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CHAPTER 12

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					                                     CHAPTER 12


Romanticism- An assumption that spread in both Europe and America. A movement known as
romanticism. This stood in market contrast to traditional Protestant assumption of original sin
which people needed to overcome through a disciplined, virtuous life. Instead, reformers now
argued, individuals should strive to give full expression to the inner spirit, should work to
unleash their innate capacity to experience joy and to do good.

Abolitionists- Negroes slaves of the 19 century who favored the abolition of any institution.
Those who imposed slavery were, for the most part, a calm and genial lot, expressing moral
disapproval but refrained from violence. There was an organized anti-slavery movement.

James Fennimore Cooper- He was the first great American novelist. He wrote over thirty
novels in 30 years, Cooper was known to his contemporaries as a master of adventure and
suspense. What most distinguished his work was its evocation of the American wilderness. He
was born New York and he had a fascination with men’s relationship with nature.

Leather stocking Tales- Those are some of James Fennimore Cooper’s most important novels.
Some of them were them were The Last of the Mohicans, and The Deer Slayer. They explored
the American frontiersman’s experience with Indians, pioneers, violence, and the law. For the
“Leather stocking Tales” could be seen not only as a celebration of the American spirit and land,
but also in evocation through the central of Natty Bumpo, of the ideal of the independent
individual with a natural inner goodness.

Walt Whitman- One important American writer who followed Cooper. They displayed even
more clearly the group of romanticism on the nation’s intellectual life. Whitman was a self-
proclaimed poet of American democracy who roamed from place to place doing odd jobs. He
published his first work, Leaves of Grass, in 1855. He also wrote about the pleasures of the flesh,
and the spirit.

Edgar Allen Poe- One of the few southern writers of the time. He researched human spirit with
fascinating works. In the span of his short and unhappy life, Poe's stories and poems were
primarily sad. He was said to be a controversial and literary figure. Poe wrote images of
individuals rising above the narrow confines of intellect and exploring the deep words of the
spirit and the emotions.

Brook Farms- The most famous of the nineteenth century experiments and communal living. It
was formed as a result of transcendentalism. In West Roxbury, Massachusetts individuals would
gather to create a new form of social organization, one that would permit every member to the
community full opportunity to self-realization. All residents would share equally the labor of the
community. This meant that all could share in the leisure. Manuel labor helped bridge the close
between the world of intellect and learning in the world of instinct and nature.

Robert Owen- A philanthropist and Scottish industrial who was another experimenter in the
idea of communal living. Owen founded an experimental community in Indiana in 1825. It was
called New Harmony. It was to be a “village of cooperation,” in which every resident worked
and lived in total equality. The community was an economic failure but the vision that had
inspired it continued to enchant Americans. Dozens of other experiments began in other
locations in the following years.

New Harmony- Owen founded an experimental community in Indiana in 1825, which he named
New Harmony. It was to be a “village of cooperation” in which every resident worked and lived
in total equality. The community was an economic failure but the vision that inspired it
continued to inspire Americans.

Margaret Fuller-she brought gender into the larger discussion of individual liberation. She was
a leader of transcendentalism and suggested the important relationship between the discovery
“self” that was central to antebellum reform and the questioning of gender roles. She was a
feminist writer, who became a great admirer of European socialists and a great champion of the
Italian revolution of 1848.
Oneida Community- A community in which there was a redefinition of gender roles. It was
important for one of the most enduring of the utopian communities. It was established in 1848, in
upstate New York by John Humphrey Noyes. The Oneida “Perfectionists,” rejected traditional
notions of family marriage.

Shakers-Participants of the faith “Shakerism”. Shakerism’s most important feature was its
commitment to complete celibacy. This means that nobody can be born to Shakerism. All
Shakers had to choose the faith voluntarily. Shaker communities attracted about 6,000 members
in the 1840s. They openly endorsed the idea of sexual equality; they even embraced the idea that
God was not clearly a woman or man.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints- It began in upstate New York by Joseph Smith.
They believed that there were an ancient people in America, centuries before Columbus. They
were said to have strayed form the path of righteousness and were punished to go to America.

Joseph Smith- He began Mormonism at the age of 24. In 1840 he published the book of
Mormon. The book told about the history of Mormonism. He believed its history of righteous
society could serve as a model of the new holy community of America.

Brigham Young- He was the successor of Smith. He lead 1200 thousand people into the desert
And then decided to settle and make a community in Utah. They settled in what is now known as
Salt Lake city. This was a permanent settlement that still exists today.

Unitarianism- it was a church that was created in 1782 in Boston. It emerged first as a
descending view within the New England congressional Church. They did not believe in the
Trinity or the predestination.

Second Great Awakening- It was the philosophy of reform. The awakening began Protestant
revisal. By the 1820 it had evolved into a powerful force with social reform
New Light- It was far removed from the transcendentalists and Unitarians it was the belief that
every individual was capable of salvation.

Charles Grandison Finney- He was the biggest leader of the 1820s and 1830s. He would only
preach to people who were already Christian. He was for religious awakenings. The coral helped
him to spread his word. After he preached, he left people disoriented.

“Burn over district”- This occurred in New York. The preaching went up and down the Erie
Canal and can be related to a religious awakening. The main cause of it was the building of all of
the canals.

Temperance-It was against drunkenness. It was led mostly by women because their husbands
had become addicted to alcohol. The husbands were spending their paychecks on alcohol, which
was valuable money that the family needed to live. This hurt many families.

Horace Mann- He was first secretary of Massachusetts board of education. The board was
formed in 1837. He was one of the greatest educators of all time.

Dorothea Dix- In Massachusetts, he began a national movement for a new method to treat the
mentally ill. He was hung because he could not pay back all of the debts he owed from starting
the national movement for treating the nationally ill.

Indian Reservations- It was formed so that the government could push the Indians into one
section of land, without just making them move. The main reason for pushing the Indians out of
the way was so that white settlers could use the land for farming. However, they were unable to
break the treaties that they had with the Indians, even though eventually they did.

Transcendentalism- It was the belief created by Ralph Waldo Emerson, who focused on a
distinction between “reason and understanding”. He taught the need to realize “the divinity” of
the individual and to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the emotions to create
“Original relation to the universe”.

Ralph Waldo Emerson- He was the leader of transcendentalism. He was originally a Unitarian
minister, but left the church in 1832 to become a devoted transcendentalist. He was very good at
bringing in large crowds for his lectures and teachings. He created many poems and essays to
help express his belief to the people.

“Self Reliance”- It is Emerson’s most famous essay in 1841 which expressed the idea of
searching for communion of the universe, the wholeness of the “over soul.” It is basically
expressed the fact that any individual could become a part of this essence through their
own efforts.

Henry David Thoreau- Another leading concord of transcendentalist who went further in
enforcing the importance of the repressive forces of society. He taught that people should
rely on their own instincts rather that conform to society’s expectations.
Walden- A book written by Henry David Thoreau in 1854. It told of his isolating himself
at the edge of Walden Pond for two years so that he could live in nature and realize what
the world was trying to reach him. He expressed the idea of “living simply,” Rather than
conforming to the rapidly modernized world around him.

“Resistance to Civil Government”- After being jailed in 1846 for refusing to pay a toll
tax issued by the government, Thoreau wrote an essay “Resistance to Civil Government.”
In it, he described the individual morality, having the first claim on his or her action and
that the government, which violated that morality, had no authority.

Civil Disobedience- An idea expressed in the essay “Resistance to Civil Government,” by
Henry David Thoreau. It was basically the idea of publicly refusing any unjust laws
produced by the government. This refusal was due to the governments support of the
existence of slaves.

Nathaniel Hawthorne- An original resident of Brook Farm who used his ability to write
to express the wrong doings of the experiment of Brook Farm on the individuals who
were willing to submit to it. He also expressed the consequences of individuals cutting
themselves off from society in a couple of other novels he wrote.

The Scarlet Letter- A book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1850 during the Romantic
period in which he passionately wrote about the great pains of an individual who cuts
themselves off from society. He challenged the beliefs of transcendentalism by saying the
Egotism was the “serpent,” that lay at the heart of human misery.

Antebellum Period- The period of time that was introduced by Thomas Hobbs. It was
the period of time before human society and the beginning of people relating themselves to
one another. People began to have relationships with each other due to their distinct and
obvious differences.

Grimke Sisters- They were two women in the 1830s, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, who
were born in Carolina and became active and outspoken abolitionists. They argued with
men that “Men and women were “created equal.” They believed that women had the exact
same rights as men and were therefore able to do as they pleased.

Lucreatia Mott- A women who was pressed on the boundaries of “acceptable” female
behavior. When She and a few other women were turned away by men at an anti-slavery
convention in London, she helped organize a convention in Seneca Falls to discuss the
right of women. She helped express the idea that “all men and women were created
equal.”

Elizabeth Cady Stanton- She was a leader for women’s rights. She felt it her duty to
give women more rights. She stated how women should be treated in the same way as
men.

Seneca Falls Convention- Motts, Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, set up a convention to
as questions about women’s rights. The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution was
formed. The question of whether women had the right to vote or not came up

Declaration of Sentiments- It was a form the Declaration of Independence, but for
women. This Declaration stated that all men and women have equal rights. They should be
treated the same. It was formed in 1848.

Elizabeth Blackwell- She was born in England. She was a physician. Her sister was the
first woman preacher in the United States.

Lucy Stone- She decided to keep her maiden name after her marriage ended. She was a
successful women and gave many lectures to women about their rights.

American Colonization Society- It was put into play by anti-slavery people who were
trying to send back the blacks to Africa. White settlers from Virginia put the ACS in play.
This was a step in freeing the slaves. It would get money from private donors to send the
blacks to Africa.

Liberia- Was established in1830. It became the independent republic. Monrovia was its
capital which was named for the president who had ruled over the settlement.

William Lloyd Garrison: The Liberator- He was born in Massachusetts in 1805. He was
an assistant to an anti-slavery newspaper which was published in Baltimore. In 1831 he
began his own newspaper called the “Liberator”. He gave his from the black, males
point of view.

Genius of Universal Emancipation- It was established in 1820 in New Jersey by a Quaker
named Benjamin Lundy. It was the leading anti-slavery newspaper of the time. It was
published in Baltimore.

Frederick Douglas- He was one of the most electrifying orators of his life. He was born a
slave in Maryland. He ran away to America and got his freedom. He started a newspaper in
Rochester, New York.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas- It was published in 1845. In the narrative he
said that blacks should be treated the same as whites. The first rational convention was
formed in 1830. With Douglas as a leader it was a force more than anything.

Prudence Crandell- She tried to get African-American girls to go to her private school
in Connecticut. she was arrested. The government forced her to close the bank. This is one
example of violence resulting from the abolitionist crusades.

Elijah Lovejoy- He was an editor of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Illinois. He was a
victim of mob violence. Three times his offices was destroyed by angry white mobs. Each time
he would install new presses and begin printing again. The fourth time he tried to defend his
press, but he was shot and killed
American Anti-slavery Society- William Lloyd Garrison founded the society first in England
in1832, then in America one year later. By 1838, there were more than 1,350 chapters and
250,000members. Garrison shocked colleagues by attacking not only slavery but also the
government itself. In 1840 Garrison precipitated a formal division of the society. He felt that
women, who had always played a central roll in the organization’s work.

Underground Railroad- The Garrisonians helped runaway slaves find refuge in the north or in
Canada. They never really used railroads. The Garrisonians were about long peaceful and patient
struggles. They never resorted to violence.

Prigg vs. Pennsylvania 1842- The Supreme Court ruled that the states didn’t need to help to
enforce the 1793 law that required slaves to return to their owners. In many northern states,
abolitionists secured the passage of “personal liberty laws”. This forbade the capturing and
returning of any runaways.

“Personal Liberty Laws”- These laws forbade state officials to assist in the capturing and
returning of any runaway slaves. It was secured by abolitionists. It was above all a cry for the
stop of slavery.

Liberty Party- Anti-slavery sentiment is the underlying factor of the formation of the liberty
party. It offered James G. Birney as its presidential candidate. They never campaigned for
outright abolition. They stood, instead, for free soil.

“Free soil”- people tried to keep slaves out of the land. Some free-soilers were concerned
about the slaves well being, while other only wanted to keep them out of the west so they could
have an all white land. It gained support of large numbers, including a majority of the white
northern population.

John Brown- He was the leader of a violent uprisings in Kansas and Virginia. He was given
money and arms by an abolitionists group in New England. He violence because of frustrations
on
political abolitionists.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin- It was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. This was the most powerful
abolitionist propaganda; however it was a work of fiction. It first appeared in 1851-1852 in a
serial in an anti-slavery weekly. It was published as a book in 1852. It was one of the bestsellers
in America.

Romanticism- An assumption (that many movements in the 19th century intended to make on an
optimistic faith in human nature)-which sprawled in both Europe and America. A movement
known, in its artistic aspects at least, as romanticism. This stood in market contrast to traditional
Protestant assumption of original sin which humans needed to overcome through a disciplined,
virtuous life. Instead, reformers now argued, individuals should strive to give full expression to
the inner spirit, should work to unleash their innate capacity to experience joy and to do good.

Abolitionists- People who favored the abolition of any institution, especially Negro slaves during
the early oppositions to slavery in the nineteenth century. Those who imposed slavery were, for
the most part, a calm and genteel lot, expressing moral disapproval but engaging in few overt
activities. There was an organized anti-slavery movement which centered on the concept of
colonization. Colonization was the effort to encourage the resettlement of African Americans in
Africa or the Caribbean.

James Fennimore Cooper- During the effort to create a distinctively American literature, the
emergence of this first great American novelist. He was the author of over thirty novels in the
space of three decades, Cooper was known to his contemporaries as a master of adventure and
suspense. What most distinguished his work was its evocation of the American wilderness. He
grew up in central New York and at a time when the edge of the white settlement was not far
away he retained throughout his life a fascination with men’s relationship with nature.

