failure to act by a probationer that does not conform to the conditions of his
Violation          or her probation.
Probation Work     The total set of activities required in order to carry out the probation agency functions
Load               of intake screening of juveniles cases, referral of cases to other service agencies,
                   investigation of juveniles and adults for the purpose of preparing predisposition or
                   pre-sentence reports, supervision or treatment of juveniles and adults granted
                   probation, assisting in the enforcement of court orders concerning family problems
                   such as abandonment and nonsupport cases, and such other functions as may be
                   assigned by statute or court order.
Problem-solving (Also, problem-oriented policing) A style of policing that assumes that many crimes
Policing        are caused by existing social conditions within the community, and that crimes can
                be controlled by uncovering and effectively addressing underlying social problems.
                Problem-solving policing makes use of other community resources such as
                counseling centers, welfare programs, and job training facilities. It also attempts to
                involve citizens in the job of crime prevention through education, negotiation, and
                conflict management.
Procedural         A defense which claims that the defendant was in some significant way discriminated
Defense            against in the justice process, or that some important aspect of official procedure
                   was not properly followed in the investigation or prosecution of the crime charged.
Procedural Law     That aspect of the law that specifies the methods to be used in enforcing substantive
                   law.
Procuratorate      Also procuracy. A term used in many countries to refer to agencies with powers and
                   responsibilities similar to those of prosecutor's offices in the United States.
Production         A tested, documented, and periodically executed computer program, which performs
Application        one or more regular business activities.
Production Data    Data regularly used in a production application.

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Professional       See Career Criminal.
Criminal
Program Neglect A term describing a child whose parents neglect, or refuse to provide needed care
                and supervision of their child.
Projectile         The method for determining the path of a high-speed object through space (e.g., a
Trajectory         bullet emanating from a firearm).
Analysis
Promiscuous        In a network, promiscuous mode allows a network device to intercept and read each
Mode               network packet that arrives in its entirety. This mode of operation is sometimes
                   given to a network snoop server that captures and saves all packets for analysis (for
                   example, for monitoring network usage).
Pronounced         Judge pronounces a certain time for confinement with an option not to serve a
Stay               portion of it based on the subject‘s behavior while on probation.
Proof of Concept The goal of a technical proof-of-concept is to address the challenges and strengths
                 of new technologies as well as satisfying client needs. The technical proof of
                 concept methodology allows a means to systematically identify and eliminate issues
                 and to create positive solutions for projects.
Property Bond      The setting of bail in the form of land, houses, stocks, or other tangible property. In
                   the event the defendant absconds prior to trial, the bond becomes the property of
                   the court.
Property Crime     An offense category that, according to the FBI's UCR program, includes burglary,
                   larceny, auto theft, and arson. Since citizen reports of criminal incidents figure
                   heavily in the compilation of "official statistics," the same critiques apply to tallies of
                   these crimes as to the category of violent crime.
Proportionality    A sentencing principle that holds that the severity of sanctions should bear a direct
                   relationship to the seriousness of the crime committed.
Proprietary        Generally refers to a system whose manufacturer will not divulge specifications that
                   would allow other companies to duplicate the product. Also known as closed
                   architecture.
Prosecution        A federal, state, or local criminal justice agency or subunit of which the principal
Agency             function is the prosecution of alleged offenders.
Prosecutor         A public officer who conducts criminal proceedings on behalf of the state.
                   An attorney who is the elected or appointed chief of a prosecution agency, and
                   whose official duty is to conduct criminal proceedings on behalf of the people
                   against persons accused of committing criminal offenses. Also called "district
                   attorney," "DA," "state's attorney," "county attorney," and "U.S. attorney" and any
                   attorney deputized to assist the chief prosecutor.
Prosecutorial      The decision-making power of prosecutors based upon the wide range of choices
Discretion         available to them in the handling of criminal defendants, the scheduling of cases for
                   trial, the acceptance of bargained pleas, and so on. The most important form of
                   prosecutorial discretion lies in the power to charge, or not to charge, a person with
                   an offense.



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Prostitution      Offering or agreeing to engage in, or engaging in, a sex act with another in return for
                  a fee.
Protection/       A crime control strategy that attempts to reduce criminal opportunities by changing
avoidance         people's routine activities, increasing guardianship, or by incapacitating convicted
Strategy          offenders.
Protected         Data not on human beings that is made by statute or federal law not available to the
Nonpublic Data    public and not available to the subject of the data.
Psychological     A perspective on criminological thought that views offensive and deviant behavior
School            as the products of dysfunctional personalities. The conscious and especially the
                  subconscious contents of the human psyche are identified by psychological thinkers
                  as major determinants of behavior.
Psychopath or     A person with a personality disorder, especially one manifested in aggressively
Sociopath         antisocial behavior, which is often said to be the result of a poorly developed
                  superego.
Psychopatholog    The study of pathological mental conditions, that is, mental illness.
y
PTI               Public Technology, Incorporated
Public Defender   An attorney employed by a government agency or sub-agency, or by a private
                  organization under contract to a unit of government, for the purpose of providing
                  defense services to indigents; also, occasionally, an attorney who has volunteered
                  such service. The head of a government agency or subunit whose function is the
                  representation in court of persons accused or convicted of a crime who are unable
                  to hire private counsel, and any attorney employed by such an agency or subunit
                  whose official duty is the performance of the indigent defense function.
Public Defender   A federal, state, or local criminal justice agency or subunit of which the principal
Agency            function is to represent in court persons accused or convicted of a crime(s) who are
                  unable to hire private counsel.
Public            Offenses related to drunkenness or intoxication. Excluded is "driving under the
Drunkenness       influence.
Public Data       Data that is accessible to the public.
Public Key        In cryptography, a public key is a value provided by some designated authority as
                  an encryption key that, combined with a private key derived from the public key, can
                  be used to effectively encrypt messages and digital signatures.
Public (XML)      XML may be employed internal to an application or it may be used to communicate
Interface         information to other systems outside the originating applications environment. The
                  term ‗Public Interface‘ refers to XML used by an application or set of homogeneous
                  applications to communicate with other applications across system boundaries.
                  Federal policy for registration of XML components applies to public interfaces.
                  These policies are not intended to restrict the use of XML internal to systems; in
                  fact, it is recommended that applications separate internal XML grammars
                  processed by application code from that used for external communications.
Publish/Subscri   An information sharing modality in which the subscriber user indicates a desire to be
be                informed if certain events occur affecting a certain person, incident, or case, and the
                  publisher system agrees to provide the information.

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Pull               To physically move data from another system's domain into your domain. The
                   system that extracted the data is now accountable for the data they pulled into their
                   system. Once the pull occurs, the source system is no longer accountable for the
                   data that was sent.
Push               To physically move data from your domain into the domain of another system. The
                   system that received the data is now accountable for the data pushed to them.
                   Once the push occurs, the sending system is no longer accountable for the data
                   that was sent.
PWL                Password List File. When you log onto a network under Windows, you will usually
                   see a dialog asking for your username and password. This dialog often also
                   includes a check box offering to save your password for next time, so you do not
                   need to enter it next time you log on.
Q
QOS                Quality of Service. A guarantee of service quality for an information or
                   telecommunication service; it may include promises concerning time between
                   failures and time to repair failures, minimum bandwidth availability, database
                   accuracy or other measurable descriptors of the service to be provided. This may
                   also be referred to as a Service Level Agreement (SLA).
Qualified          The practice of prefixing an element or an attribute with an XML Namespace
(elements and      qualifier in accordance with the Namespaces in XML W3C Recommendation. This
attributes)        allows two elements with the same name to be disambiguated by an XML
                   processor.
Query              An ad hoc request for information. A query allows flexibility in both the information
                   being requested and the timing of the information request.
Query/Respond      An information sharing modality in which the human user of an application program
                   requests specified information from another information system.
Questioned         When a person‘s identify comes into question because they have the same name
Identify           and date of birth as someone else or because some is improperly using another‘s
                   identity. Both can lead to negative consequences and the need to have the identify
                   verified through biometric identification.
R
Radiation Threat The use of common explosives to spread radioactive materials over a targeted area.
                 Also known as a "dirty bomb," a radiation threat is not a nuclear blast, but rather an
                 explosion with localized radioactive contamination.
Radical            A conflict perspective that sees crime as engendered by the unequal distribution of
Criminology        wealth, power, and other resources that it believes is especially characteristic of
                   capitalist societies. Also called "critical criminology."
Radiological       The pending exposure to radiation energy. (This energy can be produced by short-
Threat             wave x-rays or through unstable isotopes.)
RAIN               Regional Automated Information Network
RAP Sheet          Record of Arrest and Prosecution or more formally known as a Criminal History
                   Report.



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Rape (generic)    Unlawful sexual intercourse, achieved through force and without consent. Broadly
                  speaking, the term "rape" has been applied to a wide variety of sexual attacks, and
                  may include same-sex rape and the rape of a male by a female. The term "forcible
                  rape" has a more concise meaning. See also Forcible Rape and Sexual Battery.
Rated Capacity    The number of inmates that a correctional facility can house without overcrowding,
                  determined by comparison with some set of explicit standards applied to groups of
                  facilities.
Rational Choice   A perspective that holds that criminality is the result of conscious choice, and which
Theory            predicts that individuals choose to commit crime when the benefits outweigh the
                  costs of disobeying the law.
RDA               Remote Data Access, usually to an RDBMS via SQL.
RDBMS             Relational Database Management System
Read              To copy data to a place where it can be used by a program. The term is commonly
                  used to describe copying data from a storage medium, such as a disk, to main
                  memory.
Realist           An emerging perspective that insists upon a pragmatic assessment of crime and
Criminology       associated problems.
Reasonable        In legal proceedings, an actual and substantial doubt arising from the evidence, from
Doubt             the facts or circumstances shown by the evidence, or from the lack of evidence.
                  Also, that state of the case that, after the entire comparison and consideration of all
                  the evidence, leaves the minds of the jurors in that condition that they cannot say
                  they feel an abiding conviction of the truth of the charge.
Reasonable        That standard of proof necessary for conviction in criminal trials.
Doubt Standard
Reasonable        A degree of force that is appropriate in a given situation and is not excessive. The
Force             minimum degree of force necessary to protect oneself, ones' property, a third party,
                  or the property of another in the face of a substantial threat.
Reasonable        The minimum acceptable set of controls that an agency would be expected to have,
Measures          given its industry, its location, the nature of its business, and other aspects of its
                  situation; i.e., due diligence.
Reasonable        1. That level of suspicion that would justify an officer in making further inquiry or in
Suspicion         conducting further investigation. Reasonable suspicion may permit a simple "stop
                  and frisk."
                  2. A belief, based upon a consideration of the facts at hand and upon reasonable
                  inferences drawn from those facts, which would induce an ordinarily prudent and
                  cautious person under the same circumstances to generally conclude that criminal
                  activity is taking place, or that criminal activity has recently occurred. See also,
                  probable cause.
Recidivism        The repetition of criminal behavior.
Recidivism Rate   The percentage of convicted offenders who have been released from prison and
                  who are later rearrested for a new crime, generally within five years following
                  release.



