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Community Supported Agriculture:
Local Farms to Local Employers

                      This guide is based on a project funded by the
                              Golden Leaf Foundation and
                         North Carolina Cooperative Extension.

     The project is located in North Carolina and includes the following participants:
                            The Research Triangle Institute (RTI)
                             International, Research Triangle Park,
                                Brinkley Farms, Creedmoor
                             The Growing Station, Wake Forest
                               Hannah Creek Farm, Four Oaks
                              Harland’s Creek Farm, Pittsboro
                                   Mystic Farm, Pittsboro
                                Nu Horizons Farm, Pittsboro
                               Timberwood Organics, Efland

                                   Project Manager:
                                    Theresa Nartea
                          North Carolina A&T State University

                                  Principal Investigators:
                          Dr. Nancy Creamer, Dr. Noah Rannells
                              North Carolina State University

                                      Prepared by
                                   Denise M. Finney
                             North Carolina State University
                                       May 2006

Community Supported Agriculture:
Connecting Local Farms to Local Employers

                                         Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   iv
                                         Community Supported Agriculture: Concepts and Challenges
                                           What is CSA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         1
                                           The Universal Challenge: Recruiting and Retaining CSA Members . . . . . . .                                      3
                                           Marketing to Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              3
                                           Workplaces as CSA Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 4
                                         The RTI-CSA Program: A Pilot Project in Workplace CSA
       Published by the                    Project Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       5
   Center for Environmental                Year 1—2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        8
  Farming Systems (CEFS), a                Year 2—2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        11
         partnership of
     North Carolina State                  Year 3—2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        12
  University, North Carolina               2006 Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         16
   Agricultural & Technical              Hosting a Workplace CSA
   State University, and the               Why Host a CSA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          18
 North Carolina Department
                                           What Does a CSA Host Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 18
 of Agriculture and Consumer
            Services.                      Building a Strong Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                19
 For more information about                The Importance of an Employee Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            20
             CEFS                        Farm Participation in a Workplace CSA
   and for additional copies               Your Marketing Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              21
                                           Partnering with a Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                21
The Center for Environmental
       Farming Systems                     Working in Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            22
North Carolina State University          Cooperative Extension Support for a Workplace CSA
      Campus Box 7609                      Identification and Recruitment of a Host Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             23
     Raleigh, NC 27695                     Matching Consumer Interests with Local CSA Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               23
                                           Facilitating a Strong CSA Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  23
Distributed in furtherance of the          Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       25
acts of Congress of May 8 and June
30, 1914. North Carolina State             References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       25
University and North Carolina A&T          CSA Resource List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          26
State University commit themselves
to positive action to secure equal       Appendices
opportunity regardless of race, color,   Appendix 1. Farm Promotion and Application Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               28
creed, national origin, religion, sex,
age, or disability. In addition, the     Appendix 2. RTI Employee CSA Interest Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         41
two Universities welcome all persons     Appendix 3. Sample Informational Materials for Consumers . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 48
without regard to sexual orientation.
North Carolina State University, North   Appendix 4. RTI Employee CSA Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        50
Carolina A&T State University, U.S.      Appendix 5. 2004 program brochure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      62
Department of Agriculture, and local
governments cooperating.

