Abstracts

					    University of the Pacific


 Celebrate Research
and Creativity Exhibit



 Wednesday, April 28, 2004
    Stockton Campus

             Organized by:
                  Sigma Xi

     and the Office of Sponsored Programs
         Research and Graduate Studies
Parasympathetic Vasodilatation in Rat Submandibular Glands:
Contibution of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factors
L.C. ANDERSON*, D.J. MARTIN, and D.L. PHILLIPS

University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA

OBJECTIVES: Endothelial-derived relaxing factors (EDRF's), such as nitric oxide (NO) and
prostaglandins (PG) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF‟s) play a crucial
role in the regulation of blood flow. In the rat submandibular gland (SMG) blood flow is largely
under neural regulation, but EDRF ‟s also participate in the vasodilatation accompanying
secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of NO and PG to
parasympathetic vasodilatation in the SMG.

METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=19, 350-450 grams) were used. Under chloralose
anesthesia, parasympathetic stimulation was delivered via the chorda-lingual nerve at
frequencies of 2, 5 and 10 Hz (5-6 V, 2 ms). Laser-Doppler flowmetry was used to measure
blood flow (perfusion units) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of NO synthase (L-NAME)
and PG synthesis (indomethacin). Blood pressure and salivary flow were also monitored. All
data were collected and analyzed using PowerLab software. Differences among treatments
were analyzed using a repeated ANOVA followed by post-hoc tests for differences between
individual means.

RESULTS: In the absence of inhibitors, SMG blood flow (calculated as an integrated area,
minutes x perfusion) was 6,159 ± 4530 at 2 Hz, 15,645 ± 6830 at 5 Hz and 22,418 ± 7660 at 10
Hz (p<0.01 5 Hz vs 2 Hz and 10 Hz vs 5 Hz). L-NAME (300 µg/min, i.v.) partially blocked
parasympathetic vasodilatation (45% at 2 Hz, and 30% at both 5 Hz and 10 Hz, p<0.01). The
addition of indomethacin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) led to a further decrease in vasodilatation (p<0.05 L-
NAME + indomethacin vs L-NAME) to 65% of controls at 2 Hz, 46% at 5 Hz and 34% at 10 Hz.
CONCLUSIONS: Parasympathetic vasodilatation in the SMG depends, in part, on both NO and
PG. EDHF‟s also contribute to the observed vasodilalation, particularly at higher stimulation
frequencies.
Optical View Splitter

Michael R. Baker, Jason Harlow

Physics Department, College of the Pacific


To take long-exposure CCD (Charge Coupled Device) images of faint astronomical
objects, one must be able to observe the field of view for manual or automatic tracking,
while simultaneously gathering light with the CCD. Existing commercially available
technology prohibits this. We devised a unique apparatus resolving this problem.

Utilizing the optical properties of glass, images viewed through a telescope lens can be
split at a 90 to 10 percent ratio of imaging to viewing. Both views can still maintain full
field of vision using a view-splitter. Previous attempts to split the views between the
viewer and CCD left doubts about accurate tracking, because it was difficult to
determine whether or not the telescope was still aimed at the correct object while the
CCD was attached.

The view splitter allows for accurate, confident tracking of stellar objects and remote
broadcasting of images to any location. Simultaneously these images can be captured
either by CCD or analyzed using a spectrograph. Applications include real-time remote
imaging, guiding, and tracking, and classroom-aided lectures.
AGE OF MOTHER AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CLEFT LIP AND/OR PALATE.
Nguyen Baokhanh, DDS 2004, Tolarova Marie, MD, PhD, DrSc.

Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA


Maternal age is a known factor associated with several congenital anomalies, including
anomalies of orofacial region.

In order to explore this factor, we analyze the age of mothers at birth of a child of 132 children
with non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (cases) and 52 unaffected children (controls) from Guatemala
City, Guatemala, and of 195 cases and 96 controls from Cumana, Venezuela.

In Guatemala, we found a very significant difference between the mean maternal age of female
CL cases and controls (p=0.0067). In Cumana, we found a significant difference between all
cases and controls (p=0.020), and a more significant difference between CP cases and controls
(p=0.0022). Mothers 36 years and older were at a high risk for all types of clefts.

Parental age at the time of conception, the health of the mother and the care given during the
pregnancy may play a significant roles in the causes of congenital abnormalities like this.
pan2mime
Denise Bohannon, Marina Borroel, Alexis Bruemmer, Cherilyn Faylogna, Debra McCaffrey,
Huong Nguyen, Janet Nguyen, Minh-Tu Vo, Laurie Wallace, See Yang

University of the Pacific - School of Engineering and Computer Science

History: Pre-visualization, “Pre-Viz”, is a technique used in the motion picture industry to
emulate camera movement, lens angles, and character movements as a computer animation
before a single frame of film has been shot. Even though it saves thousands in potential
production cost, the current methods of pre-visualization are cumbersome and very labor-
intensive.

Even with its awkward implementation, pre-visualization is still widely used and will soon receive
high publicity with the release of the new film Polar Express. Director Robert Zemeckis has
merged the world of live action directing and pre-visualization. The publicity on this new
technology that will follow the release of this movie makes it a good time for both the University
of the Pacific and SWE to be involved with this project.

Objective: The objective of this project is to create a full pre-visualization system centered
around the Maya® platform. Alias System's Maya® software, well known as an industry
standard, lets a user create digital imagery, 3D animation and visual effects. The system we will
develop, code named pan2mime, will have three major components spanning four engineering
disciplines: mechanical, electrical, computer science, and computer engineering. The pre-
visualization system will replace the cumbersome user interface that now exists with more
intuitive input devices, making it much easier for a director to use as well as providing quicker
turn-around time.
Increasing and Maintaining Apartment Cleanliness For Three adults with
Chronic Mental Illness

Rebecca Bovino, Eric Sandquist, Hiroaki Uemura, & Tina Hopson
Psychology Department
Community Re-Entry Program

Maintaining personal hygiene is often problematic for the mentally disabled population. Part of
maintaining personal hygiene is maintaining a relatively clean living area. This poster examines
the effects of delayed reinforcement for mentally disabled adults living independently. Three
participants living in a semi-independent apartment complex were invited to a party contingent
upon passing the apartment inspections, both which occurred once a month. When each
participant passed the apartment inspection, the participant was reinforced with social praise
and invited to attend a group pass party. The pass party either included pizza and soda or ice
cream and soda. All three participants were not passing the monthly apartment inspections
before introducing the pass parties. After implementation, all three participants increased the
levels of cleaning their apartments and passed apartment inspections as a result.
Early Intervention Behavioral Services for Stockton Unified School
District: A Case Study

Rebecca Bovino, Holly White, & David Wilder

Psychology Department

First 5 of San Joaquin Grant

Behavior problems in the classroom have been a major hindrance in the education of the
preschoolers. In this study, the participant was referred for behavioral services from his teacher
for noncompliance, dumping toys, yelling, and physical aggression. The function of dumping
toys and yelling appeared to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the forms of access to
peer attention, access to preferred items/activities, and access to adult attention. The physical
aggression appeared to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the forms of access to peer
and/or adult attention and access to preferred items/activities. Social skills training was also
implemented to address the yelling and dumping toys. 3-step compliance training was
implemented to address the noncompliance. A time out procedure and social skills training was
implemented to address the physical aggression. After the intervention was implemented, the
frequency of aggression, yelling and dumping toys decreased. Also, compliance increased from
approximately 40% to approximately 90%.
Lived Experiences of Reflection among Student Teachers
Kellie Cain, Doctoral Student/Assistant Director
Field Experiences, Benerd School of Education