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Recidivist        A person who has been convicted of one or more crimes and who is alleged or
                  found to have subsequently committed another crime or series of crimes.
Reckless          Activity that increases the risk of harm.
Behavior
Records           A system that stores computerized records of crime incident reports and other data.
Management        May automatically compile information for UCR or NIBRS reporting. Can perform
System (RMS)      greater functions when integrated with other systems such as CAD and GPS.
                  A software application specifically designed to electronically record information
                  critical to effectively operating a criminal justice facility.
Red - Severe      Homeland Security Advisory. A Severe Condition reflects a severe risk of terrorist
Condition         attacks. Under most circumstances, the Protective Measures for a Severe Condition
                  are not intended to be sustained for substantial periods of time. In addition to the
                  Protective Measures in the Green, Blue, Yellow and Orange Threat Conditions (see
                  Green-Low Condition; Blue-Guarded Condition; Yellow-Elevated Condition; and
                  Orange-High Condition), Federal departments and agencies also should consider
                  the following general measures in addition to the agency-specific Protective
                  Measures that they will develop and implement:
                  Increasing or redirecting personnel to address critical emergency needs;
                  Assigning emergency response personnel and pre-positioning and mobilizing
                  specially trained teams or resources;
                  Monitoring, redirecting, or constraining transportation systems; and
                  Closing public and government facilities.
Reference         The legal procedure for determining whether a juvenile's hearing case should be
                  transferred from juvenile court for trial in the adult court system.
Reformatory       A late-nineteenth-century correctional model based upon the use of the
Concept           indeterminate sentence and belief in the possibility of rehabilitation, especially for
                  youthful offenders. The reformatory concept faded with the emergence of industrial
                  prisons around the turn of the century.
Registry          A database used by the Windows operating system (Windows 95® and NT®) to
                  store configuration information. Most Windows applications write data to the
                  Registry, at least during installation. You can edit the Registry directly by using the
                  Registry Editor (regedit.exe) provided with the operating system. However, you
                  must take great care because errors in the Registry could disable your computer.
Regression Test   Test performed before production to identify and prevent errors and verify that
                  unchanged software will continue to function as designed.
Regular           A language for defining patterns in strings and numbers. The XML Schema
Expression        language allows elements and attributes to be constrained by regular expressions to
                  provide a precise description of the range of possible values.
                  For instance, an element of type=‗integer‘ could be further constrained to be only a
                  3-digit integer by the regular expression ‗/d{3}‘.
Rehabilitate      To permanently change behavior.
Rehabilitation    The attempt to reform a criminal offender. Also, the state in which a reformed
                  offender is said to be.

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Relational        A type of database management system, which stores data in related tables. New
Database          types of data can more easily be added and the user can view the data in multiple
Management        ways.
System
Relationship      An association between two entities in a data model. See Entity.
Release           A document signed by the subject that states the terms of release.
Contract
Release on        The pretrial release of a criminal defendant on their written promise to appear. No
Recognizance      cash or property bond is required.
(ROR)
Relevant          Directly related to the issue, as it tends either to prove or disprove the point.
Remote Access Any access methodology that does not involve a trusted dedicated circuit.
(e.g. modem dial-
in, internet)
Rendering XML     XML is not easily useable to readers in its native format and should be transformed
                  for presentation (rendered), rendered for presentation, either by a CSS, XSLT (to
                  well-formed HTML) for browser viewing, or by XSLFO into a format for viewing by
                  other presentation applications (e.g. into Adobe Acrobat.pdf, or MS Word.doc files.)
                  Note: It is a common assumption that all XML must be rendered (by a stylesheet) to
                  be useful, and that therefore all XML must have a stylesheet. This is a mistake; XML
                  data can be used by an application via an API and never get rendered at all.
Reprieve          An executive act temporarily suspending the execution of a sentence, usually a
                  death sentence. A reprieve differs from other suspensions of sentence not only in
                  that it almost always applies to temporary withdrawing of a death sentence, but also
                  in that it is usually an act of clemency intended to provide the prisoner with time to
                  secure amelioration of the sentence.
Research          The use of standardized, systematic procedures in the search for knowledge.
Reserved Word     A special word reserved by a programming language or by a program. You are not
(not reserved     allowed to use reserved words as variable names. For example, in BASIC and
area)             COBOL, the word IF is reserved because it has a special meaning. Reserved words
                  are sometimes called keywords.
Resident          A person required by official action or his own acceptance of placement to reside in
                  a public or private facility established for purposes of confinement, supervision, or
                  care.
Residential       A sentence of commitment to a correctional facility for adults, in which the offender
Commitment        is required to reside at night, but from which he or she is regularly permitted to
                  depart during the day, unaccompanied by any official.
Responsible       Human being designated by statute, rule or resolution who is responsible for the
Authority         collection, use and dissemination of data in a government entity.




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Restitution   A sanction ordered by the court as one of the conditions of probation. It involves the
              payment of money by the offender to the victim of the crime. The 1992 Crime Bill
              gave victims the right to request restitution. Victims may be reimbursed for property
              damage, loss of work, counseling, etc.
              A court requirement that alleged or convicted offenders pay money, provide
              services to the victim of the crime, or provide services to the community.
Restoration   A goal of criminal sentencing that attempts to make the victim "whole again."
Restorative   A response to crime that enables victims, offenders and the community to
Justice       collaborate with government in repairing the injuries resulting from crime.
              A sentencing model that builds upon restitution and community participation in an
              attempt to make the victim "whole again."
Retention     A plan for the management of official records.
Schedule
Retribution   The act of taking revenge upon a criminal perpetrator.
Revenue       A common practice in corrections to collect unpaid fines or restitution. A report is
Recapture     filed with the state that lists all unpaid fines or restitution. Any state tax rebates are
              confiscated and sent to the county where the recapture was signed until the total is
              paid in full.
Revocation    The legal process by which the court rescinds a subject‘s probation and decides
(Probation)   whether or not to send or return a probationer to jail or to prison.
              The cancellation of a probationer's or parolee's freedom. Revocation usually results
              from the violation of at least one of the conditions of probation or parole and may be
              ordered only by a special hearing board constituted for that purpose.
Revocation    The process by which a subject on supervised release is removed from the
(Supervised   community and returned to prison for failure to satisfy the conditions of the release.
Release)
Revocation    A hearing held before a legally constituted hearing body (such as a parole board) in
Hearing       order to determine whether or not a probationer or parolee has violated the
              conditions and requirements of his or her probation or parole.
RFLP          Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
RFI           Request for Information
RFP           Request for Proposal
RFQ           Request for Quote
RICCS         Regional Incident Communication and Coordination System
RICO          Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization. A federal statute that allows for the
              federal seizure of assets derived from illegal enterprise.
Rights of     Those powers and privileges that are constitutionally guaranteed to every defendant.
Defendant
Risk          The likelihood or probability that a loss of information resources or breach of security
              shall occur.


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Risk Analysis       An evaluation of system assets and their vulnerabilities to threats. Risk analysis
                    estimates potential losses that may result from threats.
Risk                Decisions to accept exposure or to reduce vulnerabilities by either mitigating the
Management          risks or applying cost effective controls.
RISS                The Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISS) Program is composed of six
                    regional centers that share intelligence and coordinate efforts against criminal
                    networks that operate in many locations across jurisdictional lines. The RISS
                    Program is a federally funded program administered by the U.S. Department of
                    Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance.
RISSNET             Regional Information Sharing Systems Network
RMIN                Rocky Mountain Information Network. The RMIN geographical region includes
                    Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The
                    center also has member agencies in Canada.
RMS                 Records Management System
                    A system that stores computerized records of crime incident reports and other data.
                    May automatically compile information for UCR or NIBRS reporting. Can perform
                    greater functions when integrated with other systems such as CAD and GPS.
                    A software application specifically designed to electronically record information
                    critical to effectively operating a criminal justice facility.
Robbery (UCR)       The unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate
                    possession of another by force or threat of force.
ROCIC               Regional Organized Crime Information Center. The ROCIC geographical region
                    includes Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi,
                    North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West
                    Virginia, as well as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Rosetta             Information sharing technique which relies on the ability to transform from any one of
                    many database formats to any other of the same large number of database formats;
                    a many-to-many transformation capability.
Router              A device that interconnects networks; used in some instances to provide access
                    control. A special-purpose computer or software package that handles the
                    connection of two or more networks. Routers check the destination address of the
                    packets and decide the route over which to send them. A router is a device that
                    forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two
                    networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP‘s network. Routers are
                    located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.
Routine             A regular, more or less unvarying procedure.
Routine           A brand of rational choice theory which suggests that life-styles contribute
Activities Theory significantly to both the volume and type of crime found in any society.
or Life-style
Theory
RPC                 Remote Procedure Call. A form of application-to-application communication that
                    hides the intricacies of the network by using an ordinary procedure call mechanism.
                    It is a tightly coupled synchronous process.


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RSA          A public-key encryption technology developed by RSA Data Security, Inc. The
             acronym stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman, the inventors of the technique.
             The RSA algorithm is based on the fact that there is no efficient way to factor very
             large numbers. Deducing an RSA key, therefore, requires an extraordinary amount
             of computer processing power and time.
RSS          Rich Site Summary, or Really Simple Syndication – A lightweight XML format for
             distributing content on the Web.
RTF          Rich Text Format file. A standard formalized by Microsoft Corporation for specifying
             formatting of documents. RTF files are actually ASCII files with special commands
             to indicate formatting information, such as fonts and margins. Other document
             formatting languages include the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which is
             used to define documents on the World Wide Web, and the Standard Generalized
             Markup Language (SGML), which is a more robust version of HTML.
RTTF         Regional Terrorism Task Force
Rules of     Rules of court that govern the admissibility of evidence at a criminal hearing and
Evidence     trial.
Rule 25      A chemical dependency evaluation must be obtained before release.
Rule 25      A chemical dependency assessment conducted by a certified assessor on any
Assessment   convicted offender as ordered by the court.
Runaway      A juvenile who has been adjudicated by a judicial officer of juvenile court, as having
             committed the status offense of leaving the custody and home of his or her parents,
             guardians, or custodians without permission and failing to return within a reasonab le
             length of time.
S
SAIC         Special Agent in Charge
SAML         Security Assertion Markup Language
Sandbox      A security measure in the Java development environment. The sandbox is a set of
             rules that are used when creating an applet that prevents certain functions when the
             applet is sent as part of a Web page. When a browser requests a Web page with
             applets, the applets are sent automatically and can be executed as soon as the
             page arrives in the browser. If the applet is allowed unlimited access to memory and
             operating system resources, it can do harm in the hands of someone with malicious
             intent. The sandbox creates an environment in which there are strict limitations on
             what system resources the applet can request or access. Sandboxes are used
             when executable code comes from unknown or untrusted sources and allow the
             user to run untrusted code safely.
SARS         Suspicious Activity Report System; a bank reporting system used to identify
             potentially suspicious transactions.




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SAX                 Simple API for XML. SAX is an open-source interface for accessing information
                    from XML documents. SAX parsers process a document, triggering events in the
                    calling application corresponding to the parser encountering opening tags, closing
                    tags and character data. Accessing XML data via SAX is very quick and places
                    fewer demands on system resources than DOM, however once processed, a
                    document must be re-parsed if the required information was not retained initially.
                    This can be conceptualized as ―serial‖ or sequential access to the information.
SBU                 Sensitive But Unclassified
Scalability         The ability of an information system to provide high performance as greater
                    demands are placed upon it, through the addition of extra computing power.
Scalable            Describes how well a system can be adapted and expanded to meet increased
                    demands.
SCBA                Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
SCI                 Sensitive Compartmented Intelligence
Scientific Police   The application of social scientific techniques to the study of police administration
Management          for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen
                    complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources.
SCR                 Screen Saver files. These are special types of program files (see EXE). They
                    cannot be executed directly, but can be automatically launched by Windows after a
                    specified time of inactivity.
Schema              XML instructions.
                    Within the context of XML, a document describing a set of XML
                    Instances. Schemas may be expressed in a number of different languages. Most
                    familiar is the Document Type Definition (DTD) syntax described in the XML 1.0
                    specification. Schemas provide the rules against which a validating parser
                    Validates an instance of XML.
Scope Creep         The slow and continuous expansion of the scope, resulting in a broad, unfocused
                    and unmanageable scope, usually leading to cost-overruns, missed deadlines and
                    loss of original goal.
Screen Saver        A utility program that prevents a monitor from being etched by an unchanging
                    image. It also can provide access control.
SDE                 Standard Data Element as defined by the DoD 8320 series and used in the DDDS.
Sealed              Data ordered by the court not to be disclosed, sometimes used interchangeably with
Document            ―expunge‖.
SEARCH              The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics
Search Warrant      A legal document that grants law enforcement the right to search a location.
                    A document issued by a judicial officer which directs a law enforcement officer to
                    conduct a search at a specific location, for specified property or persons relating to
                    a crime(s), to seize the property or persons if found, and to account for the results of
                    the search to the issuing judicial officer.