     Community supported agriculture (CSA)           • a pick-up location convenient to CSA
     is widely recognized as an effective way           shareholders (their place of employ-
     to build direct connections between                ment),
     small- and medium-sized farmers and local       • coordinated on-site opportunities for
     consumers. The most common CSA model               potential shareholders to meet with CSA
     involves a single farm that sells shares           farmers, and
     to individuals and families, and delivers       • an internal communication network to
     products during the growing season at              promote the CSA concept and provide
     designated drop points, such as the farm,          advertising for each farmer in the pro-
     farmers markets, share members’ homes,             gram.
     or other public spaces. One of the most            The opportunity to market to this
     significant challenges a farmer faces in        targeted audience allowed several local
     developing a CSA is member recruitment.         farmers to build new CSA programs and
     Currently, the most effective way to build      expand the membership of existing CSA
     CSA membership is by word of mouth              enterprises.
     (Kolodinsky and Pelch, 1997), which often          This guide explains how to develop a
     results in a slow build-up of shareholder       workplace CSA program like that at RTI.
     numbers.                                        It describes the process by which the RTI-
        Shareholder recruitment and retention        CSA program was initiated and developed
     depends on several factors, including con-      during the first three years of its existence.
     sumer familiarity with the CSA concept          Based on the lessons learned at RTI, this
     and convenience of pick-up locations,           guide can be a resource for workplaces,
     among others. Many farmers have ad-             farmers, and others involved in workplace
     dressed these factors by approaching mem-       CSA:
     bers of existing groups to recruit sharehold-   • Potential host workplaces will find in-
     ers. Groups can be an effective way to share       formation on their responsibilities as
     information about CSA, and they often              CSA hosts and suggestions on how to ef-
     have a shared location that members can            fectively support a CSA farm or group of
     conveniently access. Workplaces——in-               farms.
     cluding businesses, corporations, and other     • CSA farmers will find this guide a valu-
     employers—represent potential groups of            able resource when considering whether
     consumers that farmers could gain access           to use a workplace CSA and how to do
     to and inform about the value of CSA.              so. It contains sample materials that
        With funding from the Golden LEAF               farmers can use when approaching po-
     Foundation and North Carolina Coopera-             tential host institutions, and it describes
     tive Extension, the Center for Environmen-         some CSA farms that have been suc-
     tal Farming Systems initiated a program            cessful in recruiting and retaining work-
     in 2002 to connect new and existing CSA            place shareholders.
     farmers to a strong potential market for the    • Cooperative Extension agents, universi-
     CSA concept—employees of the Research              ties, and nonprofit organizations inter-
     Triangle Institute International (RTI), lo-        ested in initiating a similar program will
     cated in Research Triangle Park, North             find information on developing work-
     Carolina. As a host institution, RTI offered       place CSA projects.
     farmers these advantages:

Community Supported Agriculture:
Concepts and Challenges

What Is CSA?                                     the weekly harvest among its members as
                                                 shares. In return, shareholders provided
Direct marketing has proven to be a suc-         more than pre-season capital. They were
cessful marketing strategy for many              also often involved in decision-making as
farmers, especially those with small and         well as on-farm work. CSA pioneers, such
medium-sized farms that have difficulty          as Robyn Van En and Elizabeth Henderson,
competing with large operations in whole-        call this the community farm model because
sale markets (USDA, 2000). One direct mar-       community members were involved in the
keting channel that has seen considerable        life of the farm (Henderson and Van En,
growth in recent years is community sup-         1999). However, as journalist Steve McFad-
ported agriculture (CSA). In 2005, the year      den recently noted, “CSA [has] diversified
that marked the 20th anniversary of CSA in       into a range of legal and social forms, with
the United States, an estimated 1,700 farms      philosophically oriented CSAs on one end
practiced CSA in all regions of the country      and commercially oriented subscription
(McFadden, 2004).                                farms at the other” (McFadden, 2004).
   At the heart of all CSA operations is the     Some aspects of community farms are no
relationship between a farmer and mem-           longer part of many CSA farms.
bers of the local community who purchase
shares of the coming year’s harvest. By            What members contribute has changed.
making a pre-season payment, CSA mem-            On many early CSA farms, core groups
bers, or shareholders, assume part of the risk   of shareholders were actively involved in
inherent in farming, such as the potential       farm decision-making. Today less then 30
for weather, pests, or other natural occur-      percent of CSA farms have such groups
rences to destroy a crop. Pre-season pay-        (Lass et al., 2003). Required on-farm work
ments also provide cash flow for farmers         (such as planting, weeding, or harvesting
to purchase seed and other inputs for the        crops) is also becoming less common on
coming growing season. In return, farm-          CSA farms. These changes in shareholder
ers serve their shareholders by providing        involvement may be related to the role of
products that meet agreed upon expecta-          CSA in a farm’s overall marketing plan.
tions for quality, quantity, and production
   Despite this common thread of relation-
ship with their shareholders, today’s CSA
                                                                                                Figure 1.
farms are highly diverse. CSA farms vary
                                                                                                In addition to
in what they ask members to contribute to                                                       traditional mixed-
the farm, the role of CSA in an overall mar-                                                    basket shares, CSA
keting plan, how they define a share, what                                                      farms now offer
they produce, and the production practices                                                      members opportunities
they use.                                                                                       to choose items in their
                                                                                                weekly share.

