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Exploring social flood impacts

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					                                  KATHOLIEKE
                                 UNIVERSITEIT
                                      LEUVEN




Exploring social flood impacts
Delphi study results




Ingrid Coninx
Kris Bachus



Adapt - Belspo




May 2009




                                 Hoger instituut
                                 voor de arbeid
                                                      ii




CONTENTS




Introduction                                           1


Chapter 1 / The Adapt project                          2

1. Research objective                                  2

2. Study areas                                        3

3. Research team                                      3


Chapter 2 / The Delphi method                          4

1. The usefulness of the Delphi method                 4

2. Pros and cons                                      4

3. Exploring social flood impacts: the Delphi study   5
   3.1 Prevailing knowledge gaps in the SFI-tool      5
   3.2 Expert selection                               5
   3.3 Schedule and response                          5
   3.4 Contributing participants                      6


Chapter 3 / Social flood impacts unraveled             7

1. Flood characteristics                               7

2. Severity of social flood impacts                   10

3. Vulnerability of the individual                    10

4. Adaptive capacity of the society                   11

5. Driving forces                                     12
Contents                                     iii




Annexes                                      13

Annex 1 / Survey and answers: first round    14

Annex 2 / Survey and answers: second round   25

Annex 3 / List of definitions                37
                                                                                     1




INTRODUCTION




Evaluation of measures to adapt to climate change impacts is the aim of the Adapt
project, financed by the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). River floodings are the
case study of this research project. One of the research objectives is to estimate
flood impacts. Although most evaluation tools (cost-benefit analysis or multi-crite-
ria tools) focus on the material impacts of floods, the Adapt project also considers
ecological and social impacts.
   The research group Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development of
HIVA-K.U.Leuven participates in the project with the analysis of social flood
impacts and is developing a methodology to estimate the intensity of social flood
impacts by the social flood impact tool (SFI-tool) at the local scale. The social flood
impact tool relies on empirical research carried out in West-European countries.
However, several knowledge gaps remain. This Delphi study is organised to
bridge the gaps.
   The first chapter of the report briefly introduces the Adapt project. Subse-
quently, the Delphi method is explored, as well as the advantages and the disad-
vantages. In chapter three, the results of the Delphi study are elaborated. The
annexes reproduce the answers of the experts so as they are of value in the further
development of social flood impact methodologies.
                                                                                  2




CHAPTER 1
THE ADAPT PROJECT




1. Research objective
The Adapt project is a four-year project financed by the Belgian Science Policy.
The project aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to assist decision makers in their
choice between technical and non-technical adaptation measures to climate
change. River flooding is the case study of the project.

The analysis of adaptation measures related to flooding is based on the following
research objectives:
– evaluation of the impact of global change induced flooding on river basins;
– evaluation of secondary impacts of global changed induced flooding on
   vulnerable sectors in river basins;
– determination of adaptation measures;
– evaluation of the costs of adaptation measures;
– multi-criteria analysis.




Figure 1.1   The Adapt project: objectives and workpackages
The Adapt project                                                                   3




2. Study areas
Two areas in Belgium are selected to develop and to test the multi-criteria tool.
– Scheldt catchment: river Dender near Geraardsbergen and Ninove;
– Meuse catchment: river Ourthe near Esneux.

Both areas have experienced severe river flooding during the past 15 years, mainly
due to long periods of rainfall.


3. Research team
The research team in the Adapt project includes five research partners from vari-
ous disciplines:
– Applied Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Constructions - Université de Liège
   (HACH-ULg) is in charge of the hydraulic aspects;
– Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment - Université Libre
   de Bruxelles (CEESE-ULB) is in charge of the economic aspects;
– HIVA-Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (HIVA-K.U.Leuven) is in charge of the
   social aspects;
– Ecosystem Management Research Group – Universiteit Antwerpen (ECOBE-
   UA) is in charge of the ecological aspects;
– Arcadis Belgium is in charge of the integration of the various disciplines.

More information and publications on the research project can be found on the
website: http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese/ADAPT/Home.html.
                                                                                                     4




CHAPTER 2
THE DELPHI METHOD




1. The usefulness of the Delphi method
The Delphi method was developed by Helmer and Dalkey (1966). It intends to
facilitate consensus between experts on current knowledge gaps. The method
consists of a written survey which is sent to geographically spread experts. Each
respondent is able to answer anonymously. In contrast to the quantitative survey,
the Delphi method does not aim for a representative sample of respondents. They
are selected based on their specific knowledge about the inquired topic.


2. Pros and cons
The Delphi method is a relatively cheap and time-efficient method (in comparison
to extensive quantitative studies) that enables to assemble the opinions of experts
who are geographically spread. The survey enables anonymity during the Delphi
process and can be completed at moments respondents prefer. Under the circum-
stances of the limited budget of the Adapt project to analyse social flood impacts
and of the limited number of Belgian experts in social flood impacts this Delphi
study was considered to be the most preferred research method to bridge the
existing knowledge gaps.
   However, the Delphi method is criticized due to the difficulties to check the
method’s accuracy and reliability. In addition, the topic is a rather uncertain and
complex issue, which might be difficult to respond by the participants. Those
objections are met by the careful selection of experts and by accurate questions
meeting the knowledge gaps. In our Delphi study, we have developed a list of
definitions to improve the understanding of the different concepts. Another draw-
back is the drop-out of respondents between the various rounds. However, the
drop-out was small in this study.1


1   We consider the usefulness and objections of the Delphi method and limit the application of
    the study results in the SFI-tool till empirical findings are available to give in to the knowledge
    gaps.
The Delphi method                                                                  5




3. Exploring social flood impacts: the Delphi study
The SFI-tool aims to estimate and quantify the intensity of social flood impacts at
the microscale level. The underlying theory argues that social flood impact
experience is a function of the intensity of flood characteristics, the personal
characteristics that make individuals more or less vulnerable and the capacity of
these individuals and society to limit the vulnerability of the individuals. The
research considers:
– flood characteristics (e.g. water depth, speed of water rise, velocity, flood dura-
   tion, pollution of and debris in the water, frequency of flooding and time of the
   flooding);
– the vulnerability of individuals, due to personal characteristics (vulnerable
   population groups: elderly, ill people, single parents, foreign born people,
   because they do not know or are not able to respond to flooding);
– adaptive capacity of the individuals and society, which refers to measures im-
   plemented by government or organized by society to resist to flood impacts,
   (e.g. forecasting and warning instruments, psycho-social support of flood vic-
   tims, private insurances, government financial support, …).