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Searches            Those warrantless searches of arrested individuals that are conducted in order to
Incident to an      insure the safety of the arresting officer(s). Because individuals placed under arrest
Arrest              may be in the possession of weapons, courts have recognized the need for
                    arresting officers to protect themselves by conducting an immediate and warrantless
                    search of arrested individuals without the need for a warrant.
Second-degree       Criminal homicide which is unplanned, and which is often described as a "crime of
Murder              passion."
Secret Service      The United States Secret Service is mandated by statute and executive order to
                    carry out two significant missions: protection and criminal investigations. The Secret
                    Service protects the President and Vice President, their families, heads of state, and
                    other designated individuals; investigates threats against these protectees; protects
                    the White House, Vice President‘s Residence, Foreign Missions, and other buildings
                    within Washington, D.C.; and plans and implements security designs for designated
                    National Special Security Events. The Secret Service also investigates violations of
                    laws relating to counterfeiting of obligations and securities of the United States;
                    financial crimes that include, but are not limited to, access device fraud, financial
                    institution fraud, identity theft, computer fraud; and computer-based attacks on our
                    nation‘s financial, banking, and telecommunications infrastructure.
Secure Sockets      The leading security protocol on the Internet. When an SSL session is started, the
Layer (SSL)         server sends its public key to the browser, which the browser uses to send a
                    randomly generated secret key back to the server in order to have a secret key
                    exchange for that session.
Security            Refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or
                    compromised. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. Data
                    encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a
                    deciphering mechanism. A password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user
                    access to a particular program or system.
                    The restriction of inmate movement within a correctional facility, usually divided into
                    maximum, medium, and minimum levels.
Security            A person charged with monitoring and implementing security controls and
Administrator       procedures for a system.
Security Controls Hardware, programs, procedures, policies, and physical safeguards, which are put in
                  place to assure the integrity and protection of information and the means of
                  processing it.
Security Incident An event that results in unauthorized access, loss, disclosure, modification or
or Breach         destruction of information resources whether accidental or deliberate.
Seizure Disk        A specially prepared floppy disk designed to protect the computer system from
                    accidental alteration of data.
Self-Defense        The protection of oneself or one's property from unlawful injury or the immediate risk
                    of unlawful injury; the justification for an act which would otherwise constitute an
                    offense, that the person who committed it reasonably believed that the act was
                    necessary to protect self or property from immediate danger.
Semantic Data       Data about the meaning of the data in a message. This can be expressed as a data
                    schema, a data dictionary, an SML or SGML DTD (Data Type Declaration).


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Sentence        The time to be served in a prison or jail; also includes fine, probation, restitution and
                community service.
                The penalty imposed by a court upon a person convicted of a crime. The court
                judgment specifying the penalty imposed upon a person convicted of a crime. Any
                disposition of a defendant resulting from a conviction, including the court decision to
                suspend execution of a sentence.
Sentencing      The imposition of a criminal sanction by a sentencing authority.
Sentencing      Part of restorative Justice, sentencing circles have been around for a long time in
Circles         the Native American Culture. Sentencing circles have many varieties, however it
                primarily runs by having the offender, victim, community members and family of the
                offender hear a case and sentence the offender accordingly. In some cases, a
                Judge sits in on these as well.
Sentencing      Court dispositions of defendants after a judgment of conviction, expressed as
Dispositions    penalties, such as imprisonment or payment of fines; or any of a number of
                alternatives to actually executed penalties, such as suspended sentences, grants of
                probation, or orders to perform restitution; or various combinations of the foregoing.
Sentencing      A system of determining and setting out presumptive sentences for persons
Guidelines      convicted of crimes.
Sentencing      In criminal proceedings, a hearing during which the court or jury considers relevant
Hearing         information, such as evidence concerning aggravating or mitigating circumstances,
                for the purpose of determining a sentencing disposition for a person convicted of an
                offense(s).
Sentencing      The Sentencing Project is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that promotes reduced
Project         reliance on incarceration and increased use of more effective and humane
                alternatives to deal with crime.
Sentencing to   A sentencing option wherein the subject performs a specified number of hours of
Service (STS)   public service work under the supervision of a work crew leader employed by the
                state or a local corrections agency. The public service work may be specified to pay
                off a fine, as a consequence for willful non-compliance with orders of the court, or as
                a condition of probation. Some courts also sentence offenders to STS rather than
                jail or workhouse time.
Separation of   A condition where no one individual or function has control of the entire process.
Duties          When properly implemented, separation of duties provides the necessary checks
                and balances to mitigate against fraud, errors, and omissions.
Sequestered     A jury that is isolated from the public during the course of a trial and throughout the
Jury            deliberation process.

Serial Murder   Criminal homicide that involves the killing of several victims in three or more
                separate events.




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Server           Program in the client/server architecture that answers client‘s requests. The server
                 is also the computer that makes resources available to the workstations (clients) on
                 the network. A computer or software package that provides a specific capabilities to
                 client software running on other computers. A server is a computer or device on a
                 network that manages network resources. For example, a file server is a computer
                 and storage device dedicated to storing files. Any user on the network can store
                 files on the server. A print server is a computer that manages one or more printers,
                 and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic. A database server
                 is a computer system that processes database queries. Servers are often
                 dedicated, meaning that they perform no other tasks besides their server tasks. On
                 multiprocessing operating systems, however, a single computer can execute
                 several programs at once. A server in this case could refer to the program that is
                 managing resources rather than the entire computer.
Service Style    A style of policing that is marked by a concern with helping rather than strict
                 enforcement. Service-oriented agencies are more likely to take advantage of
                 community resources, such as drug treatment programs, than are other types of
                 departments.
SES              Senior Executive Service
Settlement       An agreement between plaintiff and defendant in a civil case prior to trial.
Sex Offenses     In current statistical usage, the name of a broad category of varying content, usually
                 consisting of all offenses having a sexual element except forcible rape and
                 commercial sex offenses. All unlawful sexual intercourse, unlawful sexual contact,
                 and other unlawful behavior intended to result in sexual gratification or profit from
                 sexual activity.
                 The name of the UCR category used to record and report arrests made for
                 "offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like," except forcible
                 rape, prostitution, and commercialized vice.
Sex Offenses -   Any sexual offense other than rape that did not involve physical contact; e.g.,
Non Violent      indecent exposure, solicitation of lewd or dissolute conduct, loitering for the purpose
                 of engaging in lewd conduct, etc.
Sex Offenses -   Any sexual offense other than rape that included physical contact; e.g., child
Violent          molestation that did not include rape, sexual battery, statutory rape, etc.
Sexual Battery   Intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person without his or her consent
                 that entails a sexual component or purpose.
SGML             Standard Generalized Markup Language. A legacy-tagging standard. Its progeny
                 include HTML and XML. See Markup Language.
                 The Standard Generalized Markup Language [ISO 8879]. SGML is the parent of
                 both HTML and XML.
Shareware        Software distributed on the basis of an honor system. Most shareware is delivered
                 free of charge, but the author usually requests that you pay a small fee if you like
                 the program and use it regularly. By sending the small fee, you become registered
                 with the producer so that you can receive service assistance and updates. You can
                 copy shareware and pass it along to friends and colleagues, but they too are
                 expected to pay a fee if they use the product.


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Shell              The outermost layer of a program. Shell is another term for user interface.
                   Operating systems and applications sometimes provide an alternative shell to make
                   interaction with the program easier. For example, if the application is usually
                   command driven, the shell might be a menu-driven system that translates the user‘s
                   selections into the appropriate commands. UNIX systems offer a choice between
                   several different shells, the most popular being the Cshell, the Bourne shell, and the
                   Korn shell. Each offers a somewhat different command language.
Shelter-in-Place   The process of staying where you are and taking shelter, rather than trying to
                   evacuate.
Sheriff            The elected chief officer of a county law enforcement agency, usually responsible
                   for law enforcement in unincorporated areas and for the operation of the county jail.
Sheriff's          A local law enforcement agency organized at the county level, directed by a sheriff,
Department         which exercises its law enforcement functions at the county level, usually within
                   unincorporated areas, and operates the county jail in most jurisdictions.
Shock              A sentencing option that makes use of "boot camp"-type prisons in order to impress
Incarceration      upon convicted offenders the realities of prison life.
Shock Probation The practice of sentencing offenders to prison, allowing them to apply for
                probationary release, and enacting such release in surprise fashion. Offenders who
                receive shock probation may not be aware of the fact that they will be released on
                probation and may expect to spend a much longer time behind bars.
SHR                Supplementary Homicide Report. FBI/UCR report used to collect additional details
                   regarding the victim, offender, their relationship, the weapon used, and the
                   circumstances in each criminal homicide.
SID                State Individual Identifier
SIG                Special Interest Group
Simple Assault     Unlawful threatening, attempted inflicting, or inflicting of less than serious bodily
(UCR)              injury, in the absence of a deadly weapon.
Single Signon      In any client/server relationship, single signon is a session/user authentication
                   process that permits a user to enter one name and password in order to access
                   multiple applications. The single signon, which is requested at the initiation of the
                   session, authenticates the user to access all the applications they have been given
                   the rights to on the server, and eliminates future authentication prompts when the
                   user switches applications during that particular session.
Single-use         Items that will be used only once to collect evidence, such as biological samples,
Equipment          then discarded to minimize contamination (e.g., tweezers, scalpel blades, droppers).
SIOC               FBI‘s command center known as the Strategic Information and Operations Center
SIS                Senior Intelligence Service
Situational        A brand of rational choice theory that views criminal behavior "as a function of
Choice Theory      choices and decisions made within a context of situational constraints and
                   opportunities."
Situational        A social policy approach that looks to develop greater understanding of crime and
Crime              more effective crime prevention strategies through concern with the physical,
Prevention         organizational, and social environments that make crime possible.

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Slack Space      The unused space in a disk cluster. The DOS and Windows file systems use fixed-
                 size clusters. Even if the actual data being stored requires less storage than the
                 cluster size, an entire cluster is reserved for the file. The unused space is called the
                 slack space. DOS and older Windows systems use a 16-bit file allocation table
                 (FAT), which results in very large cluster sizes for large partitions. For example, if
                 the partition size is 2 GB, each cluster will be 32 K. Even if a file requires only 4 K,
                 the entire 32 K will be allocated, resulting in 28 K of slack space. Windows 95 OSR
                 2 and Windows 98 resolve this problem by using a 32-bit FAT (FAT32) that supports
                 cluster sizes smaller than 1K.
Sleep Mode       Power conservation status that suspends the hard drive and monitor resulting in a
                 blank screen to conserve energy, sometimes referred to as suspend mode.
SME              Subject Matter Expert
SMTP             Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A protocol for sending email messages between
                 servers. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send
                 messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an
                 email client using either POP or IMAP. In addition, S MTP is generally used to send
                 messages from a mail client to a mail server. This is why you need to specify both
                 the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail
                 application.
Smuggling        Unlawful movement of goods across a national frontier or state boundary or into or
                 out of a correctional facility.
SNA              System Network Architecture. A network architecture from IBM.
Sniffer          A program and/or device that monitors data traveling over a network. Sniffers can
                 be used both for legitimate network management functions and for stealing
                 information off a network. Unauthorized sniffers can be extremely dangerous to a
                 network‘s security because they are virtually impossible to detect and can be
                 inserted almost anywhere. This makes them a favorite weapon in the hacker‘s
                 arsenal.
SOAP             ―SOAP is the Simple Object Access Protocol—a way to create widely distributed,
                 complex computing environments that run over the Internet using existing Internet
                 infrastructure. SOAP is about applications communicating directly with each other
                 over the Internet in a very rich way.‖ [MS] ―SOAP is a protocol specification for
                 invoking methods on servers, services, components, and objects. SOAP codifies
                 the existing practice of using XML and HTTP as a method invocation mechanism.
                 The SOAP specification mandates a small number of HTTP headers that facilitate
                 firewall/proxy filtering. The SOAP specification also mandates an XML vocabulary
                 that is used for representing method parameters, return values, and exceptions.‖
                 [DevelopMentor]. Taken from the XML Cover Pages. The current SOAP 1.1
                 specification is a W3C Note; SOAP 1.2 is going through the W3C consensus
                 process and was published as a first working draft in July 2001.
Social Control   The use of sanctions and rewards available through a group to influence and shape
                 the behavior of individual members of that group. Social control is a primary concern
                 of social groups and communities, and it is the interest that human groups hold in
                 the exercise of social control that leads to the creation of both criminal and civil
                 statutes.