Leather stocking Tales- Those are some of James Fennimore Cooper’s most important novels.
Among them were The Last of the Mohicans, and The Deer Slayer. They explored the American
frontiersman’s experience with Indians, pioneers, violence, and the law. They served as a link to
the concept of later intellectuals. For the “Leather stocking Tales” could be seen not only as a
celebration of the American spirit and landscape, but also in evocation through the central of
Natty Bumpo, of the ideal of the independent individual with a natural inner goodness.

Walt Whitman- One of the other groups of important American writers who engaged on the
heels of Cooper. They displayed even more clearly the group of romanticism on the nation’s
intellectual life. Whitman was a self-proclaimed poet of American democracy who roamed from
place to place doing odd jobs. He published his first work, Leaves of Grass, in 1855. His poems
were an unrestrained celebration of democracy and the liberation of the individual. He also wrote
about the pleasures of the flesh, as well as the spirit.

Edgar Allen Poe- One of the few southern writers of the time, who embraced the search for the
essence of human spirit with incredibly bleak works. In the court of his short and unhappy life,
Poe produced stories and poems that were primarily sad. He was considered a controversial and
literary figure. Poe evoked images of individuals rising above the narrow confines of intellect
and exploring the deep words of the spirit and the emotions.

Brook Farms- The most famous of the nineteenth century experiments and communal living
which was spawned as a result of transcendentalism which was above all an individualistic
philosophy. In West Roxbury, Mass. These individuals would gather to create a new form of
social organization, one that would permit every member to the community full opportunity to
self-realization. All residents would share equal opportunity to self-realization. All residents
would share equally the labor of the community so that all could share in the leisure. Manuel
labor helped bridge the gap between the world of intellect and learning in the world of instinct
and nature. Socialism evolved and many residents left in 1847 the experiment dissolved.

Robert Owen- A philanthropist and Scottish industrial who was another experimenter in the idea
of communal living. Owen founded an experimental community in Indiana in 1825, which was
named New Harmony. It was to be a “village of cooperation,” in which every resident worked
and lived in total equality. The community was an economic failure but the vision that had
inspired it continued to enchant Americans. Dozens of other “Owenite” experiments began in
other locations in the following years.

New Harmony- Owen founded an experimental community in Indiana in 1825, which he named
New Harmony. It was to be a “village of cooperation” in which every resident worked and lived
in total equality. The community was an economic failure but the vision that inspired it
continued to inspire Americans. Dozens of other “Owenites” experiments in other locations in
the following years.

Margaret Fuller- One of the most responsible for drawing issues of gender into the larger
discussion of individual liberation. She was a leader of transcendentalism and suggested the
important relationship between the discovery “self” that was central to antebellum reform and
the questioning of gender roles. She was a feminist writer, who became a great admirer of
European socialists and a great champion of the Italian revolution of 1848, which she witnessed
during traveling there and established herself as an intellectual leader whose powers came in part
from her perspectives as a woman.

Oneida Community- A community in which there was a redefinition of gender roles which was
crucial to one of the most enduring of the utopian communities of the nineteenth century. It was
established in 1848, in upstate New York by John Humphrey Noyes. The Oneida
“Perfectionists,” as residents of the community called themselves, rejected traditional notions of
family marriage.

Shakers-Participants of the faith “Shakerism”. Shakerism’s most distinctive feature was its
commitment to complete celibacy. This means that nobody can be born to Shakerism. All
Shakers had to choose the faith voluntarily. Shaker communities attracted about 6,000 members
in the 1840s. They openly endorsed the idea of sexual equality, they even embraced the idea that
God was not clearly a woman or man. Females primarily demanded the most power.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints- The Mormons were among the most important
efforts to create a new and more ordered society within the old. It began in upstate New York by
Joseph Smith. They believed that there were an ancient people in America, centuries before
Columbus. They were said to have strayed form the path of righteousness and were punished.
They were said to be descendants of Native American Indians, but the Indians have no
recollection of it.

Joseph Smith- He began Mormonism at the age of 24. Mormonism began in upstate New York.
Smith was an economically unsuccessful man. He spent most of 24 years moving through New
England and the northeast, until, in 1830 he published the Book of Mormon. The book told about
the history of Mormonism. He believed its history of righteous society could serve as a model of
the new holy community of America.

Brigham Young- He was the successor of Smith, whom was shot and killed. After Smith’s death
the Mormons abandoned Nauvoo. Young led 12 thousand people into the desert And then
decided to settle and make a community in Utah. They settled in what is now known as
Salt Lake city. This was a permanent settlement that still exists today.
Unitarianism- It was an optimistic vision of those who, like the transcendentalists, denied
Calvinism doctrine and preached the divinity of the individual. It was a church that was created
in 1782 in Boston. It emerged first as a descending view within the New England congressional
Church. They did not believe in the Trinity or the predestination.

Second Great Awakening- It was the philosophy of reform. It sparked the thought that an
individual could have the optimistic belief and was capable of salvation. The awakening began
Protestant revival. By 1820 it had evolved into a powerful force with social reform. Charles
Finney said that Calvinist documents were both obsolete and destructive.

New Light- It was far removed from the transcendentalists and Unitarians it was the belief that
every individual was capable of salvation.

Charles Grandison Finney- He was the biggest revivalist leader of the 1820s and 1830s. He
would only preach to people who were already Christian. He created the doctrine for personal
regeneration. He was for religious awakenings. His greatest success was in Rochester, New
York. The coral helped him to spread his word. After he preached, he left people disoriented.

“Burned-over district”- This occurred in New York. The burned-over district was picked because
it was a major economic transformation. This area was the same are that Joseph Smith first
organized the Mormon Church. The preaching went up and down the Erie Canal and can be
related to a religious awakening. The main cause of it, was the building of all of the canals.

Temperance- This movement was against drunkenness, because the supply of alcohol was
growing in the west. This occurred because farmers were growing too much grain for the market,
so most of it went towards whiskey. It was led mostly by women because their husbands had
become addicted to alcohol. The husbands were spending their paychecks on alcohol, which was
valuable money that the family needed to live. This hurt many families.

Horace Mann- He was first secretary of the New Light- It was far removed from the
transcendentalists and Unitarians it was the belief that every individual was capable of salvation.

Charles Grandison Finney- He was the biggest leader of the 1820s and 1830s. He would only
preach to people who were already Christian. He was for religious awakenings. The coral helped
him to spread his word. After he preached, he left people disoriented.
“Burn over district”- This occurred in New York. The preaching went up and down the Erie
Canal and can be related to a religious awakening. The main cause of it was the building of all of
the canals.

Temperance-It was against drunkenness. It was led mostly by women because their husbands had
become addicted to alcohol. The husbands were spending their paychecks on alcohol, which was
valuable money that the family needed to live. This hurt many families.

Horace Mann- He was first secretary of Massachusetts board of education. The board was
formed in 1837. He was one of the greatest educators of all time. He established the first
American state supported teachers college in 1839. The first professional association of teachers
was created in 1945.

Dorothea Dix- In Massachusetts, he began a national movement for a new method to treat the
mentally ill. He tried to push the government away form doing traditional practices of publicly
hanging the mentally ill. He was hung because he could not pay back all of the debts he owed
from starting the national movement for treating the nationally ill.

Indian Reservations- It was formed so that the government could push the Indians into one
section of land, without just making them move. The main reason for pushing the Indians out of
the way was so that white settlers could use the land for farming. However, they were unable to
break the treaties that they had with the Indians, even though eventually they did.

Transcendentalism- It was the belief created by Ralph Waldo Emerson, who focused on a
distinction between “reason and understanding”. He taught the need to realize “the divinity” of
the individual and to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the emotions to create
“Original relation to the universe”.

Ralph Waldo Emerson- He was the leader of transcendentalism. He was originally a Unitarian
minister, but left the church in 1832 to become a devoted transcendentalist. He was very good at
bringing in large crowds for his lectures and teachings. He created many poems and essays to
help express his belief to the people.

“Self Reliance”- It is Emerson’s most famous essay in 1841 which expressed the idea of
searching for communion of the universe, the wholeness of the “over soul.” The belief that each
person’s capacity to a part of this essence, through their effort, is believed to be a classic
expression of the romantic belief in the “divinity” of the individual.

Henry David Thoreau- He was another leading concord of transcendentalist who went further
than Emerson in enforcing the importance of the repressive forces of society. He taught that
people should rely on their own instincts rather than conform to society’s expectations. These
beliefs immortalized in his book Walden. His beliefs also led him to live alone in a cabin for two
years. His rejection of artificial restraints extended to Government. He went to jail in 1846
because he wouldn’t pay a poll tax.
Walden- A book written by Henry David Thoreau in 1854. It told of his isolating himself at the edge of Walden Pond for two years so
that he could live in nature and realize what the world was trying to reach him. He expressed the idea of “living simply,” he felt it was
a desirable alternative to the modernized world around him. He felt that the railroad was a disruptive and intrusive symbol of the
world.

“Resistance to Civil Government”- After being jailed in 1846 for refusing to pay a toll tax issued by the government, Thoreau wrote
an essay “Resistance to Civil Government.” He claimed that the individual’s personal morality had the first claim that the individual’s
personal morality had the first claim on his or her actions and that the government had no legitimate authority, if it violate that
morality.

Civil Disobedience- An idea expressed in the essay “Resistance to Civil Government,” by Henry David Thoreau. It was the idea of
publicly refusing any unjust laws produced by the government. Groups of people would gather together and stage protests and public
displays against what they felt was unjust. They did this so to gain what they wanted from the government.

Nathaniel Hawthorne- An original resident of Brook Farm who used his ability to write to express the wrong doings of the experiment
of Brook Farm on the individuals who were willing to submit to it. He also expressed the consequences of individuals cutting
themselves off from society in a couple of other novels he wrote.

The Scarlet Letter- This is a book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, written in 1850 during the Romantic period. He passionately wrote
about the great pains of an individual who cuts themselves off from society. He challenged the beliefs of transcendentalism by saying
the Egotism was the “serpent,” that lay at the heart of human misery.

Antebellum Period- The period of time that was introduced by Thomas Hobbs. It was the period of time before human society and the
beginning of people relating themselves to one another. People began to have relationships with each other due to their distinct and
obvious differences.

Grimke Sisters- They were two women in the 1830s, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, who were born in South Carolina and became
active and outspoken abolitionists. They argued with men that “Men and women were created equal.” They believed that women had
the exact same rights as men and were therefore able to do as they pleased. Men claimed that their activities were inappropriate for
their sex. They believed that “whatever is right for a man to do is right for women to do.
Lucreatia Mott- A women who was pressed on the boundaries of “acceptable” female behavior that men placed on her. When She and
a few other women were turned away by men at an anti-slavery convention in London, she helped organize a convention in Seneca
Falls to discuss the right of women. These women became convinced that their first duty was to elevate the status of women. She
helped express the idea that “all men and women were created equal.” The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions arose from this
convention. Elizabeth Cady Stanton- She was a leader for women’s rights, along with Lucretia Mott. She also helps to organize the
Seneca Falls convention. She felt it her duty to give women more rights. She stated how women should be treated in the same way as
men.

Seneca Falls Convention- Motts, Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, set up a convention to as questions about women’s rights. The
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution was formed, it stated that men and women were created equal. The most prominent demand
at the convention was for the right to vote. It led to a movement for women suffrage.

Declaration of Sentiments- It was a form the Declaration of Independence, but for women. This Declaration stated that all men and
women have equal rights. They should be treated the same. It was formed in 1848 at the Seneca Falls convention. All of the women
who drafted it were Quakers except for Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Elizabeth Blackwell- She was born in England. She broke social and gender barriers. She gained recognition and acceptance as a
physician. Her sister-in-law was the first female to become an ordained minister in the United States.

Lucy Stone- She was Elizabeth Blackwell’s sister-in-law. She broke barriers by deciding to keep her maiden name after her marriage.
She was a successful woman and gave many lectures to women about their rights.

American Colonization Society- It was put into play by anti-slavery people who were trying to help send back the blacks to Africa. A
group of prominent white settlers organized the ACS. They would challenge slavery without challenging property rights or southern
sensibilities. This was a step in freeing the slaves. It would get money from private donors to send the blacks to Africa. They also
helped transport slave out of the country and help them establish a society of their own elsewhere.

Liberia- It was established in1830, and was located on the west coast of Africa. It was where many slaves were transported. It became
an independent republic in 1846. Monrovia was its capital which was named for the American president who had ruled over the
settlement.
William Lloyd Garrison: The Liberator- He was born in Massachusetts in 1805. He was an assistant to an anti-slavery newspaper
which was published in Baltimore. In 1831 he began his own newspaper called the “Liberator” because he was tired of his boss’ weak
efforts at reform. He gave his opinion from the black, male’s point of view. He felt that this was more effective than looking from the
white slave owner’s perspective.

Genius of Universal Emancipation- It was established in 1820 in New Jersey by a Quaker named Benjamin Lundy. It was the leading
anti-slavery newspaper of the time. It was published in Baltimore. This is where William Lloyd Garrison got his start.

Fredrick Douglas- He was the greatest African-American abolitionist of all. He was one of the most electrifying orators of his life. He
was born a slave in Maryland. He ran away in 1838 to Massachusetts. He spent two years in England lecturing about anti-slavery
sentiments. In 1847 he returned to Maryland and purchased his freedom. He started a newspaper, The North Star, in Rochester, New
York. He was widely recognized for his autobiography.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas- It was published in 1845. In the narrative he
demanded that blacks not only receive freedom, but also full social and economic equality. The first rational convention for
abolitionism was formed in 1830. With Douglas as a leader it became a more influential force than ever before.

Prudence Crandell- She attempted to admit several African-American girls to her private school in Connecticut. Citizens had her
arrested, threw filth in her well, and forced her to close the school, because of this. This was just one of the many examples of
violence resulting form abolitionist crusades.