Dr. Harriett Arnold
Benerd School of Education, Curriculum and Instruction

          The purpose of this study was to examine ways in which preservice teachers, at the end
of their coursework, during student teaching, actually operationalize reflection. The researcher
was specifically interested in ways student teachers interpret and practice the concept of
reflection in an authentic setting, which, in this case was the classroom during the final
practicum.
          In constructivist models of teacher education, learning is a "constructive and iterative
process in which the person interprets events based on the basis of existing knowledge, beliefs,
and dispositions" Borko & Putnam, 1996). Eggen & Kauchak (2004) argue that this kind of
knowledge construction is most meaningful when it occurs during the course of real-world or
authentic tasks. Reflection occurs as teachers draw upon past experiences and beliefs and
apply them to dilemmas or unfamiliar situations that arise (Calderhead, 1996). Experience is
essential to the construction of new knowledge, and prospective teachers need to construct
their own meaning from authentic experiences in order to develop reflective habits. Loughran
(2002) argues that teacher education programs can develop preservice teachers' reflectivity "if
the focus is genuinely on the [preservice] teacher as learner…as opposed to when the teacher
educator filters, develops and shares knowledge with the [students]" (p. 38). More studies are
needed which ask preservice teachers to define reflection for themselves or which explore what
it is like for preservice teachers to reflect naturally, that is, in the course of an authentic teaching
task without the impetus of a reflective assignment to complete.
          Purposeful sampling was used to select two student teachers to serve as co-researchers
in a phenomenological study designed to explore the issues described above. In-depth
interviews and observations were the primary sources of data for this study. In addition to
interviews and observations, the preservice co-researchers' reflective journal entries, reflective
lesson plans, and other related documents were analyzed.
          Four themes emerged that illuminate how student teachers interpret and practice
reflection and the influence of context on their reflective practice: Making Meaning through
Experience, Processes, Reflection as a Social Act, and Real World vs. Theory. When the
student teachers were asked to define elements of reflection or to describe the processes they
engaged in while reflecting, for example, their responses were rooted in the experiences they
had during the student teaching practicum.
Do Repeated Clinical Competency Ratings Stereotype Students?
David W. Chambers
University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry

Stereotypes are judgments that are incomplete summaries, based in part on non-essential
characteristics, that distort or prevent accurate use of new information. Faculty ratings of student clinical
competency over the final two years of the educational program in the University of the Pacific School of
Dentistry in areas of clinical judgment, patient management, and technical skill were analyzed. This
represented 149 students with eight sets of ratings comprising an average of 16.2 faculty ratings per
student. Ratings were classified as P = rating by a faculty member of a student during a particular
quarter when the same faculty member also rated the same student the next quarter, N = rating by a
faculty member of a student whom that faculty member did not rate the previous quarter, and R = rating
by a faculty member of a student in a subsequent quarter after having been rated by the same faculty
member the previous quarter. PR correlations across quarters (repeated evaluations by the same
instructor) tend to be higher than PN correlations (evaluations of the same student by different faculty
members). Using partial correlation (holding new ratings constant) shows that the proportion of
experience carried over begins at about 10% at the start of each year and rises to about 20% by the end
of first year and to about 50% by the end of second year. However, prediction of graduation quarter
competence is significantly better for faculty members who perform repeat evaluations. It is concluded
that faculty do carry their knowledge of prior student experience over to subsequent ratings of students,
but that this knowledge is more accurate than is the knowledge of first-time faculty raters.
New Multifunctional Tags for Oligosaccharides
Soo Jin Chang, Joanne Hsu, Andreas H. Franz*,
University of the Pacific, Department of Chemistry, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211,
USA

Introduction
    Carbohydrates play central roles in many cellular processes, and structure-activity studies of
carbohydrates begin to receive increasing attention. Solutions to complications during cleanup,
separation, and structural characterization of oligosaccharides (OS) have been introduced.
Partial cleanup of biotin-labeled OS-mixtures prior to chromatography can be accomplished by
bioaffinity technology. Various UV-active tags can overcome limitations due to the general lack
of chromophoric groups in sugars. Mass spectrometry (MS) and MS n-techniques take a central
role in the structural elucidation of OS. In this paper, we present newly-synthesized tags that
combine UV-activity, bioaffinity, and ease of chemical introduction along with the possibility for
isotope-coding and for N-quaternization. The synthesis of the tags, their structural
characterization, and the labeling of oligosaccharides is discussed.
Preliminary Data
     Carbonyl diimidazole coupling of biotin and xylylenediamine gave tag 1 in good yield. The
structure of tag 1 was confirmed with NMR. Indirect identification of tag 1 was accomplished by
reductive amination of several sugars followed by mass spectral analysis. The protonated
molecules dominated in abundance compared to the sodiated species. A second tag was
synthesized from p-nitro anisole via Einhorn reaction followed by deprotection and coupling to
biotin. The structure of tag 2 was also confirmed with NMR and oligosaccharide labeling
followed by Electrospray Ionization (ESI) MS-analysis. Several linear and branched
oligosaccharides were labeled with the tags. The derivatization reaction gave excellent yields.
CID-spectra contained useful information for structural assignment. N-Quaternization was
successful for all labeled sugars investigated. However, the informational content of the CID-
spectra was limited. Reductive amination with NaCNBD3 and the tags resulted in D-coded
labeled oligosaccharides. Mixtures of H-labeled and D-labeled sugars in various ratios were
investigated by MALDI-TOF. Moderate agreement was found between predicted isotope
patterns of various H/D-sugar mixtures and experimental MALDI-TOF values.


                      O
                               H
                                       S
                  N
                  H        H
  H2N
                                               H
                           HN
                                       NH
           OCH3       O
                                O
                                           S
   H2N            N
                  H

                            HN
                                           NH
           NO2
                                   O

Figure 1. Tag 1 and 2.                             Figure 2. ESI-CID spectrum of [1+H]+.
IMPACT OF PATERNAL MTHFR 677CT MUTATION ON FACIAL CLEFTS.
Christensen Sam, B.A., DDS 2005; Fletcher Phillip, DDS 2005; Pawar Tripti, DDS; Grochova
Dianna, PhD; Tolarova Marie, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.

Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA

Introduction: Evidence suggests that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the
etiology of cleft lip and palate. It has been long understood that folate metabolism is critical for
normal, healthy prenatal development. For some time, the 677CT mutation of the
methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) has been considered a genetic risk factor
for non-syndromic CL/P. MTHFR plays a crucial role in the folate metabolic pathway and its
677CT variant (leading to an alanine to valine substitution) results in a thermolabile enzyme and
decreased production of folate. An individual carrying the mutated allele in homozygotic
condition (677TT) has a 50% compromised capacity for processing dietary folate. However, a
high-dose of folic acid supplementation may overcome this disadvantage. Therefore,
understanding the genetic profile of individuals affected with a cleft - and those unaffected but
related to cleft patients - is fundamental for cleft prevention.
In any given individual, the genetic mutation that we are observing can either be inherited from a
parent or may occur on its own as a fresh mutation. Historically, research in this area has
focused on the mother and affected child.
This pilot study attempts to look at the genotypes of the fathers of affected children and examine
the paternal genetic contribution in respect of MRHFR polymorphism.
Materials and Methods: The cases for this pilot study were collected during Rotaplast medical
missions to Guatemala City, Guatemala in 2001 and 2002. They were fathers of children
affected with cleft lip or with cleft lip and palate. We selected 36 families. Blood was drawn,
subsequently spotted on filter paper and DNA was isolated from dry blood spots and amplified
using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) was
used to establish MTHFR 677CT genotypes.
Results. Analysis of paternal genotypes showed that the wild type homozygous CC genotype
was present only in 4 (11.1%) of 36 fathers tested, the heterozygous CT genotype in 15 (41.7%)
and the homozygous TT genotype in 17 (47.2%). Thus, the proportion of C to T alleles showed
that the mutated T allele prevails (68.1%).