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Social Debt        A sentencing principle that objectively counts an offender's criminal history in
                   sentencing decisions.
Social             A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven
Disorganization    development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of
                   consensus.
Social Justice     An ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and which is linked to fundamental
                   notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.
Social Order       The condition of a society characterized by social integration, consensus, smooth
                   functioning, and lack of interpersonal and institutional conflict. Also, a lack of social
                   disorganization.
Social Problems    The belief that crime is a manifestation of underlying social problems, such as
Perspective        poverty, discrimination, pervasive family violence, inadequate socialization
                   practices, and the breakdown of traditional social institutions.
Social Process     Also known as interactionist perspectives, emphasize the give-and-take that occurs
Theories           between offender, victim, and society–and specifically between the offender and
                   agents of formal social control such as the police, courts, and correctional
                   organizations.
Social-            A perspective on criminological thought which highlights the role played in crime
Psychological      causation by weakened self-esteem and meaningless social roles. Social-
School             psychological thinkers stress the relationship of the individual to the social group as
                   the underlying cause of behavior.
Social             A viewpoint which holds that individuals are fundamentally responsible for their own
Responsibility     behavior, and which maintains that they choose crime over other, more law-abiding,
Perspective        courses of action.
Social-structural Explain crime by reference to various aspects of the social fabric. They emphasize
Theories          relationships between social institutions, and describe the types of behavior that
                  tend to characterize groups of people as opposed to individuals.
Sociobiology       The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior.
Sockets            A portable standard for network application providers on TCP/IP networks.
Software           Computer instructions or data stored in an electronic format.
Software Piracy    The unauthorized duplication of software or the illegal transfer of data from one
                   storage media to another. Software piracy is one of the most prevalent computer
                   crimes in the world.
Specific           A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent a particular offender from
Deterrence         engaging in repeat criminality.
Spectrum           Radio spectrum refers to the array of channels, like the channels on a television,
                   available for communications transmissions. Commonly referred too as spectrum,
                   these channels are a finite natural resource – they cannot be created, purchased or
                   discovered.
Speedy Trial       A trial that is held in a timely manner. The right of a defendant to have a prompt trial
                   is guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which reads, "In all
                   criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial."


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Speedy Trial Act   A 1974 federal law requiring that proceedings in a criminal case against a defendant
                   begin before passage of a specified period of time, such as 70 working days after
                   indictment. Some states also have speedy trial requirements.
Split Sentence     A sentence explicitly requiring the convicted person to serve a period of
                   confinement in a local, state, or federal facility followed by a period of probation.
SPOCK              SPOCK is a joint government-industry consortium sponsored by NSA to
                   demonstrate security features of commercial and government products that can
                   support dependable security architectures. This activity provides a forum for
                   government users and security technology providers to share information on
                   security requirements, emerging technologies, and new product developments.
                   Integrators and product developers are afforded opportunities to share new
                   solutions, identify government-developed technology available for commercial use,
                   and prototype products in government sponsored test beds.
Spoofing           Spoofing is the forgery of an e-mail header so that the message appears to have
                   originated from someone or somewhere other than the actual source. Spam
                   distributors often use spoofing in an attempt to get recipients to open, and possibly
                   even respond to, their solicitations. Spoofing can be used legitimately. Classic
                   examples of senders who might prefer to disguise the source of the e-mail include a
                   sender reporting mistreatment by a spouse to a welfare agency or a ―whistleblower‖
                   who fears retaliation. However, spoofing anyone other than yourself is illegal in
                   some jurisdictions.
Spreadsheet        A table of values arranged in rows and columns. Each value can have a predefined
                   relationship to the other values. If you change one value, therefore, you may need
                   to change other values as well. Spreadsheet applications (sometimes referred to
                   simply as spreadsheets) are computer programs that let you create and manipulate
                   spreadsheets electronically. In a spreadsheet application, each value sits in a cell.
                   You can define what type of data is in each cell and how different cells depend on
                   one another. The relationships between cells are called formulas, and the names of
                   the cells are called labels. Once you have defined the cells and the formulas for
                   linking them together, you can enter your data. You can then modify selected values
                   to see how all the other values change accordingly. This enables you to study
                   various what-if scenarios.
SQL                Structured Query Language. Database language used by a relational database to
                   query, modify and manage information.
                   Structured Query Language. A language for querying, writing to, and constructing
                   relational databases. Multiple versions of SQL exist; meaning that an SQL query
                   that works for one database will not necessarily work against another.
SSL                Secure Sockets Layer. The leading security protocol on the Internet. When an SSL
                   session is started, the server sends its public key to the browser, which the browser
                   uses to send a randomly generated secret key back to the server in order to have a
                   secret key exchange for that session.
Stand-alone        A computer not connected to a network or other computer.
Computer
Standard of        The burden of proof.
Proof


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Standard/         See Comparison Samples.
reference
Sample
Standards         Organizations that have defined procedures for the determination that a standard is
Organizations     necessary, the creation of a standard, and the periodic review of a standard. ANSI,
                  ISO, IETF, WWWC (W3C), and OMG are examples of standards organizations.
Stare decisis     The legal principle that requires that courts be bound by their own earlier decisions
                  and by those of higher courts having jurisdiction over them regarding subsequent
                  cases on similar issues of law and fact. The term literally means "standing by
                  decided matters."
State             The party in a criminal trial that represents the public.
State Action      The traditional legal principle that only government officials or their representatives
Doctrine          in the criminal justice process could be held accountable for the violation of an
                  individual's constitutional civil rights.
State Court       Coordinating personnel who assist with case flow management, budgeting of
Administrators    operating funds, and court docket administration.
State Court       State judicial structures. Most states have at least three court levels, generally
Systems           referred to as trial courts, appellate courts, and a state supreme court.
State Highway     A state law enforcement agency of which the principal functions consist of
Patrol            prevention, detection, and investigation of motor vehicle offenses, and the
                  apprehension of traffic offenders.
State Police      A state law enforcement agency whose principal functions usually include
                  maintaining statewide police communications, aiding local police in criminal
                  investigation, police training, and guarding state property; may also include highway
                  patrol.
State-use         A form of inmate labor in which items produced by inmates are salable only by or to
System            state offices. Items that only the state can sell include such things as license plates
                  and hunting licenses, while items sold only to state offices include furniture and
                  cleaning supplies.
Statewide         A record keeping system where government data are collected, stored disseminated
System            or used by means of a system common to one or more state agencies or more than
                  one political subdivision or any combination of state agencies and political
                  subdivisions.
Statistical       A criminological perspective with roots in the early 1800s that seeks to uncover
School            correlations between crime rates and other types of demographic data.
Status Offender   A child who commits an act that is contrary to the law by virtue of the juvenile's
                  status as a child. Purchasing cigarettes, buying alcohol, and truancy are examples
                  of such behavior.




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Status Offense     A class of crimes that concerns the characteristics of the accused; for example -
                   truancy or curfew only applies to minors. (Behavior that is considered an offense
                   only when committed by a juvenile.)
                   An act or conduct that is declared by statute to be an offense, but only when
                   committed by or engaged in by a juvenile, and which can be adjudicated only by a
                   juvenile court.
Statute            A law enacted by a legislature.
Statutory Law      Written or codified law. The "law on the books," as enacted by a governmental body
                   or agency having the power to make laws.
Stay of            When a child has been adjudicated delinquent, but the Juvenile Court has
Adjudication       determined that the circumstances of the case warrant the child being given a
                   ―second chance,‖ the court can suspend, or stay, the sentence. If the child satisfies
                   all conditions set forth by the court, the court can dismiss the charge and there will
                   be no record of the adjudication.
Stay of            If the alternative sanctions specified with a stayed sentence are complied with to the
Execution          court‘s satisfaction, the original sentence is never executed, but the conviction
                   remains on the subject‘s record.
                   The stopping by a court of the carrying out or implementation of a judgment, that is,
                   of a court order previously issued.
Stay of            If the alternative sanctions specified with a stayed sentence are complied with to the
Imposition         court‘s satisfaction, the original sentence is never executed, and the convicted
                   offense is reduced from a felony to a gross misdemeanor or misdemeanor.
Stayed Sentence The court frequently has discretion in the severity of the sentence it imposes. Many
                times the court may hand down a sentence and then withhold carrying it out,
                providing that the offender complies with a sentence containing alternative
                sanctions. The court is in fact telling the subject that he/she is getting a second
                chance, but if the alternative sanctions are not complied with, the harsher penalties
                can and likely will be imposed.
Stealth            In computing, stealth refers to an event, object, or file that evades methodical
                   attempts to find it. In particular, the term applies to certain computer viruses, and to
                   a state of affairs in which a computer or port is rendered invisible to hacking
                   programs.
Steganography      The art and science of hiding information by embedding messages within other,
                   seemingly harmless messages. Steganography works by replacing bits of useless
                   or unused data in regular computer files (such as graphics, sound, text, HTML, or
                   even floppy disks) with bits of different, invisible information. This hidden information
                   can be plain text, cipher text, or even images. Unlike encryption, steganography
                   cannot be detected. Therefore, it is used when encryption is not permitted. Or, more
                   commonly, steganography is used to supplement encryption. An encrypted file may
                   still hide information using steganography, so even if the encrypted file is
                   deciphered, the hidden message is not seen. Special software is needed for
                   steganography, and there are freeware versions available at any good download
                   site. Steganography (literally meaning covered writing) dates back to ancient
                   Greece, where common practices consisted of etching messages in wooden tablets
                   and covering them with wax, and tattooing a shaved messenger‘s head, letting his
                   hair grow back, then shaving it again when he arrived at his contact point.
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Stipulation        A written or oral agreement between attorneys or parties concerning some phase of
                   a lawsuit.
Stolen Property    The unlawful receiving, buying, distributing, selling, transporting, concealing, or
Offenses           possessing of the property of another by a person who knows that the property has
                   been unlawfully obtained from the owner or other lawful possessor.
Stop and Frisk     The detaining of a person by a law enforcement officer for the purpose of
                   investigation, accompanied by a superficial examination by the officer of the
                   person's body surface or clothing to discover weapons, contraband, or other objects
                   relating to criminal activity.
Stored             A program that creates a named collection of SQL or other procedural statements
Procedure          and logic that is compiled, verified, and stored in a server database.
Strain Theory or   A sociological approach that posits a disjuncture between socially and sub culturally
Anomie Theory      sanctioned means and goals as the cause of criminal behavior.
Strategic          Information that permits users at the highest levels of government to define a high-
                   priority issue, identify and relate broad but pivotal issues, and understand the most
                   significant elements so as to arrive at an informed decision.
Strategic          A style of policing which retains the traditional police goal of professional crime
Policing           fighting, but enlarges the enforcement target to include nontraditional kinds of
                   criminals such as serial offenders, gangs and criminal associations, drug distribution
                   networks, and sophisticated white-collar and computer criminals. Strategic policing
                   generally makes use of innovative enforcement techniques, including intelligence
                   operations, undercover stings, electronic surveillance, and sophisticated forensic
                   methods.
Street Crime       A class of offenses, sometimes defined with some degree of formality as those
                   which occur in public locations, are visible and assaultive, and thus constitute a
                   group of crimes which are a special risk to the public and a special target of law
                   enforcement preventive efforts and prosecutorial attention.
Strict Liability   Liability without fault or intention. Strict liability offenses do not require mens rea.
Structured Data    Data (q.v.), which carries with it the associated semantic data (q.v.) or a pointer to it.
Structured         A model of criminal punishment that includes determinate and commission-created
Sentencing         presumptive sentencing schemes, as well as voluntary/advisory sentencing
                   guidelines.
STS                Sequence Tagged Sites. Unique gene markers.
Style Sheet        A method for describing the appearance of a document in print or on screen, such
                   as CSS and XSL.
                   A generic term that may refer to an XSL Stylesheet or a CSS. Often the term is
                   used to reference XSL Stylesheets implicitly, however this is not technically correct,
                   as a stylesheet may be CSS conformant, and have nothing the do with XML
                   whatsoever. The primary function of a stylesheet is to render XML to a presentation
                   format. However, XSLT can transform one XML instance into another different
                   instance. Application of a stylesheet by an XSL processor to an XML document for
                   the purpose of creating another XML document (i.e. an XML to XML transformation)
                   does not render a presentation format at all.


