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									Canadian History 11
 Because of widespread unrest, the period between
 WWI and WWII has often been called the “long
 armistice” (20 year period of peace was only
 German new method of fighting was the
  blitzkrieg (lightning war). It was a sudden,
  swift, overpowering attack that used airplanes
  to bomb cities and to machine gun soldiers and
  civilians. Then, German ground forces would
  rush into battle.

 Blitzkrieg tactics made Germany successful
  during the early years of the war because they
  caught other nations unprepared. Within a
  week, they conquered Poland. Poland was
  divided between Germany and the Soviet

 Hitler’s army advances on Denmark (1 day),
  Norway (2 days), the Netherlands (5 days),
  Belgium (18 days), and Luxembourg.
 Between 1930-34 France was
  building forts along its eastern
 Known as the Maginot line, it was
  the key to France’s defense against
 Germany went around the
  northern end of the Maginot line
  and marched unopposed into
 Italy invaded southern France.
 France signed an armistice at
    Compiegne, the same place where
    Germany surrendered to France in WWI.
    (6 weeks to defeat France)
    Nazi forces would occupy most of
    France; French resources and factories
    were to placed at the disposal of
   A few brave French leaders flew to
    England where they set up a “Free
    French” government.
    Led By Charles de Gaulle, the French
    organized an underground movement,
    the Resistance. It carried out secret
    missions against the Germans.
   After the defeat of France, Canada
    became Britain’s main ally.
 Total War
 Prime Minister King
 In 1939 Canada was still in
  the grip of the Great
 By 1945, Canada had
  become one of the world’s
  foremost industrial nations.
 Government sold Victory
  Bonds and increased
  income taxes to help pay for
  the war. These paid for
  2/3rd of the cost of the war.
 To avoid inflation, Canadian
    government introduced wage and
    price controls (government
    restrictions placed on wages paid
    to workers and prices charged for
    goods and services.)
   They strictly regulated wages,
    prices (to control inflation) and
    production. They were given
    rations books.
   Gasoline and food was rationed.
   The use of metal and rubber was
   Children collected paper, metal,
    rags, rubber and bones. All these
    things could be recycled into war
   They had contests to see who
    could make the biggest ball out of
    aluminum foil.
   Women replaced enlisted men in
    the workforce.
 Women in War = Nurses, flying
  airplanes, driving vehicles, running
  communication equipment and
  performing administrative support
 Women were recruited for all
  branches (45000 enlist)
 Canadian Battalions were no longer
  segregated during WWII.
 Natives had to get permission of the
  Dept. of Indian Affairs, as they were
  not citizens. They had to give up
  their status as registered Indians.
Army    730 625     Women
                    ARMY        21 624
RCAF    249 624
                    AIR FORCE   17 018
RCN     106 522     NAVY        6 781
                    MEDICAL     4 518
TOTAL   1 086 771
                    DOCTORS     58
 Increase marriages, combined with postwar economic
 prosperity and peace time stability, caused the largest
 birthrate in Canadian History. These post war
 children came to be known as the baby boomers.
 National Resources Mobilization
  Act (NRMA), required all single
  men over 18 to register for
  compulsory military service.
  They were for home defense.
 Became known as zombies =
  term used for soldiers who were
  conscripted into army but
  refused to serve overseas during
 1942, King had a referendum
  (issue goes for direct vote by the
 French vote = 73% no and
  English vote = 80% yes. The
  men were sent overseas.
 If you had roots linked to the enemy you had to
  register with RCMP.
 There was a curfew.
 Interned if you were a Nazi sympathizer.
 Italian and German immigrants who became citizens
  after 1922 had to register as enemy aliens and some
  were sent to internment camps.
 1939-45 only 5000 Jewish immigrants were allowed in
  Canada. The
 St. Louis ship of 900 German Jews was not allowed to
  seek refuge and was sent back to Europe where many
  were detained and sent to death camps.
Secret War: Camp X
 It was located on Lake Ontario near Oshawa
 It was a top secret training post for spies,
    secret agents and sabotage experts.
   It was under the direction of Canadian mast
    spy, William Stephenson.
   Agents from the camp were dropped behind
    enemy lines to spy and report by radio.
   They connected with underground
    movements in occupied countries to disrupt
    enemy activities.
   One agent who was trained at Camp X was
    Ian Fleming. After the war, he wrote the
    James Bond Spy Stories.
   Station M was a vital part of Camp X. It was
    staffed by forgers, safecrackers, chemists,
    movie set designers and costume experts. It
    provided agents with false passports and
    money, battered suitcases and European
Canadian Spies
 Among the 28 Canadian agents who went into Europe, 8 died.
 Guy Bieler’s spine was badly injured when he parachuted into France.
  Even so, he organized a sabotage group. They derailed and blew up
  trains carrying troops and arms. They sabotaged locomotives. In the
  end Guy was captured and shot.
 Frank Pickersgill was captured when he landed in France. Nazi double
  agents had given him away. He refused to break under questioning.
  When his captors switched from threats to bribery, he broke a bottle on
  his interrogator’s desk, slashed the throat of an SS guard, and jumped
  out a 2nd floor window before being stopped by 4 bullets. In prison
  camp he organized resistance, helping prisoners regain some lost
  pride. The Nazis finally executed him and 15 other agents by hanging
  them from meat hooks.
 3 Canadian Services: The Army, The Royal
    Canadian Navy, The Royal Canadian Air
   1939 Canada’s navy was the 4th largest in
    the world.
   Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) was the
    4th largest in the world
   RCAF Training Plan – trained airmen from
    all across the Commonwealth at more than
    200 sites across Canada.
   BCATP provided bases, aircraft and
    instructors to train Commonwealth air and
    ground crew
    The Lancaster Bomber was the largest four-
    engine plane flown by the RCAF. During
    the war 7,374 were made and many of them
    in Canada.
 The Luftwaffe made countless bombing raids.
 At one point every British fighter was in the
   RAF made a surprise bombing on Berlin.
   As revenge, Hitler decided to Blitz the cities.
    He would terrorize the civilians into
   However, this did not work. British resistance
    grew stronger.
   Hitler could not defeat Britain and Winston
    The Royal Air Force (RAF) fought back.
   Britain used an advanced radar system and
    retained control of British air space

