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Watershed Management Framework

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					Watershed Management Framework
 • Mission of watershed management
   – Coordinate and integrate the programs,
     tools, and resources of multiple
     stakeholder groups to better protect,
     maintain, and restore the ecological
     structure and function of watersheds and
     support the sustainable uses of
     watersheds.
Form Interagency Workgroup

• Design and implement a
  framework to facilitate the
  transition from a program-
  centered to a resource-based
  approach to holistic management
  of watershed.
   Resource Management Goals
• Conserve and enhance public health.
• Conserve and enhance watershed
  ecosystems.
• Support watershed resource use to
  achieve water quality standards and
  conservation goals.
• Conserve and improve ambient
  conditions.
• Reduce or prevent pollutant loadings and
  other stressors.
      Goals Achieved Through
       Operational Objectives
• Identify indicators of watershed integrity
• Increase communications and consensus among all
  stakeholder
• Implement integrated solutions by coordinating
  activities on targeted watersheds
• Provide a forum for program networking
• Develop stronger partnerships with regional, county,
  and local governments
• Coordinate public communication and education
  forums,
• Coordinate existing means and develop new avenues
  for broad participation
• Promote stronger resource conservation ethics
                   Major Elements –

   • Stakeholder involvement
   • Basin-wide management units
   • Tool kit of programs

                       NRCS
 Conservation
 Reserve Program         Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program

Conservation Reserve
                              Wetland Reserve Program
Enhancement Program
Forests as Source of NPS Pollution

• Forests not a major source of NPS
  – Especially true in flat lands
  – Potential for erosion increases with slope and
    soil type
• Forests used as buffer against more
  intensive land uses
  – Agriculture
  – Urbanization
     Knowledge of Precipitation
       Amounts and Patterns
• Plan drainage
  structures
   – Size temporary
     culverts to handle
     storm events
     during period of
     operations
   – Size permanent
     drainage structure
     to handle 100
     year storms
    Knowledge of Precipitation
      Amounts and Patterns
• Time operations
  – Expose soil during dry
    periods if possible
  – Establish vegetative
    cover as soon as
    possible
  – Use native vegetation
    whenever possible
 What Happens to Precipitation?

• Hydrologic cycle
  P = RO + ET + S, where
     •   P ≡ precipitation
     •   RO ≡ runoff
     •   ET ≡ evapotranspiration
     •   S ≡ storage
           Evapotransporation
• Loss of water from a given
  area during a specified time by
  evaporation from the soil
  surface and by transpiration
  from the plants.
• Supports plant life
• Reduces water yield
    Relationship of Forest Cover to
             Water Flows
• Erosion
   – Impacts of
      • Roads
      • Harvests
• Water flows
   – Storm events
   – Storage
• Water yield
   – Amount
   – Timing
           Timber Harvesting
• Major factor in control
  of water quality in
  forested watersheds
• Felling, limbing and
  bucking – avoid
  riparian zones and
  exclude slash from
  channel
          Timber Harvesting
• Skidding and
  yarding –
  minimize
  soil
  compaction
  and
  disturbance
• Use high
  lead systems
  in sensitive
  and steep
  areas
           Timber Harvesting
• Roads and skid trails – layout and construct
  according to BMP’s
Impact of Harvesting on Water
    Quantity and Quality

Stone, Swank, and Hornbeck. 1978.
“Impacts of Timber Harvest Regeneration
Systems on Stream Flow and Soils in the
Eastern Deciduous Region,” Forest Soils
and Land Use, Proceedings Fifth North Am.
Forest Soils Conf.
                         Low Flow                                                              Water Yield
VH
                                                                    VH

H
                                                                    H

M
                                                                    M

L
                                                                    L

VL
                                                                    VL


     uncut   selection    shelter-   clear-         intensive
                                                                          uncut    selection    shelter-    clear-       intensive
                          wood       cut            clearcut
                                                                                                wood        cut          clearcut




                                                                                              Peak Flow
                         Sedimentation
                                                                VH
VH                                                                                                              poor roads &
                                                                                                                skid trails
                                     poor roads &               H
H                                    skid trails

                                                                M
M

                                                                L
L
                                                                                                             Good control of roads
                                                                VL                                           & skid trails
VL


                                                                         uncut    selection    shelter-    clear-      intensive
     uncut   selection    shelter-   clear-         intensive                                  wood        cut         clearcut
                          wood       cut            clearcut
                Dissolved Nutrient Loss                                                 Nutrient Removal by
                                                                                        Harvest – Average Annual
VH
                            Thick organic layer                       VH

H
                                                                      H

M
                                                                      M

L
                                                                      L

VL
                                                                      VL


     uncut   selection   shelter-     clear-         intensive
                         wood         cut            clearcut               uncut    selection    shelter-    clear-    intensive
                                                                                                  wood        cut       clearcut



               Maximum Stream Temperature                                      Reduction in Surface Soil Organic Matter