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Subculture of    A cultural setting in which violence is a traditional method of dispute resolution.
Violence
Subject          An individual who is suspected of, or has been adjudicated of committing a crime.
Subpoena         An order compelling a witness to appear and give testimony before a court.
                 A written order issued by a judicial officer, prosecutor, defense attorney or grand
                 jury, requiring a specific person to appear in a designated court at a specified time
                 in order to testify in a case under the jurisdiction of that court or to bring material to
                 be used as evidence to that court.
Substantial      A standard for judging legal insanity that requires that a person lack "the mental
Capacity Test    capacity needed to understand the wrongfulness of his act, or to conform his
                 behavior to the requirements of the law."
Substantiated    The facts that have been verified.
Facts
Substantive      That part of the law that defines crimes and specifies punishments.
Criminal Law
Substitution     In the context of XML Schemas, a substitution group may be declared for an
Group            element to define a synonymous group of tag names. A top-level element is
                 declared, then other elements are declared with an attribute indicating they belong
                 in the substitution group of the top element. Different elements do not necessarily
                 have to have the same structures–used in this fashion they are functionally similar
                 to a group of optional elements where only one may be chosen. The top-level
                 element may be declared abstract. In this case the top level element may not be
                 used but can serve as a generic model for non-abstract elements in the substitution
                 group. This is similar and somewhat redundant of the functionality provided by XML
                 Schema data types.
Summons          A written notice 1) requiring the named person to appear in court on a specified day;
                 or 2) informing the named person that a lawsuit has been started against him or her,
                 and he or she must answer.
SUN              Salem Unified Network
Superpredators   Members of a new generation of juveniles "who are coming of age in actual and
                 ‗moral poverty' without the benefits of parents, teachers, coaches and clergy to
                 teach them right from wrong and show them 'unconditional love.'" The term is often
                 applied to those inner-city youths who meet the criteria it sets forth.
Supervised       Guidance, treatment, or regulation by a probation agency of the behavior of the
Probation        person who is subject to adjudication or who has been convicted of an offense,
                 resulting from a formal court order or a probation agency decision.
Supervised       Formerly called parole, supervised release refers to the status of a subject who has
Release          been released from a state correctional facility to the community under the
                 supervision of a probation officer. It is similar to probation in that the subject has
                 certain conditions that he/she must meet in order to remain in the community.
Suspect          An adult or juvenile considered by a criminal justice agency to be one who may
                 have committed a specific criminal offense, but who has not been arrested or
                 charged.


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Suspended       The court also has the option of imposing the maximum sentence allowed by law,
Sentence        but then ordering that only part of it be carried out. For example, on a first time DWI
                conviction the court may order a $700 fine, but suspend $400 of it if the subject
                agrees to perform 40 hours of community service and commit no new offenses for
                one year. If the subject fails to comply with these lesser sanctions, the court has the
                option to lift the suspension and require the offender to pay the remainder of the
                fine.
                The court decision to delay imposing or executing a penalty for a specified or
                unspecified period, also called "sentence withheld." A court disposition of a
                convicted person pronouncing a penalty of a fine or commitment to confinement, but
                unconditionally discharging the defendant or holding execution of the penalty in
                abeyance upon good behavior.
Suspicionless   Those searches conducted by law enforcement personnel without a warrant and
Searches        without suspicion. Suspicionless searches are permissible only if based upon an
                overriding concern for public safety.
Swap Files      (1) To replace pages or segments of data in memory. Swapping is a useful
                technique that enables a computer to execute programs and manipulate data files
                larger than main memory. The operating system copies as much data as possible
                into main memory, and leaves the rest on the disk. When the operating system
                needs data from the disk, it exchanges a portion of data (called a page or segment)
                in main memory with a portion of data on the disk. DOS does not perform swapping,
                but most other operating systems, including OS/2, Windows, and UNIX, do.
                Swapping is often called paging. (2) In UNIX systems, swapping refers to moving
                entire processes in and out of main memory. (3) When spelled SWAP, an acronym
                for Shared Wireless Access Protocol.
Synchronous     A form of communication that requires applications to run concurrently. A process
Communication   issues a call and until it receives a response.
System          A designated individual who has special privileges to maintain the operation of a
Administrator   computer application or system. An individual responsible for maintaining a multi-
                user computer system, including a local-area network (LAN). Typical duties include:
                adding and configuring new workstations; setting up user accounts; installing
                system-wide software; performing procedures to prevent the spread of viruses; and
                allocating mass storage space. Small organizations may have just one system
                administrator, whereas larger enterprises usually have a whole team of system
                administrators with access to the system. (System administrators) also can be
                known as sysop, sysadmin, and system operator.
System File     On Macintoshes, system is short for System file, an essential program that
                whenever you start up a Macintosh. The System provides information to all other
                applications that run on a Macintosh. The System and Finder programs together
                make up the Mac OS. Often, system simply refers to the operating system on any
                computer.
Systems         Software that provides value-add services, as well as inter-program
Middleware      communications. An example is transaction-processing monitors, which are
                required to control local resources and also cooperate with other resource
                managers to access non-local resources.
Systems         Operating system and all utilities that enable the computer to function.
Software
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T
Tab charges     A brief statement of the offense that the subject is alleged to have violated. A tab
                charge is not synonymous with "citation."
TAC             Terminal Agency Coordinator
Tactical        Highly perishable raw or analyzed information, derived from any source that
                supports immediate action.
Tag             A marker within an information exchange document that points to a full description
                of the semantic data associated with the tagged data. <DateBorn> is an XML tag
                that points to a precise description of how to read the numbers that follow it as a
                date, and the significance of the date (the date of birth).
Tagged-Field    Tagging is a method of imposing structure on a document. Each information field
                has a tag; each tag has a name that points to data-dictionary-like information, such
                as meaning and edit criteria.
Target          The reduction in criminal opportunity, generally through the use of physical barriers,
Hardening       architectural design, and enhanced security measures, of a particular location.
TAT             Tactical Analysis Team; an intelligence activity located in some U.S. Missions,
                staffed by DoD personnel and designed to support the Mission staff.
TCIS            Trial Court Information System. This is a data base system used by Court
                Administration. This system tracks court dates, court contacts, fines and restitution
                payments.
TCP             Transmission Control Protocol. See Transmission Protocols.
TCP/IP          Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Standard transmission protocols
                used to connect hosts on the Internet. The network protocol for the Internet that
                runs on virtually every operating system. IP is the network layer, and TCP is the
                transport layer. TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the
                IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a
                connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and
                also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were
                sent.
TCV             Total Containment Vessel
TDY             Temporary Duty
Team Members    In reference to a crime scene, individuals who are called to the scene to assist in
                investigation or processing of the scene (e.g., scientific personnel from the crime
                laboratory or medical examiner‘s office, other forensic specialists, photographers,
                mass disaster specialists, experts in the identification of human remains, arson and
                explosives investigators, clandestine drug laboratory investigators, as well as other
                experts).
Team Policing   The reorganization of conventional patrol strategies into "an integrated and versatile
                police team assigned to a fixed district."
TECS            Treasury Enforcement Communication System; a U.S. Customs Service, and
                Immigration and Naturalization Service-maintained automated database.



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Telnet            A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet. The Telnet
                  program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network.
                  You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be
                  executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. This enables
                  you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. To
                  start a Telnet session, you must log in to a server by entering a valid username and
                  password. Telnet is a common way to remotely control Web servers.
TEMPEST           In computer technology, the name TEMPEST originated with the U.S. military in the
                  1960s as the name of a classified study of the security of telecommunications
                  devices that emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Every electronic, electrooptical
                  or electromechanical device gives off some type of electromagnetic signals, whether
                  or not the device was designed to be a transmitter. This is why the use of cellular
                  phones is not permitted on airplanes - their unintentional signals can interfere with
                  navigational equipment. The EMR that ―leaks‖ from devices can be intercepted and,
                  using the proper equipment, reconstructed on a different device. The U.S.
                  government began studying this phenomenon in order to prevent breaches in
                  military security, but today the term has made its way into popular culture because
                  of the proliferation of pervasive computing. The EMR that is emitted by devices
                  contains the information that the device is displaying, storing or transmitting. With
                  equipment designed to intercept and reconstruct the data, it is possible to steal
                  information from unsuspecting users by capturing the EMR signals. For example, in
                  theory someone sitting in a van outside a person‘s house can read the EMR that is
                  emanating from the user‘s laptop computer inside the house and reconstruct the
                  information from the user‘s monitor on a different device. Different devices have
                  different levels of susceptibility to Tempest radiation, and more and more devices
                  are being created that shield the EMR from leaking from the device. The distance at
                  which emanations can be monitored depends on whether or not there are
                  conductive media such as power lines, water pipes or even metal cabinets in the
                  area that will carry the signals further away from the original source. While the name
                  TEMPEST was the code name for the military operations in the 1960s, at a later
                  stage the word became an acronym for Telecommunications Electronics Material
                  Protected from Emanating Spurious Transmissions and an abbreviation of Transient
                  Electromagnetic Pulse Emanation Standard.
Temporary and     Many computers use operating systems and applications that store data temporarily
Swap Files        on the hard drive. These files, which are generally hidden and inaccessible, may
                  contain information that the investigator finds useful.
Termination of    The order of the juvenile court that terminates the legal relationship between
Parental Rights   parent(s) and a child. This can be either voluntary or involuntary, and temporary or
(TPR)             permanent, depending upon the circumstances of the case and the needs of the
                  child.




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Terrorism          A violent act or an act dangerous to human life in violation of the criminal laws of the
                   United States or of any state to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian
                   population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
                   Even though most people can recognize terrorism when they see it, experts have
                   had difficulty coming up with an ironclad definition. The State Department defines
                   terrorism as "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against
                   noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually
                   intended to influence an audience." In another useful attempt to produce a
                   definition, Paul Pillar, a former deputy chief of the CIA's Counterterrorist Center,
                   argues that there are four key elements of terrorism:
                   It is premeditated—planned in advance, rather than an impulsive act of rage.
                   It is political—not criminal, like the violence that groups such as the mafia use to get
                   money, but designed to change the existing political order.
                   It is aimed at civilians—not at military targets or combat-ready troops.
                   It is carried out by sub-national groups—not by the army of a country.
Testimony          Oral evidence offered by a sworn witness on the witness stand during a criminal
                   trial.
Thanatos           A death wish.
Theft              Generally, any taking of the property of another with intent to deprive the rightful
                   owner of possession permanently.
Theory             A series of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and
                   ultimately control some class of events. A theory gains explanatory power from
                   inherent logical consistency and is "tested" by how well it describes and predicts
                   reality.
Threat Analysis    Or risk analysis, involves a complete and thorough assessment of the kinds of perils
                   facing an organization.
Three-strikes      A provision of some criminal statutes that mandates life imprisonment for criminals
                   convicted of three violent felonies or serious drug offenses.
Throw (an error)   A term adopted from the Java language to indicate that a processing error has
                   occurred. Conceptually, Java ―throws‖ the error to an error-handling object, which
                   ―catches‖ it, or may ―throw‖ it to another object, and so on.
TIFF               Acronym for Tagged Image File Format, one of the most widely supported file
                   formats for storing bit-mapped images on personal computers (both PCs and
                   Macintosh computers).
TIGR               The Institute for Genomic Research
TIPS               Terrorism Information and Preventive Systems
TJ                 Therapeutic Jurisprudence
TOP                Technology Opportunities Program from the National Telecommunications and
                   Information Administration
Tort               A private or civil wrong or injury. The "unlawful violation of a private legal right other
                   than a mere breach of contract, express or implied."


