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PH1600: Introductory Astronomy
Lecture 14: Stars: Single and Binary
PH1600: Introductory Astronomy
Lecture 14: Star: Single and Binary
Next Lecture: Star Clusters

    School: Michigan Technological University
           Professor: Robert Nemiroff

           Online Course WebCT pages:

   This class can be taken online ONLY, class
           attendance is not required!
You are responsible for…
   Lecture material

   Listed wikipedia entries
      But not higher math

   APODs posted during the semester
       APOD review every week during lecture

   Completing the Quizzes
       Homework quizzes 1 - 6, Midterm already due
       Homework 7 due later (Monday) by 5 pm
       See WebCT at
Wikipedia entries:

   Stars
   Annie Jump Cannon
   Stellar Classification
   Binary star
   Inverse-square law

                  Henrietta Leavitt Calibrates the Stars
                                        Credit: AAVSO
                            APOD: 2000 September 3

Stars: Distant Suns
Annie Jump Cannon
Stellar Spectral Types: OBAFGKM
Credit & Copyright: KPNO 0.9-m Telescope, AURA, NOAO, NSF
APOD: 2004 April 18
Star sizes video on youtube:

               Orion Star Colors
Credit and Copyright: David Malin
          APOD: 1998 August 29
Famous Stars

   Sun
   Polaris
       North star
   Sirius
   Betelgeuse
   Alpha Centauri
       Proxima Centauri
   Nemiroff’s Star
       Just kidding
Polaris: The North Star
Credit & Copyright: Wally Pacholka
APOD: 1999 October 6
Watch the Sky Rotate : Diurnal

      Star Trails Above Mauna Kea
 Credit & Copyright: Peter Michaud
(Gemini Observatory), AURA, NSF
         APOD: 2005 December 20
11 Hour Star Trails
Credit & Copyright: Josch Hambsch
APOD: 2006 September 15
Warped Sky: Star Trails Panorama
Credit & Copyright: Peter Ward
APOD: 2007 June 13
Sirius: The Brightest Star in the Night
Credit & Copyright: Juan Carlos Casado
APOD: 2000 June 11
X-Rays From Sirius B
Credit: NASA/ CXC/ SAO
APOD: 2000 October 6
Resolving Mira
Credit: M. Karovska (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA) et al., FOC, ESA, NASA
APOD: 2001 January 21
A Giant Starspot on HD 12545
Credit & Copyright: K. Strassmeier (U. Wien),
Coude Feed Telescope, AURA, NOAO, NSF
APOD: 2003 November 2
               Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse
Credit: A. Dupree (CfA), R. Gilliland (STScI), NASA
                                  APOD: 1999 June 5
     Simulated Supergiant Star
Credit: B. Freytag, (U. Uppsala)
   APOD: 2000 December 22
Why Stars Twinkle
Credit: Applied Optics Group (Imperial College), Herschel 4.2-m Telescope
APOD: 2000 July 25
             Inverse Square Law of Brightness


   Stars A and B are identical. Star B
    is at twice the distance of star A.
    How much brighter does star A
    appear than star B?
   Use inverse square law: lA =k/rA2
   Also, lB=k/rB2. Therefore
    lA/lB=(rB/rA)2 = 22 = 4.
Proxima Centauri: The Closest Star
Credit & Copyright: David Malin, UK Schmidt Telescope, DSS, AAO
APOD: 2002 July 15
Alpha Centauri: The Closest Star System
Credit: 1-Meter Schmidt Telescope, ESO
APOD: 2003 March 23
Binary Stars

   Visual Binaries
       Can see two or more
   Spectroscopic binaries
       Doppler color changes
   Eclipsing Binaries
       Dark times
   Astrometric Binaries
       Single star wobble
Albireo: A Bright and Beautiful Double
Credit & Copyright: Richard Yandrick (
APOD: 2005 August 30
The Big Dipper Cluster
Credit & Copyright: Noel Carboni
APOD: 2006 March 17
                                 Mizar Binary Star
Credit: J. Benson et al., NPOI Group, USNO, NRL
                          APOD: 1997 February 19
Mira: The Wonderful Star
Illustration Credit: M.Weiss(CXC)
APOD: 2005 May 5
Resolving Mira
Credit: M. Karovska (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA) et al., FOC, ESA, NASA
APOD: 2001 January 21
           Mira Over Germany
           Credit & Copyright:
Stefan Seip (
     APOD: 2007 42February 21
NGC 3132: The Eight Burst Nebula
Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI /NASA)
APOD: 2003 September 13
The Case of the Very Dusty Binary Star
Illustration Credit & Copyright: Lynette Cook
APOD: 2008 September 25                         44
An Intermediate Polar Binary System
Illustration Credit & Copyright: Mark Garlick (Space-art)
APOD: 2003 November 10