VH                                      Without shade             VH


H                                                                 H


M                                                                 M


L                                                                 L

                                               With shade strip
VL                                                                VL


     uncut   selection   shelter-    clear-         intensive              uncut    selection    shelter-    clear-    intensive
                         wood        cut            clearcut                                     wood        cut       clearcut
           NPS: Sediment
 • Total suspended solids (TSS), i.e., sediment
   is major NPS pollution of concern
Cropland – 1 to 20
tons per acre per
year
Forestland – 1 lb. to
0.5 tons per acre per
year

  Issue is amount of sediment loading relative to expected
  amount. Usually zero for streams in forested watersheds.
         NPS: Nitrogen

• Water soluble
• Some converted
  to gaseous forms
  by microbial
  action
• Enters surface
  and goundwater
       NPS: Phosphorus
• Major nutrient
  leading to water
  pollution
• Binds to soil
  particles – correlated
  with silt load
• Leads to low
  dissolved oxygen
  from excessive plant
  growth
    Logging and Forestry BMP’s
•   Planning
•   Roads
•   Skid Trails
•   Stream Crossings
•   Riparian Zones
•   Log Landings
•   Fuel
               Related BMP’s
•   Equipment breakdown and spills
•   Litter
•   Site preparation
•   Mechanical and hand clearing
•   Chemical site preparation
•   Planting and weed control
•   Forest chemicals
•   Fire and fire control lines
•   Woodland grazing
•   Recreation trails
 Streamside Forest as
   Sediment Filter
• Sediment settles as
  speed of surface flow
  reduced by forest floor
• Sediment is filtered
  out as sediment loaded
  water percolates into
  porous forest floor
     Benefits of Buffers
• Control surface runoff
  and shallow ground
  water
   – Nutrients
   – Sediment
• Shade streams
• Ameliorate effects of
  some pesticides
• Provide dissolved and
  particulate organic
  food for aquatic and     Sheet erosion on crop land
  terrestrial systems
  Underlying Principles
       of Buffers
• Vegetation and soil
  filters sediments
• Vegetation takes up
  nutrients which can be
  removed from portion
  of site by harvesting
  timber and forage.
                           Clearfield Creek in PA, stable structure
                           but polluted by mine drainage
Riparian Forest Buffer: Design
  Total Buffer
Width: Streamside



 • Determine based on
   – Soil hydrographic
     group
   – Total area of source
   – Soil capability class
          Midwest Issue
• Field drain tiles empty
  into drainage ditches
  that flow directly to
  waterways.
• Methods need to
  buffer tile water
  before it enters
  ditches.
• Nitrogen is pollutant
Hydrology
Water Movement Below Surface

• Groundwater issues
   – Recharge areas
   – Inorganic pollutants
• Soil trafficability
   – Location of roads and
     skid trails             Abandoned wells are most
                             common source of ground
   – Operating seasons       water pollution, not surface
                             applied chemicals.
       Groundwater Issues
• Groundwater recharge zones should receive
  special protection
   Management for Water Yield
• Basic treatments
   – Removal of woody
     vegetation – limited
     application
   – Weather modification – not
     practical
   – Construction of
     “catchments” – best
     technique but with high
     ecological cost
Control of Stream Flow Regimen

• Objectives
   – Prevent deterioration of
     regimen because of altered
     land uses
• Improve natural stream
  flow regime by
  management of hydrology
• Rehabilitate deteriorated
  watersheds                      Stable banks
          Primary considerations
• Irregular flow
   – Volume of high and low flows
   – Duration of high and low flows
• Capacity of structures to handle high flows
• Management of aquatic ecosystems




                         Hyetograph
   Conflict
  Resolution             The Colorado Internet Center for Environmental
                         Problem Solving, University of Colorado



• Watershed management involves multiple
  – Stakeholders
  – Landowners
• High likelihood of conflicting
  – Values,
  – Cultures
  – Threat to economic security
 Conflict Resolution

• Resolution should be based on a participatory
  process led by non-stakeholder
   – Agree on discussion process
   – Identify points of
      • agreement
      • disagreement
   – Agree on major issues
   – Identify possible solutions
   – Implement representative solutions
      Forest Certification
• Way to “guarantee” BMP’s are
  implemented for multiple
  objectives,
   – Water quality
   – Timber production
   – Biodiversity
• Response to interest groups
  wanting to
   – Stop timber harvests
   – Buy products from sustainably   Forest Stewardship Council is a
                                     major certifying agency
     managed forests
      What Is Certification

• Loose definition -
  Verification by a first-,
  second, or third-party of
  compliance with principles,
  objectives and performance
  measures established by a
  recognized organization.
• Strict definition -
  Independent verification of
  conformity to a standard.
                                        Sustainable
                                          Forestry
                                      Initiative (SFI)®
                                          Program

• Sustainable Forestry
   – To practice forestry to meet the needs of the present
     without compromising the ability of future generations
     to meet their own needs by practicing a land
     stewardship ethic which integrates the reforestation,
     managing, growing, nurturing, and harvesting of trees
     for useful products with conservation of soil, air and
     water quality, wildlife and fish habitat and aesthetics.
                Definitions
• Principle – The vision and
  direction for sustainable forest
  management
• Objective – A fundamental goal
  of sustainable forest management
• Performance measure – A means
  of judging whether an objective
  has been fulfilled

				
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