EMPLOYEE PROFILE by chenmeixiu


									 Recruitment & Retention
                           Tool Kit

               Strategies for Finding and Keeping
                  Good Workers

Author: Karen Craven – Oregon Rehabilitation Association

   Created through a grant from Northwest Health Foundation

                       Table of Contents
Introduction                               3

PART 1: Quick Hits
Recruitment Quick Hits                     5
      Employee Profile                     6
      Outreach for New Employees           7
      Employee Referral Program            8
Hiring Quick Hits                          9
      Realistic Job Previews               10
      Behavioral Interviewing              11
Communication Quick Hits                   12
      Reinforcement & Feedback             13
      Sharing Information                  15
Measurement Quick Hits                     16
      Turnover Data                        17
      Staff Interviews                     20
      Cost of Turnover                     22

PART 2: Long Term Strategies               25
Orientation & Training                     26
      Initial Socialization                27
      Competency-based Training            28
      Mentoring                            29
Supervisor Training                        31
Creating a Great Place to Work             33
      Teaching and Supporting Staff to
              Solve Conflicts              34
      Enhancing the Status of Staff        35
      Supporting Balance Between
              Work and Outside Life        36
      Recognizing & Dealing with Stress    37
      Appropriate Pay and Rewards          38
      High Performance Work Practices      40
Recruitment & Retention Action Plan        42




With unemployment rates in Oregon and the United States remaining at the lowest levels
in decades, it is getting increasingly difficult to find and retain good workers in the
rehabilitation field. Simply finding and hiring people is difficult enough, but it's also
getting harder to keep good employees. Those issues cause a multitude of problems for
organizations. They decrease the quality of care and employee productivity. They
increase costs and job stress.

Even though the challenge appears daunting, the good news is that there are proven
strategies that will help generate more candidates for available jobs and help retain those
hired as productive and satisfied workers. And the strategies don't necessarily rely upon
more money. Some are short term "quick hits" that a program can be gin using right
away. Others will take more time and effort.

Organizations that make improved recruitment and retention a high priority -- and apply
the suggestions outlined in this workbook – will see the benefits to their staff and, more
importantly, to those they support.

                            What's in the Tool Kit?
This workbook is an assessment tool to help organizations look at what they are currently
doing (or could be doing) to attract and keep good employees. Some suggestions are
"Quick Hits" - simple, inexpensive, or easy to implement. These include:

                              I.      Recruitment Quick Hits
                              II.     Hiring Quick Hits
                              III.    Management/Staff Communication Quick Hits
                              IV.     Measure ment Quick Hits

We have also included some strategies that are more complex and will require focused
efforts and commitment. These are:

                              V.      Orientation & Training
                              VI.     Creating a Great Place to Work
                              VII.    Recruitment & Retention Action Plan


                      How do I use the tool kit?
This workbook is designed to be used in two ways:

      1) as a resource for information and useful ideas, and
      2) as an assessment and planning tool for the organization’s recruitment and
         retention strategies

Each of the sections has several questions relating to a particular topic. There are
suggestions and additional resources noted for each section as well. You may choose to
browse through and use this workbook to glean ideas, or you can use it to develop an
overall long-term strategy to create a more stable workforce.

To use this material most effectively, go through each section and rate
your organization on a scale of 1 – 4. The items with the low scores will be the ones you
want to consider first in your plans to improve recruitment and retention. Near the end of
the workbook (pages 42-44) there are summary sheets to note your answers and have a
chart of your responses. Copy this chart and use it every 6 to 12 months to track the
activity and the progress of your organization’s recruitment and retention efforts.

The final page of the tool is a planning sheet. Look at the summary chart and note the
items that have a low score (1 or 2). From these, prioritize two or three items that you
will focus on first. Which ones do you feel will give you the biggest bang for your buck?
Create a plan for how to address these items. Write down the steps, the responsible
individuals and timelines for completion.

Be sure to set up regular times to review your progress. And remember to celebrate the
improved outcomes that will undoubtedly result from your efforts. Happy recruiting.


                        I. Recruitment Quick Hits

"I don't have the luxury of selecting the best applicant for a direct support position. I'm
forced to hire anyone I can get in the door. I've got 12 openings right now and five
applicants!"                   Stressed out executive director of an Oregon rehabilitation company

Sound familiar?

This is a frequent complaint. Good economic times for the region result in difficult
hiring markets, especially for our underpaid, high demand positions.

Some organizations have come to accept this as a given in the rehab field. "There isn't
anything to be done so just plan for rapid turnover and do the best you can." While
acceptance of life's difficulties can be a virtue in some areas, recruitment of staff is not
one of them. Here's why:

1. The situation will get much worse before it gets better. The Bureau of Labor Statistics
estimates that by the year 2005 the need for human service workers will increase nearly
140%. At the same time, the population most likely to hold direct support jobs (women
ages 18-40) is predicted to decline about 40%. Even if you accept high turnover rates,
finding and keeping employees will get continually harder.

2. Hiring warm bodies will not be successful in the long run. They cost more in time and
money than the short-term problems they may solve.

3. Cost effective tactics really are available.

The following 3 pages will help you assess your own recruitment practices and suggest
some additional strategies.

                                                        In this section:
                                                         Employee profile
                                                         Outreach for New
                                                         Employee referral


I. Recruitment Quick Hits:

Employee Profile
                                                   Strongly                   Strongly
                                                   Disagree                   Agree

1. We have a clear expectations and accurate
job descriptions, particularly for the high-
turnover positions.                                        1       2      3       4

             Review the job description for the open position. Does it
             clearly define the tasks and the environment? For direct
             support positions be sure to include Oregon Core

2. We have documented the qualities and skills
that we are looking for in prospective employees. 1                2      3       4

3. We know the characteristics of employees
who tend to remain on the job.                             1       2      3       4

             Identify a list of characteristics (knowledge, skills, and traits)
             that distinguish top performers in the position. You can do this
             by interviewing current exemplary staff or reviewing the
             characteristics of past top employees. Some “Success” factors
             can be developed, but others you must hire for. Identify those
             must-haves as the foundation for your recruitment and hiring.
             Examples of success factors include: Good writing skills, able
             to work as part of a team, independent, compassionate, good
             listening skills, good problem solving skills, etc.