  The traditional model. Traditionally,
CSA farms raised a diversity of vegetables,
fruits, herbs, and cut flowers and divided

       A growing number of farms with some          sity increases, farmers may offer members
    form of CSA also use other marketing            products such as eggs, honey, and value-
    channels. In a recent survey of CSA farm-       added products through their CSA. Live-
    ers, only 37 percent reported dedicating        stock farms, dairies, and other specialty
    more than 90 percent of their cropland to       producers have also created CSA-based mar-
    CSA (Lass et al., 2003). Instead of being       keting programs to sell their products to lo-
    the primary activity around which a farm        cal consumers. For many of these products,
    is structured, as promoted by the original      once-a-week delivery isn’t necessary or
    CSA philosophy, CSA has become a more           feasible, leading to the creation of new CSA
    business-oriented marketing strategy. On        structures for non-produce items. Through-
    many farms, CSA is one of many channels         out the United States, there are also several
    used to market products. Additional out-        examples of multi-farm CSA (also referred
    lets—such as farmers markets and whole-         to as farmer cooperative or collaborative CSA)
    sale distributors—provide ways to make          in which several farmers contribute items
    additional profit on surplus items. Though      to a weekly share, offering consumers a
    this may lead to less community involve-        greater variety in the items they can choose
    ment in the farm, CSA-based marketing           to purchase through a single CSA.
    remains an effective means of engaging the
    public in agriculture and food production.         One aspect of CSA has not changed:
    In 1999, 82 percent of CSA farms surveyed       its use by farmers who employ environ-
    offered on-farm events such as potluck din-     mentally responsible production prac-
    ners, farm tours, and educational programs      tices. Ninety-four percent of CSA farmers
    (Lass et al., 2003).                            surveyed in 1999 reported that they used
                                                    organic or biodynamic practices on their
       The definition of a typical share has        farms (Lass et al., 2003). These practices
    changed. Though many farms continue             create a more sustainable agriculture, and
    to distribute the traditional mixed box, a      consumers can use their influential food
    number of CSA enterprises use alternative       dollars to promote a cleaner and healthier
    structures to give consumers greater choices    environment. This trend does not imply,
    in what they receive or to save farmers time    however, that every CSA farm is or needs
    and money. For example, some CSA farm-          to be certified organic. Honest commu-
    ers allow consumers to select the items and     nication between farmers and their CSA
    quantities they would like each week, with      members is critical. As consumers become
    a cap on the market value of each order.        aware of the environmental impacts of
    Others use a debit account model with bal-      agriculture, their buying choices are often
    ance sheets to track the market value of        influenced by what they know about how
    items shareholders select at a weekly CSA       their food is produced. Using and advertis-
    market stand until they have “spent” their      ing environmentally friendly practices can
    membership fee. Still others have adopted       help CSA farms attract new members, just
    a subscription model through which share-       as fulfilling the obligation to raise food fol-
    holders receive a pre-determined quantity       lowing those practices is an important part
    of an item or items on a weekly, monthly,       of retaining members.
    or seasonal basis. CSA farms may even use a        Since its introduction to the United
    combination of share types, depending on        States 20 years ago, the concept of CSA has
    their shareholders’ interests. These changes    undergone considerable change and taken
    in share definition are related to the chang-   on a variety of forms. Today, CSA-based
    ing products offered by CSA farms.              marketing is a viable alternative for many
                                                    producers and flexible enough to allow
      CSA has expanded beyond farms that            farmers to create a CSA program that fits
    primarily raise produce. As on-farm diver-      their operation, experience, and values.