3.1 Prevailing knowledge gaps in the SFI-tool

– What social flood impacts are experienced at limited flood characteristics? (low
  water level, slow velocity, slow water rise) In other words, which social flood
  impacts will be experienced in case of limited flooding?
– Which population groups are most vulnerable?
– Which non-structural measures contribute to adaptive capacity to floods?
– To what extent do the driving forces (flood characteristics, vulnerability of the
  individuals and adaptive capacity of the society) affect social flood impacts
  occurrence?

3.2 Expert selection

About thirty experts were selected to participate in the Delphi study. The selection
criteria are:
– researchers in the field of flood impacts in general, social flood impacts,
    vulnerability and adaptive capacity related to developed countries, most of
    them have examined floods in Western Europe;
– researchers in the field of floods or natural hazards;
– quantitative and qualitative-oriented researchers.

3.3 Schedule and response

The Delphi survey was developed and tested within the research team of the
Adapt project at the end of March. The study consisted of two rounds. The first
The Delphi method                                                                             6




survey (Annex 1) could be completed during April 6th 2009 and April 22nd 2009.
Three experts answered by returning the survey. A reminder was sent to decrease
non-response. Three other experts have replied by the completed survey. Two ex-
perts have contributed by considerations on the complexity to estimate social
flood impacts.

The non-response can be explained by:
– bad timing of the survey: Easter holiday;
– too complex issue;
– time restrictions of the respondents (e.g. abroad, deadlines, teaching activi-
   ties, …);
– perception of ambiguity of the questions;
– perception of the impossibility to answer the questions.

The second survey (Annex 2) was based on the findings of the first round and was
sent to the experts from May 4th till May 20th. The survey was compiled in a way
that experts who did not participate to the first round were still encouraged to
participate in the second round. At request of some respondents, a list of defini-
tions was developed to clarify the concepts in the survey (Annex 3). Six experts
have returned the survey in the second round, including two new respondents.
Two respondents dropped out due to time restrictions.

3.4 Contributing participants


Table 2.1

 Colin Green        Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University
 Laurens Bouwer     Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
 Rebecca Sims       Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University
 Ilan Kelman        Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research, University
                    of Oslo
 Paul Hendy         Scottish Flood Forum
 Alan Werritty      School of Social and Environmental Sciences, University of Dundee
 Maureen Fordham    Divisions of Geography and Environmental Management, University of
                    Northumbria
 Mona Grinwis       Department of Economics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
                                                                                    7




CHAPTER 3
SOCIAL FLOOD IMPACTS UNRAVELED




1. Flood characteristics
The first objective in the Delphi study was to understand which social flood im-
pacts would occur in case of limited flood characteristics, e.g. low water levels,
slow water rise, low velocity. Table 3.1 presents the expert opinions.

There was no agreement on all social flood impact occurrences. Firstly, almost all
experts have argued that death is unlikely to occur at low water levels, slow water
rise or low velocity. However, one expert states that people are creative in dying in
floods and many flood characteristics lead to casualties. Secondly, the experts
think that physical health impact may occur at various water levels, water rise
rates and velocities. They argue that physical health is merely affected by:
– mental lead/pollution of the water;
– risky behaviour of the people;
– stress and mental health impacts;
– the time needed to repair the property.

Furthermore, there is no consensus on the occurrence of social impoverishment as
a result of low water levels, slow water rise rate and low velocity, since it might be
affected by:
– the number of damaged properties;
– the vulnerability of the community before flooding.
Table 3.1    Expert opinions on the occurrence of social flood impacts in relation to flood characteristics




                                                                                                                                                                    Social flood impacts unraveled
                        Unlikely to occur         Fairly likely to occur                   Very likely to occur                No clear consensus
                                                                                                                               - Deterioration of mental health
 Low water levels       Death                     - Distrust regarding government          - Stress, worry and discomfort
                                                                                                                               - Financial disruption of the
 (<30 cm)                                         - Material impoverishment                - Loss of irreplaceable items
                                                                                                                               households
                                                  - Lack in meeting basic needs            - Living in temporary
                                                                                                                               - Change in risk perception
                                                                                             accommodation
                                                                                                                               - Forced evacuation
                                                                                           - Dealing with insurers
                                                                                                                               - Loss of house value
                                                                                           - Dealing with builders
                                                                                                                               - Social impoverishment
                                                                                           - Disruption of time spending and
                                                                                                                               - Voluntary relocation
                                                                                             recreational opportunities
                                                                                                                               - Deterioration of physical health
                                                                                           - Change in personal relations
                                                                                                                               impact

 Slow water rise rate   Death                     - Stress, sorry and discomfort           - Dealing with insurers             - Deterioration of mental health
                        Loss of irreplaceable     - Social impoverishment                  - Dealing with builders             - Financial disruption of the
                        items                     - Material impoverishment                - Disruption of time spending and   households
                                                  - Change in risk perception                recreational opportunities        - Deterioration of physical health
                                                  - Distrust regarding government                                              - Forced evacuation
                                                  - Loss of house value                                                        - Lack in meeting basic needs
                                                  - Change in personal relations
                                                  - Living in temporary accommodation
                                                  - Voluntary relocation


 Low velocity           Death                     - Deterioration of mental health         - Dealing with insurers             - Deterioration of physical health
                                                  - Loss of irreplaceable items            - Dealing with builders             - Social impoverishment
                                                  - Material impoverishment                                                    - Stress, worry and discomfort
                                                  - Change in risk perception                                                  - Financial disruption of the
                                                  - Distrust regarding the government                                          households
                                                  - Forced evacuation                                                          - Loss of house value
                                                  - Voluntary relocation                                                       - Disruption in time spending
                                                  - Lack in meeting basic needs                                                - Change in personal relations
                                                  - Living in temporary accommodation




                                                                                                                                                                    8
Social flood impacts unraveled                                                                   9




It is argued that even low water levels and slow water rise rate may cause societal
disruption. In addition, some communities may be more cohesive after flooding,
while others are disintegrated.
   Thirdly, voluntary relocation may occur at low water levels since properties
may be uninhabitable immediately after flooding and in case alternative accom-
modation is available.
   Fourthly, forced evacuation is stated to occur at slow water rise rate as well,
since the damage can still be large so that forced evacuation is required.
   In addition, even in case of slow water rise, basic needs may be difficult to meet,
since a small amount of flood damage may make living in one’s house irritating
and may result in a rush for cleaning products and rented accommodation.
   And finally, the loss of irreplaceable items may occur in case of limited flooding,
since it mainly depends on whether the respondents are in the property at the time
of flooding and whether they are able to move the irreplaceable items.
   According to the experts, other flood characteristics that trigger social flood im-
pacts are load including sediment and pollutants/contaminated water. Those are
expected to cause mental stress, physical health probels, financial burden, loss of
irreplaceable items.  

