Managing Chemical Waste in the Laboratory by shuifanglj


									Training in Handling
Hazardous Materials

SDSU Microfabrication
           Chemical Inventory
 Each Laboratory must maintain a
  complete, accurate and up to date
  chemical inventory.
 The inventory should include:
    – All Chemicals
       Hazardous
       Non-hazardous
    – Compressed Gasses
              Chemical Inventory
   When you are doing the inventory, it is a good
    time to discard any chemicals that are:
    –   Expired
    –   No longer being used
    –   Container has been compromised, i.e. Cracked lid
    –   Label is illegible
   Submit your updated inventory to EH&S on the
    yearly basis.
Material Safety Data Sheets - MSDS

   A Material Safety Data Sheet or MSDS is
    information provided by the manufacturer and
    maintain by the employer to inform employees
    of the possible hazards associated with
    chemicals being used in their work area. It is
    part of a hazard communication program.
Material Safety Data Sheets - MSDS
   As stated in 29 CFR 1910.1200(g)(8), “the
    employer (Lab) shall maintain in the workplace
    copies of the required MSDS…and shall ensure
    that they are readily accessible during each work
    shift to employees when they are in their work
    area.” This can be done by:
    – Shared database in which all laboratory workers have
    – Stored hardcopies that are sent from the
Material Safety Data Sheets - MSDS

 Each Laboratory must maintain a current MSDS
  for each chemical or compound being stored or
  used in the laboratory.
 MSDS location must be clearly marked.
 Each laboratory worker need know how to use
  and understand MSDS’s.
                    MSDS Content
   Chemical Id                       Reactivity data
      Synonyms                         Incompatibles
   Hazardous Ingredients             Spill Procedures
      PEL, TLV                         Follow MSDS directions.
   Physical Data                     Special Protection
      Appearance and odor              Wear appropriate PPE
   Fire & Explosion Data             Signs and Symptoms
      Flash-point                      of Exposure
   Health Hazards                     Headache, Nausea, etc.
      Toxic, Carcinogen, etc.
   Physical Hazards
       Corrosive, Oxidizer, etc.

In an emergency and you cannot retrieve an
  MSDS, one can be obtained by calling the 3E
  Company’s 24 Hour phone #:

            Chemical Storage
   Separate incompatible chemicals.
    – Separate organics from inorganic
    – Separate oxidizers from organics
    – Separate flammable liquids, acids and bases
   Provide earthquake restraints for all
    shelving when storing chemicals or
            Chemical Storage
   Storage container MUST be compatible
    with material.
    – Example: Metal containers cannot be used for
      acids and bases.
   Food containers MUST NEVER BE USED!
    Flammable Liquids Storage
 If a lab has quantities greater than
  10 gallons, they must be stored in
  an approved flammable liquids
  storage cabinet.
 Containers that can be shattered or
  punctured easily must be in
  secondary containment.
 Do not store with acids or bases.
 Store in secondary containment
 Cannot be stored at or above eye level.
 Label cabinets “Acid” with 3” letters
 Store by acid class in separate secondary
    – Organic
    – Inorganic
    – Oxidizing
      Common Organic Acids
 Glacial Acetic Acid
 Trichloroacetic
 Trifluoroacetic Acid
 Formic Acid
 Citric Acid
 Benzoic Acid
 Butyric Acid
 Propionic Acid
     Common Inorganic Acids
 Hydrochloric Acid
 Hydrofluoric Acid
 Hydrobromic Acid
 Phosphoric Acid
 Chromic Acid
     Common Oxidizing Acids
 Nitric Acid
 Perchloric Acid
 Sulfuric Acid
   Store in secondary containment
   Store away from acids and solvents
   Cannot be stored at or above eye level.
   Label cabinets “Base” with 3” letters
   Examples:
    –   Hydroxides
    –   Amines
    –   Ammonia
    –   Bleach
           Compressed Gasses
   Must be upright and restrained
    – At least two chains
   Separate incompatible gasses
    – Flammable & Oxidizing by 20 feet
   Keep caps on unless in use
           Chemical Labeling
 All containers in the laboratory must be
  properly labeled with the name of the
  material being stored in the container.
  This includes non-hazardous materials
  such as:
 Full name with “no” abbreviations.
    – Water
    – Weak buffers
    – Methanol
            Chemical Labeling
   Containers of hazardous materials must
    not only include the name of the material
    but also the physical and health hazards
    associated with the use of the material.
    Physical Hazards
 Explosive         Toxic
 Flammable         Oxidizer
 Compressed gas    Corrosive
 Carcinogen        Reactive
    Health Hazards
   Carcinogen              Corrosive
   Hepatotoxin             Sensitizer
   Neurotoxin              Irritant
   Nephrotoxin             Highly Toxic
   Reproductive toxin      Toxic
    “Hazardous Materials
     Identification System”
The HMIS rating is a color-coded, alphanumeric system which gives information
about the health, flammability and reactivity of the chemical in question. The
system rates a material from a minimal hazard through a serious hazard. It also
recommends the appropriate personal protective equipment to be worn when
handling the particular chemical.
Example of HMIS
HM Labeling System - Sample