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Total Institutions Enclosed facilities, separated from society both socially and physically, where the
                   inhabitants share all aspects of their lives on a daily basis.
Trace Evidence      Physical evidence that results from the transfer of small quantities of materials.
                    Types of Trace Evidence include: glass, paint, fibers, wood, soil and minerals, hair
                    and bone, building materials, safe insulation, footwear impressions, and tire
                    impressions/tracks.
Trafficking         Includes manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, importing, and exporting (or
                    possession with intent to do the same) a controlled substance or a counterfeit
                    substance.
Transaction Data The descriptors or attributes of a single activity (e.g., the court disposition
                 transaction data includes the court name, data, case, charges, decision, sentences).
Transfer to Adult The decision by a juvenile court, resulting from a transfer hearing, that jurisdiction
Court             over an alleged delinquent will be waived, and that he or she should be prosecuted
                  as an adult in a criminal court.
Transient           Evidence which by its very nature or the conditions at the scene will lose its
Evidence            evidentiary value if not preserved and protected (e.g., blood in the rain).
Transmission        Transmission protocols provide the mechanism for the transfer of information. IP
Protocols           controls transmissions between networks and is the fundamental mechanism of the
                    Internet and many large WANs. TCP provides a mechanism for information
                    transfers on a single WAN, and is often used with IP. HTTP is the key transmission
                    protocol of the world wide web, and provides for hot links to a URL.
Treason             "A U.S. citizen's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against,
                    or seriously injure the United States." Also, the attempt to overthrow the government
                    of the society of which one is a member.
Trespass            Certain acts willfully committed on private or public lands e.g., refusal to leave a
                    public building upon request when the building is closed for business.
Trial               When the subject has not pled guilty or admitted to the charges stated in the court
                    case, the case will go to trial. The evidence is heard by either a jury or a judge
                    (bench trial) and a finding of fact is made for the charges, which will result in either
                    acquittal/not proving the charges, or conviction/proving, the charges. In a civil case,
                    a trial occurs if the parties do not resolve the dispute using motions to the court or
                    by settlement.
                    The examination in a court of the issues of fact and law in a case, for the purpose of
                    reaching a judgment. In criminal proceedings, the examination in a court of the
                    issues of fact and law in a case, for the purpose of reaching a judgment of
                    conviction or acquittal of the defendant(s).
Trial de Novo       Literally, a new trial. The term is applied to cases that are retried on appeal, as
                    opposed to those that are simply reviewed on the record.
Trial Judge         A judicial officer who is authorized to conduct jury and non-jury trials, and who may
                    not be authorized to hear appellate cases, or the judicial officer who conducts a
                    particular trial.
Trial Jury          A statutorily defined number of persons selected according to law and sworn to
                    determine, in accordance with the law as instructed by the court, certain matters of
                    fact based on evidence presented in a trial and to render a verdict.

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Trigger          A stored procedure that is automatically invoked on the basis of data-related events.
Triple I         Interstate Identification Index; name-based system.
Trojan Horse     A destructive program that masquerades as a benign application. Unlike viruses,
                 Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One
                 of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your
                 computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer.
Truancy          A special program to support children, parents, and schools in helping children to
Program          meet the legal requirements for school attendance.
Truth in         A close correspondence between the sentence imposed upon those sent to prison
Sentencing       and the time actually served prior to prison release.
TSA              Transportation Security Administration
TTIC             Terrorist Threat Integration Center
TWD              Transnational Warfare Counterdrug Analysis Office; the element of the defense
                 Intelligence agency responsible for counterdrug intelligence support.
28 CFR Part 23   28 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 23 is a guideline for law enforcement
                 agencies that operate federally funded multi-jurisdictional criminal intelligence
                 systems.
2-Finger AFIS    A specialized component of the AFIS that rapidly performs identification of an
                 individual based upon the submission of images of the index fingers. Some states
                 perform 2 finger identifications based upon thumb images.
Two-Phase        A mechanism to synchronize updates on different machines or platforms so that
Commit           they all fail or all succeed together. The decision to commit is centralized, but each
                 participant has the right to veto. This is a key process in real-time, transaction-
                 based environments.
TWOV             Transit Without Visa program
U
UCJIS            Unified Criminal Justice Information System
UCR              Uniform Crime Reports. A city, county and state law enforcement program, run by
                 the FBI, which provides a nationwide view of crime based on the submission of
                 statistics by law enforcement agencies throughout the country. The following
                 offenses are recorded: murder and non-negligent manslaughter; forcible rape;
                 robbery; aggravated assault; burglary; larceny – theft; motor vehicle theft; arson;
                 and hate crimes.
UDDI             Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration of Web Services
UID              Unique Identifier. A generic term used to indicate that an object or item has
                 a string or number that identifies it uniquely within a specific context or environment.
                 Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) and Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs) are
                 special identifiers that are guaranteed universal uniqueness via an identifier
                 assignment algorithm.




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ULW                Universal Latent Workstation. The Universal Latent Workstation (ULW) is the first in
                   a new generation of interoperable latent workstations. Several state and local
                   agencies, the FBI, NIST, and the AFIS vendors have been working together on
                   standards to improve interoperability and sharing of latent identification services.
                   The ULW is part of that program. It helps agencies and AFIS vendors understand
                   and develop the concept of encode once and search anywhere. The ULW, will
                   provide the ability to search local, state, neighboring and the FBI IAFIS system, all
                   with a single encoding.
UML                The Unified Modeling Language defines a standard language and graphical notation
                   for creating models of business and technical systems. UML is not only for
                   programmers. It defines several model types that span a range from functional
                   requirements definition and activity work-flow (business process) models to logical
                   and physical software design and deployment. The UML has over the last few years
                   become the lingua franca for business and technical stakeholders to communicate
                   and develop IT systems. Through the UMM, UML has been adopted by
                   UN/CEFACT and ebXML as the modeling language of choice.
                   Unified Modeling Language. UML is a standard object-oriented design language.
UMM                The Unified Modeling Methodology is a product of UN/CEFACT, and describes the
                   UN/CEFACT-recommended methodology for modeling business processes to
                   support the development of the next generation EDI. It is based upon the Rational
                   Unified Process, and uses the UML as it modeling language. In the UMM, business
                   process are modeled by deconstructing them into a series of document exchanges
                   which are orchestrated to form a complex process. The ebXML Technical Report
                   Business Process and Business Information Analysis
                   Overview v1.0 further develops the UMM. The ebXML Business Process
                   Specification Schema v1.01 (BPSS) provides a schema in the form of a DTD for
                   specifying business processes as an XML instance. It may be developed as part of
                   a UMM modeling process.
Unconditional      The final release of an offender from the jurisdiction of a correctional agency; also, a
Release            final release from the jurisdiction of a court.
Uniform Crime      UCR is a city, county, state and federal law enforcement program that provides a
Reporting (UCR)    nationwide view of crime based on the submission of crime information by law
                   enforcement agencies throughout the United States. The standards used for UCR
                   were established in the 1930s.
Uniform Offense    Nationally recognized standardized classifications developed by the FBI to describe
Classifications    various types of crimes.
(UOC)
Universal Latent   The Universal Latent Workstation (ULW) is the first in a new generation of
Workstation        interoperable latent workstations. Several state and local agencies, the FBI, NIST,
(ULW)              and the AFIS vendors have been working together on standards to improve
                   interoperability and sharing of latent identification services. The ULW is part of that
                   program. It helps agencies and AFIS vendors understand and develop the concept
                   of encode once and search anywhere. The ULW, will provide the ability to search
                   local, state, neighboring and the FBI IAFIS system, all with a single encoding.
Unknown/           See Comparison Samples.
questioned

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Unlawful          A legal action between a landlord and a tenant concerning the right to occupy the
Detainer          premises.
UNOJUST           U.N. Online Justice Clearinghouse
UOC               Uniform Offense Classifications. Nationally recognized standardized classifications
                  developed by the FBI to describe various types of crimes.
URL/URI/URN       Uniform Resource Locators, Uniform Resource Indicators, and Uniform Resource
                  Names are different, related methods of uniformly referencing resources across
                  networked environments. A W3C Note explains the difference.
                  URL - Universal Resource Locator. A unique address for a page on the world wide
                  web.
USA Patriot Act   The USA Patriot Act of 2001 was enacted just six weeks after the terrorist attacks of
of 2001           September 11, recognizing that if available information had been shared, possible
                  prevention could have occurred. The Patriot Act greatly expanded the
                  government‘s authority to collect information and conduct surveillance upon
                  individuals in order to combat terrorism. Among other things, the Patriot Act
                  requires greater information sharing among law enforcement, updates wiretapping
                  laws to adapt to newer technologies such as e-mail and voice mail, and greatly
                  increases the government‘s surveillance and investigatory powers.
USB               Universal Serial Bus. A hardware interface for low-speed peripherals such as the
                  keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner, printer, and telephony devices.
U.S. Border       The United States Border Patrol is the mobile uniformed law enforcement arm of the
Patrol            Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
USCM              The U.S. Conference of Mayors
USDOJ             United States Department of Justice
USDOJ/BJA         United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance. Administers
                  federal grant programs for state and local criminal justice purposes.
U.S. EEZ          U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone
Usenet            User Network. A worldwide bulletin board system that can be accessed through the
                  Internet or through many online services. The USENET contains more than 14,000
                  forums, called newsgroups, which cover every imaginable interest group. It is used
                  daily by millions of people around the world.
Username (user    A name used to gain access to a computer system. Usernames, and often
name, user ID)    passwords, are required in multi-user systems. In most such systems, users can
                  choose their own usernames and passwords.
USIC              United States Interdiction Coordinator
US&R              The National Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, established
                  under the authority of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1989
                  is a framework for structuring local emergency services personnel into integrated
                  disaster response task forces. These task forces, complete with necessary tools
                  and equipment, and required skills and techniques, can be deployed by FEMA for
                  the rescue of victims of structural collapse.
USSC              United States Sentencing Commission

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USSOUTH-COM       Southern Command; a U.S. military regional headquarters based in Miami, Florida,
                  and responsible for directing and coordinating U.S. military activities in Central and
                  South America and the Caribbean in defense of the United States.
US-VISIT          US-VISIT is a new border security and enforcement tool that will capture point of
                  Entry and Exit information by visitors to the United States. This system will be
                  capable of using information, coupled with biometric identifiers, such as
                  photographs, fingerprints - to create an electronic check-in/check-out system for
                  people who come to the United States to work or to study or visit. US-VISIT will also
                  provide a useful tool to law enforcement to find those visitors who overstay or
                  otherwise violate the terms of their visas.
UUEncode          A set of algorithms for converting files into a series of 7-bit ASCII characters that
                  can be transmitted over the Internet. Originally, uuencode stood for Unix-to-Unix
                  encode, but it has since become a universal protocol used to transfer files between
                  different platforms such as Unix, Windows, and Macintosh. Uuencoding is especially
                  popular for sending email attachments. Nearly all e-mail applications support
                  uuencoding for sending attachments and uudecoding for receiving attachments.
V
Vagrancy (UCR)    The name of the UCR category relating to being a suspicious character or person,
                  including vagrancy, begging, loitering, and vagabondage.
Validating        An XML parser that enforces validity constraints by comparing the structure and
Parser            syntax of an XML instance to the rules specified in a schema. Not all parsers are
                  validating parsers, and validating parsers enforce validation according to specific
                  schema languages. Most validating parsers are capable of enforcing validity against
                  a DTD, while some can enforce validation rules described in other schema
                  languages.
Validation        Evaluating a system during or at development completion to determine if it satisfies
                  all requirements.
Valid XML         An XML instance (document) whose structure has been verified in conformance to a
                  DTD or schema by a validating parser. Note that an XML instance must be well-
                  formed to be valid, but it does not need to be valid to be well-formed. This is
                  because a parser will always check well-formedness constraints but will only check
                  validation constraints if it is a validating parser.
Vandalism (UCR) The name of the UCR category used to record and report arrests made for offenses
                of destroying or damaging, or attempting to destroy or damage, the property of
                another without his consent, or public property, except by burning.
VAWA              Violence Against Women Act
VAWFV             Violence Against Women and Family Violence
VAWO              Violence Against Women Office
VBS               Visual Basic Script file. A file created in VBScript, short of Visual Basic Scripting
                  Edition, a scripting language developed by Microsoft and supported by Microsoft‘s
                  Internet Explorer Web browser. VBScript is based on the Visual Basic programming
                  language, but is much simpler. In many ways, it is similar to JavaScript. It enables
                  Web authors to include interactive controls, such as buttons and scrollbars, on their
                  Web pages.