 At sea, British ships torpedoed and sank the
    German battleship Bismarck in 1941.
 Germany reneged on its non-
    aggression pact (an agreement
    between nations not to launch a
    military attack against one
    another) and attacked the Soviet
   Hitler decided to attack the Soviet
    Union as he needed oil and wheat.
   He used the Blitzkrieg.
   This attack was a costly mistake,
    because he began a 2-front war.
   It also made the Soviet Union and
    England allies.
 Britain needed food and munitions
    from Canada and the USA
   Germany’s objective was to overcome
    Britain by cutting off its lifelines to
    North America.
   Convoys of merchant ships, protected
    by naval vessels, took the needed
    across the ocean constantly under the
    attack by the German U-boats (known
    as wolf-packs)
   Corvettes – small fast warship used in
   Royal Canadian Navy and Canadian
    merchant marines played a crucial
 USA started to sell war materials
  to England and France.
 Roosevelt also had a lend-lease
  agreement where he would lend
  military equipment and those
  nations could pay for the
  equipment after the war.
 Churchill and Roosevelt also
  drew up the Atlantic Charter,
  which promised that neither
  Great Britain nor USA wanted to
  gain territory after WWII.
 French port
 Despite the original plan for the
  troops to be covered by aerial
  bombers, this was not the case.
 The commander of the Canadian
  2nd Division feared bombardment
  would block the streets, making it
  difficult for his tanks to pass
 Politicians feared bombardment
  would cause unnecessary
  casualties among the civilian
 In July, the 1st operation was cancelled due
    to bad weather.
   In August, the operation was re-configured
    with many new Canadians who did not
    receive detailed training for the raid.
   The raiding force set sail and as it
    approached Dieppe it encountered a small
    German convoy.
   Shots were exchanged which alerted the
    German troops in Dieppe and this upset the
    entire timetable for the raid.
   They planned for the 1st landing to be at
    half-light, but it happened in early morning
    at 6am.
   With good visibility, the Germans pinned
    the troops on the beaches.
   By 11am a withdrawal of all forces were
Number Embarked   4963