Elijah Lovejoy- He was an editor of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Illinois. He was a victim of mob violence several times. Three
times his offices were invaded by angry white mobs, and his presses smashes. Each time he would install new presses and begin
printing again. The fourth time he tried to defend his press, but the attackers set fire to his building. As He fled from the burning
building, he was shot and killed

American Anti-slavery Society- William Lloyd Garrison founded the society first in England in 1832, then in America one year later.
By 1838, there was more than1, 350 chapters and 250,000 members. Anti-slavery had more support and strength than at any time
previous in history. Garrison shocked colleagues by attacking not only slavery but also the government itself. In 1840 Garrison
precipitated a formal division of the society. He felt that women, who had always played a central roll in the organization’s work, be
allowed to participate on terms of full equality.
Underground Railroad- The Garrisonians helped slaves runaway to the north or Canada. They never used real railroads. It was just a
chain of houses and businesses that would hide the slaves for the night. The slaves would then move on to the next place until they
reached freedom.

Prigg vs. Pennsylvania 1842- The Supreme Court ruled that the states didn’t need to help to enforce the 1793 law that required slaves
to return to their owners. In many northern states, abolitionists secured the passage of “personal liberty laws”. This forbade the
capturing and returning of any runaways.

“Personal Liberty Laws”- These laws forbade state officials to assist in the capturing and
returning of any runaway slaves. It was secured by abolitionists. It was above all a cry for the stop of slavery.

Liberty Party- Anti-slavery sentiment is the underlying factor of the formation of the liberty party. It offered James G. Birney, who
was a Kentucky anti-slavery leader, as its presidential candidate. They never campaigned for outright abolition, which shows that anti-
slavery and abolition are not always the same. They stood, instead, for free soil.

“Free soil”- They stood for keeping slaves out of the territories. Some free-soilers were concerned about the slave’s well being, while
other only wanted to keep them out of the west so they could have an all white territory. This attracted something abolition could not.
It gained support of large numbers, including a majority of the white northern population.

John Brown- He led bloody uprisings in Kansas and Virginia. He was given money and arms through an abolitionists group in New
England. He advocated violence because of frustrations of political abolitionists.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin- This was the most powerful abolitionist propaganda, however it was a work of fiction. It was written by Harriet
Beecher Stowe. It first appeared in 1851-1852 in a serial in anti-slavery weekly. It was published as a book in 1852 and sold more than
300,000 copies within a year. It was one of the most remarkable bestsellers in America.


Chapter 12 Overview

Antebellum Culture and Reform
         This chapter is set in the time period of 1817 to 1855 known as the antebellum era. During this time the nation was growing
geographically as well as in population and its economy was also becoming more complex. The nation faced many changes; which
some were excited about and that others feared. Slavery is a major issue in this chapter as tensions grow between the North and South.
         During this time Romanticism gained popularity and was expressed in the American paintings of the era. In New York the
first great school of American painters emerged, The Hudson River School. Here they expressed their belief that nature was the best
source of wisdom and spiritual fulfillment.
         James Fennimore Cooper, author of over 30 novels in only 3 decades wrote about the wilderness and the frontier in his Leather
stocking Tales, some of which were The Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer. Walt Whitman published his work Leaves of Grass
in which he celebrated democracy. Also Herman Melville and Edgar Allan Poe wrote about the human spirit during this era of
Romanticism.
         Southern Romanticism was very different than that of the north in that they also were trying to define what American Society
would be with their historical romances of the plantation system.
         Ralph Waldo Emerson led the Transcendentalist; people who embraced the ideas of a distinctions between reason and
understanding. He wrote Self Reliance in 1841 as well as other essays advocating transcendentalism. Henry David Thoreau wrote
Civil Disobedience in which he stated individuals should work for self-realization by resisting pressures to conform to society’s
expectations.
         Brook Farm was established in 1841 by transcendentalist George Ripley. This was an experiment to communal living but in
1847 a fire devastated it and the community dissolved. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote many novels in which he expressed his dissent for
Brook Farm and transcendentalism itself. Robert Owen then created his own experimental community in 1825 following Brook Farm;
it was named The Village of Cooperation.
         Oneida, another utopian colony, broke traditional notions of family marriage and experimented with “free love.” They took
pride in liberating women from the demands of the men in society. The Shakers also mad gender roles central to their society.
Shakers gained about 6,000 followers in the 1840s, more women than men.
         The Mormons also made efforts to create a new ordered society. They set out time and time again to create their “New
Jerusalem” but were met with persecutions each time, until they finally settled in Salt Lake City Utah.
          The Protestant revivalism, sprung up from the Second Great Awakening, had become a powerful reform force in the 1820’s.
Charles Grandison Finney became the most influential revival leader of the 1820’s and 1830’s due to his success in the Burned-Over
District. Finney’s doctrine was that of personal regeneration and it gained the support of those who were afraid of change.
         The Temperance Crusade became the most influential reform movement of the era. Women, many of whom supported the
Temperance Crusade, felt that alcohol caused many problems with their husbands. In 1826 one group, the American Society for the
Promotion of Temperance, attempted to use many of the techniques of revivalism to preach abstinence from alcohol. Also in 1840,
six reformed alcoholics formed the Washington Temperance Society. Maine passed a law in 1851 to support temperance, however
other states felt it was the individual’s responsibility not the states.
        Health became a major issue of concern in the 1830’s. Cholera killed over half of the people who got it. In 1833 nearly a
quarter of the population of New Orleans died in an epidemic of Cholera. There were many pressures to establish city health boards to
try to solve the problem of outbreaks of Cholera and other diseases. Many turned to non-scientific theories to improve health such as
health spas; where they could get water curing.
        The science of medicine advanced slowly because of an absence of basic knowledge about disease. Vaccination and
anesthetics came not from medical research but from average men looking to help their patients. Oliver Wendell Holmes first
discovered that disease could be spread from one person to another in 1843.
        Another reform movement of the time period would be the effort to produce a public education system. In the 1830’s interest
in public educations grew rapidly. Horace Mann became the greatest educational reformer of the time by lengthening the school year
and rising teacher salaries. In 1835 Pennsylvania pass a law that gave state funds for support of universal education. By the 1850’s the
principle of tax-supported elementary schools had been accepted in all states. Schools were also used to impose social values on
children; values that reformers thought appropriate for their new industrializing society.
        In the 1820’s numerous states created penitentiaries and mental institutions designed to provide a proper environment for
inmates, due to the Asylum Movement. Asylums attempted to reform and rehabilitate the inmates. Dorothea Dix began a national
movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill.
        Orphanages were formed with the idea they could educate the children and prevent children from being drawn into criminality
so they could become useful citizens later. Institutions were formed for friendless women, or those without families, to give them a
place to stay and keep them from turning to prostitution.
        In the 1840’s and 1850’s the idea of Native American reservations came into play. This still benefited the white settlers who
got the Native Americans lands but also form a society in which Native Americans would learn the ways of civilization and become
more like us.
        Feminism also began rising during this period. Women claimed men and women were created equal and they expressed dissent
for the gender roles in society. At Seneca Falls the declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was created and it stated that women, as
well as men, had certain inalienable rights. They demanded a right to vote thus launching a movement for woman suffrage that would
continue until 1920. Progress toward feminist goals was limited in the antebellum years but they set the stage so to speak for woman’s
rights in the future.
        Slavery was a major issue during this time. The American Colonization Society worked to challenge slavery without
challenging property rights or southern sensibilities. William Lloyd Garrison in his Liberator demanded that people reject gradualism
and demand immediate universal abolition of slavery.
         David Walker a free black published a harsh pamphlet Walker’s appeal to the colored citizens in which he said slaves should
    kill their masters or be killed. Frederick Douglass, the greatest abolitionist of all, demanded black freedom and full social and
                                               economic equality. CHAPTER OVERVIEW

         The rest of the world’s view on America was they were not cultured or respected on the global scale. They were more of
barbarians and uncultured than the traditional views of the European countries. Americans realized this and copied the European style
of life called Romanticism. This was a phrase that included changes in literature, philosophy, art, politics, and economics. This idea
brought upon the Antebellum Era of reform movements, which changed the views of the country forever. Nobody viewed the
American painting at this time until a new style was appreciated, a style in which American painters painted natures wildest and most
spectacular areas to evoke awe and wonderment. The first great American novelist was James Cooper, whose works included The Last
of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer. His works displayed the American frontier and experiences with Indians, pioneers, violence and
the law. The group of “Romanticized” writers wrote about the nation’s intellectual life, and human emotions. This group included
Whitman, Melville and Poe. This type of writing was primarily in the North; however the South also produced great writers that wrote
about Southern romanticism. This type focused on the romantics of the plantation system of the upper class in the South.
         Another group emerged during this time period called the Transcendentalists, whose belief rested on reason and understanding.
Each individual should transcend the limits of intellect and allow human emotions to take over and allow the soul to relate to the
Universe. These writers included Emerson and Thoreau. They believed in a tactic called civil disobedience and not conform to
societies expectations. These intellectuals believed in the preservation of nature and humans should not exploit it for our economic
gain. They were decades away from the time where this idea was brought into action. Again intellectuals had a vision of a utopia and
wanted to create their own separate perfect society. George Ripley in 1841 established Brook Farm. This was a place where everyone
was equal; they shared in labor, leisure, and responsibility. This utopia failed when a fire destroyed the central community building
and everyone left.
         Women also moved for reform, Margaret Fuller thought of the realization of “self” was most important, and she began to
question the traditional gender roles. This idea was used in the “utopian”, Oneida Community founded by John Humphrey Noyes. All
residents in the community were “married” to each other, but sexual activity was closely monitored as the women were “protected”
from unwanted childbearing, male lust, and from traditional bonds of family. The Shakers were also formed during this time they had
the same values as the Oneidas, but their religious congregation they would “shake” themselves out of sin. The Mormons were
founded by Joseph Smith in which he said God spoke to him and told him to lead the “chosen people” to a religious haven. Brigham
Young led 12,000 followers to Salt Lake City Utah to their permanent settlement. The philosophy of reform arose in the Unitarian and
Universalism visions and absorbed European romanticism and preached about the divinity of the individual. The New Light had the
same purpose as the Second Great Awakening where each person could achieve spiritual rebirth and achieve salvation. Evangelical
Protestantism now was pushing towards Temperance, which women were the main voice behind this idea. Alcoholism was a large
problem in the antebellum era and continued to grow. The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance as well as the
Washington Temperance Society to stop alcoholism. There was a cultural division over this issue, as the Catholics used alcohol in
their religious ceremonies.
         With the sanitation problems of the cities many people contracted diseases. Medicines were not developed fully and disease
was a major problem for people. Americans turned to nonscientific theories to cure themselves such as water and holistic methods of
treatment. Phrenology also became popular, a method that charted the brain and each part did something separate. It was used to
measure fitness, and match people’s talents to certain occupations. The medical field began to improve due to the search to cure
disease. Doctors now had to go to school to get a medical license, and with the bar set higher the conditions began to improve.
Medical students now experimented with corpses to learn about the body. Sterilization also was used to disinfect utensils and hands, as
this happened infection greatly improved.
         Education now was beginning to have reform as well; it was thought that an individual should tap into their full capacity.
Colleges were sprouting up, and public education was improved up to K-8. Horace Mann was the main reformer for public education;
he lengthened the school period, increased teacher’s salaries, and enriched the curriculum.
         Another area for reform was the rehabilitation of criminals and the mentally ill. Asylums and penitentiaries began to be built
to hold and rehabilitate those held in there. Dorothea Dix was the main reformer for the prison reform movement. Indian Reservations
were established during this time period as well to separate them from white society. This was a way to relocate them from land
whites wanted and oppress them. The Feminist movement began during this time period as well, women wanted to toss out their
traditional gender roles set upon them by men. These feminists organized the Seneca Falls convention to discuss the issue of women’s
rights. During this convention the women wrote a Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions in which stated that all women were
created equal and have the same inalienable rights as men. This reform movement lost its momentum during the time of the Civil War
and the issue of slavery.
         Early opposition to slavery started with the formation of the American Colonization Society who wanted to relocate the slaves
out of the country and colonize and start their own society. This was not effective because these slaves were generations removed
from Africa, and did not know anything about the foreign land. The anti-slavery movement was about to collapse when W.L. Garrison
came and started his own anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator. Then in 1833 Garrison founded the American Antislavery Society.
Free blacks in the North had a large commitment to the abolition movement because they felt all members of their race should feel
their freedom. Frederick Douglass was the greatest abolitionist of all time; he was a slave that escaped to the North; later bought his
freedom. He demanded not only freedom but full social and economic equality. Abolitionists were the minority in American society;
anti-abolitionists thought that abolitionists would ruin society. They harassed and even killed abolitionists because thy thought that it
would create dissent between North and South. There were two types of abolitionists: modernists and extremists that had their own
approach to this cause. Extremists fought on the moral standpoint while modernists believed in a “moral suasion.” Uncle Tom’s Cabin
was published during this time, which showed what life was like in the South, and showed slavery at its worst. The two types of
abolitionists still did not have a voice during this time period, and would not grow until the Civil War.

        Some northerners however feared and influx of free blacks would cause instability and thus failed to support abolition. Many
violent mobs and race riots broke out and Lovejoy, the editor of an abolitionist newspaper, had his offices broke into and his presses
smashed.
        The crusade against slavery that Garrison had launched was a visible reminder of how deeply the institution of slavery was
dividing America. To conclude, the antebellum era was full of reforms as well as a period of major debate over abolition.