The Universal Challenge:                        Marketing to Groups
Recruiting and Retaining
Members                                         As today’s CSA enterprises take diverse
                                                forms, many of which are more business
                                                and customer service oriented, CSA
One critical step in establishing a new                                                         WHY BUY LOCAL?
                                                membership will become appealing to
CSA is recruiting shareholders. This task                                                       When you buy locally
                                                a greater portion of the general public.
remains a priority for most established CSA                                                     produced foods, you:
                                                In other words, instead of drawing
enterprises as well. Member retention rates
                                                membership from the small population
reported for CSA enterprises range from                                                         1. Buy fresher, more
                                                that values the original CSA philosophy,
50 to 90 percent per year. For example, in                                                         nutritious foods.
                                                farmers now have the opportunity
a post-season survey of members of seven                                                        2. Reduce energy
                                                to sell CSA membership to nearly all
CSA farms in the southeastern United                                                               consumption.
                                                food consumers. One way to reach this
States, 63 percent said they planned to re-                                                     3. Increase regional
                                                expanding audience is to promote CSA
join the following spring (Kane and Lohr,                                                          economic health.
                                                to members of existing groups, such
1996). In the book Sharing the Harvest, two                                                     4. Encourage a
                                                as civic organizations, churches, and
farmers said they counted on losing 10 to                                                          self-sufficient
15 percent of their members from one year                                                          community.
                                                   Many CSA farmers have successfully
to the next (Henderson and Van En, 1999).                                                       5. Help preserve
                                                used the group approach to recruit and re-
Any farmer who adopts CSA as a marketing                                                           biodiversity.
                                                tain members. This approach can play an
strategy must be prepared to continually                                                        6. Preserve the rural
                                                important role in cultivating greater par-
recruit new members to remain viable.                                                              character of the
                                                ticipation in CSA because it offers several
  CSA farms use a variety of tools to re-                                                       7. Avoid post-harvest
cruit members. Farmers hold events on                                                              contamination.
                                                  Most groups have communication mech-
their farms, send out brochures and flyers,                                                     8. Support your local
                                                anisms in place. Communication is critical
run advertisements in local media, and                                                             farmers!
                                                to member recruitment and retention as a
conduct membership drives (Strochlic and
                                                way to:
Shelley, 2004). For many CSA farms, exist-
                                                • educate consumers about CSA,
ing customers from farmers markets and
                                                • provide consumers the opportunity to
other direct sales often form their initial
                                                  join a CSA,
                                                • build a strong relationship between
                                                  farmer and members, and
  The most effective recruiting tool is
                                                • keep members connected to the life of
word-of-mouth promotion, according to
                                                  the farm.
both farmers and CSA shareholders. It does
                                                  By working with groups, farmers can use
not require a great deal of financial invest-
                                                group meetings, newsletters, Internet sites,
ment and often attracts new members
                                                and other communication tools to intro-
who are dedicated to the philosophy of
                                                duce CSA to new audiences and provide
CSA. On the other hand, word-of-mouth
                                                information to current members. These
recruitment can lead to homogeneity in
                                                tools offer CSA farmers a lot of “free press”
membership and limit access to CSA. It is
                                                that may lead to new memberships and en-
often unreliable (particularly for smaller
                                                courage membership renewal.
farmers), and may require several seasons
to build membership to an acceptable level
                                                  Members of a group often influence one
(Strochlic and Shelley, 2004). New ways
                                                another. This means that members of the
of reaching potential members could help
                                                group can encourage one another to partic-
CSA farms build and maintain membership
                                                ipate in a CSA (especially if they have had
levels, whether CSA is their only marketing
channel or one of several.
    a positive CSA experience). In addition, if a   larly assembled at a location shared by the
    person in the group is hesitant about trying    group or easily accessible to its members.
    something new, they may be encouraged
    to do so if they have the support of other
    group members.                                  Workplaces as CSA Groups

       Groups offer a convenient way to deliver     Workplaces—including businesses, corpo-
    weekly shares. A major factor influencing       rations, and other employers—consist of
    the decision to join a CSA is the pick-up       employees who share a location and rely
    location and schedule for weekly shares.        on an established infrastructure. Thus,
    Consumers are more likely to join a CSA         workplaces might be good avenues for con-
    if their pick-up location does not require      necting local farmers to groups of potential
    them to travel great distances or interrupt     customers and marketing CSA shares. The
    their weekly schedules. By coordinating         next section of this guide describes the
    with a group, a CSA can provide its mem-        RTI-CSA Program, a pilot project in North
    bers a convenient pick-up time and loca-        Carolina that is testing the concept of a
    tion, and deliver when the group is regu-       workplace CSA.

