TrackBack is a web log application tool that allows bloggers to know what people see their written after the article with the short. In Movable Type and WordPress software, includes this feature. This feature each other through the blog "ping" mechanism to achieve the interaction between the site notice; Therefore, it can also provide reminders.
Using Trackback to Support Citation Notification Services Brian Matthews, Katie Portwin, Cathy Jones, Bryan Lawrence E-Science Centre, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Science and Technology Council Facilities We employ more than 2200 staff who are deployed at 7 locations, these are: Swindon where the headquarters is based: the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the Daresbury Laboratory, the Chilbolton Observatory, the UK Astronomy Technology Centre in Edinburgh, the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes on La Palma; and the Joint Astronomy Centre in Hawaii. Annually over 15000 visiting Scientists from around the world from both Academia and Industry. Research and Science Support at STFC E-science at STFC aims to: Deliver world class science Engender world class science Communicate world class science By providing services, development and innovation in IT Academic Discourse Academics have long established means of communication via: - Journal Publication; - Stored in Libraries; - Which cite prior published work - Which inspires new ideas - Which leads to new data being collected - Which leads to new papers. Backward Citations Traditional Citations – refer backwards between formal written publications If you try hard enough, you can trace back the prior influences on papers back to the 17th Century. Usually does not include citation of data. A Changing Landscape Over the last few years, the wider availability of the internet and the computing in science has lead to a change in the research discourse: •Institutional repositories - capturing the published output of the institution •Data Repositories capturing and classifying science data for reuse BADC New Opportunities Find datasets that in repositories which are used to derive publications. Find papers which are written from datasets. •Can check the results of the paper •Can perform new secondary analyses •Can judge the value of a data set from its use •Can give credit to data providers •Can also add forward links to paper- to evaluate their use. Adding Forward Citations Include Forward Citations – refer forwards to derived datasets and formal written publications Include data into the network of citations. Microsoft’s Science 2020 Report Modern scientific communication relies on both journals and databases. At present these are not integrated. By 2020 mutual linking will be commonplace and publications just containing peer-reviewed data will become available. http://research.microsoft.com/towards2020science/downloads.htm About CLADDIER Citation, Location and Deposition in Discipline and Institutional Repositories Funded via a JISC grant, through the Digital Repositories programme - July 2005-Oct 2007 Bryan Lawrence (PI, BADC) Sam Pepler (Project Manager, BADC) Sue Latham (BADC) Pauline Simpson (NOCS) Jessie Hey (Southampton) Brian Matthews (STFC) Catherine Jones (STFC) Alistair Miles (STFC) Katie Portwin (STFC) Shoaib Sufi (STFC) Kevin O’Neil (STFC) Katherine Bouton (Reading, NCAS) Citation and linking in repositories In order to achieve this scenario we need to provide a set of key mechanisms • Publishing of Data – Conventions for the citation of data – Can then treat data citation in similar way to publications • Browsing and searching – across different repositories – across data and publication • Cross-citation of data and publication – forward and backward citation – need to maintain currency of citation links – A simple mechanism to push citation information between repositories A practical look at citation of data and how repositories could communicate citation information. Data Publication In this context “publication” is defined as the process through which data is fixed and made retrievable over the long term, and may imply that there has been some quality control process. – Defining data : fixing and encapsulating a “meaningful” data set – Quality Control : Publishers, Data Centres Natural Environment Research Council, Mesosphere-Stratosphere- Troposphere Radar Facility [Thomas, L.; Vaughan, G.] . Mesosphere- Stratosphere-Troposphere Radar Facility at Aberystwyth, [Internet]. Version 2, Cartesian products. British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), 1990- [cited 2006 Apr 25]. Available from http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/mst. Maintaining Links Ideally the archives holding the datasets and publications would be notified that a paper citing them had been submitted. – Metadata associated with those records would be updated to reflect the citations. – The metadata in the publication repository should also link to the metadata in the data archives and vice versa. – It would be great if this notification could be done automatically. • Tedious to enter citations • “forward citations” (“cited-by”) are hard to track To support this, we need to provide a citation notification service • Federated Repositories register with the service • Repositories notify the service of citations • The service informs (via broadcasting or targeting) repositories of citation, •Service provides sufficient information to update metadata Architectures for Notification Services Repository A Repository A Resource A1 Resource A1 references 1. poll references 1. notify Resource B1 Resource B1 Repository B Repository B 3. RSS (peer-to-peer pull) 2. Linkback (blogging) (peer-to-peer push) 1. Broker (mediated push) Repository A Registry Repository A Resource A1 references Resource A1 0. register 2. notify references Notification Service Resource B1 Registry Resource B1 1. Match Repository B URL prefix Repository