Killed            907

Wounded           586

Taken Prisoner    1874
 Japan was gaining territory in Asia. In
  1940, America stopped exporting gasoline
  and metal to Japan (embargo) in an
  attempt to stop the Japanese by hurting
  their economy.
 In 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbour in
 USA declared war on Japan, Germany and
  Italy declared war on USA and the USA
  declared war on them.
 After Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, coastal
  BC was “blacked out.” All lights had to be
  turned off or shielded so that cities and
  towns were invisible at night. There was a
  fear in Canada that we could be attacked by
  navy vessels or aircraft.
 Lost civil rights
 In 1941, 23,000 Japanese were living in
    Canada. 14,000 were born in Canada.
   They were established fishers,
    agriculturalists and professionals.
   Many volunteered for the armed forces
    at the start of the war.
   After Pearl Harbour, a wave of hysteria
    swept across North America.
   1942: 22,000 Japanese Canadians were
    displaced from their homes and
    evacuated to internment camps in BC
    and labour camps in Prairies
 They were allowed 1 suitcase of possessions.
 The rest of their things were sold in public
    auctions and the profits were used to pay for
    internment camps.
   Housing was un-insulated shacks with no
    running water or electricity. Men and boys
    were separated.
   If you protested, you were sent to
    concentration camps in Ontario and he had
    to wear a uniform with a large red circle
   Men were put to work on roads and were
    paid .25 a day.
   Women, children and seniors were confined
    to the camps until the end of the war.
 After the war, many were forced to resettle in the
  Prairies and Ontario.
 4000 were deported
 This was considered a violation of their civil rights and
  in 1988 the government agreed to pay 21,000 in
  compensation to each surviving evacuee.
 4 main theatres of war = Europe, North Africa, Asia
 and the Pacific Islands
 Japan = Guam, Wake Islands,
  Hong Kong, British Malaya, the
  Philippines and the Dutch East
  Indies. In 1941, 1,900
  Canadians went Hong Kong to
  help the island defend itself
  against Japan. But they were
 Nazis had advanced as far as
  Stalingrad (Soviet Union). In
  North Africa Germany reached
  Egypt and threatened the Suez
  Canal and the British naval
  base at Alexandria.
 American flyers led a surprise attack on Tokyo
 Battle of Coral Sea = stopped the Japanese threat of
  invasion of Australia
 Midway Island = Japanese were defeated
North Africa and Europe
Germany was driven out of Egypt and eventually out of
Allies invaded Sicily including the Canadian First Division.
The Italian campaign was long and difficult.
The battle for Ortona was a difficult for Canadians.
The Germans turned it into a series of house-to-house
Canadians found it too dangerous to fight their way up the
streets, so they found a way to move directly from one
building to another.
They would blast a hold through a connecting wall in a top
storey. Before the smoke cleared, troops raced through the
hole throwing grenades and firing machine guns.
The technique was called “mouseholing,” and soldiers
worked their way down entire blocks without ever going into
the street.
Canadians became known as experts in street fighting.
It took a month to capture the town.
650 Canadians were killed or wounded.
Allies’ Turning Point
 Soviet Armies, aided by a bitterly cold winter, made a
  heroic stand at Stalingrad and stopped the Nazi advance.
 Allied planes made a series of round-the-clock raids on
  German factories. The German people realized how
  terrible was could be and what Hitler caused.
 1944, British, American and
  Canadian and free French
  troops invaded the French
  region of Normandy.
 General Eisenhower was the
 Allies had two advantages:
 #1 was sheer numbers. They
  had superiority of air power,
  backed by the large armada ever
  assembled, as well as the ability
  to land upwards of 1 million
  ground troops within 2 or 3
  weeks after the initial landing
Air    6000 planes, 3000 fighters, opposed by just 300 German planes

Sea    4000 ships of all sizes – battleships, cruisers, destroyers, troop
       transports, and landing craft – with 200,000 sailors. Canada
       provided 110 ships and 10,000 men

Army   An initial force of 107,000 soldiers, with reserves in England of over 1
       million. Canada contributed an infantry division and an armoured
       brigade; another infantry division and two armoured divisions were
       in reserve in England.
 #2 The Allies kept the
  destination of the invasion force
  a secret from the Germans until
  after it landed.
 Part of the success rested on the
  appointment of General George
  Patton, a top field commander,
  to lead a fictitious American
  Third Army in Southeast
 Patton’s “force” consisted largely
  of dummy tanks, trucks, and a
  massive number of false radio
 The Germans, feeling that
  Patton was too valuable to kept
  out of important action
  elsewhere, believed totally in the
 Canadian Third Division
 Men were well prepared
 Supported by a huge amount of
  artillery – Battleships, cruisers,
  destroyers and specialized
  landing craft had been equipped
  to fire rockets on the German
 Allied aircraft had extensively
  bombed behind the German
  positions on the beaches, so as to
  prevent reinforcements.
 Allies began the offensive that
    took them across France to
    Germany and final victory.
   1944 Allied soldiers liberated Paris
   Germans made their last counter-
    offensive in Belgium in Dec. 1944.
    This was known as the Battle of
    the Bulge. 76,000men killed. The
    Allied forces won and moved into
   1945 Allied armies advanced into
   Canadians were given the job of
    the liberation of Holland.
   6300 Canadians killed or wounded
   By mid-April, most German units
    had surrendered.
 War ended in 1945
 Roosevelt died suddenly, Mussolini was shot by anti-
  Fascists and Hitler passed his last days hidden in a
  bombproof shelter. He killed himself when the Soviet army
  entered Berlin. Fighting ended in Italy on the same day.
 May 8th 1945 victory in Europe was proclaimed (known as
  V-E Day)
 Japanese defeat was near. Philippines and island of
  Okinawa were captured. The Atomic bomb was used
  on Hiroshima (Little Boy) and Nagasaki (Fat Man).
  The next day, Japanese surrendered.
 Sept. 2, 1945 the Japanese signed the agreement which
  ended the war.
Army    22 910
RCAF    17 047
RCN     1 981

Total   41 938
 United Nations was formed to be the new
    global organization for maintaining peace.
   Free elections would be held in Eastern
    European countries
   Poland was to given German land in
    exchange for Polish land to be taken in the
    east by Russia.
   Germany was divided into American,
    British, French, and Soviet military zones.
   Trials of Nazi war criminals were to take
   July 1945, the Allied leaders met in
    Potsdam, Germany where they agreed on a
    peace settlement with Germany and drew
    up plans for Japan’s surrender and
 1947 Canada became the 1st Commonwealth Country
 to define its citizens as Canadians first and British
 subjects 2nd.

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