                    Political Institutions                                                      Social Changes
Political                                                          •   William Lloyd Garrison founds the American Antislavery
• American Colonization Society- relocation of slaves to Africa,       Society. By 1838, there are 250,000 members.
    slaves three generations removed did not work                  •   Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes the antislavery novel Uncle
• American Anti-slavery Society- strengthened anti-slavery             Tom’s Cabin.
    sentiments in American society                                 •   Transcendentalism becomes a new form of religion
• Americans move Indians to unwanted lands called reservations.    •   Anti slavery becomes a hot topic.
                                                                   •   Women began to strive for equality.
                                                                   •   Mormonism is found by Joseph Smith
                                                                   •   Religious revivals began to start.
                                                                   •   Temperance movement begins
                                                                   •   Health care became an issue.
                                                                   •   Public education stressed for everyone
                                                                   •   Rehabilitation centers and jails started to be built
                                                                   •   Women are fighting for equal rights.
                                                                   •   Abolitionists fight for black freedoms.
                                                                   •   In retaliation to the abolitionist, anti abolitionist groups popped
                                                                       up.
 Cultural Developments                  Diplomatic Relations                   Economic Developments
• Americans began to look     •   Amistad Case- enforced illegal   •   Literature was a major source of income during
  at their own paintings as       international slave trade to         this time
  master pieces.                  America, sent the ship back.
• Painters painted wild                                            •   Many writers emerged in this time, both men
  scenery.                                                             and women People were buying pamphlets,
• School of the arts is                                                novels, poetry book, and newspapers
  established (Hudson River                                        •   There were many women entering the
  School)                                                              workforce
• Americans begin to read
  sentimental novel.                                               •   For the first time women were able to have
• American authors become                                              professions that were previously restricted to
  known around the world.                                              men, such as ministers, and physicians
• Brook Farm founded and
  it did not last long.                                            •   Farmers had an excess amount of grain and
                                                                       were producing alcohol, but they were not
                                                                       allowed to sell it
                                                                   •   Many produced newspapers supporting their
                                                                       cause which brought in revenue from their
                                                                       supporters
                                                                   •   They created Indian reservations to restrict
                                                                       Indians to one small portion of land and give
                                                                       them more
                                                                   •   Almshouses and workhouses were created to
                                                                       help the poor

                                                                   •   These houses were built to help those who had
                                                                       failed to move up on the social ladder, it gave
                                                                       them a stable environment
                                                                   •   States were funding the return to Africa of
                                                                       former slaves
Political                          Social                            Cultural
The sole largest defining factor   Sectional tension had the most    Christianity was the most
of American politics during        influence on the social           prevalent religion among
1840 – 1860 (the period of         structure of American during      Americans. During the
Antebellum) was slavery.           this time period. There was       Antebellum religion played a
Slavery divided the nation         animosity between                 large role in the decisions of
between the North and the          Northerners and Southerners.      Americans. The Second Great
South. Regions of Free Soil        Most of which was caught in       Awakening carried
and Slave lands respectively.      political debates and             Americans into the Civil War.
To the south, slavery was          propaganda for either side.       Religion that broke away
necessary to compete with          Southerners justified their       from New England models of
Northern industrial-centric        slave owning by basing it on      protestant.
economy. The south was             the fortune of their economy.     Americans came to embrace
dependant on the low cost of       Additionally, African             an ideal of Christian
slave labor and plantation         Americans were considered         civilization. Individuals
work. The North believed it        inferior by all social classes.   prided themselves on their
necessary to abolish slavery in    Reforms of temperance and         resolute conscience, self-
order of Manifest Destiny, that    peace moved American to a         control, and benevolence
even African Americans were        more benevolent society based     toward those less fortunate
equal under the constitution.      on the betterment of American     than themselves. Americans
Prior to this time period,         as a whole. The demand for        believed that their society had
sectional questions were           greater education caused a        produced a record of moral as
present but were overshadowed      surge of schooling and            well as material progress.
by the question of parties         increased levels of skills for    This synthesis of religious
which at this point were           future workers.                   and political thought
Democrats, the party of            Wealthy land owners in the        dominated American public
tradition and Whigs, the party     south had possession of black     life in the antebellum period.
of modernization. Until now,       slaves and white serfs            Chivalry in the South is the
the democrats dominated            restricting social mobility.      most common example of the
southern politics. The             Conversely, Northerners           belief of Southern elitism.
resurgence of the Whig party       experienced social equality       Wealthy southern landowners
would amount to pretensions        among each other.                 practiced Chivalry and honor.
of a civil war.                    “Clay eaters” were labeled the    They felt they were the prime
Once Abraham Lincoln               lowest of social ranks yet they   of society, better than the
became president in 1860, the      were above the slaves. The        slaves, better than the North,
modern republic party as           slaves gave the poor south        better than Europeans. Such
established and its presence       leverage in society by            high honor encouraged the
would be felt by the South.        preventing them from being        Civil War in 1860 as the
Legislation passed in this time    the absolute lowest in society.   North disgraced the south in
period was influenced by           Social standing in the south      American literature and
sectionalism. The Fugitive         was marked by a modern            politics.
Slave Law returned slaves          Caste System. Peasantry and       The whites were oppressed
brought to the free states to      authority based on ownership.     Both the North and the South
their original owners in the       Ranks between men in              remained widely religious
south.                             accordance to Chivalry and        with the construction of
The introductions of new states   the southern conduct.             churches and schools that
to America created tensions       Although, antebellum women        promoted religious beliefs.
was to whether the state would    still played a socially           Religion was equally
be free or slave, Compromise      recessive role restricted to      important to the slaves . They
of 1850 provided California as    living and dominated by           turned to religion for strength.
a Free State while popular        males, reform movements           The meetings and union as a
sovereignty was granted to        took place to grant them rights   result of religion helped
Mexico and Utah.                  and equality.                     slaves survive the perils of
                                                                    being a slave.
Diplomatic                         Economic
American Diplomacy in the          The South’s largest industry was
antebellum era was mostly          cotton. The South favored cotton
centered on internal affairs,      above its other resources and made
mainly the sectionalism of the     a claim to ruling the nation based
Nation.                            on this one industry. Southern
With the widespread reforms of     trade of cotton extended globally
the decades, American ideals       to much of Europe. The
influenced their existing          antebellum South was dependant
relations with other countries.    on slave labor. The millions of
Europe became American’s           slaves created a cost efficient work
main economic partner,             force that could support the
supporting trade and military      “capitalist agrarian” economy.
assistance.                        Slave use was critical to the
North and South division           survival of the southern economy.
became the first priority of       The slave states paid considerable
American government. With          attention to the development of a
the matter of slavery having       conservative, stable banking
been overlooked previously,        system, which could guarantee the
Decline of slavery ,               movement of staple crops and the
Lincoln’s move into office to      extension of credit to the planters.
office was the most substantial    Southern banks were primarily
event of American diplomacy.       designed to lend the planters
With the threat of the southern    money for outlays that were
succession, Lincoln played the     economically feasible and socially
role of mediator between the       acceptable in a slave society: the
two sides. Ultimately his          movement of crops, the purchase
attempts to avoid war would        of land and slaves, and little else
fail and the Civil War would       The North found success in more
erupt.                             modern forms of economy, trade,
For the most part, other nations   commerce, banking, shipping, and
remained out of the civil war.     manufacturing.
European industry giants such      Advancements in railroads saw a
as Britain and France mainly       great increase during this time
offered monetary and resource      period. The amount of rails and
support.                           train usage showed the industrial
Peace Reforms prior to the war     strength of a region, as railroads
gave America its tendency to       were widely used to transports
remain neutral.                    large amounts of goods and
The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty          resources. The North was notably
was an agreement that both         more advanced with railroads than
nations were not to colonize or    the south. The North was more
control any central American       dependant on large loads of
republic to prevent a dominant     materials and goods being
canal bridging the Atlantic with   transported across the country. The
the Pacific. The treaty            South was more directed to
strengthened the relationship      dedicated regions that were self
between America and Britain        supportive. With the introduction
while American was just            of railroads, more job
establishing itself’s world        opportunities opened up. The steel
presence                           industry increased its production.




Chapter 12 Outline

                                            OUTLINE

I)      The Romantic Impulse- American intellectuals were looked down on by Europeans
     A) Nationalism and Romanticism in American Painting.
        a) Many Americans started to look at their own paintings.
           (i)      They believed they were creating new artistic traditions for themselves.
        b) American painters painted scenery of wild things.
           (i)      This gave the feeling of awe and wonderment of the grandeur of nature.
                (1) This was called Sublime.
        c) The first school for American painters
           (i)      Found by Frederic Church, Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty, and Asher
                Durand, in New York.
           (ii)     It was called the Hudson River School.
         (iii) Soon those students moved out west and painted pictures of western
              landscape.
B)   Literature and the Quest for Liberation
     a) Many Americans would read sentimental novels.
     b) James Fennimore Cooper.
         (i)      He was the first great American novelist.
         (ii)     He wrote about adventure and suspense.
              (1) He is most famous for The Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer.
     c) Walt Whitman
         (i)      The self proclaimed poet of American democracy.
         (ii)     Poems were a celebration of democracy and liberation.
     d) Herman Melville
         (i)      The author of Moby Dick.
         (ii)     He wrote about how personal fulfillment could destroy a man.
     e) Edgar Allan Poe.
         (i)      Poe wrote about how the world had a lot of pain and horror.
C)   Literature in the Antebellum South.
     a) Many Southern writers wrote about historical romances on the plantations.
     b) Others wrote about real matters and subjects.
D)   Transcendentalists
     a) It was a theory of the individual that rested on a distinction between what they called
         reason and understanding.
         (i)      They defined reason to be little to do with rationality.
         (ii)     Understanding
     b) Each person should strive to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the
         emotions to create an original relation with the Universe.
     c) Ralph Waldo Emerson.
         (i)      A transcendentalist philosopher.
         (ii)     He was a Unitarian minister but left in 1832 to teach the idea of
              transcendentalism
         (iii) Wrote an essay called nature. It was his most renowned one.
              (1) He wrote that humans should work for a communion with the natural world in
                  their quest for self-fulfillment.
         (iv)     Was also a nationalist and passionate about the American culture and its
              independence.
     d) Henry David Thoreau
         (i)      He believed that people should work for self-realization by resisting pressures
              to conform society’s expectations.
         (ii)     Wrote the famous book Walden.
         (iii) He refused to pay a poll tax because he did not want to support a government
              that allowed slavery.
E)   The Defense of Nature
     a) A new group of people emerged that were afraid of the impact that the new capitalist
         enthusiasms would have on the natural world.
         (i)      They also believed that nature was not only a source for economic growth, but
              also a source of human inspiration.
F)   Visions of Utopia
           a) The Brook Farm
              (i)      An experimental community that wanted to create a new form of social
                   organization that gave everyone a chance of self-realization
              (ii)     Everybody does equal work.
              (iii) Nathaniel Hawthorne
                   (1) Was a famous novelist and lived on the Brook Farm.
                   (2) Wrote about the price people pay for being cut out of society.
           b) Many other experimental communities began to pop up such as New Harmony
      G)   Redefining Gender Roles.
           a) Margaret Fuller
              (i)      She was a transcendentalists who believed that both men and women were
                   equal
           b) The Shakers
              (i)      They would commit to complete celibacy, which meant that no one could be
                   born to Shakerism.
              (ii)     They had to volunteer into the religion and they also believed in sexual
                   equality.
           c) The Mormons
              (i)      Joseph Smith
                   (1) He found the religion by finding their bible in upstate New York. It was made
                       of gold and given to him from angles.
           d) Many people did not agree with their religious beliefs.
           e) They moved around a lot.
           f) Smith was sent to jail for treason but later busted out
           g) They left to Salt Lake City and they stayed.
II)        Remaking Society
      A)   Revivalism, Morality, and Order
           a) Protestant revivalism
              (i)      Believed that everybody was capable of salvation
              (ii)     Charles Grandison Finney
                   (1) A evangelistic Presbyterian minister
           b) Burned over district
              (i)      An area in upstate New York that had successful revivals.
      o    The Temperance Crusade
           c) The Crusade against drunkenness
              (i)      Believed that this was the cause of most crimes and other bad doings.
              (ii)     Women were strongly for the temperance movement
                   (1) It was a burden on women because men would go out and buy beer instead of
                       buying essentials for the family.
           d) More than enough whisky to buy especially in the west
              (i)      Farmers would grow too much grain and they would take the extra and turn it
                   into whisky.
              (ii)     Many people drank because it was a past time.
           e) Many people began to join the temperance movement due to religious revival.
           f) Some people soon started to believe that they should also abolish beer and wine.
              (i)      Not every one agreed
      B)   Health Fads and Phrenology
     a) A search for perfectionism lead to new health and knowledge theories.
     b) Municipalities established city health boards in order to determine solutions to
        problematic epidemics
     c) Phrenology
        (i)      A new fad that claimed characteristics could be determined by the shaped of a
             person’s head.
        (ii)     It was supposed to further develop the elite society
        (iii) In the 1830’s it was believed to have scientific value but now it is believed
             untrue.
C)   Medical Science
     a) Medical science seemed to lack other fields
        (i)      They needed human subjects
        (ii)     Uneducated people became doctors
        (iii) Lack of knowledge
        (iv)     Lack of scientific methods made hard for doctors to progress in treating
             disease
        (v)      Lack of knowledge of how diseases spread
     b) Great advancements came in the form of the small pox vaccination and sulphuric
        ether to relive his patients of pain.
D)   Reforming Education
     a) Interest in public education grew
     b) Horace Mann
        (i)      An educational reformer
        (ii)     Believed that education was the only way to protect democracy.
        (iii) Created new methods to train teachers
        (iv)     Established the first teachers college
     c) Henry Barnard
        (i)      Helped produce a new educational system which appropriating state funds of
             universal education
     d) Some teachers were barely literate
     e) Blacks not allowed to go to school
     f) Indians were allowed an education too
        (i)      Some people believed that they could be tough the white ways.
     g) US had one of the highest literacy rates by the start of the Civil War.
     h) Children were to teach themselves more than teachers.
     i) Blind schools started to pop up too.
E)   Rehabilitation
     a) The asylum movement
        (i)      They used to hold criminals and mentally handicapped people.
        (ii)     Everybody was put together no matter what the crime or reason was
        (iii) Some jails were even big holes in the ground
     b) Dorothea Dix
        (i)      Started a national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill.
     c) Soon public hangings and the imprisonment of debtors disappeared.
     d) New forms of prison were designed to have inmates meditate on their wrong doings.
F)   The Indian Reservation
     a) Reservation
               (i)      It was a region that was enclosed so whites could not get in and disrupt the
                    Native American life.
            b) Whites moved Indians out of good land so they could make money off it.
       G)   The Rise of Feminism
            a) In the 1830’s and 1840’s women were still looked down upon but stuff was added to
               hinder their priorities
               (i)      They were expected to take care of the house and the kids.
            b) Sarah and Angelina Grimke
               (i)      They were big abolitionists despite men telling them that they were not being
                    like ladies.
               (ii)     They argued that men and women were created equal.
            c) Seneca Falls
               (i)      A convention that women put on that supported their rights to equality.
                    (1) They wrote a Declaration of Sentiments
                        (A) Stated that all men and women were created equal.
                        (B) They really wanted the right to vote.
                        (C) Declaration was shot down by all men
                            a. The men believed that both men and women should be assigned
                                 different spheres in society.
            d) Most feminist were Quakers
               (i)      Quakers believed sexual equality.
            e) Antoinette Brown Blackwell
               (i)      She was the first ordained woman minister.
            f) Women began to defy their clothes
               (i)      Wore bloomers
                    (1) Gave them freedom of movement without loss of modesty.
                    (2) Feminist soon stopped wearing them because it was drawing to much
                        attention away from their cause.
III)        The Crusade Against Slavery.
       A)   Early Opposition to slavery.
            a) The American Colonization Society.
               (i)      Wanted to challenge slavery without challenging property rights
               (ii)     ACS got fundings from private owners and some Congressmen.
               (iii) They got a group of African Americans sent out of America to the west coast
                    of Africa and they were later established into the nation of Liberia.
       B)   Garrison and Abolitionism
            a) William Lloyd Garrison
               (i)      Was an assistant to Benjamin Lundy, a Quaker, who published the leading
                    anti slavery newspaper
               (ii)      He then went on his own and published the Liberator.
               (iii) Founder of the New England Antislavery Society in 1832
                    (1) The society grew very large
       C)   Black Abolitionists
            a) Free blacks of the North agreed with abolitionism
            b) Northern slaves experienced a lot of stuff
               (i)      More prejudices than those of the south
               (ii)     Little sources of education
      (iii) Victims of mob violence
      (iv)     Barred form all professions except very menial ones.
   c) Northerners proud of freedom.
   d) Fredrick Douglas was greatest abolitionist of all
      (i)      Born a slave and escaped and later traveled to Europe where he lectured for 2
           years
      (ii)     Came back to Maryland and bought his freedom and started an anti slavery
           news paper
      (iii) Became famous for his autobiography
      (iv)     Wanted blacks to gain freedom and full social and economical freedom as
           well
      (v)      Lead black abolitionists to become more influential
D) Anti Abolitionism
   a) Provoked an opposition
      (i)      Created fear amongst whites in terms of social order
      (ii)     Elijah Lovejoy
           (1) Editor of an abolitionist news paper
           (2) Victim of mob violence
           (3) Was assaulted three times by the mob and they destroyed his print press
           (4) The fourth time he was shot and killed.
   b) Abolitionist very strong willed and determined while their counterparts represented
      many beliefs of white Americans of the day.
E) Abolitionism Divided
   a) Garrison wants women to officially participate in the anti slavery movement.
   b) Garrison also wants to expel the salve states from the union
   c) People would tell slave holders that they were being sinful
   d) The Amistad Case
      (i)      Africans destined for slavery seized the ship and headed back to Africa but the
           US Navy took the ship and held the Africans as pirates.
      (ii)     The Supreme Court ruled the Africans free.
   e) John Brown
      (i)       An abolitionist who started riots and was killed
   f) Harriet Beecher Stowe
      (i)      Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin
           (1) It was an anti slavery book.
           (2) It sold over 300,000 copies.