I. Recruitment Quick Hits:
Outreach for New Employees
                                                 Strongly                   Strongly
                                                 Disagree                   Agree

1. We use a broad range of strategies
to reach potential employees.                    1       2      3       4

            Traditional recruitment practices (e.g. newspaper
            advertisements) are no longer adequate, especially given the
            low unemployment rate and changing demographics.
            Successful strategies for some companies include:
             Volunteer program for students to introduce them to human
               services work;
             Consortia of service providers in an area to do joint
             Use of Jobs Plus program; (State of Oregon reimburses staff
               wages for 6 months while the employer provides training.
               Contact your local Employment Department office for
             Recruitment materials such as brochures or videotapes that
               can be used for targeted pools of potential recruits;
             Using staff, board, client and family connections to gain
               access to networks of community members, churches,
               senior centers, business groups, and clubs;
             Employment Department listings;
             Advertisements in church bulletins;
             Community College career fairs;
             Family members - Let the families of individuals you
               support spread the work about job openings; and
             Internet - More job seekers are using the Internet now.
               Popular sites are Monster Board (www.monster.com),
               Career Mosaic (www.careermosaic.com), and American's
               Job Bank (www.ajb.dni.us)

2. We focus on recruitment of people from
a variety of ethnic groups.               1              2      3       4

            What connections do you have now with minority groups? Who are
            the leaders for those groups in the local community? Find out and
            approach the decision-makers and leaders to make inroads into those
            communities. Focus on how your organization’s values and
            workplace mesh with the values and characteristics of the ethnically
            diverse communities.


I. Recruitment Quick Hits:

Employee Referral Program
Job retention is higher for employees recruited using inside sources and referrals than
employees recruited from outside sources such as newspaper ads.

Examples of inside sources include:
Rehires, referrals, in- house notices, volunteers, friends of staff members, friends of
families. Research shows that e mployee referrals are one of the most effective hiring
strategies in terms of length of employment and performance of the new hire.

                                                     Strongly                   Strongly
                                                     Disagree                   Agree

1. We have an effective employee                             1      2       3       4
 referral bonus system.
              There are several ways to structure employee referral bonuses.
              Some successful ones include:
               Cash bonus for referring a successful hire (make it a substantial
                 amount e.g. $250 - $500);
               Gift bonus for referral (TVs, VCRs, bikes);
               Ongoing bonus of $50 - $100 after 6 months and for each
                 anniversary that both the new employee and referring
                 employee are still at the company.
               Celebrate success - Highlight a new hire and the employee who
                 made the referral in your newsletter or on an employee notice

2. Employees know how to recruit
and refer potential candidates.                              1      2       3       4

                 Employees may need training on the importance of
                  recruitment and how to do referrals. Provide them
                  with materials or brochures that they can distribute at
                  places they frequent.

                 Keep in touch with both current and former
                  employees. They know the job requirements and
                  culture and know if someone would be a good fit.

                 Make sure each employee sees recruitment of new
                  staff as part of his or her job.


                           II. Hiring Quick Hits

Once the flow of potential candidates into the organization has increased, you are in a
position to be more selective about the hiring. The interview is the most common
technique of deciding if a candidate's qualities match the job opening. It is also a great
opportunity to further educate the applicant about the job and the work atmosphere.

There are two basic rules here:

         Rule #1 – Provide an accurate picture of the job.

         Rule #2 - Interview about past performance.

Studies on recruitment and retention show that, of the workers who leave a job within the
first 12 months, nearly half of those left within the first 6 months of hire. This is usually
associated with employee dissatisfaction because they did not have a realistic view of the
job before accepting it. The more accurate the picture a candidate has of the job, the
better the chances of job retention.

This assessment tool looks at two key strategies to making the right job match - realistic
job previews and behavioral interviewing. Studies show that these two approaches can
make a great difference in the quality of new staff hires and their length of stay with the

                                                               In this section:
                                                                Realistic Job
                                                                Behavioral


II. Hiring Quick Hits:

Realistic Job Previews
                                                    Strongly                   Strongly
                                                    Disagree                   Agree
1. Our company effectively uses realistic job
 previews to give potential staff an accurate
 idea of the job.                                          1       2       3         4

    Realistic job previews help hire people who will stay on the job and perform
    well because they get a "realistic" impression of the job before they take it.
    Here are strategies to create an effective realistic job preview:

     Base it on concise job description;
     Gather information from current employees about the climate and culture
      of a site.
     Present information early in the process, before the applicant and you
      have invested much time and effort.
     Use strategies such as videos, booklets, interviews with existing staff, or
     Have an applicant shadow an experienced staff person for part of a shift.
     Videotape interviews with consumers, parents, staff, and typical
      workplace routines.
     Include a balance of positive and negative job characteristics;

           Positives:                             Negatives
       Rewarding work                     Specific difficult or unpleasant tasks
       Fun and interesting clients        Specific pay and benefits
       Great co-workers                   Hours and shifts
       Positive work culture              Need for flexibility and patience
       Flexible schedule
       Lots of overtime opportunity

                                         - 10 -

II. Hiring Quick Hits:

Behavioral Interviewing
                                                    Strongly                 Strongly
                                                    Disagree                 Agree