Expert remarks on the importance of flood characteristics
Comments were asked on the following statement:

  Social flood impacts are mainly influenced by the water level and to a smaller extent by the
  water rise rate and the velocity. Other flood characteristics like duration and frequency of
  flooding do not correlate with social flood impacts.

Except for one respondent, all respondents disagree with this statement. Two
respondents have replied by rejecting the statement that flood characteristics like
water level, water rise rate and velocity mainly influence social flood impacts. An
expert remarks that social flood impacts are not affected by the different flood
characteristics as such, but are the consequence of being flooded in general. Sev-
eral times (also by experts that have not returned the survey) experts have indi-
cated that the type and severity of social flood impacts that will occur after flood-
ing, depend on the social context. One respondent argues that vulnerability
characteristics mainly influence social flood impacts, while another respondent
writes that it is mainly the way the recovery process is managed that affects social
flood impacts. One respondent argues that it is in particular water rise speed and
velocity that determine to a major extent the injuries, death, loss of life and
damage, as well as need of voluntary and forced evacuation. Another expert poses
that duration and frequency affect stress levels and greater frequency impact on
people’s willingness to act on warning as well as on people’s trust in authorities.
The fifth respondent is not confident about the evidence that duration and fre-
quency are associated with a higher degree of adaptation.
Social flood impacts unraveled                                                               10




2. Severity of social flood impacts
Social flood impacts are experienced in different ways. The second objective was
to clarify which social flood impacts are ‘in general’ experienced as most and least
severe impacts. Some experts warn that the perception of severity may be different
in different communities. Table 3.2 was developed based on the average responses
of the experts, which seem to match with findings from existing empirical studies.
Most experts agree with the ranking order of the social flood impacts. Financial
disruption should be higher in the ranking according to one expert. Other remarks
were that loss of house value is ranked too high and the evidence of a long term
effect is weak.


Table 3.2   Ranking of social flood impacts according to severity

 Average score                      Social flood impact
 (1=not severe to 5=very severe)

 4.8                                Loss of irreplaceable items
 4.6                                Stress, worry and discomfort
 4                                  Change in risk perception
 4                                  Deterioration of mental health
 4                                  Loss of house value
 3.8                                Dealing with builders
 3.8                                Dealing with insurers
 3.8                                Forced evacuation
 3.8                                Living in temporary accommodation
 3.6                                Disruption of time spending and recreational opportunities
 3.6                                Distrust regarding government
 3.4                                Change in personal relations
 3.4                                Financial disruption of the households
 3                                  Voluntary relocation
 2.4                                Material impoverishment of the neighbourhood
 2.2                                Lack in meeting basic needs
 2                                  Deterioration of physical health
 2                                  Social impoverishment of the society




3. Vulnerability of the individual
The third objective was to understand the interrelationship between vulnerable
population groups. Experts were asked to rate the vulnerability of population
groups. The rating scores were transformed into weights which can be used in
vulnerability indices (see Table 3.3). No fundamental objections on the weights
were recorded.
Social flood impacts unraveled                                                                11




Table 3.3      Vulnerable populations: relative comparision

    Ill people                             0.169      Children                        0.127
    Elderly                                0.168      Single parents                  0.122
    People living in one-storey houses     0.155      Immigrants                      0.113
    Financially deprived people            0.144



One expert raised doubt about the linear effect of age on vulnerability in case
other aspects are taken into consideration. Another expert wonders if disability is
taken into account.2 In addition, it is argued that living in one-storey houses is a
different type of vulnerability, since this characteristic is related to the house.
However, we argue that people are living in the house. The dwelling affect the
way they experience social flood impacts (Green 2003). A third respondent
emphasizes the difficulty identifying vulnerability and which institution has the
responsibility to do this.


4. Adaptive capacity of the society
The fourth objective was to understand to what extent several non-technical
measures might contribute to adaptive capacity to flood impacts.

Small increase of adaptive capacity:
– joint floodplain planning with all relevant water managers;
– private insurances: remark is made that it might contribute more to adaptive
  capacity in case many people have bought private insurances and that insur-
  ances may exacerbate vulnerability by treating residents badly and by insisting
  that houses return to pre-flood conditions.

Moderate increase of adaptive capacity:
– private protection measures at household levels: one expert disagrees by argu-
  ing that private protection little increases adaptive capacity. It is costly, take-up
  might be slow and it depends on the household owner to be present and able
  to use the private protection measures;
– flood forecasting and warning: one respondent disagrees that flood forecasting
  moderately increase adaptive capacity since the three conditions of accurate
  warning, clear dissemination and appropriate taking up should be met to be
  effective;
– psycho-social support;
– continuous risk communication to increase risk awareness;
– government disaster relief fund.


2     Comment of authors: we define ill people as people who are hampered in daily activities due
      to chronic disease: see list of definitions.
Social flood impacts unraveled                                                                    12




Large increase of adaptive capacity:
– emergency plan and disaster management;
– increasing social cohesion: however, two experts disagree. They wonder how it
   can be generated and argue that it is difficult to build on purpose;
– joint floodplain planning with water managers, spatial planners, environ-
   mental officials and agricultural officials.

No majority was found regarding the following policy measures:
– flood-proof building (moderate or large increase);
– information dissemination between key players in flood risk management;
– ban on living in flood risk areas.


5. Driving forces
The last objective was to analyse the effect of the three driving forces on social
flood impacts: flood characteristics, vulnerability of the individuals and adaptive
capacity. The rates are converted into weights which are presented in Table 3.4.