The RTI-CSA Program:
A Pilot Project in Workplace CSA
Considering the potential benefits of build-     effectively utilize RTI as a CSA host. Fund-
ing relationships between CSA farmers and        ing from the Golden LEAF Foundation and
existing groups, the Center for Environ-         North Carolina Cooperative Extension
mental Farming Systems (CEFS, a partner-         enabled CEFS to hire a project coordinator,
ship of North Carolina State University,         produce materials promoting the RTI-CSA
North Carolina A&T University, and the           program, and offer training and consulta-
North Carolina Department of Agriculture         tion to farmer participants, all of which
and Consumer Services) set out in 2002 to        contributed to the success of the project.
establish a pilot project to test the concept
of workplace CSA: marketing CSA shares             Host company recruitment. Research
to the employees of a local company. With        Triangle Institute (RTI) was one of several
funding from the Golden LEAF Foundation          companies invited by CEFS to host the
and North Carolina Cooperative Exten-            workplace CSA pilot program. In 2002,
sion, CEFS initiated a program with the          project leaders sent targeted invitations to
Research Triangle Institute (RTI) that en-       companies with 1,500 or more employees
abled local farmers to market CSA shares to      located in Research Triangle Park, a re-
RTI employees, using RTI infrastructure to       search campus near Raleigh and Durham
promote the program among its employees          that is home to more than 100 companies
and an RTI parking lot to serve as a share       employing approximately 40,000 workers.
pick-up site. RTI is a nonprofit research        The project target was to recruit at least 150
institute with approximately 1,700 employ-       new CSA members (across all participating
ees on its Research Triangle Park campus         farms) and encourage 10 percent employee
in North Carolina and 2,100 employees            participation at the host company. When
worldwide. The first season of the CSA           possible, invitations were addressed to per-
program was 2003. By 2005, six farms were        sonal contacts within each company. In the
offering CSA shares to employees of RTI          case of RTI, project leaders personally con-
and other companies located in RTP, selling
approximately 200 memberships.
                                                   Figure 2. North Carolina State University hosted a Web site to promote the RTI-CSA
                                                   program for the first two years of the project.
Project Initiation

CEFS initiated the RTI-CSA project in 2002
with two objectives: to build the capacity
of local farmers to run a CSA and to open
a market for new and existing CSA farmers
at a large employer in the Triangle area (Ra-
leigh, Durham, Chapel Hill). As a third par-
ty initiator of this project, CEFS recruited a
company willing to participate, conducted
farmer and market surveys, recruited farm-
ers to participate in the workplace CSA
program, provided training for farmers new
to CSA, and carried out the work needed to

                                 tacted a company vice-president who had            closely with the CEFS project coordinator
                                 previously attended a workshop at CEFS             on program details, such as providing a
                                 and was aware of the social, economic,             pick-up location on the RTI campus and
                                 and environmental issues the CSA project           carrying out promotional activities. Her
                                 aimed to address. Project coordinator The-         expertise in communications served the
                                 resa Nartea believes that working through          program very well. The initial advertising
                                 this type of established relationship with a       and recruiting efforts depended on good
                                 company vice president was advantageous.           communication materials and strategies.
                                 Administrators at this level are in the posi-      She also helped to form a volunteer CSA
                                 tion to introduce new company programs.            Employee Outreach Committee at RTI to
                                 In addition, working directly with someone         assist with CSA activities.
                                 within the company who had an under-
                                 standing of the value of local food systems           Farmer recruitment. An on-line survey
                                 facilitated discussions about the project          hosted by the Growing Small Farms Web
                                 and fostered a willingness to participate          site (a site managed by the Chatham Coun-
                                 in a pilot program despite potential chal-         ty Cooperative Extension Center, http://
                                    After learning about the program, RTI           dex.html) was used to make initial contact
                                 appointed its employee communications              with farmers within 60 miles of Research
                                 supervisor to serve as an on-site volun-           Triangle Park. The program was marketed
                                 teer project leader. This volunteer worked         to farmers as an opportunity to expand
                                                                                    their direct marketing options and learn
    Figure 3. The RTI-CSA program is located in Research Triangle Park (RTP). All   how to run a CSA. Farmers were required
    participating farms are within 60 miles of RTP.                                 to have some direct marketing experience
                                                                                    (though not necessarily CSA) and a will-
                                                                                    ingness to operate a CSA. Area extension
                                                                                    agents, many of whom participated in an
                                                                                    informational meeting held to describe the
                                                                                    project, also played a critical role in notify-
                                                                                    ing farmers about this opportunity. Sixteen
                                                                                    farms applied to participate in the 2003
                                                                                    pilot season, four of which had an existing
                                                                                    CSA program.