1. We conduct well-planned interviews.              1       2       3       4

                   Interviewers know the job requirements and areas to be
                    covered in the interview.
                   Questions are prepared ahead of time based on the skills and
                    values needed for the job.
                   Questions are reviewed for legality.
                   Each "must-have" success factor is addressed by a question.
                   The environment for the interview is friendly and free of
                   The right people are on the interview team including
                    supervisor and people served.
                   The interviewers attempt to make a good impression on the

2. We ask questions that elicit information
??about the applicant's skills and values.                  1       2       3       4
          The interview is a chance to gather information on the applicant's skills and
          values. One of the best ways of doing this is to ask questions about past
          behavior or performance. That is the best predictor of future performance on the
          job. Rather than ask an applicant what he or she would do if…, ask what he or
          she did when… Questions can address values, teamwork, problem solving,
          interpersonal skills, technical skills, or cultural fit - whatever you have identified
          as essential to success. Examples of behavioral interviewing questions include:

          For teamwork: Tell of a time when you worked with someone who was not
          completing his or her share of the work. What did you do about it?
          For job motivation: Give me an example of a time when you had to go beyond
          the call of duty to get a job done.
          For communication skills : Tell me about a specific situation where you had to
          get something across to someone he or she found difficult to understand.
          For proble m solving: Think of an occasion when a problem arose at work but
          your supervisor was unavailable. How did you handle it?

                                         - 11 -

III. Management/Staff Communication Quick Hits

 Direct support staff tend to stay at their jobs because of the people - the
 individuals they support, co-workers, their supervisor, the leadership of the
 organization. They tend to leave because of the people also. Problems with
 co-workers are the most common type of incidents that make people want to

 Developing a positive work environment does not count as a "Quick Hit".
 That is a complex issue that addresses the culture of the company. It includes
 dealing with the common problems of gossiping, competition for shifts, or
 dealing with poorly performing co-workers.

 However, there are shorter-term things your company can do that will have
 an impact right away. The following pages address reinforcement &
 feedback, and sharing information.

                                                          In this section
                                                           Reinforcement
                                                             and feedback
                                                           Sharing

                                     - 12 -

III. Management/Staff Communication Quick Hits:

Reinforcement & Feedback
                                                     Strongly                 Strongly
                                                     Disagree                 Agree
1. Staff receive positive feedback on                    1       2      3        4
performance frequently from a variety
of sources. It is immediate, earned,
specific, and personal.
                    Positive feedback from supervisors must be frequent. It
                    doesn't have to take more than a few seconds. Point out:
                            B - Behavior. Be specific and personal. Saying
                            "Good Job" is not enough. What did he or she do?
                            E - Effect. What effect did it have (on the people
                            receiving services, the company, co-workers)?
                            T - Thank you.

                    The few seconds spent giving positive feedback are the
                    best time investment you can make. If you really want to
                    make an impression, put it in writing.

2. Staff receive corrective feedback in a
timely, appropriate manner.                              1       2      3        4

                   Don't wait for formal evaluations to let people know about
                   performance problems. Nothing is worse for morale than good
                   staff having to putting up with marginal staff. Again, it doesn't
                   have to take much time. Give immediate, private feedback that
                           B - Behavior. What did the person do or not do?
                           E - Effect. What effect does that have on people and
                           operations? If the behavior continues what will happen?
                           (consequences for clients, or staff's employment status)
                           E - Expectations. What must happen instead?
                           R - Results. If behavior changes what will happen?
                           (better services, better relationships, less problems)
                            If behavior continues what will happen? (harm to
                           clients, disciplinary action)
                   Be sure there is a lot more positive than corrective
                   feedback! A key complaint is that people only tend to hear
                   about their performance when things are going wrong.

                                       - 13 -

                                                      Strongly                 Strongly
                                                      Disagree                 Agree
3. Our company has multiple systems
in place to reinforce staff for excellent
performance.                                              1      2       3      4

               Direct support staff often feel unrecognized and underappreciated. What
               can your organization do to recognize and reinforce good performance?
               Examples of staff reinforcement systems include:
                “Achievements box” – Anytime managers or staff see people doing
                   something noteworthy, they can jot down a quick note and put it in
                   the achievements box. Read all entries aloud at staff meetings or
                   other gatherings.
                Informal recognition – Make it a “rule” in your organization that
                   every supervisory staff member must point out and publicly praise at
                   least one action by a direct support staff every day.
                Letters of recognition – solicit letters from the community and from
                   family members. Display them and send copies to local media,
                   legislators, etc.
                Stories – Publish stories of outstanding service by direct support staff
                   in organization publication or other newsletters.
                Team-of-the- month – Reward an entire team with a gift such as
                   certificates at a local store or restaurant.

                                        - 14 -

  III. Management/Staff Communication Quick Hits:
  Sharing Information
  Direct support staff report that they stay at jobs because they feel they are part of
  something important. How much do your staff know about what is going on outside their
  house or employment site?
                                                             Strongly                  Strongly
                                                             Disagree                   Agree
  1. Our organization has systems for informing
  staff about the following topics including:                   1        2      3      4

                 Board of Directors’ decisions
                 Turnover statistics
                 Opportunities for advancement
                 Cost of benefits (i.e. $.34/$1.00 in wages)
                 Quality improvement plans
                 Progress on agency action plans
                 Public policy decisions
                 Customer satisfaction data

  2. Direct support staff are included in every
  committee in the agency.                                      1        2      3      4

  3. All managers and supervisors have an
  "open door" policy.                                           1        2      3      4

  4. We have a system to get feedback from staff
  on their job satisfaction.                                    1        2      3      4

  5. Direct support staff are encouraged to keep
  informed about trends and developments in the
  rehabilitation field.                                         1        2      3      4

There are two excellent publications written for direct support staff:
Frontline Initiative.                Impact
P.O. Box 13315                       109 Pattee Hall
Minneapolis, MN 55414                150 Pillsbury Dr. SE
Email - one11001@tc.umn.edu          Univ. of Minnesota
                                     Minneapolis, MN 55455

Also check out the Direct Support Professionals Web Site:

                                              - 15 -

                     IV. Measurement Quick Hits

The key to selecting intervention strategies to combat high turnover is to keep accurate
data and use it to help make decisions. As you make improvements in recruiting and
hiring practices, which ones are making a difference? Which efforts don’t pay off?