       1. American Paintings of the 1802s
               - American paintings realized.
               - Hudson River School for American painters
               - America created new styles of painting
       2. Northern Literature
               - American Authors became popular
               - Books created to celebrate democracy, liberation of the individual, and
                   the spirit.
       3. Southern Literature
               - romanticism
         - supported slavery
         - Southern realists depicted the south with great realism
4. Transcendentalism
         - Ralph Waldo Emerson
         - Wrote to show belief that people should become one with nature and the
              universe.
         - Henry David Thoreau
         - Wrote that people should rely on their instincts rather than society’s
              expectations
5. Brooke Farm
         - Organization to practice self-realization, equality, and instinct.
         - Failed along with other organizations.
6. Gender Roles and Religion
         - new experiments in societies and sexuality equality.
         - Mormons arose and attempted to created their “New Jerusalem”
         - They believed in human perfectibility
7. Revivalism, mortality, and order
         - New Light Revivals created to give people the ability to be saved
         - Finney’s Doctrine of Personal Regeneration became popular to people
              who didn’t agree with change.
8. Temperance Crusade
         - Banning of alcohol
         - The ASPTC produced the idea of abstinence before marriage
         - Temperance members believed that self improvement was possible
              through sharing the idea of abstinence.
9. Health and Phrenology
         - Public health threatened by Cholera
         - Health spas
         - Dietary supplements
         - People believed in the idea of improving a person’s character and
              intelligence.
10. New Science
         - medical science arose due to lack of knowledge in the area of
              medication.
11. Education Reform
         - Horace Mann helped strengthen schools
         - Schools were created for the importance of self-realization and instinct.
         - Blind schools.
12. Rehabilitation
         - Dorothea Dix was able to make new ways to treat the mentally ill.
         - Asylums
13. The Indian Reservations
         - Indians were being forced by whites out of their homes.
         - Isolation of Indians from whites
14. Rise of feminism
         - Women’s rights movements created such as the Seneca Falls.
         - Quakers believed in sexual equality
           15. The Opposition of Slavery
                    - The ACS (American Colonization Society) began challenging slavery
                        without the attack on the properties or the southern ideals.
                    - Slaves were moved out of the country
                    - Failed due to too many slaves.
           16. Garrison and Abolition
                    - Garrison believed that slavery damaged the system and that abolition
                        should be accepted.
                    - In 1832 the Anti-slavery Association fought to get rid of slavery.
           17. The Black Abolitionists
                    - Sojourner Truth talked about the need to get rid of slavery.
                    - Frederick Douglas believed that blacks should have freedom, social, and
                        economic equality.
           18. Anti-Abolitionists
                    - many whites believed that the abolitionists were a threat to society.
                    - Lovejoy, the editor of the abolitionist newspaper, was murdered by
                        angry whites.
           19. Abolition Divides
                    - In 1839, slaves took over an African bound vessel which was known as
                        the Amistad Disaster.
                    - “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” was written and showed the cruelty toward blacks.

                              Chapter 12 Guided Questions

                                   QUESTION RESPONSES

Guided Question #1

Thesis: Between 1820 and 1860, American reform movements reflected both optimistic and
pessimistic views of human nature and society through temperance, women’s rights, and utopian
experiments.
1. Temperance
        A. Optimistic
                1. Americans wanted to ban alcohol because it was hurting family life.
                2. Men were spending valuable family money on their drinking and paying less
attention to their home life.
                3. Their drinking habit was causing men to become abusive to their wives and
children
        B. Pessimistic
                1. There was an excess of grain, therefore, Americans were wasting it
                2. Pubs and saloons had become a place of leisure for farmers, the farmers no
longer had a place to gather with others and relax
                3. Businesses that sold alcohol had to shut down and therefore it was damaging to
the economy
2. Women’s rights
                A. Optimistic
                1. Women at the Seneca Falls convention declared that men and women were
created equal
                2. Women began emerging as physicians, ministers, community leaders, and
more.
                3. They were becoming defined and no longer had to depend on males as much as
they previously had to.
        B. Pessimistic
                1. Women were fighting for their rights and it was dividing families.
                2. Men were looking down on women and felt that they were out of line.
                3. Males continued to place more restrictions on women, hoping that it would
cause them to cease
3. Utopian experiments
        A. Optimistic
                1. People were gathering together to form communities that were equal for
everyone
                2. They tried to bridge the gap between intellect and learning by sharing the labor
        3. All the experiments had good intentions
                         i. Brook Farm and New Harmony
        B. Pessimistic
                1. It ruined many people’s mental stability
                2. They communities could not thrive economically
                3. It oppressed the people by limiting them to only certain things that they were
allowed to do and participate in



Guided Question #2

Thesis: The early 19th century reform movements portrayed the strengths and weaknesses in
American democracy. These reform movements included pushes for the abolition of slavery, and
women’s rights.

        I. Women’s Rights during this time period went through their ups and downs.
              A. It started in the movement for the “Utopian” society.
                       a. The Brook Farm, Oneida, New Harmony, and The Shakers were
                       examples of redefining the gender roles in American society.
                               i. These communities failed due to poor planning, and lack of
                               interest of the American people.
                               ii. These societies started an idea of women’s rights and what
                               women could receive from equal rights.
                               iii. It started ideas for other women’s rights societies.
              B. The Temperance movement made way for women’s rights as well.
                       a. Against alcoholism
                       b. Made way for feminism (women bonded together)
                       c. Started the Seneca Falls Convention
                               i. Signed Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (stated
                               women created equal)
                 C. Shows strength in democracy that women could come together to fight what
                 they believed in even though they only started the women’s rights movement.
                 Weakness is that they did not accomplish anything concrete yet.

          2. The fight for the abolition of slavery at this time strengthened with time.
                  A. American Colonization Society was founded to relocate slaves to Africa.

                       a. Slaves generations removed from Africa did not work.
               B. William Lloyd Garrison started anti-slavery newspaper Liberator.
                       a. Started idea in abolitionism.
                       b. Founded American Anti-slavery Society.
               C. Frederick Douglass an escaped slave put sentiment in the minds of all blacks
               that their race should be equal.
               D. Abolitionists divided in modernists, extremists.
                       a. Modernists did it for political, economic gain
                       b. Extremists did it for moral reasons.
               E. Showed the strength in democracy that the abolition movement could get
               started and idea could get out in society. Weakness in democracy is that when the
               movement was attacked the government did nothing about it.
Supporting Info
The Temperance Crusade
American society for promotion of temperance
Cultural divisions over alcohol
The Rise of Feminism
Reform movements and the rise of feminism
Seneca Falls
Limited progress for women
Visions of Utopia
Brook Farm
New Harmony




Guided Question #3

Thesis:
       During the time period of the 1840’s through the 1890’s women were still looked down
upon in society. Women were expected to stay home and tend to household needs and the
children while the man of the house went out and worked to support the entire family. However,
between the 1840’s and the 1890’s, women began to slowly challenge their role in society.
Women’s’ activities in the, social, economic, political, and intellectual spheres effectively
challenged the role that society had given them.
I)      Socially
     A) Women began wearing bloomers and other non-traditional clothes.
     B) Different publications were written for women
     C) In new religions, women were looked at as equal counter parts.
        a) Women started to win new rights and positions in authority.
II)     Economically
     A) Women started to work in the Lowell Mills
        a) The upper class women who didn’t work looked down upon the workingwomen.
        b) They worked to gain money for their families.
            (i)      Families depended on them for income.
     B) Created new communities where women could learn how to become ladies and to be
        good wives.
        a) They also gained money too.
III)    Politically
     A) Abolitionists groups started to become present
        a) Women started these groups
        b) They formed the abolitionist groups to help the African slaves gain their rights, which
            would allow the possibility for women to get the same.
     B) Seneca Falls.
        a) A group of women wanted to attend an anti-slavery convention but were turned away
            for being women.
        b) They held their own convention in Seneca Falls, New York to talk about women’s
            status.
            (i)      They wrote a declaration of Sentiments
                (1) Stated that all men and women were equal
                (2) They really wanted the right to vote.
IV)     Intellectual
     A) Romance novels began to be written]
        a) They were written mainly for women.
     B) Women would have gatherings and talk about the novel.


1. Thesis: The reform movements in America between 1820 and 1860 reflected the optimistic
and pessimistic views on American nature and society through the Temperance, education, and
women’s rights.
A. Temperance
       1. Optimistic
               a. banning of alcohol
               b. supported mostly by women
               c. most men that drank were in the west
               d. men were spending the family’s money
               e. ruining organs
       2. Pessimistic
               a. over production of grain
               b. businesses that sold alcohol shut down
               c. farmers no longer had place for leisure
B. Education
       1. Optimistic
               a. Hudson River School
                        i. Founded by four intelligent men
               b. Horace Mann’s reform
                        i. Increase school year
                        ii. Moved for higher wages for teachers
               c. benevolent empire
                        i. To help mentally ill
                        ii. Built school for blind
                        iii. It was called Perkins School for the Blind
       2. Pessimistic
               a. government had to enforce higher taxes
               b. no access to school
                        i. Farms were too far apart
                        ii. Children were unable to make it to school
               c. in the south barriers for black to get educated
               d. only 1/3 of children in the south enrolled in school
               e. in the north students enrolled but did not attend
C. Women’s rights
       1. Optimistic
               a. Seneca Falls
                        i. Convention in New York
                        ii. Discussed the question of women’s rights
                        iii. Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions appeared
               b. Quakers
                        i. Led mostly by women
                        ii. They believed in equality
                        iii. Female leaders and preachers emerged
       2. Pessimistic
               a. violence
                        i. Women held rebellions
                        ii. Police used violence to stop the rebellions
               b. men still looked down on women
                        i. Placed restrictions on women and felt that they were put of place

                                      Supporting Info
                                      Educational
                                      Hudson River School
                                      Frederick’s church
                                      Horace Mann
                                      Women’s rights
                                      Seneca Falls
                                      Quakerism
                                      Temperance Crusade
                2. Thesis: In the 19th century, the reform movements for abolition and women’s rights had
                strengths and weaknesses for the democracy and America’s republic.
                        1. Strengths
                                a. Quakerism
                                         i. They believed in equality
                                         ii. Many female leaders were Quakers
                                b. Seneca Falls
                                         i. Convention for women’s rights
                                         ii. Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
                                         iii. Moved for equality
                                         iv. Showed women were capable of gathering in large groups
                                c. abolition
                                         i. Had some support from males
                        2. Weaknesses
                                a. limited progress for women
                                         i. Bloomers
                                         ii. This was short skirts with full length pantalets
                                         iii. Feminists abandoned it
                                         iv. Drew attention away from important details
                                b. traditional restrictions
                                         i. Sex
                                         ii. only for procreation, not enjoyment
                                c. emergence of barriers
                                         i. Supposed to have motherly instincts
                                         ii. Stay at home and clean
                                         iii. Educate children

                Supporting Info
                Abolitionism
                American Anti-slavery Society
                Frederick Douglass
                Rise of Feminism
                Seneca Falls
                Limited Progress for Women


840s to the 1890s female activities in the intellectual, social, economic, and political spheres, effectively
 itudes for women’s place in society.

ford female seminary
 a. founded by Catherine Beecher
abeth Blackwell
 a. born in England
 b. first physician
 inette Brown
 a. first ordained female minister in the US
y Stone
 a. first women to keep maiden name after marriage
 b. influential lectures to other women

 ca Falls
 a. it was a convention
 b. discussed women’s rights
 c. formed Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
 rm movements
 a. Sarah and Angelina Grimke
         i. Outspoken about abolitionists

-slavery convention
 a. held in London
 b. women turned away by men that controlled it
 c. many female leaders arose form this occasion
 d. women’s right to vote

men gained jobs
 a. Elizabeth Blackwell
         i. First physician
 b. Antoinette Brown
         i. First ordained female minister
 c. Lucy Stone                                                                                 CHAPTER 12
         i. Kept maiden name after marriage


                                                             TERMS

               Romanticism- An assumption (that many movements in the 19th century intended to make on an
               optimistic faith in human nature)-which sprawled in both Europe and America. A movement
               known, in its artistic aspects at least, as romanticism. This stood in market contrast to traditional
               Protestant assumption of original sin which humans needed to overcome through a disciplined,
               virtuous life. Instead, reformers now argued, individuals should strive to give full expression to
               the inner spirit, should work to unleash their innate capacity to experience joy and to do good.