                                                                                      Share options. Participating farms offered
                                                                                    a broad range of products through CSA,
                                                                                    including vegetables, fruit, cheese, eggs,
                                                                                    meats, firewood, jams, honey, and baked
                                                                                    goods. RTI employees would be given the
                                                                                    opportunity to purchase shares from the
                                                                                    farms of their choice to receive the specific
                                                                                    goods they wanted through CSA buying.
                                                                                    For example, a customer could purchase
                                                                                    one share from a vegetable grower, another
                                                                                    share from a meat producer, and a third
                                                                                    share for eggs.
                                                                                      The planning team discussed several
                                                                                    share options for this multi-farm program.
                                                                                    For example, one alternative could have

been to assist farmers in pooling their prod-
ucts in order to sell more comprehensive
                                                   Lessons Learned: Beginning Strategies
packages instead of individual farmers sell-
                                                    The involvement of a third-party initiator, CEFS in this instance, rep-
ing shares. The project, however, opted to
                                                    resents one way to establish a workplace CSA. Such a program could
have each farmer manage his/her own CSA,
                                                    also be led by a Cooperative Extension Center or a nonprofit organi-
which would foster relationships between
                                                    zation. In addition, farmers and employers could also work with one
the individual farmers and their sharehold-
                                                    another directly to develop a workplace CSA. Some of the funds for
ers. In addition, this structure allowed each
                                                    the RTI-CSA program were dedicated to building the farmers’ ability
farmer in the program to be independent
                                                    to effectively run a CSA. This training is not, however, required to be-
and fully responsible for his/her own mem-
                                                    gin a workplace CSA. The costliest parts of starting a workplace CSA
berships, quality control, and other points
                                                    are promotion and organization. Promotional costs can be minimized
that could become potential issues among
                                                    by using cost-effective strategies, such as on-site meet-and-greet
participating farmers. The farmers did work
                                                    days, Web-based advertising, and the host company’s internal com-
together to promote the CSA concept and
                                                    munication channels. Farmers may also choose to budget for printed
market CSA shares to RTI employees. In ad-
                                                    materials as individuals or a group, or the host company may be able
dition, several farmers teamed up to share
                                                    to provide funds for such materials. Farmers and companies who do
delivery responsibilities and took turns de-
                                                    wish to initiate a workplace CSA though a direct relationship should
livering one another’s shares to the weekly
                                                    understand that the project will be labor intensive and require time
                                                    from both the farmer(s) and the company representative(s).

   Farmer training. Farmers in the program
who did not have an existing CSA partici-
pated in training sessions on CSA design,
management, and promotion. The CEFS
project coordinator, Theresa Nartea, also                                                                                                                                Figure 4.
provided individual consultation to ensure                                                                                                                               Sample
that all farmers in the program had a CSA
marketing plan, promotional materials,          Brinkley Farms has been a family operation since 1941. Our farm
                                                is located in Northside, NC which is a small community between
and a membership application before the         Raleigh and Durham. We proudly grow all our own produce and
                                                                                                                                                                         by a new
                                                market directly to our customers. We have been able to survive in
first season of the program, which began in     farming because we value our customers and their opinions, and
                                                we try to keep learning and doing new things to serve our                                                                CSA farm for
                                                customers. We hope to be able to serve you in 2004!
April 2003. (See Appendix 1 for examples                                                                                                                                 the RTI-CSA
                                                Name:             William & Diane Brinkley
of farm promotional materials and mem-          Farm Name:        Brinkley Farms                                                                                         program.
bership applications.) The CSA training as-     Phone:
                                                                  10225 Boyce Road, Creedmoor, NC 27522
                                                                                                                                                                         samples of
pect of this project and the development of                                                                           Kristin Brinkley proudly delivering a
                                                                                                                      weekly share box to RTI employee!
a workplace CSA program were considered         We are offering two 2004 seasonal sessions:
                                                Spring/Summer (10 weeks) and Summer/Fall (12 weeks). In addition, we are making three different share sizes
as separate project components. All farmers     available to accommodate your family. The table below is an example of the different seasonal sessions and share         used in the
                                                combinations you can choose from. We definitely have more variety available, but this is just a typical idea of how we
involved in a workplace program, however,       are working out our share offerings to you. Our family will need to have a minimum of 14 family shares, OR 20            program can
                                                couple shares, OR 40 individual shares to make deliveries to RTI. Thanks for your support!
should have the knowledge, skills, and,                                                                                                                                  be found in
                                                             Spring/Summer-Typical share sizes & value       Summer/Fall-Typical share sizes and value
                                                                                                                                                                         Appendix 1.
optimally, the experience needed to oper-                 1 head cabbage
                                                                             Individual Share
                                                                                                                            Individual Share
                                                                                                          1 lb. shelled butterbeans     $4.00