There are a number of factors that are helpful to track. Here are some ideas:
       Who is leaving?
       Where are they going?
       How were they recruited?
       Who is staying and why?
       What factors contributed to turnover rates in each home or site?
       What is the turnover rate for direct support staff at each site?
       What is the turnover rate for supervisors at each site?
       What percentage of workers leave within six months of hire.

There are many things one could track. The important thing to remember is to use the
data to make decisions. Consider what you will do with the information once you have it.
For example, in measuring turnover rates it is helpful to look at information on a site-by-
site basis. This helps isolate problems that are site-specific or supervisor-specific but may
not affect the entire organization. Also, look at the supervisors who experience low
turnover. What are they doing that should be replicated throughout the organization?

Get into the habit of tracking data by looking at only a few things at a time. Quick Hits
on measuring data focuses on three items: Turnover rates, staff interviews, and cost of

                                                              In this section:

                                                               Turnover Data

                                                               Staff Interviews

                                                               Cost of Turnover

                                           - 16 -

IV. Measurement Quick Hits:

Turnover Data
                                                        Strongly                 Strongly
                                                        Disagree                 Agree
1. Our organization tracks staff
turnover data on a site-by-site basis.                        1     2      3       4

  To compute the turnover rate for a site, count the number of
  workers who left within the last 12 months. Divide by the
  average number of workers at the site each day during the
  last 12 months. Multiply the result by 100.

  # of leavers in 12 mos.   X 100 = annual separation rate
  # of positions at site

2. Our company tracks average tenure
of workers at each site.                                      1     2      3       4
To calculate average tenure of workers at a site, list each
worker and their number of months at the site. Add the
number of months for each worker and divide by the total
number of workers.

Sum of # of months tenure of current staff = Average tenure
      # of staff positions at the site

3. Our company tracks average tenure of
leavers at each site.                               1         2     3      4
                    To calculate the average tenure of leavers, identify all leavers in the
                    past 12 months and note the total number of months each worked
                    before quitting. Add the number of months and divide by the number
                    of leavers.

                    Sum of # of months in site for all leavers = average tenure of leavers
                                  # of leavers

                                          - 17 -

IV. Measurement Quick Hits:

Turnover Data (continued)
                                                         Strongly                Strongly
                                                         Disagree                Agree
4. Our company tracks the percentage
of leavers who stayed less then six months.                  1      2      3       4

                  To figure the percentage of leavers who stayed less than six months,
                  count the number of workers who left in the last 12 months. Then
                  count the number of workers in that group who stayed less then six
                  months before leaving. Divide this number by the total number of
                  workers who left and multiply the result by 100.

                  # of leavers with < 6 mo. Tenure x 100 = % with < 6 mo. tenure
                          total # of leavers

 Note – You can use a chart like the one on the following page to track
  data by site or for the whole organization. Adapt the number of columns
  to match the number of sites for your organization.

5. Our company tracks hiring and retention
by recruitment source.                                       1      2      3       4

For each source (internal postings, recruitment by current employee,
newspaper ad, employment agency, etc.) note:
       the number of applicants recruited in the last 12 months;
       the percentage of hires from each source;
       the percentage of leavers from each source;
       estimated cost of each source.

With this information, you can determine their relative effectiveness
and invest more heavily in the most productive strategies.

                                           - 18 -

                       DATA ENTRY FORM

                                 DIRECT SUPPORT STAFF             SUPER-
ITEM                      ORGANI- SITE 1    SITE 2      SITE 3    ORGANI-
                          ZATION (optional) (optional) (optional) ZATION
1. # of staff positions

2. # of months tenure
of current staff
3. # of leavers

4. sum of months
worked of leavers
5. # of leavers with
< 6 month tenure
6. # of open positions

Turnover rate =
    Row 3 x 100
    Row 1
Average tenure =
        Row 2
        Row 1
Average tenure of
leavers =
        Row 4
        Row 3
% of leavers with < 6
 months tenure =
    Row 5 x 100
    Row 3

                                    - 19 -

IV. Measurement Quick Hits:

Staff Interviews
                                                     Strongly                   Strongly
                                                     Disagree                   Agree
1. Our company uses exit interviews to
gather data from staff as they are leaving                  1       2       3       4

                      Have exiting employees complete a form which rates the
                      importance of several factors in their decision to leave (e.g..
                      pay, schedule, and relationships with peers, benefits, etc.). A
                      sample exit interview form is on the next page.

                      Ask open-ended questions such as "What would you tell a
                      friend considering taking your job?" See next page for
                      additional questions.

                      Other information to gather is:
                              Where did person go when he or she left the agency?
                              Status at exit (fired or not)
                              Will person be on-call?

2. Our organization assesses job satisfaction
of current workers on a regular basis.                      1       2       3       4

 Many exit interview questions are good questions to ask
 of current workers on an annual basis. Use the responses
 to these questions to see how workers feel about their
 jobs. Note if any patterns emerge by site.

 See the open-ended questions at the bottom of the Exit
 Interview Questions on the next page.

                                         - 20 -

                         Exit Interview Questions
Interview each worker who leaves.