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VCL                 Virus Construction Lab. A software package that makes it easy for anyone to create
                    a computer virus. One simply picks a name, a trigger (e.g., a particular date) and an
                    action (e.g., formatting the user‘s hard disk) and VCL generates a virus. VCL is not
                    available commercially, but circulates within the computer underground. Most anti-
                    virus packages detect viruses created with VCL.
Vehicle Code-All    Vehicle code violations, other than infractions (except driving under the influence
Other               and hit and run).
Vehicle Code-Hit Failure of a driver involved in an accident to stop at the accident scene and notify
And Run          the property owner and/or police.
Venue               The particular geographical area in which a court may hear or try a case. Also, the
                    locality within which a particular crime was committed. See also jurisdiction.
Verdict             In criminal proceedings, the decision of the jury in a jury trial or of a judicial officer in
                    a non-jury trial.
Verstehen           The kind of subjective understanding that can be achieved by criminologists who
                    immerse themselves into the everyday world of the criminals they study.
Victim              A person who has suffered death, physical or mental anguish, or loss of property as
                    the result of an actual or attempted criminal offense committed by another person.
Victim              An organized program which offers services to victims of crime in the areas of crisis
Assistance          intervention and follow-up counseling, and which helps victims secure their rights
Program             under the law.
Victim Impact       The in-court use of victim- or survivor-supplied information by sentencing authorities
Statement           wishing to make an informed sentencing decision.
Victimization       In National Crime Survey terminology, the harming of any single victim in a criminal
                    incident.
Victimization       A measure of the occurrence of victimizations among a specified population group.
Rate (NCVS)         For personal crimes, this is based on the number of victimizations per 1,000
                    residents age 12 or older. For household crimes, the victimization rates are
                    calculated using the number of incidents per 1,000 households.
Victim Offender     A process where the victim of a crime and their offender come together with a
Mediation           trained mediator to discuss the crime. This process is an attempt to restore the
                    victim and get answers to questions. This process is used primarily for property
                    crimes.
Victim-             Killings in which the "victim" was the first to commence the interaction or was the
precipitated        first to resort to physical violence.
Homicides
VINE                Victim Information and Notification Everyday. VINE is a toll free automated
                    telephone service that allows crime victims and other interested persons to contact
                    an automated computer hotline 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to receive
                    information about the status of an offender. VINE also provides notification of a
                    change in an offender's custody status to registered individuals on a 24 hour a day,
                    365 days a year basis anywhere within the participating jurisdictions via telephone,
                    pager, email, fax or letter to registered users. Victims of crime, law enforcement
                    officials, court professionals and members of the general public can register for
                    notification.

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Violation         The term used to indicate that a subject, placed on probation by the court has failed
(Probation)       to meet one or more conditions of his/her probation. Violations are reported to the
                  sentencing judge, who assesses the seriousness of the violations.
Violent Crime     Defined by UCR as willful homicide, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.
VIPS              Volunteers in Police Service
Virus             A software program containing malicious code, equipped with the means of
                  reproducing, spreads throughout a computer or network by attaching itself or
                  infecting other software. A virus is a program or piece of code that is loaded onto
                  your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. Viruses can
                  also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that
                  can make replicate over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a
                  simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring
                  the system to a halt. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of
                  transmitting itself across networks and bypassing security systems.
Virus Screening   Software that searches for evidence of computer virus infection.
Software
VNTR              Variable Number of Tandem Repeats
VOCA              The Victims of Crime Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1984.
Volatile Memory   Memory that loses its content when power is turned off or lost.
Voluntary         From OMB Circular A119, ‖ Voluntary consensus standards bodies" are domestic or
Consensus         international organizations that plan, develop, establish, or coordinate voluntary
Standards         consensus standards using agreed upon procedures. For purposes of this Circular,
                  ‗voluntary, private sector, consensus standards bodies,‘ as cited in Act, is an
                  equivalent term. The Act and the Circular encourage the participation of federal
                  representatives in these bodies to increase the likelihood that the standards they
                  develop will meet both public and private sector needs. A voluntary consensus
                  standards body is defined by the following attributes:
                  (i) Openness.
                  (ii) Balance of interest.
                  (iii) Due process.
                  (vi) An appeals process.
                  (v) Consensus, which is defined as general agreement, but not necessarily
                  unanimity, and includes a process for attempting to resolve objections by interested
                  parties, as long as all comments have been fairly considered, each objector is
                  advised of the disposition of his or her objection(s) and the reasons why, and the
                  consensus body members are given an opportunity to change their votes after
                  reviewing the comments. ―
                  Examples of these types of organizations are the W3C and OASIS.




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VPN              Virtual Private Network. A solution by which an enterprise may link to its customers
                 and business partners via secure Internet connections. The company thus has a
                 network that is ―just like‖ a private network, but is not. (That is, it is ―virtual.‖) This
                 gives the company the advantages of a private network at the much lower cost of a
                 public one. VPN is a network that is constructed by using public wires to connect
                 nodes. For example, there are a number of systems that enable you to create
                 networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. These systems use
                 encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can
                 access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.
W
Walking the      This is a technique of finding inter-related criminal justice data about a person,
Keys             incident or property by specifying one or more attributes of the entity.
Walk-through     In reference to a crime scene, an initial assessment conducted by carefully walking
                 through the scene to evaluate the situation, recognize potential evidence, and
                 determine resources required. Also, a final survey conducted to ensure the scene
                 has been effectively and completely processed.
WAN              Wide Area Network. Two or more LANs connected via telephone lines and radio
                 waves. See Transmission Protocols.
Warden           The official in charge of operation of a prison, the chief administrator of a prison, or
                 the prison superintendent.
Warehousing      An imprisonment strategy based upon the desire to prevent recurrent crime, but
                 which has abandoned any hope of rehabilitation.
Warez            Pronounced wayrz or wayrss. Commercial software that has been pirated and made
                 available to the public via a BBS or the Internet. Typically, the pirate has figured out
                 a way to deactivate the copy protection or registration scheme used by the software.
                 Note that the use and distribution of warez software is illegal. In contrast, shareware
                 and freeware may be freely copied and distributed.
Warrant          Sanction or authorization, as an arrest warrant authorizes a police officer to take an
                 individual into custody.
                 In criminal proceedings, any of a number of writs issued by a judicial officer, which
                 direct a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and afford him protection
                 from damage if he performs it.
Watchman Style   A style of policing that is marked by a concern for order maintenance. This style of
                 policing is characteristic of lower-class communities where informal police
                 intervention into the lives of residents is employed in the service of keeping the
                 peace.
Weapons          Unlawful sale, distribution, manufacture, alteration, transportation, possession, or
Offenses         use or attempted sale, distribution, manufacture, alteration, transportation,
                 possession, or use of a deadly or dangerous weapon or accessory.
Web Browser      A software application used to locate and display web pages. May be able to
                 display graphics, sound and video in addition to text.




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Web Portal         A Web "super site" that can provide a variety of services including Web searching,
Services           news, white and yellow pages directories, e-mail, discussion groups, online
                   shopping and links to other sites. Web portals are the Web equivalent of the
                   original online services such as CompuServe and AOL.
Web-service        A generic term used to refer to the use of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and
                   XML to exchange information. Frequently the term implies the use of SOAP to
                   exchange information between applications, versus application to human, which is
                   done in HTML.
Well-formed        HTML that meets the well-formedness constraints of XML 1.0. Well-formed HTML is
HTML               not the same as XHTML.
Well-formed        An XML instance that meets well-formedness constraints defined by the XML 1.0
XML                specification. Well-formedness constraints are precise syntactic rules for markup of
                   data. As an example, the XML specification stipulates that every open tag must
                   have a corresponding and properly nested closing tag. A document must be well
                   formed in order to be considered XML. A parser processing a document will throw a
                   fatal error if it detects a well-formedness violation.
White-collar       Nonviolent crime for financial gain committed by means of deception by persons
Crime              whose occupational status is entrepreneurial, professional, or semiprofessional and
                   utilizing their special occupational skills and opportunities; also, nonviolent crime for
                   financial gain utilizing deception and committed by anyone having special technical
                   and professional knowledge of business and government, irrespective of the
                   person's occupation.
WHOIS              An Internet utility that returns information about a domain name or IP address. For
                   example, if you enter a domain name such as microsoft.com, WHOIS will return the
                   name and address of the domain‘s owner (in this case, Microsoft Corporation).
WHTF               White House Task Force
Willful Homicide   The willful (non-negligent) killing of one human being by another. Murder and non-
                   negligent manslaughter are included.
Witness            In criminal justice usage, generally, a person who has knowledge of the
                   circumstances of a case; in court usage, one who testifies as to what he or she has
                   seen, heard, otherwise observed, or has expert knowledge of.
Work Release       For those subjects sentenced to a county jail or workhouse who are employed or
                   employable, and do not pose a threat to the public safety, the sheriff or facility
                   administrator can allow them to be released from the facility in order to continue
                   their employment. The inmates return to and remain in the facility at the end of
                   each workday and on weekends. These inmates are generally charged a fee to pay
                   the costs of their room and board in the facility while on work release.
Workflow           Software used to automatically route events or work-items from one user or
                   program to another. Workflow is synonymous with process flow, although
                   traditionally has been used in the context of person-to-person information flows.
World Wide Web A system of internet servers that support HTML formatted documents.
(www)




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Worm                A program or algorithm that replicates over a computer network and usually
                    performs malicious actions, such as using up the computer‘s resources and possibly
                    shutting the system down.
Writ                A document issued by a judicial officer ordering or forbidding the performance of a
                    specified act.
Writ of Certiorari A writ issued from an appellate court for the purpose of obtaining from a lower court
                   the record of its proceedings in a particular case. In some states, this writ is the
                   mechanism for discretionary reviews. A request for review is made by petitioning for
                   a writ of certiorari and granting of review is indicated by issuance of writ.
Writ of Habeas      In criminal proceedings, the writ that directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring
Corpus              him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment.
Write               To copy data from main memory to a storage device, such as a disk.
WSIN                Western States Information Network. The WSIN geographical region includes
                    Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. The center also has member
                    agencies in Canada, Australia, and Guam.
WSDL                Web Service Description Language
Write Access        Permission to write to an object.
W3C                 The World Wide Web Consortium was created in October 1994 to lead the World
                    Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its
                    evolution and ensure its interoperability. W3C has more than 500 Member
                    organizations from around the world and has earned international recognition for its
                    contributions to the growth of the Web.
                    World Wide Web Consortium. See Standards Organizations.
W3C Note            A W3C Note is a publication of a member idea. Notes do not go through the
                    consensus process. They represent the ideas of a single (group of) W3C
                    member(s).
W3C                 A work that represents consensus within W3C and has the Director‘s stamp of
Recommendatio       approval. W3C considers that the ideas or technology specified by a
n                   Recommendation are appropriate for widespread deployment and promote W3C‘s
                    mission.
W3C XML             A schema written in accordance with the W3C XML Schema language. [From the
Schema              W3C Schema page] ―XML Schemas express shared vocabularies and allow
                    machines to carry out rules made by people. They provide a means for defining the
                    structure, content and semantics of XML documents. The XML Activity Statement
                    explains the W3C‘s work on this topic in more detail.‖ The W3C XML Schema
                    language is described in three recommendations: XML Schema Part 0: Primer, XML
                    Schema Part 1: Structures, and XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes. In the Federal
                    XML Developer‘s Guide (this document), the term Schema with a capital ―S‖ is used
                    in reference to a W3C XML Schema language-compliant schema.
X
XHTML               Extensible HyperText Markup Language. The next version of HTML.
XLS                 Excel spreadsheet file.