               Abolitionists- People who favored the abolition of any institution, especially Negro slaves during
               the early oppositions to slavery in the nineteenth century. Those who imposed slavery were, for
               the most part, a calm and genteel lot, expressing moral disapproval but engaging in few overt
               activities. There was an organized anti-slavery movement which centered on the concept of
               colonization. Colonization was the effort to encourage the resettlement of African Americans in
               Africa or the Caribbean.

               James Fenimore Cooper- During the effort to create a distinctively American literature, the
emergence of this first great American novelist. He was the author of over thirty novels in the
space of three decades, Cooper was known to his contemporaries as a master of adventure and
suspense. What most distinguished his work was its evocation of the American wilderness. He
grew up in central New York and at a time when the edge of the white settlement was not far
away he retained throughout his life a fascination with men’s relationship with nature.

Leatherstocking Tales- Those are some of James Fenimore Cooper’s most important novels.
Among them were The Last of the Mohicans, and The Deer Slayer. They explored the American
frontiersman’s experience with Indians, pioneers, violence, and the law. They served as a link to
the concept of later intellectuals. For the “Leatherstocking Tales” could be seen not only as a
celebration of the American spirit and landscape, but also in evocation through the central of
Netty Bumppo, of the ideal of the independent individual with a natural inner goodness.

Walt Whitman- One of the other groups of important American writers who engaged on the
heels of Cooper. They displayed even more clearly the group of romanticism on the nations
intellectual life. Whitman was a self-proclaimed poet of American democracy who roamed from
place to place doing odd jobs. He published his first work, Leaves of Grass, in 1855. His poems
were an unrestrained celebration of democracy and the liberation of the individual. He also wrote
about the pleasures of the flesh, as well as the spirit.

Edgar Allen Poe- One of the few southern writers of the time, who embraced the search for the
essence of human spirit with incredibly bleak works. In the court of his short and unhappy life,
Poe produced stories and poems that were primarily sad. He was considered a controversial and
literary figure. Poe evoked images of individuals rising above the narrow confines of intellect
and exploring the deep words of the spirit and the emotions.

Brook Farms- The most famous of the nineteenth century experiments and communal living
which was spawned as a result of transcendentalism which was above all an individualistic
philosophy. In West Roxbury, Mass. These individuals would gather to create a new form of
social organization, one that would permit every member to the community full opportunity to
self-realization. All residents would share equal opportunity to self-realization. All residents
would share equally the labor of the community so that all could share in the leisure. Manuel
labor helped bridge the gap between the world of intellect and learning in the world of instinct
and nature. Socialism evolved and many residents left in 1847 the experiment dissolved.

Robert Owen- A philanthropist and Scottish industrial who was another experimenter in the idea
of communal living. Owen founded an experimental community in Indiana in 1825, which was
named New Harmony. It was to be a “village of cooperation,” in which every resident worked
and lived in total equality. The community was an economic failure but the vision that had
inspired it continued to enchant Americans. Dozens of other “Owenite” experiments began in
other locations in the following years.

New Harmony- Owen founded an experimental community in Indiana in 1825, which he named
New Harmony. It was to be a “village of cooperation” in which every resident worked and lived
in total equality. The community was an economic failure but the vision that inspired it
continued to inspire Americans. Dozens of other “Owenites” experiments in other locations in
the following years.

Margaret Fuller- One of the most responsible for drawing issues of gender into the larger
discussion of individual liberation. She was a leader of transcendentalism and suggested the
important relationship between the discovery “self” that was central to antebellum reform and
the questioning of gender roles. She was a feminist writer, who became a great admirer of
European socialists and a great champion of the Italian revolution of 1848, which she witnessed
during traveling there and established herself as an intellectual leader whose powers came in part
from her perspectives as a woman.

Oneida Community- A community in which there was a redefinition of gender roles which was
crucial to one of the most enduring of the utopian communities of the nineteenth century. It was
established in 1848, in upstate New York by John Humphrey Noyes. The Oneida
“Perfectionists,” as residents of the community called themselves, rejected traditional notions of
family marriage.

Shakers-Participants of the faith “Shakerism”. Shakerism’s most distinctive feature was its
commitment to complete celibacy. This means that nobody can be born to Shakerism. All
Shakers had to choose the faith voluntarily. Shaker communities attracted about 6,000 members
in the 1840s. They openly endorsed the idea of sexual equality, they even embraced the idea that
God was not clearly a woman or man. Females primarily demanded the most power.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints- The Mormons were among the most important
efforts to create a new and more ordered society within the old. It began in upstate New York by
Joseph Smith. They believed that there were an ancient people in America, centuries before
Columbus. They were said to have strayed form the path of righteousness and were punished.
They were said to be descendants of Native American Indians, but the Indians have no
recollection of it.

Joseph Smith- He began Mormonism at the age of 24. Mormonism began in upstate New York.
Smith was an economically unsuccessful man. He spent most of 24 years moving through New
England and the northeast, until, in 1830 he published the Book of Mormon. The book told about
the history of Mormonism. He believed its history of righteous society could serve as a model of
the new holy community of America.

Bringham Young- He was the successor of Smith, whom was shot and killed. After Smith’s
death the Mormons abandoned Nauvoo. Young led 12 thousand people into the desert And then
decided to settle and make a community in Utah. They settled in what is now known as
Salt Lake city. This was a permanent settlement that still exists today.

Unitarianism- It was an optimistic vision of those who, like the transcendentalists, denied
Calvinism doctrine and preached the divinity of the individual. It was a church that was created
in 1782 in Boston. It emerged first as a descending view within the New England congressional
Church. They did not believe in the Trinity or the predestination.

Second Great Awakening- It was the philosophy of reform. It sparked the thought that an
individual could have the optimistic belief and was capable of salvation. The awakening began
Protestant revival. By 1820 it had evolved into a powerful force with social reform. Charles
Finney said that Calvinist documents were both obsolete and destructive.

New Light- It was far removed from the transcendentalists and unitarians it was the belief that
every individual was capable of salvation.

Charles Grandison Finney- He was the biggest revivalist leader of the 1820s and 1830s. He
would only preach to people who were already Christian. He created the doctrine for personal
regeneration. He was for religious awakenings. His greatest success was in Rochester, New
York. The coral helped him to spread his word. After he preached, he left people disoriented.

“Burned-over district”- This occurred in New York. The burned-over district was picked becuase
it was a major economic transformation. This area was the same are that Joseph Smith first
organized the Mormon Church. The preaching went up and down the Erie Canal and can be
related to a religious awakening. The main cause of it, was the building of all of the canals.

Temperance- This movement was against drunkenness, because the supply of alcohol was
growing in the west. This occurred because farmers were growing too much grain for the market,
so most of it went towards whiskey. It was led mostly by women because their husbands had
become addicted to alcohol. The husband were spending their paychecks on alcohol, which was
valuable money that the family needed to live. This hurt many families.

Horace Mann- He was first secretary of the New Light- It was far removed from the
transcendentalists and unitarians it was the belief that every individual was capable of salvation.

Charles Grandison Finney- He was the biggest leader of the 1820s and 1830s. He would only
preach to people who were already Christian. He was for religious awakenings. The coral helped
him to spread his word. After he preached, he left people disoriented.
“Burn over district”- This occurred in New York. The preaching went up and down the Erie
Canal and can be related to a religious awakening. The main cause of it was the building of all of
the canals.

Temperance-It was against drunkenness. It was led mostly by women because their husbands had
become addicted to alcohol. The husband were spending their paychecks on alcohol, which was
valuable money that the family needed to live. This hurt many families.

Horace Mann- He was first secretary of Massachusetts board of education. The board was
formed in 1837. He was one of the greatest educators of all time. He established the first
American state supported teachers college in 1839. The first professional association of teachers
was created in 1945.

Dorothea Dix- In Massachusetts, he began a national movement for a new method to treat the
mentally ill. He tried to push the government away form doing traditional practices of publicly
hanging the mentally ill. He was hung because he could not pay back all of the debts he owed
from starting the national movement for treating the nationally ill.
Indian Reservations- It was formed so that the government could push the Indians into one
section of land, without just making them move. The main reason for pushing the Indians out of
the way was so that white settlers could use the land for farming. However, they were unable to
break the treaties that they had with the Indians, even though eventually they did.

Transcendentalism- It was the belief created by Ralph Waldo Emerson, who focused on a
distinction between “reason and understanding”. He taught the need to realize “the divinity” of
the individual and to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the emotions to create
“Original relation to the universe”.

Ralph Waldo Emerson- He was the leader of transcendentalism. He was originally a Unitarian
minister, but left the church in 1832 to become a devoted transcendentalist. He was very good at
bringing in large crowds for his lectures and teachings. He created many poems and essays to
help express his belief to the people.

“Self Reliance”- It is Emerson’s most famous essay in 1841 which expressed the idea of
searching for communion of the universe, the wholeness of the “oversoul.” The belief that each
person’s capacity to a part of this essence, through their effort, is believed to be a classic
expression of the romantic belief in the “divinity” of the individual.

Henry David Thoreau- He was another leading concord of transcendentalist who went further
than Emerson in enforcing the importance of the repressive forces of society. He taught that
people should rely on thier own instincts rather than confrom to society’s expectations. These
beliefs immortalized in his book Walden. His beliefs also led him to live alone in a cabin for two
years. His rejection of artificial restraints extended to Government. He went to jail in 1846
because he wouldn’t pay a poll tax.
Walden- A book written by Henry David Thoreau in 1854. It told of his isolating himself
at the edge of Walden Pond for two years so that he could live in nature and realize what
the world was trying to reach him. He expressed the idea of “living simply,” he felt it was
a desirable alternative to the modernized world around him. He felt that the railroad was a
disruptive and intrusive symbol of the world.

“Resistance to Civil Government”- After being jailed in 1846 for refusing to pay a toll
tax issued by the government, Thoreau wrote an essay “Resistance to Civil
Government.” He claimed that the individual’s personal morality had the first claim that
the individual’s personal morality had the first claim on his or her actions and that the
government had no legitimate authority, if it violate that morality.

Civil Disobedience- An idea expressed in the essay “Resistance to Civil Government,” by
Henry Daivd Thoreau. It was the idea of publicly refusing any unjust laws produced by
the government. Groups of peopl would gather together and stage protests and public
displays against what they felt was unjust. They did this so to gain what they wnated
from the government.

Nathaniel Hawthorne- An original resident of Brook Farm who used his ability to wrtie to
express the wrong doings of the experiment of Brook Farm on the individuals who were
willing to submit to it. He also expressed the consequnces of individuals cutting
themselves off from society in a couple of other novels he wrote.

The Scarlet Letter- This is a book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, written in 1850
during the Romantic period. He passionately wrote about the great pains of an individual
who cuts themselves off from society. He challenged the beliefs of transcendentalism by
saying the Egotism was the “serpent,” that lay at the heart of human misery.

Antebellum Period- The period of time that was introduced by Thomas Hobbs. It was the
period of time before human society and the beginning of people relating themselves to
one another. People began to have relationships with each other due to their distinct and
obvious differences.

Grimke Sisters- They were two women in the 1830s, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, who
were born in South Carolina and became active and outspoken abolitionists. They argued
with men that “Men and women were created equal.” They believed that women had the
exact same rights as men and were therefore able to do as they pleased. Men claimed that
their activities were inappropriate for their sex. They believed that “whatever is right for
a man to do is right for a women to do.

Lucreatia Mott- A women who was pressed on the boundaries of “acceptable” female
behavior that men placed on her. When She and a few other women were turned away by
men at an anti-slavery convention in London, she helped organize a convention in Seneca
Falls to discuss the right of women. These women became convinced that their first duty
was to elevate the status of women. She helped express the idea that “all men and women
were created equal.” The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions arose from this
convention. Elizabeth Cady Stanton- She was a leader for women’s rights, along with
Lucretia Mott. She also help to organized the Seneca Falls convention. She felt it her duty
to give women more rights. She stated how women should be treated in the same way as
men.

Seneca Falls Convention- Motts, Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, set up a convention to
as questions about women’s rights. The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution was
formed, it stated that men and women were created equal. The most prominent demand at
the convention was for the right to vote. It led to a movement for women suffrage.

Declaration of Sentiments- It was a form the Declaration of Independence, but for
women. This Declaration stated that all men and women have equal rights. They should
be treated the same. It was formed in 1848 at the Seneca Falls convention. All of the
women who drafted it were Quakers except for Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Elizabeth Blackwell- She was born in England. She broke social and gender barriers. She
gained recognition and acceptance as a physician. Her sister-in-law was the first female
to become an ordained minister in the United States.