Indicate on a scale of 1 – 5 the extent to which these factors made you want to stay or
leave. (1 = strong reason to stay; 2 = moderate reason to stay; 3 = not a factor in my
decision; 4 = moderate reason to leave; 5 = strong reaso n to leave)

Salary                                               1       2      3       4       5

Paid leave policies (sick, holiday, vacation)         1      2      3       4       5

Benefits policy (medical, dental)                    1       2      3       4       5

Scheduling practices and hours worked                1       2      3       4       5

Opportunities for promotion or advancement           1       2      3       4       5

Training and career development                      1       2      3       4       5

Company policies regarding treatment of clients      1       2      3       4       5

Relationships with supervisors                       1       2      3       4       5

Relationships with coworkers                         1       2      3       4       5

Relationships with people supported in site          1       2      3       4       5

Specific job tasks (specify)                         1       2      3       4       5

Specific frustrations or disappointments (specify)   1       2      3       4       5

What would you tell a friend considering taking your job?

Give an example of one or two specific incidents that made you want to stay on this job.

Give an example of one or two specific incidents that made you want to leave this job.

What could your supervisor or this agency do to make your job better?

What type of position do you plan to work after you leave this position?

                                           - 21 -

IV. Measurement Quick Hits:

Cost of Turnover
                                                      Strongly               Strongly
                                                      Disagree               Agree
1. We know the monetary cost of turnover
for direct support staff and supervisors.                    1     2     3       4

  Cost of turnover is greater than the cost of advertising and
  training. Use the form on the next page to calculate the
  full financial impact of turnover.

2. We know the organizational and personal
costs of turnover for direct support staff
and supervisors.                                             1     2     3       4

                          Many of the costs of turnover are hidden.
                          There is a huge impact in:

                           quality of services,
                           personal upheaval for people with
                           increased stress for remaining staff, and
                           inconsistency of customer service to
                            community employers.

                          Have a frank discussion with staff about the
                          non- monetary costs of turnover and how
                          that affects the values and mission of the

                                           - 22 -

    Estimating the True Cost of Turnover:
To accurately estimate the true cost of turnover for a position, fill in the shaded portions
of this chart and add the total costs in column (d).

ACTIVITY            WHO MUST           HOURLY           # OF       NON-            TOTAL
                    DO IT              PAY + OPE        HOURS      PAYROLL         EXPENSES/
                                          (a)              (b)     COSTS           ACTIVITY
                                                                      (c )            (d)
When employee
process             HR/admin                                                            axb

To fill-in for
Fill shift          other employee     Rate +                                           axb
requirements                           overtime?
                    Supervisor                                                          axb
                    Temp agency                                                         axb
Arrange fill- in    Supervisor                                                          axb
Brief & orient      Supervisor                                                          axb
temporary staff
To fill vacant
Advertise job       HR/admin.                                                      (a x b) + c
Evaluate            HR/admin.                                                           axb
Schedule            HR/admin.                                                           axb
Interview           Supervisor                                                          axb
                    HR/admin.                                                           axb
                    Exec. Dir.                                                          axb
                    Other                                                               axb
Check references    Supervisor/HR                                                       axb
Drug test           HR/admin.                                                      (a x b) + c
Criminal history    HR/admin.                                                           axb

                                            - 23 -

ACTIVITY              WHO MUST           HOURLY          # OF       NON-         TOTAL
                      DO IT              PAY + OPE       HOURS      PAYROLL      EXPENSES/
                                            (a)             (b)     COSTS        ACTIVITY
                                                                       (c )         (d)
To bring in ne w
New employee          New hire                                                       axb
                      HR/admin.                                                      axb
Orientation           New hire                                                       axb
                      Supervisor                                                     axb
Formal training       New hire                                                       axb
                      Trainer/sup.                           *                       axb
Informal training     New hires                                                      axb
                      Supervisor                                                     axb
                      Other                                                          axb
Total resources                                                                  Total this
allocated per                                                                    column

* The trainer's time can be divided by the number of employees who are trained at once if
group training takes place.

                  Note: This formula does not take into account lost
                  productivity due to the loss of an employee. That cost
                  depends on the value of the goods or services the employee
                  produced, how long the position is vacant and how long it
                  will take for a new employee to achieve the same level of

                  Note: The minimum cost estimated by the Department of
                  Labor is 1/3 of a direct support staff’s annual salary (i.e.
                  $6,000 of an $18,000/year salary). Private industry figures
                  are higher.

                                             - 24 -

    Long Term Strategies
The assessment of recruitment and retention
practices up to this point have included things that
are relatively easy to accomplish and can be done
quickly, easily, or at relatively little expense.

Other ideas, however, require more time, financial
commitment, or sophistication to accomplish. The
following pages address these larger issues which
are not "Quick Hits". They are long-term
organizational projects. Think of it as a journey.

                        - 25 -

                       V. Orientation and
The time and money spent in staff orientation and training can be your best long-term
investment both in terms of reducing turnover and increasing staff performance. National
and local studies show that training is a key tool in fighting turnover. This includes not
only initial training but also ongoing staff development.

Developing and maintaining a system of effective orientation and competency-based
training is an ongoing process. It is a continuous cycle of planning, doing, checking, and
improving. Think of the training process as something that is alive and continuously
changing and improving. The following chart illustrates this cycle of training.

                                       Assess &

          Reflect &                                               Train

                                     Test with

This section of the assessment tool asks questions about the orientation or training
process at your organization. It also identifies resources for further information. The
areas addressed are: Initial Socialization, Co-worker Support, Competency-based
Training, and Peer Mentoring.

                                                          In this section:

                                                           Initial socialization
                                                           Competency-based
                                                           Mentoring
                                                           Supervisor Training
                                           - 26 -

V. Orientation and Training:

Initial Socialization
When a new staff person joins an organization, he or she must learn not only the skills
and routines of the job but also the norms, values and culture - the "ropes". This takes
place over a long period of time but is obviously most intense at the beginning of
employment. Studies show that how an organization approaches this entry period has
long term effects on staff tenure. Socialization tactics correlate with job satisfaction and
commitment and produce less role ambiguity and conflict.