B 4. Harvester (Crossref) (mediated pull) 5. Trackback with Registration (Broker/Trackback Hybrid) Using Trackback for Notification However, the Linkback approach was chosen because: •Linkback is a pure peer-to-peer approach – Does not rely on third party services. • Linkbacks can be received without the source or target repository knowing of each other’s existence in advance • Existing well-known and well-defined simple protocols for article cross- referencing used in the Blogging. A number of Linkback specifications exist: •Trackback is a simple “framework for peer-to-peer communication” •supported by blogging tools such as MoveableType •It has a relatively simple metadata transmission uses HTTP POST. •Problems with Spamming are well-known and mitigation can be done. Consequently, Trackback was chosen as basis the experimental Citation Notification Service. With our own extensions…. Trackback Protocol Sender Publication This publication has a citation to a technical report Adds Citation Sends trackback call to this URI Embedded Metadata Trackback URI Trackback Message Trackback Sender sends the following message to the Trackback URL. HTTP POST to http://trackbackurl-for-resourceB &title=[title of source object] &url=[URL of source object] &excerpt=[excerpt from source object] &blog_name=[website of source repository] &metadata=[rich metadata about source object] &metadataformat=[format of metadata] &type=[type of cross-reference being notified] Added three extra keys to the Trackback protocol Trackback Metadata In the &metadata key can add metadata on the citing paper – in RDF. <rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://theidentifier"> <dc:title>Best article ever</dc:title> <dc:creator>F Flinstone</dc:creator> <dc:creator>J Bloggs</dc:creator> <dcterms:issued>2007</dcterms:issued> <dcterms:isPartOf>urn:ISSN:1234-5678</dcterms:isPartOf> <dcterms:bibliographicCitation>&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004 &rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal &rft.jtitle=Lecture Notes in Computer Science &rft.volume=1 &rft.issue=11 &rft.spage=111 </dcterms:bibliographicCitation> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> After Trackback – cited-by link added Receiver Publication Added this cited by link Further Extensions to Trackback Once we have established a P2P communications channel between repositories, we can start to use it for additional functions. Whitelists Well-known problem of Trackback – Spamming with bogus messages. Maintain a whitelist of known and trusted sites. <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:wl ="http://epubs.cclrc.ac.uk/vocab/trackback/"> <wl:repository rdf:about="http://testserver.claddier"> <wl:hostname>Claddier Testserver</wl:hostname> <wl:ipaddress>126.96.36.199</wl:ipaddress> </wl:repository> <wl:repository rdf:about="http://test.home"> <wl:hostname>Test Home</wl:hostname> <wl:ipaddress>188.8.131.52</wl:ipaddress> </wl:repository> </rdf:RDF> Not the most satisfactory of solutions to the Spamming problem. Still on the lookout for good solutions to this problem. Reverse Trackback The normal trackback sends metadata from the sender to the receiver. Can also send metadata from the receiver to the sender – reverse trackback. Embed metadata in the first requested page with Trackback URL. This metadata can be used to enhance or correct the citation data. Could mean that user data entry is at a minimum Embedded Metadata Metadata for reverse trackback Multiple metadata formats Senders and receivers could support a number of different metdata formats. Embed supported metadata formats in the scraped page. Also transmit metadata format in the Ping message using the &metadataformat key Embedded Metadata Formats accepted Citation Type We have assumed so far that the citation is a “backward-citation”. We can use the &type key Trackback extension to indicate the type of citation being added. This key can take the following values. backward The citation being notified is a backward citation. This is the default if the type key is omitted. cites Same as backward forward The citation being notified is a forward citation. cited-by Same as forward copy The sender is notifying that it holds a copy of an object which is held by the receiver. Error correction A number of error situation can occur which should be signalled and handled to keep the data clean. – Duplicates: The same citation can be notified a number of times as the citing entry is updated. – Anti-Trackback: citations may need to be retracted. A small extension to the protocol would allow the sender to send a “delete” request. In both these cases, it should be up to the receiving repository to determine how it responds to the request. Comments on Trackback •A simple existing protocol – P2P – loosely federates Some problems or extensions are repositories under consideration – Extended to carry •Data entry is HARD metadata of the citation •Link to metadata– not full text – To add “cited-by” links •Spamming – anyone could send •Can also indicate which trackbacks metadata is expected – Whitelists – Simple Dublin Core – ePrints Application – Administrator intervention Profile •Multiple entries •Can also use the metadata of – Same citation multiple times the receiver – Same citation in different – Improves the citation repositories metadata •Retraction of citation •Implemented in ePubs – Also partially in BADC – A delete protocol – Receiver only – send email to admin. Conclusions CLADDIER supports the scientific process with federated repositories This requires the cross-linking network of information objects. Which needs to be stored, maintained and searched Now doing some user testing Tools and ideas relatively straightforward Extending existing components Keep it simple – so it will get used Simple P2P protocols can lead to great possibilities in new contexts. http://claddier.badc.ac.uk/
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