Conclusion.The results of our pilot study suggest a much stronger paternal genetic contribution
of MTHFR 677CT polymorphism to the etiology of non-syndromic clefts in Guatemala than
expected. Further study on a larger sample and on a control population is in progress.
Prevalence of RFC1 A80G mutation in cleft lip and palate.
Costanzo C1, Tolar M2, Oh HS1, Grochova D1, Pawar T1, and Tolarova MM1.

1
    Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA,
2
    University of California - San Francisco, Department of Pediatrics, USA
Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NCLP) is among the most common congenital anomalies
with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 700 live births. The etiology of NCLP consists of both
environmental and genetic factors, including folic acid intake and metabolism. Because of their
suspected importance, genes involved in the metabolism of folic acid have been considered as
candidate genes for the etiology of NCLP.
Objectives: Our study focused on a possible role of the reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) gene,
which is involved in transporting folate across the cell surface membrane, in etiology of NCLP.
We studied the polymorphism at nucleotide 80 (A80G).
Methods: We investigated a sample of individuals affected with NCLP (n=97) and a sample of
unaffected individuals (n=76) from the same location. Cases and controls were identified during
Rotaplast medical missions at Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City, Guatemala. Diagnosis of
cleft was determined by physical examination. DNA was isolated from dry blood spots on filter
paper. RFC1 A80G genotypes were established by PCR amplification and single nucleotide
conformational polymorphism detection using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Results: A significant difference (c2, p=0.0157) was found in genotype distribution between
cases and controls. In cases, 19.6% of individuals had A80/A80 genotype, 34.0% had G80/G80
genotype, and 46.4% were heterozygotes (A80/G80). Proportions of genotypes in controls were
39.5% A80/A80, 25.0% G80/G80, and 35.5% A80/G80. The A allele frequency was 0.427 for
cases and 0.572 for controls, while the G allele frequency was 0.573 for cases and 0.428 for
controls (c2, p=0.0104, Odds ratio=0.56; 95% Confidence limits: 0.35, 0.88).
Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that the G allele in nucleotide 80 of the RFC1 gene
contributes to the etiology of NCLP in Guatemala. Additional studies are in progress.


The fieldwork was supported by Rotaplast Intl., DNA analysis by The Smile Train/PSEF grant.
Serum-Resistant HSVtk/Ganciclovir Gene Therapy in Oral Cancer
Cells

Basma Fallah, JoMarie Monzon-Duller, Krystyna Konopka and Nejat Düzgünes

Doctor of Dental Surgery Program and Department of Microbiology, University of the Pacific,
School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Microbiology, University of the
Pacific, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA


Objectives: Oral Squamous Cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent cancer involving the
oral cavity and oropharynx. The purpose of this study was to deliver the Herpes Simplex Virus
thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) to HSC-3 human SCC cells, as a “suicide” gene therapy
approach. We examined the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the delivery of a reporter
gene and HSV-tk by the polyamine reagent, Gene Jammer, and the polycationic liposome,
Metafectene.

Methods: We assessed gene delivery by incubating HSC-3 cells with the plasmid pCMV-luc and
measuring luciferase activity in cell lysates. Cells transfected with the HSV-tk plasmid were
incubated in the absence and the presence of ganciclovir (10 µg/ml) for the indicated periods of
time. We used the the Alamar blue assay to determine ganciclovir-specific cytotoxicity to HSC-3
cells mediated by the plasmid pCMV-HSVtk. Mock-transfected cells served as controls. Results:
The optimal ratios of the reagents to DNA for delivering the luciferase gene were 4 l
Metafectene:g DNA and 6 or 12 l GeneJammer:g DNA. GeneJammer-mediated luciferase
expression was inhibited by about 30% when transfection was performed in the presence of
10% FBS. The delivery of the HSV-tk gene by Gene Jammer in the absence and presence of
10% FBS, followed by ganciclovir treatment for 9 days, resulted in 100% and 70% cytotoxicity,
respectively. With Metafectene, FBS in the range 10-60% inhibited luciferase gene expression
by about 60%. Using HSVtk/ganciclovir, 90-100% cytotoxicity was observed in the presence of
0 or 10% FBS. Even in the presence of 60% FBS, Metafectene mediated 50-70% cytotoxicity,
compared to controls.

Conclusion: Our observations suggest that Metafectene may be useful for the gene therapy of
OSCC in animal models. (This work was supported partially by Research Award DRES03-027
from the School of Dentistry).
Signaling pathway associated with hyperglycemia and sex hormones
in the vasculature

Aditya Goel
School of Pharmacy & Health Sciences

To date little is known of the interactions between the signaling pathway associated with
hyperglycemia and sex hormones in the vasculature. The objectives of our study were
1) to show the abnormal endothelium dependent responses in rat aortic rings exposed
to elevated glucose; 2) to investigate gender-based differences in vessels exposed to
high glucose; 3) to examine if the same responses also exist in rabbits. Because PKC β
has been implicated in diabetes-associated vascular complication, we also assessed
the potential role of PKC β in the effect of elevated glucose on the relaxation of rat
aorta. Dilator responses to acetylcholine (ACh, 10-8 to 10-5 M) were obtained before
and after 3 hours treatment with high glucose (46 mM) in pre-contracted rat and rabbit
aortic rings with phenylephrine (2 μM). The same experiment was generated in the
presence and absence of ruboxistaurin, a selective PKC β inhibitor. We demonstrated
that 1) elevated glucose level impairs ACh responses only in the female rat and rabbit
aorta, and 2) ruboxistaurin restores the high-glucose induced endothelium impairment
of rat aorta. These results demonstrate that acute exposure to high glucose inhibits the
endothelium function in female rat aortic rings possibly via activation of PKC β.
An Integrated SLA Model Combining Personal Websites With Course
Management Systems in Second-Year French
Christophe Ippolito

Modern Language and Literature

I suggest thereafter a model for the use of the Internet at the second-year level in French class.
This model is intended to resolve what is sometimes presented as a conflict between personal
websites and course management systems. It tends to develop a compromise according to the
capabilities of the two systems, eliminating in the process the use for a textbook at this level.
My Internet site at http://www1.uop.edu/~cippolit/, used both in and outside of the classroom,
includes a list of selected language links arranged according to ACTFL oral proficiency
guidelines, cultural links arranged by areas of study, and other pages including lists of teaching
documents to be found on the password-protected sites designed for my current courses on the
on-line course management system in use at the University of the Pacific, Blackboard 6. These
sites include teaching documents such as exercises for different levels arranged by grammatical
categories and used for reviews, two complete grammars respectively designed for intermediate
and advanced French (on Power Point), a writing guide for papers, vocabulary lists, Internet
downloads on specific points of culture or language, cultural links arranged alphabetically, and
discussion boards organized in weekly and thematic forums; all of this on-line and widely used
by students. Typically, students enter their contributions (comments, questions, vocabulary) to
the different forums twice a week. It is part of their homework. This method also allows them to
use informal writing that they can recycle later in their papers. Grammar and speech acts are
studied in context through texts and movies, which allows for meaningful discussions as well as
systematic recycling of vocabulary and phrases prepared on-line in the forum entries and used
in class through computer projection or smart board when available.
Stratégies créatrices et analyse critique de la modernité: Flaubert et la
littérature populaire
Christophe Ippolito
Modern Language and Literature