                                                      Strongly                    Strongly
                                                      Disagree                    Agree
1. Our organization takes a group of new
staff through a common set of planned
experiences and training.                                     1       2       3       4

2. New staff "shadow" experienced staff
and are prepared for the job by them.                         1       2       3       4

3. Orientation focuses on getting to know
the people who receive services, routines,
and organizational history and values.                        1       2       3       4

4. New staff are shown how their personal
characteristics are valuable and useful to
the organization.                                             1       2       3       4

5.There are strategies in place to encourage
strong co-work support for new staff.                         1       2       3       4

                        Elements of co-worker support include:
                         Co-workers go out of their way to help
                           new staff member adjust.
                         Newcomers are able to observe co-
                         Experienced staff see advising or training
                           new staff as part of their job.
                         Co-workers encourage questions and help
                           clarify the role of the new worker.

                                            - 27 -

V. Orientation and Training:

Competency-Based Training
Rehabilitation organizations in Oregon use the Oregon Core Competencies as a basis for
initial staff training. The list of competencies defines what staff need to know before
working unassisted and within three months of hire. They cover the basics in the areas of
health, safety, rights, values, and organizatio n mission.

The key to competency-based training is that the learners "prove" they have the skills.
This is done through demonstrations, direct observation, reviewing work products, or
other methods. It is not enough to know people attended training or were told what to do.
Supervisors must be sure they can do it.

                                                    Strongly                  Strongly
                                                    Disagree                  Agree
1. Individual-specific and site-specific
information is spelled out for each
core competency.                                           1       2      3      4

2. Supervisors and key staff know what
the acceptable demonstrations are for each
competency.                                                1       2      3      4

3. We have a written training plan that
includes what is taught, who teaches it,
the training methods and materials, and
timetables.                                                1       2      3      4

4. We have a system for checking staff
competencies that includes who will check,
how, and what proof is needed.                             1       2      3      4

5. We have a system to review and
improve our training process.                              1       2      3      4

More information on Core Competencies and related training materials are available in
the Core Competencies Resource Guide and in a series of "How to…" Guides developed
by Oregon Rehabilitation Association. Phone (503) 585-3337 for more free copies.

                                          - 28 -

V. Orientation and Training:

“The Mentor-protégé relationship is an association of two individuals in which the person
of greater rank or expertise teaches, counsels, guides, and helps the other develop both
personally and professionally.” – Elizabeth Alleman, Ph.D.

Mentoring can take many sizes and shapes. The mentors can be peers or higher level
staff that are not supervising the individual. The amount of time they spend together can
vary from daily to weekly or less. The structure of the mentoring system will vary
greatly depending on the size and sophistication of the organization.

The use of mentors is especially helpful in meeting the challenges faced by workers in
scattered sites. Staff who are physically isolated from one another need to feel that they
can get their questions answered and need a way to feel connected to other staff.

The following questions reflect characteristics of successful mentoring programs.

                                                     Strongly                    Strongly
                                                     Disagree                    Agree
1. We carefully select and match
mentors, all of whom are volunteers.                         1       2      3       4

                Qualities to look for in a mentor include:

                   Treats people as colleagues;
                   Is on the lookout for opportunities to help people learn;
                   Makes company norms and philosophy explicit and
                   Regularly discusses an individual’s career plan and goals;
                   Wants people to succeed;
                   Is prepared to free up time to spend with an individual;
                   Reaches out to the new employee rather than waiting to be
                    asked; and
                   Challenges an individual to do his or her best.

2. Mentors are trained on how the
program works, active listening,
leadership, conflict resolution, and
providing feedback.                                          1       2      3       4

                                           - 29 -

3. The mentoring system is evaluated
and changed as needed.                                   1      2       3   4

    For more information on mentoring:

    Design Productive Mentoring Programs, Info-Line publication from
    American Society for Training and Development – (703) 683-8129

    Mentoring, A Practical Guide, Gordon F. Shea, Crisp Publications,
    Inc. (800) 442-7477

    Coaching Mentoring and Assessing, Eric Parsloe, Kogan Page
    Limited, 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN

                                         - 30 -

V. Orientation and Training:

Supervisor Training
There is a clear correlation between supervisor behavior and staff retention outcomes.
Direct support staff report that having a good supervisor that treated staff with "fairness"
was a key issue in deciding to leave or stay. The supervisor or mid- manager position
often makes the difference between a well-run program and a poor one. Training for
these positions is essential both in terms of supervision skills and leadership.

                                                        Strongly                   Strongly
                                                        Disagree                   Agree
1. We identify direct support staff who
have the general attributes of an effective
supervisor.                                                     1      2     3        4
            General characteristics of successful frontline supervisors include:

            Compassionate          Creative          Humorous
            Fair                   Flexible          Humble
            Objective              Respectful        Self-directed
            Problem-solver         Visionary         Self-evaluative
            Systems-thinker        Decisive          Empathetic

2. Supervisory staff receive training and feedback in all of the following
areas:                                                          1      2     3        4
         Communication skills
         Providing direct supports to consumers
         Developing and implementing ISP's
         Developing and implementing behavior
                support plans
         Personnel management skills (Delegation,
                performance reviews, coaching,
                disciplinary action, meetings)
         Staff training skills
         Home & vehicle maintenance
         Health & safety issues
         Finances (consumer, household, program)
         Quality assurance

                                            - 31 -

      Rule compliance
                                                Strongly                Strongly
                                                Disagree                Agree
3. We assess the competency levels of
supervisors through direct observation,
document review, discussion, consumer
and family feedback, peer and direct
support personnel feedback.                            1      2     3         4

4. We use a variety of opportunities and
approaches to provide training to current and
potential supervisors.                                 1      2     3         4

         Resources for supervisor & mid-manager training include:

          Local Community Colleges
          Center for Continuing Education in Rehabilitation 1-888-377-0100
          Oregon Rehabilitation Association 503-585-3337
          American Society for Training and Development
          Local DD-funded Regional Training Committees

                                      - 32 -

    VI. Creating A Great Place To Work

Most companies recognize how important a positive culture and work
environment are in attracting and keeping good employees. Some even
include this issue as a formal part of the company business plan - "Make
this company a great place to work."