          San Diego State University           3
            5500 Campanile Drive
            San Diego, CA 92182
                                           1       0



                              x        x
                                 HMIS Health
   0 - Minimal Hazard
   Not significant risk to health.

   1 - Slight Hazard
   Irritation or minor reversible injury possible.

   2 - Moderate Hazard
   Temporary or minor injury may occur.

   3 - Serious Hazard
   Major injury likely unless prompt action is taken and medical treatment is given.

   4 - Severe Hazard
   Life-threatening, major or permanent damage may result from single or repeated over exposures.
                     HMIS Flammability
   0 - Minimal Hazard
   Materials that will not burn. Usually includes any material that will not burn in air when exposed
    to a temperature of 1500°F. for a period of 5 minutes

   1 - Slight Hazard
   Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur.

   2 - Moderate Hazard
   Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures
    before ignition can occur.

   3 - Serious Hazard
   Materials capable of ignition under almost all ambient temperature conditions.

   4 - Severe Hazard
   Materials that will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient
    temperatures with a flashpoint below 73°F. Materials may ignite spontaneously with air.
                       HMIS Reactivity
   0 - Minimal Hazard
   Materials that are normally stable even under fire conditions.

   1 - Slight Hazard
   Materials that are normally stable but that can become unstable at elevated
    temperatures and pressures.

   2 - Moderate Hazard
   Materials that readily undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and
    pressures. These materials may also react violently with water.

   3 - Serious Hazard
   Materials that are capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but require a
    strong initiating source or materials the react explosively with water.

   4 - Severe Hazard
   Materials that are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or
    explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures.
HMIS Protective Equipment
This labeling is not acceptable
Routes of Exposure
 Inhalation
 Absorption
 Ingestion
 Injection
             Exposure Control
   Prevent exposures to hazardous materials.
    – Inhalation – Keep containers closed, use the
      fume hood, reduce volumes
    – Absorption – Wear gloves, lab coat, safety
      glasses, clean up spills promptly.
    – Ingestion – Don’t eat, drink, smoke of apply
      cosmetics in the laboratory. Don’t store
      hazardous material in food containers.
    – Injection – Use care when handling sharps.
      Properly dispose of sharps.
               Exposure Control
   Engineering controls:
    - hoods, cabinets, safety cans,

   Work practices:
    - operating procedures

   Personal protective
    - safety glasses, lab coats,
    gloves, no open-toed shoes
       Types of Emergencies
 Medical emergency
 Fire
 Chemical spill
 Biohazardous material spill
 Bomb threat
 Earthquake
 Power outage
          Emergency Response
   If an emergency occurs, notify:
    – Notify your safety officer or EH&S (X46778)
      and the supervisor of the area.
   If after business hours, notify Public Safety
Fire Happens!
Managing Hazardous
  Chemical Waste
    What is Hazardous Waste
EPA Definition:
A material is a hazardous waste if due to its
  quantity, concentration, physical, chemical
  or infectious characteristics it possesses a
  substantial present, or potential hazard to
  human health and the environment and
  has no known use.
      What chemical waste must be
Wastes that meet any of the
  following characteristics.

   Ignitable – Flashpoint of ≤ 140°F

   Corrosive – pH ≤2 or ≥ 12.5

   Toxic – LD-50 < 5000 mg/kg

   Reactive – Reacts with anything
  Hazardous waste must not be
      disposed of on site.
This includes Storm
  or Sewer Drains

                      …The Trash Can
Hazardous waste must not be
    disposed of on site.