Table 3.4   Driving forces of social flood impacts: relative importance to social flood impacts

 Driving force                                                  Weight

 Flood characteristics                                           0.264
 Vulnerability of the individuals                                0.351
 Adaptive capacity of the society                                0.384



In the first round, two types of belief are revealed. Some of the respondents ex-
plain that social flood impacts are mainly affected by flood characteristics and to a
lesser extent by the adaptive capacity, while others are convinced that in particular
the vulnerability of the people and the adaptive capacity of society influence social
flood impact experience.
   Three experts agree with those weights, while two experts tend to disagree. One
expert argues that social flood impacts are mainly triggered by flood characteris-
tics and adaptive capacity of the society. Another respondent answers that the
weights should vary according to the actual degree of vulnerability and adaptive
capacity in the case study.
          13




ANNEXES
                                                                                            14




Annex 1 / Survey and answers: first round

Delphi study: exploring social flood impacts

Research project

The Adapt project, a research project financed by the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO),
aims to develop an integrated multi-criteria methodology to assess the economic, ecologi-
cal and social impacts of floods and flood measures. The type of flooding that is the sub-
ject of this research is river flooding in developed countries  (Adapt website:
http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese/ADAPT/Home.html).


Research objective

One of the research objectives is to quantify social flood impacts. We can rely on an interest-
ing number of studies carried out by well-experienced researchers. However, there are
still a few knowledge gaps. This Delphi study aims to bring together expert opinions of
30 academics working in areas related to social flood impacts.


Which academics are contacted?

We are contacting 30 academics in the field of floods or disasters from UK, Germany, the
Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, USA and Japan.


Introduction to the survey

Several researchers have clarified that social flood impacts like physical and mental health
impacts, financial disruption and social impoverishment are a function of three factors:
– the flood characteristics (e.g. water depth, speed of water rise, velocity, flood duration,
   pollution of and debris in the water, frequency of flooding and time of the flooding);
– the vulnerability of the flood victims due to personal characteristics (e.g. vulnerable
   population groups: elderly, ill people, single parents, immigrants, …);
– the adaptive capacity of the society, which refers to measures implemented by govern-
   ment or organized by society to resist flood impacts (e.g. forecast and warning
   instruments, psycho-social support of flood victims, private insurances, governmental
   financial support, adapted spatial planning, flood-proof building).

In this Delphi study, the research team will investigate how these three driving forces
affect social flood impacts.
Annex 1                                                                                               15




Outline

The questionnaire includes 10 questions related to knowledge gaps in current research on
social flood impacts. Even if you consider some of the questions difficult to answer, we
would still like you to answer all of them.


Inquiries

In case of inquiries, please contact Ingrid Coninx by phone at +32 16 32 31 18 or by mail
ingrid.coninx@hiva.kuleuven.be.

Thank you very much for your cooperation!


1.   Flood characteristics

Question 1: Table A1.1 lists a number of social impacts that can be caused by flooding.
The possible impacts of floods with high water level are well-described in literature.
However, less is known about social flood impacts caused by low water levels.

Indicate with ‘X’ the likelihood of occurrence of the social flood impacts at low water
levels (<30 cm).


Table A1.1

                                                Unlikely at low    Fairly likely at     Very likely at
                                                 water levels     low water levels    low water levels

 Death                                                5                                      1
 Deterioration of physical health                     3                  2                   1
 Deterioration of mental health                                          3                   3
 Stress, worry and discomfort                                            2                   4
 Loss of irreplaceable items                          1                  1                   4
 Financial disruption of households                   2                  1              2 (1 x n/a)
 Social impoverishment of the society                 4                  2
 Material impoverishment of the neighbourhood         2                  4
 Change in risk perception                                               3                   3
 Distrust regarding government                        1                  3                   2
 Loss of house value                                                     3                   3
 Forced evacuation                                    2                  2                   2
 Voluntary relocation                                 3                  2                   1
 Lack in meeting basic needs                          2                  3                   1
 Living in temporary accommodation                    2                  1                   3
 Dealing with insurers                                1                  1                   4
 Dealing with builders                                1                  1                   4
 Disruption of time spending and recreational         1                  1                   4
  opportunities
 Change in personal relations                                            2                   4
Annex 1                                                                                              16




Do you have any remarks to add to question 1?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Question 2: Table A1.2 lists a number of social impacts that can be caused by flooding.
The possible impacts of floods with sudden water rise rates are well-described in litera-
ture. However, less is known about social flood impacts caused by slow water rise rates.

Indicate with ‘X’ the likelihood of occurrence of the social flood impacts at slow water
rise (means that people can be warned on time).


Table A1.2

                                        Unlikely at slow   Fairly likely at slow   Very likely at slow
                                        water rise rates     water rise rates       water rise rates

 Death                                         5                                           1
 Deterioration of physical health              4                    1                      1
 Deterioration of mental health                2                    2                  1 (1xn/a)
 Stress, worry and discomfort                                       4                      2
 Loss of irreplaceable items                   3                    2                   (1xn/a)
 Financial disruption of households            2                    2                      2
 Social impoverishment of the society          3                    3
 Material impoverishment of the                2                    4
  neighbourhood
 Change in risk perception                                          5                      1
 Distrust regarding government                 2                    4
 Loss of house value                                                4                      2
 Forced evacuation                             3                    2                      1
 Voluntary relocation                          2                    3                      1
 Lack in meeting basic needs                   3                    2                      1
 Living in temporary accommodation             1                    3                      2
 Dealing with insurers                                              2                      4
 Dealing with builders                                              2                      4
 Disruption of time spending and                                    2                      4
  recreational opportunities
 Change in personal relations                                       4                      2




Do you have any remarks to add to question 2?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Question 3: Table A1.3 lists a number of social impacts that can be caused by flooding.
The possible impacts of floods with high velocity are well-described in literature. How-
ever, less is known about social flood impacts caused by low velocity.

Indicate with ‘X’ the likelihood of occurrence of the social flood impacts at low velocity
(<2 m/s).
Annex 1                                                                                                   17



Table A1.3

                                                Unlikely at low        Fairly likely at   Very likely at low
                                                   velocity             low velocity          velocity

 Death                                                 5                                          1
 Deterioration of physical health                      4                      1                   1
 Deterioration of mental health                        1                      3               1 (1xn/a)
 Stress, worry and discomfort                                                 3                   3
 Loss of irreplaceable items                                                  3               2 (1xn/a)
 Financial disruption of the households                2                      2                   2
 Social impoverishment of the society                  4                      2
 Material impoverishment of the                        2                      4
  neighbourhood
 Change in risk perception                                                    4                   2
 Distrust regarding government                         1                      3                   2
 Loss of house value                                                          3                   3
 Forced evacuation                                     2                      3                   1
 Voluntary relocation                                  1                      3                   2
 Lack in meeting basic needs                           2                      3                   1
 Living in temporary accommodation                     1                      3                   2
 Dealing with insurers                                 1                      1                   4
 Dealing with builders                                 1                      1                   4
 Disruption of time spending and recreational                                 3                   3
  opportunities
 Change in personal relations                                                 3                   3




Do you have any remarks to add to question 3?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Question 4: Do you know any other flood characteristics that trigger social flood im-
pacts? Which are these flood characteristics and which social flood impacts do they cause?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Question 5: Do you agree or disagree with the next statement:

Social flood impacts are mainly influenced by the water level and to a smaller extent by
the water rise rate and the velocity. Other flood characteristics like duration and fre-
quency of flooding do not correlate with social flood impacts.

