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SEARCHING TECHNIQUES

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SEARCHING TECHNIQUES Powered By Docstoc
					WORKSHOP ON INFORMATION LITERACY AND COMPETENCY




     ONLINE SEARCH TECHNIQUES


     ONLINE SEARCH TECHNIQUES




                                 Rajesh Singh
                                 Deputy Librarian
                                 University of Delhi
                      INTRODUCTION
 Search engines are
  popular      tools     for
  locating web pages, but
  they     often     return
  thousands of results.

 Search of e-resources
  are more effective if you
  know how to talk to the
  computer systems.

 Communicating     with
  these systems requires
  knowing certain basic
  search techniques.                 Rajesh Singh, DULS
Categories of Information on the Web

 Before we begin, we first need a little understanding about how
 information is stored and accessed on the Web. There are basically
 three categories of information on the Web:


 The Free, Visible Web.

 This category includes all the publicly mounted Web pages. These
 pages are indexed by search engines. To find information from this
 category, use a good search engine or directory.


                                               Rajesh Singh, DULS
categories of information on the Web…

The Free, Invisible Web.
This category includes the contents of sites that provide their articles or
information free to users, but that content may be accessible only by going
directly to the site. In other words, search engines cannot index it. Some
magazines, newspapers, reference works, and other sites are in this category.
Many databases such as legal, medical, and financial are here, too. To find
information from this category, you must go to the appropriate database.

Paid Databases over the Web.
This category includes commercial databases that libraries subscribe to,
containing scholarly journals, newspapers, court cases and the like. Providers
like Elsevier, EBSCO, UMI Proquest, JSTOR and others are in this group. To
find information from this category, you must have access to the database and
search on the database using the particular search engine and its features.
                                                      Rajesh Singh, DULS
Search Tool Types

Search Engines.
A search engine consists of the interface you use to type in a query, an index of Web
sites that the query is matched with, and a software program (called a spider or robot)
that goes out on the Web and gets new sites for the index. The robot crawls the Web at
certain intervals, in order to index new material. When you use a search engine, you are
asking it to look in its index to find matches with the words you have typed in. Many
search engines may also have news, weather, free software, picture indexes, ratings of
web sites, and other features.

Directories.
Directories are categorized lists of sites picked out by human editors. Directory
databases are therefore much smaller than those of search engines. However, the fact
that the sites are hand picked often means that you will find very high quality sites or
articles in the results. Example directories are Yanza, Look Smart, and intute.



                                                             Rajesh Singh, DULS
Meta Search Engines


     Metasearches use multiple engines to look for your
      keywords.
     Advantage – You have many search engines all
      looking for what you need. Great when you are
      looking for something that is hard to find.
     Disadvantage – It’s hard to fine tune your search
      and narrow things down. Also, Metasearches can
      sometimes give you more information than what you
      need.

                                         Rajesh Singh, DULS
Federated/Meta Search Engines @ DULS




                            Rajesh Singh, DULS
   QUESTIONS WHICH STRIKE DURING THE SEARCH PROCESS




What is a Search Strategy?
How is it useful?
Where do I begin?
Where should I search?
How can I improve my results?


                                        Rajesh Singh, DULS
  STEPS TO FORMULATE WELL DEFINED STRATEGY




Methodical      approach
helps you to search
effectively and efficiently
thereby saving your time.




                               Rajesh Singh, DULS
                             STEP 1


         STATE WHAT YOU WANT TO FIND




 First, have a clear understanding of your question then in
  one or two sentences, state what you want to find.

Example : Forms of Multiculturalism.

Example : Theories of International Trade.


                                             Rajesh Singh, DULS
                                 STEP 2


        IDENTIFY KEYWORDS AND PHRASES

 Keywords and key phrases indicate what the question
 is really about.

 Example : Forms of Multiculturalism.
 Example : Theories of International Trade.

Remember
  Keywords provide     initial   search   terms       for     finding
 information.

                                                  Rajesh Singh, DULS
                          STEP 3
       SELECT SYNONYMS AND VARIANT
               WORD FORMS

You need to identify:

 Broader terms to find more general information.

 Narrower terms to find more specific information.

 Synonyms or related terms to find similar or related
  information.


                                            Rajesh Singh, DULS
                           STEP 4


       CREATE YOUR SEARCH STATEMENT



Combine synonyms, keywords and variant form of the words
 by using different search techniques/ connectors / operators.

Remember
 Every time you run a new search evaluate the results and
 improve the search again.


                                              Rajesh Singh, DULS
                    STEP 5




STEP 5: CHECK YOUR SPELLING

 A Search engines return websites with words
 that match your keywords. If you misspell a
 keyword, your results will contain websites
 where that word is also misspelled.


                               Rajesh Singh, DULS
     STEP 6


START SEARCHING




        previous research in the area?

        work by a particular author?

        a range of viewpoints on your
         topic?

        a definition
                         Rajesh Singh, DULS
                         STEP 7


        EVALUATE YOUR SEARCH RESULTS




 As results are retrieved, search statements can be modified
 to expand or to reduce the retrieval

TIP    : Every time you run a new search evaluate the
 results and improve the search results.




                                            Rajesh Singh, DULS
                              STEP 8


      SAVE SEARCHS / CREATING ALERTS



  Once you are satisfied with your search results, you may
  want to save your search. This has two possible
  benefits:



 saves your valuable time.

 offers an ‘e-mail alert’ facility.
                                            Rajesh Singh, DULS
                           STEP 9


                TAKING REFERENCES



 Note all references in full as you find them.

 If you take a photocopy, make sure that you keep a note
  of the publication details.




                                                  Rajesh Singh, DULS
                   SEARCH METHODS



    Mainly there are two types of search methods:

    Basic search /Quick Search/Easy Search

 Advanced Search/ Power search



                                               Rajesh Singh, DULS
                    BASIC SEARCH

 It is a simple search without using any connectors or
  operators. It includes following techniques:

 Natural Language Searching 

 Keyword Searching 

 Subject Heading/Controlled Vocabulary Searching 


                                               Rajesh Singh, DULS
                    ADVANCED SEARCH
   For more complicated questions, or to have greater control over
    your search parameters and results we use advanced search.

WHEN TO USE ADVANCED SEARCH
 To retrieve comprehensive information.

 Either to narrow or broaden your search.

 Variant forms of Specific relationships between your search words.


 Advanced Search includes various techniques. They are:


                                                        Rajesh Singh, DULS
Related
Topics




          Rajesh Singh, DULS
  Search Techniques
Phrase Search
Field Search
Boolean operators
Proximity Search
Controlled Vocabulary
Concept Map
                        Rajesh Singh, DULS
Search Techniques
Limiting/ Refining Searches
Publication Search
Visual Search
Related Topics


                     Rajesh Singh, DULS
            WORKSHOP ON
INFORMATION LITERACY AND COMPETENCY




Thanks !
                          Rajesh Singh, DULS

				
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