Cette communication se propose d‟examiner les modalités de résistance à la modernité en
analysant chez Flaubert les nombreuses critiques des productions en séries de physiologies,
keepsakes, feuilletons, et autres avatars de la modernité naissante, alors même qu‟il en fait un
usage extrêmement productif dans ses romans, y développant sinon une relation d‟ „hybridité‟
du moins un jeu complexe de repoussoir entre ces productions et son écriture. Au-delà du
principe affirmé de „l‟art pour l‟art‟, on distinguera la réaction de Flaubert, qui dépasse une
simple opposition binaire entre tradition et modernité, de celles de ses prédécesseurs. Ses
oeuvres, attentives à la diversité de ces publications, semblent assigner à chaque genre
„populaire‟ une place particulière dans la société comme dans l‟économie du récit, et l‟on
étudiera les stratégies d‟insertion de ces productions „modernes‟, leurs justifications possibles et
leur rôle d‟indices de (résistance à) la modernité dans les romans.
Diasporic Reflections: A Case of Virtual Identity in Modern Québécois
Culture
Christophe Ippolito

Modern Language and Literature

Migration in Régine Robin‟s La Québécoite, often and wrongly considered as an example of the
so-called Québécois “ethnic novel,” is also migration of texts seemingly foreign to each other. In
fact, though, as Lautréamont would have noticed, these texts are only as foreign as a sewing
machine and an umbrella on a dissection table. Intermingled personal narratives, artifacts of
popular culture, street signs, political manifestos, literary texts from the eastern or western
European traditions, often by „minor‟ authors (in Deleuze‟s sense) who were themselves exiled
or part of a (Jewish) diaspora and thus constitute in this novel a line of escape/flight… All that
seems consistent with Robin‟s references to the technique of free association as developed by
mystics and psychoanalysts: to proceed by jumping from one field/sphere/space/fold to another,
therefore generating what could perhaps be called a pleasure of textual/conceptual circulation.
This allows for the deterritorialization of the narrative/national/modern space and/or time (as
evinced by the title), and in this sense the novel stands strongly against any categorizing, ethnic
or other. The novel becomes a labyrinth in the open, a ludic and nomadic space where exile
and migration do not imply schizophrenic divides along the lines of nostalgia and alienation.
The unhappy consciousness is passed from the disappearing and problematic narrative agency
onto its object. Faced, as many as her contemporaries with mainstream conformism as a moral
virtue, and the interiorized social and political contracts of the Québécois with themselves,
Robin constructs the novel as a never resolved road trip on an „unadopted‟ road. Recognizing
that there is always a necessary second/third degree to the thinking of migration/minority issues,
and questioning the origins of the question of complex/multiple origins, Robin does in the streets
of Montreal what Baudrillard did on American freeways: hunting simulacra and hyperreal
artifacts with mirrors.
Synthesis and Characterization of Per-O-Acetylated Glycosyl
Cyanides from L-Fucose and D-Galactose.
Laura Jordan, Thuy T. Nguyen, Andreas H. Franz*
University of the Pacific, Department of Chemistry

L-Fucose is a constituent of polysaccharides isolated from gum tragacanth, frog-spawn, and the
jelly coat of sea-urchin eggs. It is also found in many O- and N-linked oligosaccharides, which
have been linked to important biological functions. L-Fucose can be converted to per-O-
acetylated L-                                                         -aminomethyl-C-glycoside. The
synthesis of C-glycosides as stable mimetics of natural carbohydrate linkages has attracted
strong interest in the last few decades. In this report, we have investigated the synthetic and
structural similarities and differences between glycosyl cyanides from L-fucose and D-galactose.
We found that O-acetyl neighboring group participation during cyanide formation at the
anomeric carbon plays an important role in the stereochemical outcome of the reaction. Besides
the expected glycosyl cyanides, we observed the formation of constitutional isomers with a
cyanoethylidene structure.


                  R5   O     R1       MeNO2            R5   O    R1


                                  Me3SiCN, (HgBr2)     R4        R2
                  R4         R2
                       R3                                   R3


                                                                                    O
                3a/b: R1 = OAc                  4a/b: R1 = CN       4c/d: R1 =      CN
                      R2 = OAc                        R2 =   OAc          R2 = O CH3
                      R3 = R4 = OAc                   R3 = R4 = OAc       R3 = R4 = OAc
                      R5 = CH3                        R5 =   CH3          R5 = CH3
                                                                                 O
                5a/b: R1 = OAc                  6a/b: R1 = CN       6c/d: R1 =      CN
                      R2 = OAc                        R2 = OAc            R2 =   O
                                                                                    CH3

                      R3 = R4 = OAc                   R3 = R4 = OAc       R3 = R4 = OAc
                      R5 = CH2OAc                     R5 = CH2OAc         R5 = CH2OAc
Electrokinetics of Soft (Stealth®) Liposomes
Valentina A. Khorosheva and Joel A. Cohen

Department of Physiology
University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA 94115

Liposomes are colloidal particles composed of lipids. Liposomes decorated with surface-grafted
poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers, known as sterically-stabilized or Stealth® liposomes, are
in current therapeutic use for intravenous delivery of anti-cancer and anti-fungal drugs.
Applications for dental therapeutics also are being evaluated. The “hairy” polymer coating
retards recognition of the liposome by the host immune system, buying valuable time for
systemic circulation and therapeutic activity. To elucidate the physical structure of the polymer
coats, we measured electrophoretic mobilities of a series of such liposomes, determining their
hydrodynamic drag under various conditions. End-grafted PEGs range in size from 2 to 113
monomers; nominal grafting densities range from one PEG chain per 200 lipids to one PEG
chain per 10 lipids; and salt ranges from 0.5 mM to 100 mM. The liposome surface-charge
density is held constant at one negative charge per 10 lipids. Identically-charged liposomes
with no grafted PEG serve as controls. The observed drag effects are large: they can reduce
mobilities by 90%. The investigated polymer lengths and grafting densities span the mushroom-
to-brush transition. The mobilities are analyzed to yield hydrodynamic coat thicknesses,
polymer-water frictional coefficients, and polymer segment-density profiles. These studies are
of practical significance and also elucidate the physics of flexible polymers grafted on surfaces.
Stabilizing Mechanisms in Extrasolar Multi-Planetary Systems

by Ludmila Kiseleva-Eggleton1, Eric Bois2, and Nicolas Rambaux2
1
    – Department of Mathematics, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA
2
    – Bordeaux Observatory, University of Bordeaux, France



The study of orbital dynamics of extrasolar planetary systems is an important and fast-growing
new field of research in dynamical astronomy following the discovery during the last decade of
planetary systems orbiting distant stars. At the moment there are 104 confirmed extrasolar
planetary systems (119 planets). 11 of them have two planets and 2 host three planets. The
majority of these 13 multiple-planet systems have been discovered in the last three years
thanks to the great advances in detection technique, and the number is expected to grow very
fast. All of them are formed by giant Jupiter-like planets (which is up to now related to currently
available methods of detection). Nevertheless, all extrasolar planetary systems discovered so
far are dynamically very different from our Solar system: (i) in most cases, the giant planets are
close, and sometimes very close, to their central, and (ii) many of them have very eccentric
(elongated) orbits which sometimes approach each other very closely or even intersect in
space. These two facts lead to very strong planetary gravitational interactions and as a result
should lead to chaotic unstable dynamical behaviors of the planets. However, the fact that we
observe these planetary systems suggest that they have been in existence for many millions if
not billions years. What mechanisms keep them stable? This is the central question highlighted
in this text contribution.