Lucy Stone- She was Elizabeth Blackwell’s sister-in-law. She broke barriers by deciding
to keep her maiden name after her marriage. She was a successful women and gave many
lectures to women about their rights.

American Colonization Society- It was put into play by anti-slavery people who were
trying to help send back the blacks to Africa. A group of prominent white settlers
organized the ACS. They would challenge slavery without challenging property rights or
southern sensibilities. This was a step in freeing the slaves. It would get money from
private donors to send the blacks to Africa. They also helped transport slave out of the
country and help them establish a society of their own elsewhere.

Liberia- It was established in1830, and was located on the west coast of Africa. It was
where many slaves were transported. It became an independent republic in 1846.
Monrovia was its capital which was named for the American president who had ruled
over the settlement.

William Loyd Garrison: The Liberator- He was born in Massachusetts in 1805. He was
an assistant to an anti-slavery newspaper which was published in Baltimore. In 1831 he
began his own newspaper called the “Liberator” because he was tired of his boss’ weak
efforts at reform. He gave his opinion from the black, males point of view. He felt that
this was more effective than looking from the white slave owners perspective.

Genius of Universal Emancipation- It was established in 1820 in New Jersey by a Quaker
named Benjamin Lundy. It was the leading anti-slavery newspaper of the time. It was
published in Baltimore. This is where William Lloyd Garrison got his start.

Fredrick Douglas- He was the greatest African-American abolitionist of all. He was one
of the most electrifying orators of his life. He was born a slave in Maryland. He ran away
in 1838 to Massachusetts. He spent two years in England lecturing about anti-slavery
sentiments. In 1847 he returned to Maryland and purchased his freedom. He started a
newspaper, The North Star, in Rochester, New York. He was widely recognized for his
autobiography.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas- It was published in 1845. In the narrative he
demanded that blacks not only receive freedom, but also full social and economic
equality. The first rational convention for abolitionism was formed in 1830. With
Douglas as a leader it became a more influential force than ever before.

Prudence Crandell- She attempted to admit several African-American girls to her private
school in Connecticut. Citizens had her arrested, threw filth in her well, and forced her to
close the school, because of this. This was just one of the many examples of violence
resulting form abolitionist crusades.

Elijah Lovejoy- He was an editor of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Illinois. He was a
victim of mob violence several times. Three times his offices were invaded by angry
white mobs, and his presses smashes. Each time he would install new presses and begin
printing again. The fourth time he tried to defend his press, but the attackers set fire to his
building. As He fled from the burning building, he was shot and killed

American Anti-slavery Society- William Lloyd Garrison founded the society first in
England in 1832, then in America one year later. By 1838, there was more than1,350
chapters and 250,000 members. Anti-slavery had more support and strength than at any
time previous in history. Garrison shocked colleagues by attacking not only slavery but
also the government itself. In 1840 Garrison precipitated a formal division of the society.
He felt that women, who had always played a central roll in the organization’s work, be
allowed to participate on terms of full equality.

Underground Railroad- The Garrisonians helped slaves runaway to the north or Canada.
They never used real railroads. It was just a chain of houses and businesses that would
hide the slaves for the night. The slaves would then move on to the next place until they
reached freedom.

Prigg vs. Pennsylvania 1842- The Supreme Court ruled that the states didn’t need to help
to enforce the 1793 law that required slaves to return to their owners. In many northern
states, abolitionists secured the passage of “personal liberty laws”. This forbade the
capturing and returning of any runaways.

“Personal Liberty Laws”- These laws forbade state officials to assist in the capturing and
returning of any runaway slaves. It was secured by abolitionists. It was above all a cry for
the stop of slavery.

Liberty Party- Anti-slavery sentiment is the underlying factor of the formation of the
liberty party. It offered James G. Birney, who was a Kentucky anti-slavery leader, as its
presidential candidate. They never campaigned for outright abolition, which shows that
anti-slavery and abolition are not always the same. They stood, instead, for free soil.

“Free soil”- They stood for keeping slaves out of the territories. Some free-soilers were
concerned about the slaves well being, while other only wanted to keep them out of the
west so they could have an all white territory. This attracted something abolition could
not. It gained support of large numbers, including a majority of the white northern
population.

John Brown- He led bloody uprisings in Kansas and Virginia. He was given money and
arms through an abolitionists group in New England. He advocated violence because of
frustrations of political abolitionists.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin- This was the most powerful abolitionist propaganda, however it was
a work of fiction. It was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It first appeared in 1851-1852
in a serial in an anti-slavery weekly. It was published as a book in 1852 and sold more
than 300,000 copies within a year. It was one of the most remarkable bestsellers in
America.
                               CHAPTER OVERVIEW

         The rest of the world’s view on America was they were not cultured or respected
on the global scale. They were more of barbarians and uncultured than the traditional
views of the European countries. Americans realized this and copied the European style
of life called Romanticism. This was a phrase that included changes in literature,
philosophy, art, politics, and economics. This idea brought upon the Antebellum Era of
reform movements, which changed the views of the country forever. Nobody viewed the
American painting at this time until a new style was appreciated, a style in which
American painters painted natures wildest and most spectacular areas to evoke awe and
wonderment. The first great American novelist was James Cooper, whose works included
The Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer. His works displayed the American frontier
and experiences with Indians, pioneers, violence and the law. The group of
“Romanticized” writers wrote about the nation’s intellectual life, and human emotions.
This group included Whitman, Melville and Poe. This type of writing was primarily in
the North, however the South also produced great writers that wrote about Southern
romanticism. This type focused on the romantics of the plantation system of the upper
class in the South.
         Another group emerged during this time period called the Transcendentalists,
whose belief rested on reason and understanding. Each indivdual should transcend the
limits of intellect and allow human emotions to take over and allow the soul to relate to
the Universe. These writers included Emerson and Thoreau. They believed in a tactic
called civil disobedience and not conform to societies expectations. These intellectuals
believed in the preservation of nature and humans should not exploit it for our economic
gain. They were decades away from the time where this idea was brought into action.
Again intellectuals had a vision of a utopia and wanted to create their own separate
perfect society. George Ripley in 1841 established Brook Farm. This was a place where
everyone was equal; they shared in labor, leisure, and responsibility. This utopia failed
when a fire destroyed the central community building and everyone left.
         Women also moved for reform, Margaret Fuller thought of the realization of
“self” was most important, and she began to question the traditional gender roles. This
idea was used in the “utopian”, Oneida Community founded by John Humphrey Noyes.
All residents in the community were “married” to each other, but sexual activity was
closely monitored as the women were “protected” from unwanted childbearing, male lust,
and from traditional bonds of family. The Shakers were also formed during this time they
had the same values as the Oneidas, but their religious congregation they would “shake”
themselves out of sin. The Mormons were founded by Joseph Smith in which he said God
spoke to him and told him to lead the “chosen people” to a religious haven. Brigham
Young led 12,000 followers to Salt Lake City Utah to their permanent settlement. The
philosophy of reform arose in the Unitarian and Universalism visions and absorbed
European romanticism and preached about the divinity of the individual. The New Light
had the same purpose as the Second Great Awakening where each person could achieve
spiritual rebirth and achieve salvation. Evangelical Protestantism now was pushing
towards Temperance, which women were the main voice behind this idea. Alcoholism
was a large problem in the antebellum era and continued to grow. The American Society
for the Promotion of Temperance as well as the Washington Temperance Society to stop
alcoholism. There was a cultural division over this issue, as the Catholics used alcohol in
their religious ceremonies.
         With the sanitation problems of the cities many people contracted diseases.
Medicines were not developed fully and disease was a major problem for people.
Americans turned to nonscientific theories to cure themselves such as water and holistic
methods of treatment. Phrenology also became popular, a method that charted the brain
and each part did something separate. It was used to measure fitness, and match people’s
talents to certain occupations. The medical field began to improve due to the search to
cure disease. Doctors now had to go to school to get a medical license, and with the bar
set higher the conditions began to improve. Medical students now experimented with
corpses to learn about the body. Sterilization also was used to disinfect utensils and
hands, as this happened infection greatly improved.
         Education now was beginning to have reform as well; it was thought that an
individual should tap into their full capacity. Colleges were sprouting up, and public
education was improved up to K-8. Horace Mann was the main reformer for public
education; he lengthened the school period, increased teacher’s salaries, and enriched the
curriculum.
         Another area for reform was the rehabilitation of criminals and the mentally ill.
Asylums and penitentiaries began to be built to hold and rehabilitate those held in there.
Dorothea Dix was the main reformer for the prison reform movement. Indian
Reservations were established during this time period as well to separate them from white
society. This was a way to relocate them from land whites wanted and oppress them. The
Feminist movement began during this time period as well, women wanted to toss out
their traditional gender roles set upon them by men. These feminists organized the Seneca
Falls convention to discuss the issue of women’s rights. During this convention the
women wrote a Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions in which stated that all
women were created equal and have the same inalienable rights as men. This reform
movement lost its momentum during the time of the Civil War and the issue of slavery.
         Early opposition to slavery started with the formation of the American
Colonization Society who wanted to relocate the slaves out of the country and colonize
and start their own society. This was not effective because these slaves were generations
removed from Africa, and did not know anything about the foreign land. The anti-slavery
movement was about to collapse when W.L. Garrison came and started his own anti-
slavery newspaper, The Liberator. Then in 1833 Garrison founded the American
Antislavery Society. Free blacks in the North had a large commitment to the abolition
movement because they felt all members of their race should feel their freedom.
Frederick Douglass was the greatest abolitionist of all time; he was a slave that escaped
to the North; later bought his freedom. He demanded not only freedom but full social and
economic equality. Abolitionists were the minority in American society; anti-abolitionists
thought that abolitionists would ruin society. They harassed and even killed abolitionists
because thy thought that it would create dissent between North and South. There were
two types of abolitionists: modernists and extremists that had their own approach to this
cause. Extremists fought on the moral standpoint while modernists believed in a “moral
suasion.” Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published during this time, which showed what life
was like in the South, and showed slavery at its worst. The two types of abolitionists still
did not have a voice during this time period, and would not grow until the Civil War.
                                                                   TABLE                            TIME PERIOD: 1820-1853

                          Political Institutions                                                     Social Changes
Political                                                                  •   William Lloyd Garrison founds the American Antislavery
• American Colonization Society- relocation of slaves to Africa,               Society. By 1838, there are 250,000 members.
    slaves three generations removed did not work                          •   Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes the antislavery novel Uncle
• American Anti-slavery Society- strengthened anti-slavery                     Tom’s Cabin.
    sentiments in American society                                         •   Transcendentalism becomes a new form of religion
• Americans move Indians to unwanted lands called reservations.            •   Anti slavery becomes a hot topic.
                                                                           •   Women began to strive for equality.
                                                                           •   Mormonism is found by Joseph Smith
                                                                           •   Religious revivals began to start.
                                                                           •   Temperance movement begins
                                                                           •   Health care became an issue.
                                                                           •   Public education stressed for everyone
                                                                           •   Rehabilitation centers and jails started to be built
                                                                           •   Women are fighting for equal rights.
                                                                           •   Abolitionists fight for black freedoms.
                                                                           •   In retaliation to the abolitionist, anti abolitionist groups popped
                                                                               up.
 Cultural Developments                  Diplomatic Relations                   Economic Developments
• Americans began to look     •   Amistad Case- enforced illegal   •   Literature was a major source of income during
  at their own paintings as       international slave trade to         this time
  master pieces.                  America, sent the ship back.
• Painters painted wild                                            •   Many writers emerged in this time, both men
  scenery.                                                             and women People were buying pamphlets,
• School of the arts is                                                novels, poetry book, and newspapers
  established (Hudson River                                        •   There were many women entering the
  School)                                                              workforce
• Americans begin to read
  sentimental novel.                                               •   For the first time women were able to have
• American authors become                                              professions that were previously restricted to
  known around the world.                                              men, such as ministers, and physicians
• Brook Farm founded and
  it did not last long.                                            •   Farmers had an excess amount of grain and
                                                                       were producing alcohol, but they were not
                                                                       allowed to sell it
                                                                   •   Many produced newspapers supporting their
                                                                       cause which brought in revenue from their
                                                                       supporters
                                                                   •   They created Indian reservations to restrict
                                                                       Indians to one small portion of land and give
                                                                       them more
                                                                   •   Almshouses and workhouses were created to
                                                                       help the poor

                                                                   •   These houses were built to help those who had
                                                                       failed to move up on the social ladder, it gave
                                                                       them a stable environment
                                                                   •   States were funding the return to Africa of
                                                                       former slaves
                                               OUTLINE