Creating a positive work environment is an ongoing process that is
approached from many angles. It involves continuous attention and

                    In this section:
                     Teaching and supporting staff to solve
                       conflicts and communicate effectively;
                     Enhancing status and opportunities of direct
                       support staff;
                     Supporting a balance between work and
                       outside life;
                     Recognizing and dealing with stress;
                     Appropriate pay and rewards

                                  - 33 -

VI. Creating a Great Place to Work:

Teaching and supporting staff to solve
conflicts and communicate effectively
Direct support staff report that relationships with co-workers and supervisors are key
factors in the decision to leave a job or to stay. Issues that arise that sabotage the
relationships among staff are perceptions of unfairness, gossiping, and differences of
opinion about how work should be done. Conflict is inevitable when people work
together, and staff need to have the skills to resolve that conflict effectively.

                                                     Strongly                  Strongly
                                                     Disagree                  Agree
1. We offer training in communication
skills including active listening and conflict
resolution.                                                 1       2      3       4

2. We have a policy that spells out expected
and acceptable staff interactions that includes
a prohibition on gossip.                                    1       2      3       4

3. "Maintaining a positive working relationship
with co-workers" is included all job descriptions
and is a clear expectation for all staff.                   1       2      3       4

4. We provide a volunteer mediation service
for staff, clients, or families.                            1       2      3       4

5. Leaders in the organization model good
communication and regularly coach and
support those skills in others.                             1       2      3       4

                                          - 34 -

VI. Creating a Great Place to Work:

Enhancing status and opportunities of
direct support staff
Studies done on recruitment and retention show that staff are more likely to stay on the
job if they perceive opportunities for growth and advancement. They are also more likely
to stay if they feel valued for their contributions. What systems do you have in place to
promote individual growth and professional development?

                                                    Strongly                  Strongly
                                                    Disagree                  Agree
1. There are opportunities for career
advancement in our organization.                           1       2      3      4

2. Staff are typically promoted from within.               1       2      3      4

3. Staff have easy access to program
administrators and managers.                               1       2      3      4

4. The agency promotes team building
and uses teams to solve problems and
generate suggestions.                                      1       2      3      4

5. Direct support staff participate in ISP
meetings.                                                  1       2      3      4

6. Staff are encouraged and supported in
obtaining additional training and education.               1       2      3      4

7. Administrators spend time in direct
support work to better understand issues
of clients and staff.                                      1       2      3      4

 8. Staff are surveyed about work and job
satisfaction.                                              1       2      3      4

                                          - 35 -

VI. Creating a Great Place to Work:

Supporting a balance between work and
outside life
The majority of direct support workers in the rehabilitation field today are female, ages
18 - 40. A significant portion of workers are parents, and many hold second jobs or
attend school. Companies must recognize that staff have lives and schedules outside of
work. An agency that stands out as a great place to work is one that supports the balance
between work and home.
                                                     Strongly                   Strongly
                                                     Disagree                   Agree

1. We schedule shifts to accommodate
family, school, and community commitments
whenever possible.                                          1       2      3       4

2. We have an employee assistance program to
support staff in finding counseling services,
self-help groups, childcare, financial counseling.          1       2      3       4

3. We include family members of staff in
agency social functions.                                    1       2      3       4

                                          - 36 -

VI. Creating a Great Place to Work:

Recognizing and dealing with stress
Whenever staff are surveyed about training needs, stress management is always near the
top of the list. Strategies exist to help reduce the stress. Also, we can teach staff how to
support themselves and their co-workers in stressful situations.

                                                      Strongly                    Strongly
                                                      Disagree                    Agree

1. We give new staff realistic information
about initial stresses on the job.                            1       2       3       4

2. We provide general support and assurance
in small groups or one-to-one.                                1       2       3       4

3. Administrators model and support good
coping skills.                                                1       2       3       4

                           Good skills for coping with stress include:
                            Modifying the ways you think about
                            Reappraising the situation;
                            Exercise;
                            Relaxation;
                            Deep breathing.

4. Staff have opportunities to rehearse or role
play strategies for stressful situations.                     1       2       3       4

6. We provide an Employee Assistance Program
(EAP) to help staff deal with stress in their life
(access to counseling, financial advise, stop-smoking
clinics, weight loss clinics, etc.)                 1                 2       3       4

                                            - 37 -

 VI. Creating a Great Place to Work:

Appropriate Pay and Rewards
Wages, benefits, rewards - Along with non- monetary strategies for recruiting and keeping
good staff, there is always the issue of money. How can we provide the pay and rewards
that attract staff and encourage long-term commitment? Strategies of streamlining and
flattening organizations can produce significant savings and allow for salary increases.
Also, companies are becoming creative about providing meaningful perks to staff at low
                                                     Strongly                   Strongly
                                                     Disagree                   Agree
1. We pay competitive wages for our
geographic area.                                            1       2       3    4

2. We provide a competitive amount of
paid leave time for all employees (prorated
on % of time worked).                                       1       2       3    4

3. We provide health insurance for all
employees who are 1/2 time or more (prorated).              1       2       3    4

4. We provide dental, vision, and life insurance
for all employees who are ½ time or more.                   1       2       3    4

5. We provide holiday pay for all employees
on a prorated schedule.                                     1       2       3    4

6. We provide hiring and retention bonuses.                 1       2       3    4

7. We provide attendance bonuses.                           1       2       3    4

                    A typical formula for an attendance bonus for direct
                    support staff is $1/hour additional pay in a separate
                    check every 2 weeks if the employee meets all
                    conditions such as:

                     on time for the previous 6 weeks,
                     no more than 1 sick day in past 3 months, and
                     no written warnings.