One can expect a priori an immense variety of planetary systems. However, it appears,
following the modeling of those observed, that only a small class of them would survive
disintegration. Indeed, it has been recently confirmed that in most of the multi-planetary
systems, the two planets are locked in mean motion resonances. Among the various studied
factors of stabilization, the presence of internal resonances in the multiple planet systems
proves to be the deciding factor for stability and its preservation. New orbital topologies have
been identified with their associated stabilizing mechanisms revealing new resources of orbital
resonances.
Coupling the first amino acid to resin as a crucial step in solid phase
peptide synthesis
Blake Kitamura
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jianhua Ren

Chemistry Department, University of the Pacific

Coupling the first amino acid to the resin is a crucial step in solid phase peptide
synthesis (SPPS). We searched the literature and did not find a simple method to
detect the progress of the reaction. We have proposed to use the Jones reagent to
monitor the first coupling reaction of valine to the Wang resin. Jones reagent is a
powerful oxidizer to any hydroxyl group on the resin.

The procedure is to take twenty to thirty beads of resin from the coupling reaction
vessel, where activated amino acids are attaching to resin beads, and add one milliliter
of dimethylformamide (DMF) and two drops of the Jones reagent to get a visual color
change within thirty to forty-five seconds. If the coupling reaction does not occur at all,
the hydroxyl group on the resin will react with the Jones reagent to form a cloudy green
suspension. If the coupling reaction is complete, the test solution will remain a brownish
yellow color.

By running a coupling reaction and taking samples at different times, we were able to
see a noticeable color change over a time of forty hours. This test will help us to
determine the optimal reaction time for coupling valine to the resin.
THE EFFICACY OF ECOTRU AND TRICIDE DISINFECTANTS ON HARD
SURFACES OF DENTAL UNITS IN A LARGE DENTAL SCHOOL CLINIC
Joseph R. Kolody1, David R. McDonough1 and Nejat Düzgünes2
1
 Doctor of Dental Surgery Program and 2Department of Microbiology, University of the Pacific,
School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA 95115

Infection control has been one of the most important advances in dentistry in the past thirty
years. There are many disinfectants available to dental practitioners to maintain the current
standards of infection control. Several studies have examined the efficacy of disinfectants on
various hard surfaces. We examined the efficacy of two disinfectants (Ecotru and Tricide) on
three hard surfaces of a dental unit in a large dental school clinic. These three surfaces include
a bench top adjacent to the patient dental chair, a plastic computer screen used to shield
notebook computers from contamination, and the shoulder of the patient dental chair. Bacterial
samples were obtained from three surfaces of ten dental units after patients had been
dismissed from treatment. These surfaces were then disinfected with either Ecotru or Tricide
using the spray-wipe-spray method. Bacterial samples were then taken again. The culture
media used were blood agar plates and Hycheck slides containing a tryptic soy agar medium
and a DE neutralizing agar medium. These samples were then incubated for 48 hours at 36ºC.
Bacterial colonies were quantified by placing the colony counts in one of five categories of
bacterial density: no colonies, very low, low, medium, and high. Although both disinfectants
were effective against bacteria on the dental unit hard surfaces, Ecotru appeared to be a more
effective disinfectant than Tricide.
Cell-Surface Heparan Sulfate and HIV-1 Infection of Differentiated THP-1
Cells
K. KONOPKA1, A. LEE*1,2, J. MONZON-DULLER1, and N. DÜZGÜNES1,
1
 Department of Microbiology and 2 Doctor of Dental Surgery Program, University of the Pacific, School
of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA

Objectives: Recently, it has been reported that the cell surface glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate
(HS), mediates the attachment of HIV to adherent cells expressing low CD4, such as HeLa-CD4 cells
or macrophages, prior to virus entry. The established monocytic THP-1 cell line has been used to study
HIV-monocyte/macrophage interactions and the relationship between differentiation, virus production
and virus latency. Treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induces differentiation of THP-1
cells into adherent macrophage-like cells, which are susceptible to M-tropic, CCR5-dependent HIV
isolates. Differentiation of THP-1 cells markedly reduces CD4 surface expression (Konopka &
Düzgünes, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 2002;18:123-131). Here we examined if HS is involved in HIV
binding and infectivity in differentiated THP-1 cells.

Methods: PMA-treated THP-1 (THP-1/PMA) cells were incubated with either heparinase (heparin-
specific) or heparitinase I (HS-specific) for 2 h at 37°C. Expression of HS on the surface of THP-1 cells
was examined using a fluorescent Monoclonal Anti-HS (10E4 epitope) antibody. Infection of THP-1
cells with the M-tropic HIV-1BaL isolate and HIV binding were monitored by ELISA determination of p24
antigen in harvested culture supernatants and cell lysates, respectively. Results: PMA-treatment
resulted in an upregulation of HS expression. Over 40% of THP-1/PMA cells tested highly positive for
HS expression (Mean Fluorescence Intensity, MFI = 22.5) when compared to 4.0% (MFI=5.4) for THP-
1 cells growing in suspension. Treatment with the HS-specific heparitinase I reduced expression of HS
by over 60%. Treatment with heparinases, however, did not reduce HIV binding and did not affect HIV
infection in THP-1/PMA cells.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that HIV infection in THP-1/PMA cells may be independent of cell-
surface HS.
(This work was supported partially by the Pacific Dental Research Foundation, Grant 521.)
Title: Development of an Interdisciplinary Approach to Prevention of Falls
and Improvement of Health and Wellness in a Retirement Community.

Authors: Lazaro RL, Castillo MC, Lee RM, Mann JT, Sidhu TK, Shufro JL, Royce J. Department
of Physical Therapy, Thomas J Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of
the Pacific.

This presentation outlines the development of a comprehensive program which is designed to
provide an interdisciplinary approach to the prevention of falls and improvement of health and
wellness in a retirement community. It describes the participation of the University of the Pacific
Physical Therapy faculty and students in designing a program to screen for balance and identify
risk for falls and to present to the residents and staff possible intervention strategies to optimize
functional performance. This is initially designed as an experiential learning opportunity for the
students and therefore a creative endeavor that links theory with practical applications. Future
research plans are also discussed.
Title: Concurrent Validity of the Modified Timed Up and Go (mTUG)
Authors: Lazaro RL, Umphred DA, Adelman AK, Basuino GM, Crane MN, Fausel AE, Hukari
AD, Koch A, Kuznik, JA, Leamer TA, Mikla AR

Department of Physical Therapy, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Science,
University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA


Introduction. The development of the modified Timed Up and Go (mTUG) was directed by the
need for physical therapists to develop functional tests that are efficient, valid and reliable. The
mTUG protocol describes a functional test used to identify fall risk in older adults. It is a
functional test that is short and easy to administer and offers specific data that can help direct
intervention strategies. The mTUG has previously been established as a reliable test, but its
validity had not yet been determined.
Purpose. To examine the validity of the mTUG by statistically comparing individuals‟ mTUG
results with their results from the Berg Balance Score, which is a functional test that has
established validity.
Materials and Methods. Sixty nine participants with ages ranging from 55 to 92 participated in
the study. The Berg and mTUG tests were administered per protocol. Data was analyzed using
the Pearson Product Correlation statistic of the SPSS 11.1 software.
Results. With the exception of Split 3 in the normal pace (segment 3), the split times and the
total times for both the normal and fast pace of the mTUG statistically correlate with the Berg
Balance Test scores. Lower individual split times and total test times statistically correlate to
higher scores in the Berg Balance Test. This shows that the mTUG is a valid test for assessing
balance.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OROFACIAL CLEFTS IN THREE LATIN AMERICAN
POPULATIONS.