 I Agree                                        I disagree

                                                All experts disagree




Why do you (dis)agree?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
Annex 1                                                                                  18




2.   Severity of social flood impacts

Question 6: Table A1.4 lists a number of social impacts that can be experienced during
and after flooding. Apart from the vulnerability of the individual and the adaptive capac-
ity of the society.

Indicate with X the severity of the social flood impacts. (One respondent did not
answer this question)


Table A1.4

                                        Not severe       Fairly severe         Very severe
                                            1        2         3         4          5

 Deterioration of physical health           1        3        1
 Deterioration of mental health                               1          3          1
 Stress, worry and discomfort                                            2          3
 Loss of irreplaceable items                                             1          4
 Financial disruption of the                         1        1          3
  households
 Social impoverishment of the society       1        3        1
 Material impoverishment of the             1        2        1          1
  neighbourhood
 Change in risk perception                                    2          1          2
 Distrust regarding government                       1        1          2          1
 Loss of house value                                 1                   2          2
 Forced evacuation                                   1        1          1          2
 Voluntary relocation                                2        1          2
 Lack in meeting basic needs                2        1        1          1
 Living in temporary accommodation                            3                     2
 Dealing with insurers                               1        1          1          2
 Dealing with builders                               1        1          1          2
 Disruption of time spending and                     2                   1          2
  recreational opportunities
 Change in personal relations               1        1                   1          2




Do you have any remarks to add to question 6?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________


3.   Vulnerability of the individual

Vulnerability of the individual refers in this research to the degree to which an individual
or group of individuals is unable to cope with the effects of flooding due to social, eco-
nomic, political and cultural characteristics of the individuals.

Question 7: Some population groups are more vulnerable than others, leaving them with
more difficulties to cope with the effects of flooding.
Annex 1                                                                              19




Indicate with ‘X’ which population group you consider as resilient, fairly vulnerable or
very vulnerable to the effects of flooding.
Table A1.5




                                                                                                                 Annex 1
                                      Resilient                                                       Very
                                         1        2   3    4      5      6      7      8      9     vulnerable
                                                                                                        10

 Elderly                                                         Exp2                 Exp1   Exp4     Exp3
                                                                                      Exp6            Exp5
 Children                                                 Exp6   Exp2          Exp4   Exp1   Exp5
                                                                 Exp3
 Immigrants                                                      Exp1          Exp4                 n/a Exp 2
                                                                 Exp3          Exp5
                                                                 Exp6
 Ill people                                                                    Exp4   Exp1   Exp2     Exp3
                                                                               Exp5   Exp6
 People living in one-storey houses                              Exp1          Exp6          Exp2     Exp3
                                                                 Exp5                        Exp4
 Single parents                                                  Exp3   Exp2   Exp4   Exp1
                                                                 Exp5
                                                                 Exp6
 Financially deprived people                                     Exp3   Exp2          Exp5   Exp4     Exp1
                                                                 Exp6




                                                                                                                 20
Annex 1                                                                                21




Do you have any remarks to add to question 7?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________


4.   Adaptive capacity of the society

Question 8: The adaptive capacity of the society can be increased by several technical and
non-technical measures, so that the flood impact will be reduced.

Indicate with ‘X’ the degree that these measures increase adaptive capacity of individu-
als/households/society with regard to flood impacts.
Table A1.6




                                                                                                                                                                Annex 1
                                                     No increase of adaptive   Small increase of   Moderate increase of adaptive   Large increase of adaptive
                                                            capacity           adaptive capacity             capacity                       capacity
                                                                0                      1                        2                              3

 Flood-proof buildings                                                                                          3                              3
 Emergency plan and disaster management                                                                         2                              4
 Private protection measures at household level                                       1                         4                              1
 Flood forecasting and warning                                                                                  4                              2
 Psycho-social support during and after flooding                                      1                         3                              2
 Continuous risk communication to increase risk                                                                 4                              2
   awareness
 Increasing social cohesion                                                           1                         1                          3 (1xn/a)
 Private insurance                                                                    3                         2                           (1xn/a)
 Governmental disaster relief fund                             1                                                4                              1
 Information dissemination between key players                                        2                         2                              2
   in flood risk management
 Joint floodplain planning with all relevant water                                    3                         2                              1
   managers
 Joint floodplain planning with water managers,                                       1                         2                              3
   spatial planners, environmental officials and
   agriculture officials
 Ban on living in flood risk areas                             1                                                2                          2 (1xn/a)




                                                                                                                                                                22
Annex 1                                                                                                        23




Do you have any remarks to add to question 8?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________


5.    Driving forces

Question 9: Social flood impacts are a function of flood characteristics, vulnerability of the
individuals and adaptive capacity of the society.

Indicate with ‘X’ how you estimate the effect of these driving forces on the social flood
impacts.


Table A1.7

                       Small                                                                              Large
                       effect                                                                             effect
                         1           2        3    4       5        6          7           8       9        10

 Flood                           Exp1       Exp4       Exp6                                                Exp2
  characteristics                           Exp5                                                           Exp3
 Vulnerability of                Exp2                                         Exp5     Exp3                Exp1
  the individuals                                                                      Exp4
                                                                                       Exp6
 Adaptive capacity                                                 Exp2       Exp5     Exp1                Exp3
  of the society                                                                       Exp4
                                                                                       Exp6




6.    Your expertise

Question 10: Please rate your expertise.


Table A1.8

                                         Limited                                                       Extensive
                                            1      2   3       4    5     6        7   8       9          10

 Expertise on flood events
 Expertise on social flood impacts
 Expertise on vulnerability
 Expertise on adaptive capacity




Do you have any remarks to add to question 10?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
Annex 1                                                                            24




The findings are reported anonymously. May we mention your name in the general list of
participants?