                                          - 38 -

8. We arrange discounts for staff at local
stores, auto mechanics, health spas, etc.           1   2   3   4

9. We provide tuition assistance at public
colleges, universities and technical
schools.                                            1   2   3   4

10. We provide a retirement program for
all employees after 2 years.                        1   2   3   4

11. We have a system of performance-based
wage increases.                                     1   2   3   4

12. We have a system to recognize staff
for excellent performance. (bonuses, plaques,
certificates, gifts, etc.)                          1   2   3   4

13. We participate in statewide efforts to
increase wages for direct support staff including
lobbying, letter writing, personal contacts with
legislators, etc.)                                  1   2   3   4

                                     - 39 -

VI. Creating a Great Place to Work:

High Performance Work Practices
A national study (1995) looked at management strategies that address personnel issues.
The study identified 13 High Performance Work Practices that are associated with lower
turnover rates and increased productivity. Some of these practices have been included in
"Quick Hits" or other sections of this assessment.

Indicators of High Performance Work Practices are:

1. Proportion of the workforce included in a formal information sharing
program such as a newsletter;
2. Proportion of the workforce whose job has been subjected to a formal job
3. Proportion of non-entry-level jobs filled from within in recent years;
4. Proportion of the workforce who are administered attitude surveys
5. Proportion of the workforce who participate in Quality of Work Life
programs, Quality Circles, and/or labor-management participation teams;
6. Proportion of the workforce with access to company incentive plans,
profit-sharing plans, and/or gain-sharing plans;
7. Average number of hours of training received by a typical employee over
the last 12 months;
8. Proportion of the workforce with access to a formal grievance procedure
and/or complaint resolution system;
9. Proportion of the workforce administered an employment test before
10. Proportion of the workforce whose performance appraisals are used to
decide their compensation;
11. Proportion of the workforce receiving formal performance appraisals
12. Promotion decision rules listed from least to most desirable: a) seniority,
b) seniority among employees who meet a minimum merit requirement, 3)
seniority only if merit is equal, d) merit or performance rating alone; and
13. Number of qualified applicants per position for the five positions hired
most frequently.

(From M.A. Huselid. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 635-672)

                                         - 40 -

Which of the previous indicators are most important in your organization? Tracking all
of these indicators is unrealistic. Select the key practices that will make the largest
impact on your organization and focus on those first.

                                                    Strongly                  Strongly
                                                    Disagree                  Agree
1. We have identified key performance
work practices for our company (such as
the ones listed above).                                    1       2      3      4

2. We track the data for our key performance
work practices.                                            1       2      3      4

3. We make decisions based on the above data.              1       2      3      4

                                          - 41 -

VII. Recruitment & Retention Action Plan
Having worked through this assessment tool and rated your organization on its
recruitment and retention practices, what do you do? The following pages form the
outline of a Recruitment & Retention Action Plan.

Step 1. Use the next two pages to summarize your responses to the questions in this

Step 2. Note which items have low scores (1 or 2). Focus on these first. From the low
scoring items, choose two or three items that will give you the biggest impact.

Step 3. Outline a work plan for those high impact items. Use the form on page 46 to
document your plan. Be sure to note individuals responsible for each step and timelines.
Be clear about your criteria for success. Pick times to follow up on the activities and

Step 4. Review progress at regularly scheduled times.

Step 5. Repeat the process of assessing the organization and prioritizing items for an
action plan at 6 month intervals, or more frequently. Adjust as needed.

                                           - 42 -

                  ANSWER CHART
DATE __________________                 1           2        3         4
                                    STRONGLY    DISAGREE   AGREE   STRONGLY
                                    DISAGREE                         AGREE
     Employee profile         #1
     Outreach                  #1
     Employee Referral        #1
     Realistic Job Previews   #1
     Behavioral Interviews    #1
     Reinforcement & feedback #1
     Sharing information       #1
     Turnover Data            #1
     Staff Interviews         #1
     Cost of Turnover        #1
     Initial Socialization   #1

                                       - 43 -

                                          1           2        3         4
                                      STRONGLY    DISAGREE   AGREE   STRONGLY
                                      DISAGREE                         AGREE
    Competency Based Training #1
    Mentoring                    #1
    Supervisor Training          #1
    Solving conflicts           #1
    Enhancing status of staff #1
    Supporting balance of work &
    Outside life                #1
    Dealing with stress        #1
    Pay & Rewards              #1

                                         - 44 -

                                      1           2        3         4
                                  STRONGLY    DISAGREE   AGREE   STRONGLY
                                  DISAGREE                         AGREE
 Pay & Rewards           #6
High Performance Work Practices

                                     - 45 -

                     ACTION PLAN
Date of plan _________________             Date of plan review _____________

            TASKS              PERSON        TIMELINE         CRITERIA
Item 1
   Step 1
   Step 2

Item 2
   Step 1
   Step 2

Item 3
   Step 1
   Step 2

                                  - 46 -

     For technical assistance or for more
   information regarding recruitment and
retention strategies, contact Karen Craven at
     Oregon Rehabilitation Association
              (503) 585-3337 or

Special acknowledgement to the research staff at Institute on Community Integration,
University of Minnesota for their work on recruitment and retention issues. Many
strategies presented here are based on the results of their studies.

                                         - 47 -

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