Daniel Martin, B.S., DDS 2005; Wirig Dustin, B.S., DDS 2005; Tolarova Marie, M.D., Ph.D.,
D.Sc.
Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA


Our study is based on individuals from Venezuela (Barquisimeto and Cumana) and Guatemala
(Guatemala City).
The sample comprises 515 cases which were affected with cleft lip with or without cleft palate
(CL±P) and 252 controls (individuals without birth defect).
In order to evaluate associations of factors contributing to the etiology of CL±P, we analyzed
several epidemiological characteristics considered to be involved in causation of congenital
anomalies in orofacial region.
We learned from our previous studies, that environmental as well as genetic factors are
“location specific”, i.e. different factors may play a major role in different locations.
This study showed, that birth order of children born with cleft differed significantly between
controls and cases (p=0.006). The differences in parental age at the time of birth of a child with
a cleft were not statistically significant.
NUTRITIONAL STUDY          OF   MOTHERS      OF   CHILDREN AFFECTED           WITH   OROFACIAL
CLEFT.

Mosby T, Monlor A, Bustinduy A, Mir J, Tolarova MM.
Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA


Since Warkany‟s animal studies in the forties, a relationship between mothers‟ diet and
congenital anomalies in their offspring has been studied. Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFC)
are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Mother's diet and life style during the embryo
development seem to contribute to environmental factors involved in the etiology of OFC.
OBJECTIVES: We determined the nutritional profile of mothers of children affected with OFC in
two locations in South America (Mendoza, Argentina, and Caracas, Venezuela) where the
prevalence of orofacial clefts is high.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mendoza sample had 117 case and 101 control mothers, Caracas
sample had 60 case and 26 control mothers. A personal interview was conducted and a Food
Frequency Questionnaire specifically developed for each population, was used. Demographic,
medical and genealogical history data were also obtained.
RESULTS: Dietary intakes were compared with the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
values for pregnant women. Our study showed lower than RDA dietary intakes of folate (38%
and 49%), iron (38% and 45%), magnesium (57% and 61%), zinc (71% and 80%), and vitamin
E (65% and 83%) in Mendoza and Caracas case mothers, respectively. High intakes of vitamin
A and Retinol were found in the Mendoza sample.
CONCLUSION: Mothers in Mendoza did not have enough folate in their diet during their
pregnancies. We found previously that a significantly higher proportion of Mendoza case
mothers carried the of A80G mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene that slows
down folate metabolism. We suggest that low intake of folate contributed to development of
OFC in children of the genetically predisposed mothers. Low intake of iron, magnesium, vitamin
E and zinc, and high intake of vitamin A and Retinol deserve further investigation of their roles in
etiology of OFC.


The fieldwork was supported by Rotaplast International and data analysis by The Smile
Train/PSEF grant.
ULTRASOUNDS: . A LITTLE INFORMATION CAN GO A LONG WAY

Nguyen Thao, DDS 2004, Tolarova Marie, MD, PhD, DrSc.

Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA


Orofacial clefting is a congenital anomaly that occurs as a failure of structural facial processes
to fuse during the 5th to 12th of gestation.

Surgical repair is possible but requires a multidisciplinary approach. Early detection is beneficial
for the parents: in preparation for care of this child both emotionally and financially.

This facial defect can be diagnosed prenatally with ultrasounds and well-trained technicians.

Misdiagnoses can be a distressing situation for the parents and is noticeably observed in third
world countries, such as the one in this investigation: Guatemala City, Guatemala;
Barquisimeto, Venezuela; and Cumana, Venezuela.

In this study, we asked mothers of children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate that had an
ultrasound during the pregnancy to determine if the congenital was diagnosed prenatally.

Overwhelming, at least 90% of the cases in each of the 3 regions were not diagnosed correctly
with the highest percentage (98.6%) seen in Guatemala City.
SYNTHESIS OF QUINAMIDE-BASED DISACCHARIDE MIMETICS
Thuy Trang Nguyen, Pasit Phiasivongsa, Paul H. Gross, Andreas H. Franz*

Chemistry Department

   Oligosaccharides constitute important recognition motifs for fundamental biological
processes such as cell-cell communication, immune response, and fertilization. Whereas most
protein-carbohydrate interactions are weak, a pronounced increase in binding strength can be
observed frequently if oligosaccharide clusters are involved. This “glycoside cluster effect” has
been the foundation of efforts for the development of carbohydrate-based vaccines and drugs.
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of Small Cluster Oligosaccharide Mimetics
(SCOM). The per-O-acetylated derivative of L-fucose was synthesized by an improved method.
Tetra-O-acetyl-L-fucopyranose was converted to the glycosyl cyanide by HgBr2-promoted
reaction with trimethylsilyl cyanide (Me3SiCN). Reduction of the fucosyl cyanide in the presence
of t-butyloxycarbonyl anhydride (Boc)2O yielded the corresponding Boc-protected aminomethyl-
C-glycoside and a disaccharidic analog. Both monomer and dimer were separated by flash
column chromatography and were characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
spectroscopy and Electrospray-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). Removal of the acetyl
groups and the Boc group towards fully deprotected aminomethyl-C-glycosides was
investigated for both the C-glycoside monosaccharide and the disaccharide. The deprotected
product was coupled with the previously synthesized 4,5-O-isopropylidene-1,3-lactone of quinic
acid to yield the corresponding polyhydroxyl cluster qinamides. In separate experiments, the
isopropylidenated quinic acid lactone was coupled with D-glucamine and with the previously
synthesized    benzyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucosamine          to    yield   the
corresponding quinamides. The identity of all products was confirmed by 1D-/2D-NMR
spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OROFACIAL CLEFTS IN TRELEW AND IN CHILLAN.
Oh HS, Mosby T, Bustinduy A, Mir J, Tolarova M.


Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA


OBJECTIVE: Environmental and genetic factors are involved in etiology of orofacial clefts
(OFC). A higher prevalence has been found in populations with poorer diet and living conditions.
We compared a spectrum of environmental factors in two different locations in South America.
METHODS: We studied 72 individuals with OFC (cases) and 38 controls from Trelew,
Argentina, and 203 cases from Chillan, Chile. The diagnostic spectrum and the interview data
were evaluated. A personal interview with each mother included demographics, living
conditions, birth weight and length, socio-economic status, pregnancy history, mother's and
father's medical history, and information about nutrition and life style. Cases and controls came
from rural areas and low socio-economic status.
RESULTS: The mean age of cleft patients was 17.8 years in Trelew and 14.2 years in Chillan.
In both locations, the majority had cleft lip and palate (83% in Trelew and 75% in Chillan). In
unilateral cases, the left side was affected more often. The mean birth weight was also similar
(3196.3 g in Trelew and 3235.7 g in Chillan). We found a higher prevalence of mothers younger
than 25 years among Trelew cases, but not for Chillan cases. Weekly consumption of
vegetables was lower in OFC mothers than in controls and consumption of fresh vegetables
was very rare. Also, consumption of fresh fruit by case mothers was lower than by controls. This
finding was especially significant for the Trelew sample.
CONCLUSION: The spectrum of environmental factors is specific for each location. These
results will enable us to develop preventive measures to decrease the prevalence of clefts.
Young maternal age and mothers‟ diet low in natural sources of folate could contribute to the
high prevalence of orofacial clefts, especially in Trelew.