IV)        The Romantic Impulse- American intellectuals were looked down on by Europeans
      A)   Nationalism and Romanticism in American Painting.
           a) Many Americans started to look at their own paintings.
               (i)      They believed they were creating new artistic traditions for themselves.
           b) American painters painted scenery of wild things.
               (i)      This gave the feeling of awe and wonderment of the grandeur of nature.
                    (1) This was called Sublime.
           c) The first school for American painters
               (i)      Found by Frederic Church, Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty, and Asher
                    Durand, in New York.
               (ii)     It was called the Hudson River School.
               (iii) Soon those students moved out west and painted pictures of western
                    landscape.
      B)   Literature and the Quest for Liberation
           a) Many Americans would read sentimental novels.
           b) James Fenimore Cooper.
               (i)      He was the first great American novelist.
               (ii)     He wrote about adventure and suspense.
                    (1) He is most famous for The Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer.
           c) Walt Whitman
               (i)      The self proclaimed poet of American democracy.
               (ii)     Poems were a celebration of democracy and liberation.
           d) Herman Melville
               (i)      The author of Moby Dick.
               (ii)     He wrote about how personal fulfillment could destroy a man.
           e) Edgar Allan Poe.
               (i)      Poe wrote about how the world had a lot of pain and horror.
      C)   Literature in the Antebellum South.
           a) Many Southern writers wrote about historical romances on the plantations.
           b) Others wrote about real matters and subjects.
      D)   Transcendentalists
           a) It was a theory of the individual that rested on a distinction between what they called
               reason and understanding.
               (i)      They defined reason to be little to do with rationality.
               (ii)     Understanding
           b) Each person should strive to transcend the limits of the intellect and allow the
               emotions to create an original relation with the Universe.
           c) Ralph Waldo Emerson.
               (i)      A transcendentalist philosopher.
               (ii)     He was a Unitarian minister but left in 1832 to teach the idea of
                    transcendentalism
               (iii) Wrote an essay called nature. It was his most renowned one.
                    (1) He wrote that humans should work for a communion with the natural world in
                        their quest for self-fulfillment.
             (iv)     Was also a nationalist and passionate about the American culture and its
                  independence.
          d) Henry David Thoreau
             (i)      He believed that people should work for self-realization by resisting pressures
                  to conform society’s expectations.
             (ii)     Wrote the famous book Walden.
             (iii) He refused to pay a poll tax because he did not want to support a government
                  that allowed slavery.
     E)   The Defense of Nature
          a) A new group of people emerged that were afraid of the impact that the new capitalist
             enthusiasms would have on the natural world.
             (i)      They also believed that nature was not only a source for economic growth, but
                  also a source of human inspiration.
     F)   Visions of Utopia
          a) The Brook Farm
             (i)      An experimental community that wanted to create a new form of social
                  organization that gave everyone a chance of self-realization
             (ii)     Everybody does equal work.
             (iii) Nathaniel Hawthorne
                  (1) Was a famous novelist and lived on the Brook Farm.
                  (2) Wrote about the price people pay for being cut out of society.
          b) Many other experimental communities began to pop up such as New Harmony
     G)   Redefining Gender Roles.
          a) Margaret Fuller
             (i)      She was a transcendentalists who believed that both men and women were
                  equal
          b) The Shakers
             (i)      They would commit to complete celibacy, which meant that no one could be
                  born to Shakerism.
             (ii)     They had to volunteer into the religion and they also believed in sexual
                  equality.
          c) The Mormons
             (i)      Joseph Smith
                  (1) He found the religion by finding their bible in upstate New York. It was made
                      of gold and given to him from angles.
          d) Many people did not agree with their religious beliefs.
          e) They moved around a lot.
          f) Smith was sent to jail for treason but later busted out
          g) They left to Salt Lake City and they stayed.
V)        Remaking Society
     A)   Revivalism, Morality, and Order
          a) Protestant revivalism
             (i)      Believed that everybody was capable of salvation
             (ii)     Charles Grandison Finney
                  (1) A evangelistic Presbyterian minister
          b) Burned over district
        (i)      An area in upstate New York that had successful revivals.
o    The Temperance Crusade
     c) The Crusade against drunkenness
        (i)      Believed that this was the cause of most crimes and other bad doings.
        (ii)     Women were strongly for the temperance movement
             (1) It was a burden on women because men would go out and buy beer instead of
                 buying essentials for the family.
     d) More than enough whisky to buy especially in the west
        (i)      Farmers would grow too much grain and they would take the extra and turn it
             into whisky.
        (ii)     Many people drank because it was a past time.
     e) Many people began to join the temperance movement due to religious revival.
     f) Some people soon started to believe that they should also abolish beer and wine.
        (i)      Not every one agreed
B)   Health Fads and Phrenology
     a) A search for perfectionism lead to new health and knowledge theories.
     b) Municipalities established city health boards in order to determine solutions to
        problematic epidemics
     c) Phrenology
        (i)      A new fad that claimed characteristics could be determined by the shaped of a
             person’s head.
        (ii)     It was supposed to further develop the elite society
        (iii) In the 1830’s it was believed to have scientific value but now it is believed
             untrue.
C)   Medical Science
     a) Medical science seemed to lack other fields
        (i)      They needed human subjects
        (ii)     Uneducated people became doctors
        (iii) Lack of knowledge
        (iv)     Lack of scientific methods made hard for doctors to progress in treating
             disease
        (v)      Lack of knowledge of how diseases spread
     b) Great advancements came in the form of the small pox vaccination and sulphuric
        ether to relive his patients of pain.
D)   Reforming Education
     a) Interest in public education grew
     b) Horace Mann
        (i)      An educational reformer
        (ii)     Believed that education was the only way to protect democracy.
        (iii) Created new methods to train teachers
        (iv)     Established the first teachers college
     c) Henry Barnard
        (i)      Helped produce a new educational system which appropriating state funds of
             universal education
     d) Some teachers were barely literate
     e) Blacks not allowed to go to school
           f) Indians were allowed an education too
              (i)      Some people believed that they could be tough the white ways.
           g) US had one of the highest literacy rates by the start of the Civil War.
           h) Children were to teach themselves more than teachers.
           i) Blind schools started to pop up too.
      E)   Rehabilitation
           a) The asylum movement
              (i)      They used to hold criminals and mentally handicapped people.
              (ii)     Everybody was put together no matter what the crime or reason was
              (iii) Some jails were even big holes in the ground
           b) Dorothea Dix
              (i)      Started a national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill.
           c) Soon public hangings and the imprisonment of debtors disappeared.
           d) New forms of prison were designed to have inmates meditate on their wrong doings.
      F)   The Indian Reservation
           a) Reservation
              (i)      It was a region that was enclosed so whites could not get in and disrupt the
                   Native American life.
           b) Whites moved Indians out of good land so they could make money off it.
      G)   The Rise of Feminism
           a) In the 1830’s and 1840’s women were still looked down upon but stuff was added to
              hinder their priorities
              (i)      They were expected to take care of the house and the kids.
           b) Sarah and Angelina Grimke
              (i)      They were big abolitionists despite men telling them that they were not being
                   like ladies.
              (ii)     They argued that men and women were created equal.
           c) Seneca Falls
              (i)      A convention that women put on that supported their rights to equality.
                   (1) They wrote a Declaration of Sentiments
                       (A) Stated that all men and women were created equal.
                       (B) They really wanted the right to vote.
                       (C) Declaration was shot down by all men
                           a. The men believed that both men and women should be assigned
                                different spheres in society.
           d) Most feminist were Quakers
              (i)      Quakers believed sexual equality.
           e) Antoinette Brown Blackwell
              (i)      She was the first ordained woman minister.
           f) Women began to defy their clothes
              (i)      Wore bloomers
                   (1) Gave them freedom of movement without loss of modesty.
                   (2) Feminist soon stopped wearing them because it was drawing to much
                       attention away from their cause.
VI)        The Crusade Against Slavery.
      A)   Early Opposition to slavery.
     a) The American Colonization Society.
        (i)      Wanted to challenge slavery without challenging property rights
        (ii)     ACS got fundings from private owners and some Congressmen.
        (iii) They got a group of African Americans sent out of America to the west coast
             of Africa and they were later established into the nation of Liberia.
B)   Garrison and Abolitionism
     a) William Lloyd Garrison
        (i)      Was an assistant to Benjamin Lundy, a Quaker, who published the leading
             anti slavery newspaper
        (ii)      He then went on his own and published the Liberator.
        (iii) Founder of the New England Antislavery Society in 1832
             (1) The society grew very large
C)   Black Abolitionists
     a) Free blacks of the North agreed with abolitionism
     b) Northern slaves experienced a lot of stuff
        (i)      More prejudices than those of the south
        (ii)     Little sources of education
        (iii) Victims of mob violence
        (iv)     Barred form all professions except very menial ones.
     c) Northerners proud of freedom.
     d) Fredrick Douglas was greatest abolitionist of all
        (i)      Born a slave and escaped and later traveled to Europe where he lectured for 2
             years
        (ii)     Came back to Maryland and bought his freedom and started an anti slavery
             news paper
        (iii) Became famous for his autobiography
        (iv)     Wanted blacks to gain freedom and full social and economical freedom as
             well
        (v)      Lead black abolitionists to become more influential
D)   Anti Abolitionism
     a) Provoked an opposition
        (i)      Created fear amongst whites in terms of social order
        (ii)     Elijah Lovejoy
             (1) Editor of an abolitionist news paper
             (2) Victim of mob violence
             (3) Was assaulted three times by the mob and they destroyed his print press
             (4) The fourth time he was shot and killed.
     b) Abolitionist very strong willed and determined while their counterparts represented
        many beliefs of white Americans of the day.
E)   Abolitionism Divided
     a) Garrison wants women to officially participate in the anti slavery movement.
     b) Garrison also wants to expel the salve states from the union
     c) People would tell slave holders that they were being sinful
     d) The Amistad Case
        (i)      Africans destined for slavery seized the ship and headed back to Africa but the
             US Navy took the ship and held the Africans as pirates.
   (ii)     The Supreme Court ruled the Africans free.
e) John Brown
   (i)       An abolitionist who started riots and was killed
f) Harriet Beecher Stowe
   (i)      Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin
        (1) It was an anti slavery book.
        (2) It sold over 300,000 copies.
                                   QUESTION RESPONSES

Guided Question #1

Thesis: Between 1820 and 1860, American reform movements reflected both optimistic and
pessimistic views of human nature and society through temperance, women’s rights, and utopian
experiments.
1. Temperance
        A. Optimistic
                1. Americans wanted to ban alcohol because it was hurting family life.
                2. Men were spending valuable family money on their drinking and paying less
attention to their home life.
                3. Their drinking habit was causing men to become abusive to their wives and
children
        B. Pessimistic
                1. There was an excess of grain, therefore, Americans were wasting it
                2. Pubs and saloons had become a place of leisure for farmers, the farmers no
longer had a place to gather with others and relax
                3. Businesses that sold alcohol had to shut down and therefore it was damaging to
the economy
2. Women’s rights
                A. Optimistic
                1. Women at the Seneca Falls convention declared that men and women were
created equal
                2. Women began emerging as physicians, ministers, community leaders, and
more.
                3. They were becoming defined and no longer had to depend on males as much as
they previously had to.
        B. Pessimistic
                1. Women were fighting for their rights and it was dividing families.
                2. Men were looking down on women and felt that they were out of line.
                3. Males continued to place more restrictions on women, hoping that it would
cause them to cease
3. Utopian experiments
        A. Optimistic
                1. People were gathering together to form communities that were equal for
everyone
                2. They tried to bridge the gap between intellect and learning by sharing the labor
        3. All the experiments had good intentions
                         i. Brook Farm and New Harmony
        B. Pessimistic
                1. It ruined many people’s mental stability
                2. They communities could not thrive economically
                3. It oppressed the people by limiting them to only certain things that they were
allowed to do and participate in
Guided Question #2

Thesis: The early 19th century reform movements portrayed the strengths and weaknesses in
American democracy. These reform movements included pushes for the abolition of slavery, and
women’s rights.

       I. Women’s Rights during this time period went through their ups and downs.
             A. It started in the movement for the “Utopian” society.
                      a. The Brook Farm, Oneida, New Harmony, and The Shakers were
                      examples of redefining the gender roles in American society.
                              i. These communities failed due to poor planning, and lack of
                              interest of the American people.
                              ii. These societies started an idea of women’s rights and what
                              women could receive from equal rights.
                              iii. It started ideas for other women’s rights societies.
             B. The Temperance movement made way for women’s rights as well.
                      a. Against alcoholism
                      b. Made way for feminism (women bonded together)
                      c. Started the Seneca Falls Convention
                              i. Signed Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (stated
                              women created equal)
             C. Shows strength in democracy that women could come together to fight what
             they believed in even though they only started the women’s rights movement.
             Weakness is that they did not accomplish anything concrete yet.

       2. The fight for the abolition of slavery at this time strengthened with time.
               A. American Colonization Society was founded to relocate slaves to Africa.

                      a. Slaves generations removed from Africa did not work.
              B. William Lloyd Garrison started anti-slavery newspaper Liberator.
                      a. Started idea in abolitionism.
                      b. Founded American Anti-slavery Society.
              C. Frederick Douglass an escaped slave put sentiment in the minds of all blacks
              that their race should be equal.
              D. Abolitionists divided in modernists, extremists.
                      a. Modernists did it for political, economic gain
                      b. Extremists did it for moral reasons.
              E. Showed the strength in democracy that the abolition movement could get
              started and idea could get out in society. Weakness in democracy is that when the
              movement was attacked the government did nothing about it.
                                      Supporting Info
                                      The Temperance Crusade
                                      American society for promotion of temperance
                                      Cultural divisions over alcohol
The Rise of Feminism
Reform movements and the rise of feminism
Seneca Falls
Limited progress for women
Visions of Utopia
Brook Farm
New Harmony




Guided Question #3

Thesis:
        During the time period of the 1840’s through the
1890’s women were still looked down upon in society.
Women were expected to stay home and tend to household
needs and the children while the man of the house went out
and worked to support the entire family. However, between
the 1840’s and the 1890’s, women began to slowly
challenge their role in society. Women’s’ activities in the,
social, economic, political, and intellectual spheres
effectively challenged the role that society had given them.



V)         Socially
      A)   Women began wearing bloomers and other non-
           traditional clothes.
      B)   Different publications were written for women
      C)   In new religions, women were looked at as equal
           counter parts.
           a) Women started to win new rights and positions
               in authority.
VI)        Economically
      A)   Women started to work in the Lowell Mills
           a) The upper class women who didn’t work looked
               down upon the workingwomen.
           b) They worked to gain money for their families.
               (i)     Families depended on them for income.
      B)   Created new communities where women could
           learn how to become ladies and to be good wives.
           a) They also gained money too.
VII)       Politically
   A)      Abolitionists groups started to become present
        a) Women started these groups
        b) They formed the abolitionist groups to help the
            African slaves gain their rights, which would
            allow the possibility for women to get the same.
  B)    Seneca Falls.
        a) A group of women wanted to attend an anti-
            slavery convention but were turned away for
            being women.
        b) They held their own convention in Seneca Falls,
            New York to talk about women’s status.
            (i)      They wrote a declaration of Sentiments
                (1) Stated that all men and women were
                     equal
                (2) They really wanted the right to vote.
VIII)   Intellectual
   A)   Romance novels began to be written]
        a) They were written mainly for women.
  B)    Women would have gatherings and talk about the
        novel.
Supporting info
Reform in education
Rise in feminism
Redefined gender roles
Seneca Falls
Reform movement as the rise of feminism
Medical science
Health fads and phrenology

				
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