 Yes, you may mention my name          No, I prefer not to be mentioned by name
                                                                                           25




Annex 2 / Survey and answers: second round

Delphi study 2nd round: exploring social flood impacts

This Delphi study is organized in order to reach consensus among experts about several
knowledge gaps related to social flood impacts. The first round of the Delphi study has
been carried out from April 6-22. The questionnaire was sent to 30 experts in the fields of
flood impacts, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Six experts have answered by return-
ing the questionnaire. Two experts have contributed by considerations on the complexity
of social flood impacts.

The 2nd round of the Delphi study includes the reflection on the results of the 1st round.
This second questionnaire is compiled in a way that experts who did not contribute to the
first round due to time restrictions are still encouraged to participate in the Delphi study.
The questionnaire includes 7 questions which are highlighted in grey.

To meet the request of clarification of the concepts, definitions are listed in the attached
document.
   A general remark of the participants is the difficulty to deal with the complexity of so-
cial flood impacts by answering questions that aim to simplify social flood impacts. The
context matters. We recognize this as a problem inherent to social flood impact research.
However, we try to reveal some general relations on social flood impacts and their driv-
ing forces.


1.    Flood characteristics

The results report the opinion of the majority of the respondents.


1.1    Social flood impacts triggered by low water levels (<30 cm)

It is demonstrated that the majority of the respondents expect that death, deterioration of
physical health, social impoverishment of society and voluntary relocation are ‘unlikely’
to be experienced with low water level floods. Distrust regarding the government, mate-
rial impoverishment of the neighbourhood and lack of meeting basic needs are ‘fairly
likely’ to be experienced at low water levels. Many impacts are ‘very likely’ to be expected
at low water levels, like stress and discomfort, loss of irreplaceable items, living in tempo-
rary accommodation, dealing with builders and insurers, disruption of time spending and
change in personal relation.
Annex 2                                                                               26




No clear majority was found regarding the likelihood of occurrence of the following flood
impacts at low water levels:
1. deterioration of mental health;
2. financial disruption of the households;
3. change in risk perception;
4. forced evacuation;
5. loss of house value.

Question 1: Indicate whether you agree or disagree with these statements. If you disagree
or tend to disagree, please explain why.
Table A2.1




                                                                                                                                                 Annex 2
                                                            I disagree   I tend to     I neither    I tend to   I agree   Why do you disagree
                                                                         disagree    disagree nor     agree               or tend to disagree?
                                                                                         agree

 Impacts unlikely to occur at low water levels are …
 Death                                                          1                                      1          4
 Deterioration of physical health                               1           2                          1          2
 Social impoverishment of the society                           1           1             1                       3
 Voluntary relocation                                           3                                      1          2
 Impacts fairly likely to occur at low water levels are …
 Distrust regarding government                                              1                                     5
 Material impoverishment of the neighbourhood                                             1            1          4
 Lack in meeting basic needs                                                                           1          5
 Impacts very likely to occur at low water levels are …
 Stress, worry and discomfort                                                                                     6
 Loss of irreplaceable items                                                                                      6
 Living in temporary accommodation                                                                                6
 Dealing with insurers                                                                                            6
 Dealing with builders                                                                                            6
 Disruption of time spending and recreational                                                                     6
  opportunities
 Change in personal relations                                                                                     6




                                                                                                                                                 27
Annex 2                                                                                  28




1.2    Social flood impacts triggered by slow water rise

A majority of respondents have argued that death, deterioration of physical health, forced
evacuation, lack in meeting basic needs and loss of irreplaceable items are ‘unlikely’ to be
experienced in case of slow water rise. Stress and worry, social impoverishment of the
society, material impoverishment of the neighbourhood, change in risk perception, dis-
trust regarding government, loss of house value, change in personal relations, living in
temporary accommodation and voluntary relocation are ‘fairly likely’ to be expected with
slow water rise. Dealing with insurers and builders and disruption of time spending are
‘very likely’ to be expected at slow water rise.

No majority was found regarding the likelihood of experience of the following flood im-
pacts in cases of floods with slow water rise:
– deterioration of mental health;
– financial disruption of the households.

Question 2: Indicate whether you agree or disagree with these statements. If you disagree
or tend to disagree, please explain why you do.
Table A2.2




                                                                                                                                              Annex 2
                                                       I disagree   I tend to     I neither    I tend to   I agree   Why do you disagree or
                                                                    disagree    disagree nor     agree                 tend to disagree?
                                                                                    agree

 Impacts unlikely to occur at slow water rise …
 Death                                                     1                                                 5
 Deterioration of physical health                          1           1                                     4
 Forced evacuation                                         1           1                                     4
 Lack in meeting basic needs                               1           1                                     4
 Loss of irreplaceable items                               1                         1            1          3
 Impacts fairly likely to occur at slow water rise …
 Stress, worry and discomfort                                                                                6
 Social impoverishment of the society                                  2             1                       3
 Material impoverishment of the neighbourhood                          1             1                       3              1 x n/a
 Change in risk perception                                                                                   6
 Distrust regarding government                                         1                                     5
 Loss of house value                                       1                                                 5
 Change in personal relations                                                        1                       5
 Living in temporary accommodation                                                                           6
 Voluntary relocation                                                  1                                     5
 Impacts very likely to occur at slow water rise …
 Dealing with insurers                                                                                       6
 Dealing with builders                                                                                       6
 Disruption of time spending and recreational                                                                6
  opportunities


     




                                                                                                                                              29
Annex 2                                                                                 30




1.3    Social flood impacts triggered by low velocity

Regarding the velocity of the flood, a majority of respondents have explained that death,
deterioration of physical health and social impoverishment of the society are ‘unlikely’ to
be caused in case of low velocity flooding. Deterioration of mental health, loss of irre-
placeable items, material impoverishment of the neighbourhood, change in risk percep-
tion, distrust regarding government, forced evacuation, voluntary relocation, lack in
meeting basic needs and living in temporary accommodations are ‘fairly likely’ in case of
low velocity. Dealing with insurers and builders are ‘very likely’ caused in case of low
velocity floods. No majority was found regarding stress, worry and discomfort, financial
disruption of the households, loss of house value, disruption in time spending and change
in personal relations.