The fieldwork for this study was supported by Rotaplast International, Inc.
Relaxation Training as a Treatment for Pain-Aggression

Marie Ortega, Alayna Haberlin, Gabriela Hernandez,
Erika Hanson, Paige Alford, and Holly White


Psychology Department
Community Re-Entry Program

The participant was originally referred to Community Behavioral Intervention Services (CBIS) for
the target behavior of anger management. Originally, it appeared that the function of the
participant‟s behavior (anger outbursts) was a skills deficit in coming up with appropriate ways
to cope with the anger. Based on historical data collected from the participant and past clinical
experience, it was later hypothesized that the participant may have been exhibiting pain-
aggression behavior. Training protocol consisted of teaching the participant relaxation skills and
problem solving skills. In addition, role-plays were utilized to improve the participant‟s ability to
communicate health issues and levels of pain. The participant learned to utilize all the above-
mentioned skills and anger outbursts maintained at zero for a follow up period of approximately
two months.
Involvement of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD in protein binding on cell surfaces
Student Author(s): Chirag Patel
Faculty Research Advisor: Dr. Jianhua Ren

University of the Pacific,Department of Chemistry


The short sequence like Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is primarily involved in protein binding on cell
surfaces. Model studies using RGD and RGD-derived peptide are very important toward
understanding the biological function of RGD-containing peptides. However RGD peptides are
not easily available commercially.

We synthesized the tripeptide RGD using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The Wang
Resin was used as the solid support. The amino acids Asp, Gly and Arg were coupled to the
Wang Resin, respectively. The coupling reagents used were diisoproplycarbodiimide (DIC) and
1-Hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT). The amino acids used were protected with 9-
fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) at the N-terminus. This N-terminus protecting group was
removed by basic piperidine. An UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used to determine the progress
of the deprotection reaction, for fmoc absorbs UV light at 301 nm. Once the entire peptide chain
Arg-Gly-Asp was linked to the resin, the peptide was cleaved with Triflouroacetic acid (TFA).

The solution obtained was concentrated with a rotovap. Chloroform extraction was performed to
remove organic impurities. A crude peptide was obtained by removing the solvent using a
centrifuge liked to a vacuum pump. The crude peptide was introduced in a mass spectrometer
for MS/MS analysis.
Michaelis Constants Ratio for two substrates with mold and yeast
-galactosidases
Nataliya M. Samoshina* ‡, Vyacheslav V. Samoshin †


* Research Institute Biotekhnologiya, Kashirskoe shosse 24/17, Moscow, 115478, Russia,
and † Department of Chemistry, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211, USA

______________________________________________________________________
The ratio of Michaelis constants (MCR) with two substrates (lactose and o/p-nitrophenyl--D-
galactopyranoside, NPG) is found to be approximately constant for certain groups of fungal -
galactosidases: 35  3 and 10  1.5 for the mold and yeast enzymes respectively.

MCR = KM(lactose) / KM(NPG)

In accordance with the customary use of KM for a comparison of enzyme-substrate affinity, the
MCR parameter may be roughly interpreted as a relative substrate affinity. It remains nearly the
same for different mold (or yeast) -galactosidases, though the affinity to a particular substrate
may vary essentially from enzyme to enzyme. This may be a manifestation of structural
similarity of binding sites for these enzymes. MCR can be used for identification of related
enzymes. A deviation of MCR for a particular enzyme from the group parameter might be an
indication of possible errors in KM determination, or in assignment of the enzyme to this group.

Keywords: -Galactosidase; Michaelis constant; Relative substrate affinity.
Using precision teaching to increase medication knowledge in adults
diagnosed with a mental illness

Staci Saylors, Xeres Delmendo & Tina Hopson

Psychology Department
Community Re-Entry Program

The participants for this study will include independent adults diagnosed with a mental illness,
as well as students and staff from a four year university who are not diagnosed with a mental
illness. Precision teaching will be used to increase fluency of medication knowledge. The
average length of time for 5 diagnosed and 5 undiagnosed participants to answer all medication
knowledge questions will be collected to set initial time intervals for training. Once a participant
has reached fluency, time intervals will be reduced by 5 seconds, until the participant is no
longer reducing the number of errors. Results from the two populations will be compared.
Using precision teaching to increase social skills fluency in an adult
diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia
Staci Saylors, Lauren Wasano, Cynthia Lopez, Adrienne F. D. Granadosin

Psychology Department
Community Re-Entry Program

The consumer for this study was an adult diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia who was
receiving Community Behavioral Intervention Services. When referred for services, the
consumer demonstrated specific social skills deficits in the areas of initiating conversations and
maintaining conversations. According to both care provider and consumer reports, he had
limited social interaction with peers, particularly those outside of the mental health system.
Precision teaching was used to increase his rate of responding and to train his specific social
skills deficits. Timing occurred from 1 – 3 times a week. The consumer showed significant
improvement after training.
SYNTHESIS AND NMR-ANALYSIS OF 2-AMINO-2-DEOXY-
MANNURONIC ACID DERIVATIVES
Katina Sigillo, Tony Chiu, Paul H. Gross, Andreas H. Franz*


Chemistry Department


   Aminosugars constitute abundant building blocks of naturally occurring polysaccharides or
antibiotics. The most frequently found aminosugars are members of the class of 2-amino-2-D-
hexoses. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine for example is a major constituent of biologically important
polysaccharides such as hyaluronic acid and keratan sulfate, and is the anchor for N-linked
glycans in many glycoproteins. N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine can be found in the chondroitin
sulfate family, in dermatan sulfate, and as the O-glycosidically linked unit in many glycosylated
proteins. It has been shown that metabolic pathways of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-
D-mannosamine can be exploited for cell surface engineering. Altered cell surface
oligosaccharides offer thus a way for the study of cell-cell interactions. For such studies to be
meaningful, it is important to have well-characterized simple carbohydrate building blocks and
synthetic strategies in hand.
   This paper reports the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy derivatives of D-altrose, D-allose, D-
glucose, and D-mannose starting from D-glucose. The protected mannosamines were
subsequently converted into 2-amino-2-deoxy-mannuronic acids by oxidation. The structures of
the products were confirmed by 1H-,     13
                                           C-, 1H-1H-COSY, and 1H-13C-COSY (HETCOR) Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Observed coupling constants were correlated with
the molecule‟s average solution conformation by the Karplus equation.



                                   (OH)n                       (OH)n-x
            wide rim                                                        O
                                                                                   x
            2o alcohols
                                               Br

                                                 t-BuONa
            narrow rim                       (or Na/dioxane)
            1o alcohols                                                     CH2O
                                (CH2OH)m                       (CH2OH)m-y              y
                  -CD: n = 14, m = 7
Update on Primary Prevention of Cleft lip and Palate Anomalies.

Tolarova MM1, Mosby T1, Estupinan-Day S2.