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XML               Like HTML, eXtensible Markup Language is a subset of Standard Generalized
                  Markup Language, a standard for defining descriptions of structure and content in
                  documents. However, where HTML is concerned with the presentation of
                  information on a web page (without context or dynamic behavior), XML provides
                  context and gives meaning to data. See Markup Language, XSL.
                  [From the XML 1.0 specification] ―Extensible Markup Language, Abbreviated XML,
                  describes a class of data objects called XML documents and partially describes the
                  behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is an application profile or
                  restricted form of SGML. By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML
                  documents.‖ The XML 1.0 specification is a W3C Recommendation. In XML,
                  metadata is described by an extensible set of tags; the tags are said to be
                  extensible, because unlike HTML, where the markup tags are fixed, developers are
                  given the flexibility to define their own tags or reuse tags defined by another party.
                  This flexibility is both the key to XML‘s power and the single biggest stumbling point
                  to achieving interoperability when making use of XML.
XML API           Application Programming Interface. In the context of XML, parsers expose their data
                  to a calling application via an interface. An interface is a specification (to which the
                  parser conforms) that describes how the parser will pass data from an XML
                  document to a calling application. The two accepted XML API‘s are DOM and SAX.
XML Attributes    In the context of XML, attributes provide a mechanism for attaching additional
                  metadata to an XML element. For example, <element attribute=―value‖/>. An XML
                  attribute is not equivalent to an object or relational model attribute. Data model
                  entity attributes may be expressed as either XML attributes or elements. Frequently
                  in discussions surrounding the application of XML to data models, one party will be
                  referring to attributes in the context of XML and another to attr ibutes in the context
                  of data models, causing confusion.
XML Child         The hierarchical nature of XML allows elements to contain or be nested inside other
Element           elements, forming a conceptual data tree (see DOM). Often XML elements are
                  referenced in terms of parent-child relationships. A child element is an element
                  contained between the tags of a parent element. Child elements are also referred to
                  as descendants, while parent elements may be referred to as ancestors.
XML Comments      The structure for inserting free text comments into XML. The same structure is used
                  for SGML and HTML comments..
XML Component A generic term used to refer to XML elements, attributes, and XML Schema type
              definitions.
XML Declaration   Every well-formed XML document must begin with a statement that as a minimum
                  declares the version of XML that the document conforms to. Example: <?xml
                  version=―1.0‖>,
XML Document      [Paraphrased from the XML 1.0 specification] ―A data object is an XML document if
                  it is well-formed, as defined in the XML 1.0, specification.
                  A well-formed XML document may in addition be valid if it meets certain constraints‖
                  as described by a schema. Synonymous with XML instance.
XML Document      Refers to the logical model of an XML document conceptualized as a data tree, with
Tree              a Root Node and branch nodes ending at data that can be thought of as the leaves.
                  Every XML document must contain a single Root Node. See DOM.


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XML Elements      The fundamental unit of information in XML. Elements are encapsulated by tags,
                  and may contain (among other things) attributes (declared inside the opening tag),
                  other elements, or data.
XML Grammar/      Related terms often used synonymously to indicate a set of element and attribute
Vocabulary        names and the structures described by a schema or set of related schemas that
                  employ the elements and attributes. More precisely, the term vocabulary implies a
                  commonly defined set of elements and attributes, while grammar refers to the
                  composition of the vocabulary into meaningful business documents by one or more
                  related schemas. An XML Namespace may be used to describe a vocabulary, while
                  a schema may employ vocabulary from a single or multiple XML Namespaces.
XML Instance      Synonymous with XML Document. The term derives from object-oriented
                  programming where objects are considered instances of classes. Programmers
                  write code that defines application behavior in terms of classes of objects. In
                  application execution, objects are instantiated (see object) from these class
                  definitions. XML provides an object-like way to conceptualize textual data.
                  Essentially, schemas are the equivalent of object classes, and XML documents are
                  equivalent of object instances. Hence the term XML instance is widely used;
                  however, XML document is the official term used by the W3C.
XML Namespace An XML Namespace is a conceptual ―space‖ to which element and attribute names
              may be assigned. An XML Namespace is declared within an XML instance by
              assigning a URI reference and an optional qualification prefix to an element. The
              element and all its children are considered to be ―in‖ the XML Namespace unless
              specifically qualified with another Namespace‘s prefix. The URI reference does not
              have to an associated document physically at the URI. Within an XML Schema, the
              ‗targetNamespace‘ attribute may be used to indicate that all elements declared
              within the schema are to be treated as ―in‖ the target Namespace. The W3C
              Recommendation Namespaces in XML provides the full specification for XML
              Namespaces. Note: Federal XML Namespaces may use XML Namespaces, but the
              two terms are not synonymous.
XML Name          Per the XML 1.0 specification, a Name Token is ―…any mixture of name
Token             characters…‖ where a ―name‖ character obeys the XML name convention. A [XML]
                  Name ―…is a token beginning with a letter or one of a few punctuation characters,
                  and continuing with letters, digits, hyphens, underscores, colons, or full stops,
                  together known as name characters. Names beginning with the string ―xml‖, or any
                  string which would match ((‗X‘|‘x‘) (‗M‘|‘m‘) (‗L‘|‘l‘)), are reserved for standardization
                  in this or future versions of this specification.‖
                  White space characters (hex #x20, #x9, #xD, #xA) are excluded from Name
                  Tokens.
XML Parser        A software application (module) that either reads or receives a text encoded binary
                  stream, decodes it, verifies the input conforms to ―wellformedness― constraints of
                  the XML 1.0 specification, (in the case of a Validating Parser) checks validity of the
                  XML Instance against a schema if available, and exposes the content via an API to
                  a calling application. A parser can be a standalone application, but it is most often a
                  module called by a larger program (the calling application). A Parser may also be
                  referred to as an XML Processor.
XML Processor     A synonym for an XML parser.


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XML Root        Refers to the XML element in which all other elements must be nested. The root
Element         element (a physical XML construct) is a child of the logical root node of the
                document tree.
XML Root Node   The first node originating the XML Document Tree. The Root Node is not the same
                as the root element.
XML Schema      The XML Schema language allows addition of annotations to schema components
Annotation      through an ‗annotation‘ element (<xsd:annotation>) which must contain either a
                ‗documentation‘ element (<xsd:documentation>) or ‗AppInfo‘ element
                (<xsd:appInfo>). A ‗source‘ attribute may be added to either element to provide a
                URL reference to the source of the annotation. Annotations provide a more
                sophisticated way to provide documentation and application information that may be
                parsed and accessed by applications via an API.
XML Schema      An XML component defined by the XML Schema language. Types do not show up
Type            in XML instances; they are used within the Schema to express relationships, and
                through type inheritance, add an object-like capability to XML Schemas. Types may
                be simple, that is they allow definition of simple data-type constraints on element
                values; or they may be complex, that is they define structures consisting of other
                elements. For example a type could be defined <xsd:complexType
                name=―AddressDetails‖>…</xsd:complexType>, then the definitions for XML
                elements, ‗ShippingAddress‘ and ‗MailingAddress‘ could reference the previously
                defined generic type.
XML Tags        XML (and its parent SGML) annotate metadata through the use of tags that indicate
                which text in a document are considered metadata and which is to be considered
                data. Tags are surrounded by markup characters. As an example, the data ‗3000N‘
                can be marked up in XML, <latitude>3000N</latitude>. The tags are <latitude>
                (start tag) and </latitude> (end tag). Note: As discussed in the XML definition
                presented here, developers are free to defines tags. As an example, the data
                ‗3000N‘ could be alternatively marked up as, <lat>3000N</lat>, and still be well-
                formed. The document schema will specify which of all possible well-formed XML
                instances are valid for a particular application. An additional example is <Latitude
                hemisphere=―N‖>3000</Latitude>; here the tag contains an XML attribute to specify
                the hemisphere. The choice as to the attribute name and possible values are also at
                the developer‘s discretion. Note that Parsers processing documents are sensitive to
                markup tag case, therefore in the first example the tag <latitude> is not equivalent to
                the later example tag, <Latitude>.
X/Open          An independent, open systems organization. Its strategy is to combine various
                standards into a comprehensive integrated systems environment called Common
                Applications Environment, which contains an evolving portfolio of practical APIs.
XPath           XPath is a W3C recommendation whose primary purpose is to provide a compact,
                non-XML notation for identifying parts of an XML document. It operates on the
                abstract, logical structure of an XML document, rather than its surface syntax by
                modeling an XML document as a tree of nodes. The document tree can be
                navigated by applications implementing XPath. XPath is the result of an effort to
                provide a common syntax and semantics for functionality shared between XSL
                Transformations [XSLT] and XPointer.




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XQuery          This specification describes a query language called XQuery, which is designed to
                be broadly applicable across many types of XML data sources. A query language
                that uses the structure of XML intelligently can express queries across all these
                kinds of data, whether physically stored in XML or viewed as XML via middleware.
XSL             The Extensible Style Sheet Language. [From the W3C XSL pagexlix]
                ―XSL is a language for expressing stylesheets. It consists of three parts: XSL
                Transformations (XSLT): a language for transforming XML documents, the XML
                Path Language (XPath), an expression language used by XSLT to access or refer
                to parts of an XML document (XPath is also used by the XML Linking specification).
                The third part is XSL Formatting Objects: an XML vocabulary for specifying
                formatting semantics. An XSL stylesheet specifies the presentation of a class of
                XML documents by describing how an instance of the class is transformed into an
                XML document that uses the formatting vocabulary. For a more detailed explanation
                of how XSL works, see the What Is XSL14 page.‖ As of 16 October 2001, XSL is a
                W3C final recommendation.
                XML Style Sheet, used to format structured data for display or printing, and also to
                convert from one XML form to another.
XSL-FO          XSL Formatting Objects: an XML vocabulary for specifying formatting semantics.
                XSL-FO works in conjunction with XSLT to markup transformed XML with formatting
                object tags. Applications capable of processing these tags render the XML to
                another application‘s presentation environment. For example, Apache‘s Formatting
                Object Processor (FOP) can transform XML to Adobe PDF format. Another example
                is jfor, an open-source formatting object processor for transforming XML to Rich
                Text Format (RTF).
XSL Processor   The software (module) executing XSL transformation and formatting instructions. At
                a minimum, consists of an XSLT conformant transformation component, and an
                optional XSL-FO processing component. A word of caution: XSL processor vendors
                often add ―extensions‖ to the XSLT specification. While often extremely useful,
                stylesheets written using these extensions will not perform correctly in another
                XSLT compliant processor, eliminating their cross-platform compatibility.
XSLT            Language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents.
                XSL specifies the styling of an XML document by using XSLT to describe how the
                document is transformed into another XML document that uses the formatting
                vocabulary.
                XSL Transformations, a W3C recommendation [from the XSLT recommendation]
                ―…defines the syntax and semantics … for transforming XML documents into other
                XML documents‖ [including well-formed HTML].‖ XSLT is the only W3C-
                recommended XML syntax for transforming XML documents. Developers writing
                stylesheets should ensure they are strictly conformant to this specification to ensure
                reusability. We recommend conformance testing using multiple XSLT-compliant
                XSL processors.
XSTF            Justice XML Structure Task Force
Y




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Yellow -       Homeland Security Advisory. An Elevated Condition is declared when there is a
Elevated       significant risk of terrorist attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in
Condition      the Green and Blue Threat Conditions (see Green-Low Condition and Blue-Guarded
               Condition), Federal departments and agencies should consider the following
               general measures in addition to the Protective Measures that they will develop and
               implement:
               Increasing surveillance of critical locations;
               Coordinating emergency plans as appropriate with nearby jurisdictions;
               Assessing whether the precise characteristics of the threat require the further
               refinement of preplanned Protective Measures; and
               Implementing, as appropriate, contingency and emergency response plans.
YLS            Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory. A risk assessment tool
               designed to aid professionals for assessing youthful offenders. It is designed to
               determine risk and need level in certain adolescent offenders. It includes a case
               plan and is based upon the General Personality and Social Psychological Model of
               Criminal Conduct (Andrews and Bonta, 1998; Andrews, Bonta, & Hoge, 1990).
Youthful       A person, adjudicated in criminal court, who may be above the statutory age limit for
Offender       juveniles but is below a specified upper age limit, for whom special correctional
               commitments and special record sealing procedures are made available by statute.
Z
Zero Latency   No delay between an event and its response.
Zero Latency   An enterprise in which all parts of the organization can respond to events as they
Enterprise     occur elsewhere in the organization, using an integrated IT infrastructure that can
               immediately exchange information across technical and organizational boundaries.
Zero Latency   An automated process with no time delays (i.e. no manual re-entry of data) at the
Process        interfaces of different information systems.
Zip®           A 3.5-inch removable disk drive. The drive is bundled with software that can catalog
               disks and lock the files for security.
ZIP            ZIP archive file. A .ZIP file is a compressed archive. It can contain only one file or
               many files in multiple directories. ZIP utilities allow you to extract single files or a
               complete directory structure.




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