Question 3: Indicate whether you agree or disagree with these statements. If you disagree
or tend to disagree, please explain why you do.
Table A2.3




                                                                                                                                                           Annex 2
                                                                   I disagree    I tend to     I neither    I tend to   I agree   Why do you disagree or
                                                                                 disagree    disagree nor     agree                 tend to disagree?
                                                                                                 agree

    Impacts unlikely to occur in case of flood of low velocity …
    Death                                                              1                                                  5
    Deterioration of physical health                                   1            1                                     4
    Social impoverishment of the society                               1            1             1                       3
    Impacts fairly likely to be experienced in case of flood of low velocity …
    Deterioration of mental health                                                                                        6
    Loss of irreplaceable items                                                                   1                       5
    Material impoverishment of the neighbourhood                                    1             1                       4
    Change in risk perception                                                                                             6
    Distrust regarding government                                                   1                                     5
    Forced evacuation                                                                                                     6
    Voluntary relocation                                                            1                                     5
    Lack in meeting basic needs                                                     1                                     5
    Living in temporary accommodation                                                                                     6
    Impacts very likely to be experienced in case of floods of low velocity
    Dealing with insurers                                                                                                 6
    Dealing with builders                                                                                                 6


 




                                                                                                                                                           31
Annex 2                                                                                                  32




Other flood characteristics that trigger social flood impacts are:

Load including sediment and pollutants/contaminated water. Those are expected to
cause mental stress, physical health, greater financial burden, loss of irreplaceable items.

     Comments on the statement: Social flood impacts are mainly influenced by the water level
     and to a smaller extent by the water rise rate and the velocity. Other flood characteristics like
     duration and frequency of flooding do not correlate with social flood impacts.

All respondents disagree with this statement. Two respondents have replied by rejecting
the statement that flood characteristics like water level, water rise rate and velocity mainly
influence social flood impacts. One respondent argues that it is vulnerability characteris-
tics that mainly influence social flood impacts, while another respondent writes that it is
mainly the way the recovery process is managed that affects social flood impacts. One
respondent argues that it is in particular water rise speed and velocity which determine to
a major extent the injuries, death, loss of life and damage, as well as need of voluntary
and forced evacuation. Another expert poses that duration and frequency affect stress
levels and greater frequency impact on people’s willingness to act on warning as well as
on people’s trust in authorities. The fifth respondent is not confident about the evidence
that duration and frequency are associated with a higher degree of adaptation.

A general remark on the aspect of flood characteristics is that it is rather difficult to dis-
entangle them regarding social flood impacts. Furthermore, it is put forward that certain
social flood impacts are the result of the vulnerability of the people and of the way the
recovery process is managed, rather than the result of the flood characteristics.


2.     Severity of social flood impacts

We have asked to indicate the severity of the social flood impacts. Flood impacts indicated
to be most severe are loss of irreplaceable items, stress, worry and discomfort, change in
risk perception, deterioration of mental health and loss of house value.
Annex 2                                                                                                   33



Table A2.4

 Average score                              Social flood impact
 (1=not severe to 5=very severe)

 4.8                                        Loss of irreplaceable items
 4.6                                        Stress, worry and discomfort
 4                                          Change in risk perception
 4                                          Deterioration of mental health
 4                                          Loss of house value
 3.8                                        Dealing with builders
 3.8                                        Dealing with insurers
 3.8                                        Forced evacuation
 3.8                                        Living in temporary accommodation
 3.6                                        Disruption of time spending and recreational opportunities
 3.6                                        Distrust regarding government
 3.4                                        Change in personal relations
 3.4                                        Financial disruption of the households
 3                                          Voluntary relocation
 2.4                                        Material impoverishment of the neighbourhood
 2.2                                        Lack in meeting basic needs
 2                                          Deterioration of physical health
 2                                          Social impoverishment of the society




Question 4: Do you agree or disagree with these findings? Explain why. 1 x n/a.


 I disagree            I tend to disagree      I neither agree nor     I tend to agree          I agree
                                                     disagree

                                                                             3                     2




Because:
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________


3.     Vulnerability of the individual

It was asked to indicate how vulnerable certain population groups are regarding the
effects of flooding. The scores of each respondent where converted into weights and
aggregated for each population group. The results demonstrate that ill people and elderly
are estimated to be most vulnerable towards flooding, followed by people living in one-
storey houses, financially deprived people, children and single parents. Least vulnerable
of the population groups are the immigrants.
Annex 2                                                                                          34



Tabel A2.5

 Ill people                                          0.169              Children         0.127
 Elderly                                             0.168           Single parents      0.122
 People living in one-storey houses                  0.155            Immigrants         0.113
 Financially deprived people                         0.144




Question 5: Do you agree or disagree with these findings and why? Question is not
answered by 2 respondents.


 I disagree            I tend to disagree   I neither agree nor   I tend to agree     I agree
                                                  disagree

                                                                        2               2




Because:
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________


4.    Adaptive capacity of the society

The majority of the respondents thinks that joint floodplain planning with all relevant
water managers and private insurance create a small increase to the adaptive capacity.
Private protection measures at household level, flood forecasting and warning, psycho-
social support, risk communication and governmental disaster relief fund is expect to
increase adaptive capacity moderately. And emergency plans, increasing social cohesion
and joint floodplain planning with water managers and other policy domains is estimated
to largely increase adaptive capacity.

Question 6: Do you agree or disagree with these findings and why?
Tabel A2.6




                                                                                                                                                             Annex 2
                                                                 I disagree   I tend to   I neither agree nor   I tend to   I agree   If you disagree, can
                                                                              disagree          disagree          agree                you explain why?

 Measures generating a small increase of adaptive capacity…
 Joint floodplain planning with all relevant water managers                      1                                            5
 Private insurance                                                   1                                             2          3
 Measures generating a moderate increase of adaptive capacity…
 Private protection measures at household level                      1                                                        4
 Flood forecasting and warning                                       1                                                        5
 Psycho-social support during and after flooding                                                                              6
 Continuous risk communication to increase risk awareness                                                                     6
 Governmental disaster relief fund                                                                                            5
 Measures generating a large increase of adaptive capacity…
 Emergency plan and disaster management                                                                                       6
 Increasing social cohesion                                          1           1                                 1          2
 Joint floodplain planning with water managers, spatial                                                                       6
   planners, environmental officials and agriculture officials




                                                                                                                                                             35
Annex 2                                                                                          36




No majority was found regarding the following policy measures:
– flood-proof building;
– information dissemination between key players in flood risk management;
– ban on living in flood risk areas.