1
Department of Orthodontics, UOP School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA,
2
Pan American Health Organization, Division of Oral Health, Washington, DC, USA

As many as 700 children are born every day with orofacial cleft in the world. One baby every
two minutes. The treatment of cleft anomalies has tremendously improved and many children
with a cleft have a normal life. However, with projected population increase, a number of
individuals affected with a cleft will increase, if we do not invest in prevention. Our research and
studies by others have shown that a significant proportion of nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate
(NCLP) can be prevented by periconceptional supplementation with folic acid (FA).
OBJECTIVE: To update a protocol for primary prevention of NCLP.
METHOD: We combined results of our studies and works by others focused on environmental
and genetic factors, and mothers' nutrition in relation to NCLP etiology.
RESULTS: Different daily doses of FA administered periconceptionally are needed for
prevention of occurrences and recurrences. Our previous studies showed a decrease of
recurrences by 65% when multivitamins and 10 mg of FA were daily administered to the mother,
and a decrease of occurrences by 27-50% when 400 mcg of FA were daily obtained by the
mother from her diet. Mother's diet low in FA and zinc, especially when genetic susceptibility is
increased by mutations of candidate genes (C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate
gene, A80G mutation of the reduced folate carrier 1 gene) increases a risk for having a baby
affected with NCLP. A spectrum of environmental and genetic factors was found to differ in each
location studied.
CONCLUSION: Detailed data on mother's nutrition, lifestyle, medical and genetic history
combined with ascertainment of mutations in candidate genes are suggested for individual
prevention protocols, while considering a baseline information from an appropriate population
and location.


The studies included in this presentation were supported by Rotaplast International and by The
Smile Train/PSEF.
Components of Precision Teaching for Training Literacy Skills to
Individuals Diagnosed with Mental Illness
Mari R. Ueda, Carolynn Kohn, Holly White

Psychology Department
Community Re-Entry Program


To assess literacy skills, pretest and posttest assessment measures included the Wide Range
Achievement – Third Edition (WRAT-III) – Measure of Written Decoding, the Nelson-Denny
Reading Test, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) – Reading Recognition.
The precision teaching training module was derived from the Victory Drill Book: A Phonetic
Approach to Reading with an Emphasis on Speed. This practicum study focused on enhancing
literacy skills to individuals diagnosed with mental illness, using components of precision
teaching.
The Use of an Errorless Learning Technique to Teach Basic Internet
and Email Usage Skills to a Mentally Ill Population

Lauren C. Wasano, Emiko Nakagawa, Carolynn Kohn, Holly White

Psychology Department
Community Re-Entry Program

This study investigated the use of an errorless learning technique in teaching basic internet and
email usage skills to a mentally ill population. Two participants were recruited from the Martin
Gipson Socialization Center. Task analyses were used to teach participants various internet
and email usage skills. Teaching methods based on an errorless learning technique were
utilized in the training sessions. Pretest measures displayed participants‟ knowledge of
computer terminology and internet and email usage prior to training. These scores were then
compared to the participants‟ own posttest scores at the end to evaluate effectiveness of the
training sessions. A follow-up session evaluated retention of skills and vocabulary learned in
intervention.
Music as a Focus of Attention during Distraction Conditions:
A Study with Young Children
David E. Wolfe, Laura K. Noguchi

University of the Pacific, Conservatory of Music, Stockton, CA

       Within the past several decades, a growing number of researchers have been interested
in exploring the application of music during painful medical procedures. One of the primary
functions of music during these procedures is to distract a patient‟s attention, thoughts, or
awareness away from the painful procedure and the environment in which it takes place. Music
that functions as a distraction can assist an individual in focusing and redirecting his/her
attention away from the painful and anxiety-producing event to something which is perceived as
pleasant and nonpainful. Few “basic” studies exist that examine music, in any systematic
manner, as a focus of attention during distraction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to
examine the use of music as a focus of attention with young children during distraction
conditions.
       Seventy-seven kindergarten students from a public school in a metropolitan area in the
western region of the United States participated in this study. The sample was predominantly
Hispanic (approximately 75 percent), with the rest of the participants being of Caucasian, Asian-
American, African-American or other background. The 44 boys and 33 girls, whose ages
ranged from 5 to 5.5 years, were randomly assigned to one of four conditions/groups: 1) spoken
story with no distraction [n=21]; 2) spoken story with distraction [n=18]; 3) musical story with no
distraction [ n=17]; and 4) musical story with distraction [n=20]. The final analysis involved data
from 76 participants. The musical story/song presented in the study was “Little Squirrel”
(Kindermusik, n.d.), a CD recording with an adult male voice and instrumental accompaniment.
The spoken version of the story/song was recited at the same tempo as the musical verses by
an adult male, and was recorded onto a CD using SoundEdit 16 and Disc Burner for Macintosh.
These selections (spoken and sung), both 1 minute and 56 seconds in duration, were presented
at a volume of 78 to 88 dB via Aiwa XP-V70 portable CD player and Aiwa HP-M028
headphones. Visual aids depicting actions and animals in the story were created. There were
five action visuals: Squirrel shaking tail, wiggling nose, digging a hole, cracking a nut, and taking
a nap. There were also five animal visuals: Mouse, owl, rabbit, bee, and dog. The ten
laminated visuals had Velcro backings, and were placed on a Velcro board.
       Three distracter sounds were presented: Ambulance siren (duration=4 seconds,
occurring at 33 seconds within the story/song), people talking (duration=12 seconds, occurring
at 1 minute 9 seconds), and telephone ringing (duration=9 seconds, occurring at 1 minute 41
seconds). The sounds were recorded on a CD with Adaptec Easy CD Creator4 for PC, and
presented via Philips Magnavox AZ1010 CD/Radio/Cassette Recorder. The CD recorder was
positioned on a table approximately 12 to 15 inches behind the child, yielding sound levels
ranging from 75 to 92 dB. A RadioShack 61-2667A keychain remote-control system was
utilized to allow the experimenter to turn on the CD recorder without drawing attention to it.
       The participant was informed that he/she would be listening to “a story about a squirrel
that did many things and saw many animals when he was running around. I would like you to
point at the picture [on the Velcro board] that shows me what the squirrel did.” The child then
listened to the story, and the experimenter sat quietly and kept a tally of correct responses (child
points to correct actions/animals at appropriate times throughout the story/song).
       A one-way analysis of variance was used to assess the difference in mean scores
across the four experimental conditions. Significant results were found (F=4.52, df=3, p=.006)
with the following mean values: Story with no distraction M=11.00; story with distraction
M=10.28; musical story with no distraction M=15.47; musical story with distraction M=15.90.
Tukey post hoc/multiple comparisons test was further calculated to determine significance
among the mean scores. Significant results were found between story with distraction condition
and musical story with distraction condition. The young participants in this study seemed to be
more focused, engaged, and attentive during the musical story conditions, whether with or
without distraction, compared to the spoken story conditions, with or without distraction. These
results are discussed in relationship to current clinical practice within pediatric settings using
music as a focus of attention during painful medical procedures.
TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF NEW INHIBITORS FOR CARBOHYDRATE-
PROCESSING ENZYMES
Sedonia Yoshida, Barbora Brazdova, Vyacheslav Samoshin

Department of Chemistry, University of the Pacific

C-Glycosides are the chemically and metabolically stable analogs of carbohydrates. They can
compete with natural carbohydrates in many biochemical processes. In particular,
C-glycosides may interact with enzymes (the biocatalysts that transform carbohydrates) and
deactivate (inhibit) them. Therefore, C-glycosides are potential therapeutic agents against many
diseases.
         We synthesized new potential inhibitors for these enzymes, which formulas are shown
below. The series of these compounds will be expanded and tested for the enzyme inhibitory
activity.

                  HO                                 HO
                                                          H3C
                                                                O
                                    COOR                               COOR

                     HO                                HO
                                 R = CH3, or C6H13

				
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