  Through Waste Treatment!!
          Satellite Accumulation
       These are areas that generate small
        quantities of Hazardous Waste. This
                 means laboratories.

Definition: An Area that within 9 months
   No more than 55 gallons of any hazardous waste
   No more than 1 quart of any acutely or extremely
    hazardous waste stream.
            Hazardous Waste Storage

      A funnel is not a cap           This open waste containers needs a cap
                                      Poor waste labeling here as well

       Good Secondary Containment

Waste containers must be kept
closed/capped unless waste is being
added or removed!
     Hazardous Waste Storage
 Containers with
  closable/sealable lids
  or covers.
 Containers must be
  in good condition: no
  holes, creases,
  cracks, rust.            Container open with no label

 They must be
  compatible to the
  waste stored in it.
      Hazardous Waste Storage
   No Food or Beverage Containers.
              Waste Labeling
Label must have the words:
- “Hazardous Waste”
- The name and address of
  the generator (SDSU)
- The waste composition
  and physical state
- Percent volume             Incomplete waste label
                             -Component label smeared
- Type of Hazard, ie.
                             -No percent volume
  Flammable, Corrosive,      -No hazards checked
- The accumulation start
  date (Month, Day, Year)
            Waste Labeling

In other words, fill out the entire hazardous
                waste label!!
         “Empty” Containers
   > 5 gallons in size which previously held
    hazardous materials must be managed
   < 5 gallons don’t need to be managed
   Empty containers that previously held
    Highly toxic materials must be handled
    as hazardous waste, ie. “Sodium azide”.
            “California Empty”
 Collect:
   – Collect in a safe location
 Invert to dry:
   – Invert bottle over paper towels and shake to dry. (Do
     not air dry in fume hoods or by leaving the lid off)
 Deface:
   – Thoroughly deface the chemical label.
 Dispose:
   – To dispose of the bottle call EH&S.
              Waste Minimization
Key methods for waste minimization

   Reduce
    – Purchase only what you need
    – Set up experiments so that less solvent or
      chemicals are needed
   Reuse
    – Reuse empty containers to collect waste
    – Reuse a solvents if purity is not an issue
   Recycle
    – Some waste oils can be recycled
    – Some metal cables and tubing can be
     Waste Container removal

 Call EH&S Department at x46778 or x46098.
 Never allow more than the maximum amounts
  to be accumulated.
 Satellite containers will be removed within seven
  working days.
              Chemical Spills

Have a Spill Kit Ready

 Set-up kit for your
  specific needs
 Take inventory of
  the kit frequently
 Quickly replace used
  of missing items
      Spill Response
For Small Spills:
 Spills one gallon or less, clean the spill using the
  material in your spill kit.
 Don your proper protective equipment (PPE).
 Place contaminated material into your spill bag,
  seal, and attach a hazardous waste label.
 Request a waste pick up of the material from
  EH&S.           Rats
                      Spill Response

For Larger Spills:
   Contain the spill if possible, notify others in the area, and
    evacuate the area.
   Notify your safety officer or EH&S and the supervisor of
    the area.
   If after business hours, notify Public Safety (X41991/911
    for campus phones).
   Do not call Off-campus emergency services. This can
    lead to longer response time!!
           Safety Precautions
 Keep all hazardous materials or other objects at
  least 3 feet from electrical panel
 Have eye wash station nearby for emergency
     Frequently Asked Questions
   Q: How do I know if my waste product is
    actually hazardous?

   A: Other than going though a long and costly
    waste determination process, give the material
    to EH&S and let them make that determination.
     Frequently Asked Questions
   Q: How do I know if a chemical is acute
    hazardous waste?

   A: Acute hazardous waste is given what is called
    a P-code by the EPA and can be found at the
    following link:
    – and click on
      The P-list and the U-list.
    – Or go to 40 CFR 261.33(e)
     Frequently Asked Questions
   Q: Do I need the exact percentage on the
    hazardous waste label?

   A: No, they can be done in percent ranges like
    10-30%. If there are too many components and
    there is not enough room to list them, then list
    the three major components or any acute
    hazardous waste, no matter the amount.
The End

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