5.    Driving forces

The last question related to the driving forces of social flood impacts. Again, the scores of
each respondent were weighted and aggregated for each driving force. Two types of
belief are revealed. Some of the respondents explain that social flood impacts are mainly
affected by flood characteristics and to a lesser extend by the adaptive capacity, while
others are convinced that in particular the vulnerability of the people and the adaptive
capacity of society influence social flood impact experience. The results demonstrate that
adaptive capacity and vulnerability of the individuals are the main driving forces of social
flood impacts, and to a smaller degree the flood characteristics.


Table A2.7

 Driving force                                                       Weight

 Flood characteristics                                                0.264
 Vulnerability of the individuals                                     0.351
 Adaptive capacity of the society                                     0.384




Question 7: Do you agree or disagree with these findings and why? Question is not
answered by 1 respondent


Tabel A2.8

 I disagree      I tend to disagree   I neither agree nor disagree   I tend to agree   I agree

                         2                                                               3




Because:
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

Thank you very much for your collaboration!
                                                                                            37




Annex 3 / List of definitions

1.    Flooding

The focus of the research is river flooding in developed countries (Western Europe). Thus
flood is understood as the unwanted inundation of the house as a consequence of river
flooding.


2.    Driving forces

–    flood characteristics (e.g. water depth, speed of water rise, velocity, flood duration,
     pollution of and debris in the water, frequency of flooding and time of the flooding);
–    vulnerability of the flood victims due to personal characteristics (e.g. vulnerable
     population groups: elderly, ill people, single parents, immigrants, …);
–    adaptive capacity of the society, which refers to measures implemented by govern-
     ment or organized by society to resist flood impacts (e.g. forecast and warning
     instruments, psycho-social support of flood victims, private insurances, governmental
     financial support, adapted spatial planning, flood proof building).


3.    Social flood impacts

–    change in personal relations: more conflicts or better understanding between people;
–    change in risk perception: change in the perception of the risk of flooding after being
     flooded;
–    dealing with builders: negotiating on prices and appointments with builders who will
     repair the house, organizing daily activities in order to enable reconstruction;
–    dealing with insurers: organizing administration to recover damage, organizing daily
     activities in order to see damage experts, negotiating on actual compensation;
–    death: dying of flood victims, directly or indirectly caused by flooding;
–    deterioration of mental health: e.g. depression, anger, anxiety, mood swings, sleeping
     problems, concentration problems;
–    deterioration of physical health: e.g. headaches, shocks, cold, intoxication, skin irrita-
     tion, injuries;
–    disruption of time spending and recreational opportunities: the impact of the flood
     and the recovery process on daily activities. This is on the one hand because time has
     to be spent to recovery, on the other hand, because recreational infrastructure is dam-
     aged and not open to the public for a while;
–    distrust regarding government: lack of confidence and disappointment in govern-
     ment’s attitude and actions;
–    financial disruption of households: households are unable to make ends meet;
–    forced evacuation: leaving the house as a result of governmental evacuation call, with
     or without help of emergency services;
Annex 3                                                                                   38




–    lack in meeting basic needs: unavailability of food, water, electricity, sanitation or
     medical health care and accommodation to sleep;
–    living in temporary accommodation: staying in a hotel, caravan or relief centres after
     being flooded;
–    loss of house value: the reduction of the value of the house in monetary terms;
–    loss of irreplaceable items: damage to irreplaceable items, like photographs, informa-
     tion on the computer, collections, and other things with a sentimental value;
–    material impoverishment of the neighbourhood: dirty and destroyed roads, devas-
     tated parks, damaged public buildings due to flooding;
–    social impoverishment of the society: social disorder, weakening of social networks,
     deterioration of available public budgets;
–    stress, worry and discomfort: these are mental health effects that are often experienced
     after flooding;
–    voluntary relocation: leaving the house as a result of the own initiative.


4.    Flood characteristics

–    low water level: inundation depth of 30 cm or less;
–    high water level: inundation depth of more than 30 cm;
–    slow velocity: velocity of less than 2 m/s;
–    fast velocity: velocity of more than 2 m/s;
–    slow water rise: the speed that the water level is increasing. Slow water rise means
     that people can be warned on time (8 hours before the event);
–    fast water rise: the speed of water level increase is sudden.


5.    Vulnerable population groups

–    children are people aged 12 years or less;
–    elderly are people aged 75 years or over;
–    financially deprived people are people living below the national poverty line;
–    Ill people are people that are hampered in daily activities due to chronic disease;
–    immigrants in this research are people born in developing countries who temporarily
     or permanently stay in Belgium;
–    people living in one-storey houses are people living in ground-floor houses, for
     instance, chalets, mobile homes, …
–    single parents are women or men living alone with their children.
Annex 3                                                                                      39




6.    Adaptive capacity measures

–    ban on living in flood risk areas: building freeze in flood risk areas, as well as decreas-
     ing the number of existing buildings in flood risk areas (expropriation or ban to sell
     when inhabitants have died or leave);
–    continuous risk communication to increase risk awareness: increasing the awareness
     of residents living in flood risk areas by providing information on the potential flood
     event and how to cope with these flood events;
–    emergency plan and disaster management: a well-prepared plan that outlines actions
     of emergency services in case of flooding;
–    flood forecasting and warning: the forecasting of the location and the time of a flood
     event based on computer models and the sending of the warning message to the peo-
     ple in the flood risk area and the emergency services;
–    flood proof buildings: buildings that are constructed in such a way that the water can-
     not damage the house and the household goods e.g. wet proof or dry proof buildings.
     One respondent argues that it is not possible to make buildings entirely flood proof
     and has opted to use the word increased flood resistance/resilience;
–    governmental disaster relief fund: system of material damage compensation, organ-
     ized by the government. Funding is coming from the governmental budget;
–    increasing social cohesion: activities to strengthen the bonds that bring people
     together in order to increase community support before, during and after flooding;
–    information dissemination between key players in flood risk management: the flow of
     information between the meteorological institutes, water managers and emergency
     planners;
–    joint floodplain planning with all relevant water managers: intensive collaboration
     between all water managers of a catchment, downstream as well as upstream;
–    joint floodplain planning with water managers, spatial planners, environmental offi-
     cials and agricultural officials: intense collaboration between people from different
     policy domains in the development and implementation of flood risk management
     plans;
–    private insurance: system of repayment of material damage by means of insurances
     organized by the private sector;
–    psycho-social support during and after flooding: meeting emotional, social and mental
     needs of flood victims by means of activities, information and ceremonies.

				
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