ate a successful CSA. Resources that provide              1 lb. Kale
                                                          1 bunch radishes
                                                                                                          1 cantaloupe
                                                                                                          2 slicing cucumbers
                                                          2 lbs potatoes                 $2.00            1 lb. snap beans              $1.50
information on designing and running a                    Total:                          $5.00           Total:                        $8.00

successful CSA can be found at the end of                                     Couple Share
                                                          1 head Romaine lettuce       $1.50              1 lb okra
                                                                                                                              Couple Share

this guide.                                               1 lb. shelled English Peas
                                                          2 lbs. potatoes
                                                                                                          1 Sugar Baby Watermelon
                                                                                                          1 lb. shelled Purple Hull Peas
                                                          1 bunch broccoli             $1.50              1 lb. tomatoes                         $1.50
                                                          1 Green pepper               $1.00              1 lb. yellow squash                    $1.00
                                                          Total:                       $10.00             Total:                                 $12.00

                                                                              Family Share                                    Family Share
                                                          1 pointed head cabbage       $1.00              1 doz. Corn                   $4.00
                                                          1 head lettuce               $1.00              1 lb. shelled butterbeans     $4.00
                                                          1 bunch broccoli             $1.50              1 watermelon                  $5.00
                                                          1 lb. shelled English Peas   $4.00              2 lbs Roma beans              $3.00
                                                          3-1/2 lbs. potatoes          $3.50              1 lb. yellow squash           $1.00
                                                          2 lbs. Spinach               $4.00              1 lb. zucchini                $1.00
                                                          Total:                       $15.00             4 slicing cucumbers           $2.00
                                                                                                          Total:                        $20.00

                           Year 1—2003                                     main campus cafeteria and one in an office
                                                                           building. At the sign-up events, each farm
                              Market survey. The first activity under-     had a display table to advertise products
SAMPLE QUESTIONS                                                           and CSA memberships to RTI employees,
                           taken at RTI was a survey of employees to
FROM THE RTI                                                               and a representative from each farm was
                           determine their interest in participating in
CONSUMER                                                                   available to answer questions regarding the
                           the CSA program. In March 2003, all RTI
INTEREST SURVEY                                                            CSA concept.
                           employees received an e-mail with a link
                           to an on-line survey hosted by NC State            Prior to the sign-up days, employees
1. How likely would                                                        received information about the new RTI-
                           University (Appendix 2). Approximately 14
   you be to par-                                                          CSA program through two RTI internal
                           percent of the employees (235) responded
   ticipate in a Com-                                                      communication channels: the company’s
                           to the survey. All respondents indicated
   munity Supported                                                        e-mail network for employees and printed
                           that they were somewhat likely (36 per-
   Agriculture dem-                                                        materials posted throughout the RTI cam-
                           cent) or very likely (64 percent) to partici-
   onstration at your                                                      pus. These e-mails and printed materials
                           pate in a CSA pilot program at RTI. In addi-
   workplace?                                                              provided information about CSA in gen-
                           tion, 92 percent of respondents considered
2. What are your most                                                      eral, explained some details about the RTI-
                           the CSA an employee benefit. The survey
   important con-                                                          CSA program (such as share pick-up time
                           also included questions regarding use of or-
   siderations when                                                        and location and products available), and
                           ganic products, considerations when decid-
   deciding to sup-                                                        announced the sign-up days. Appendix 3
                           ing to join a workplace CSA, and products
   port local farms by                                                     presents examples of informational materi-
                           that respondents would like to purchase
   purchasing at your                                                      als distributed to RTI employees.
                           through CSA.
   workplace?                                                                 The RTI-CSA Employee Outreach Com-
3. What locally pro-                                                       mittee of volunteers from RTI provided
                             Employee recruitment and participation.
   duced food related                                                      leadership for these advertising activities.
                           The 2003 growing season was the pilot
   items would you be                                                      In addition, the project coordinator devel-
                           year of the RTI-CSA program. Based on the
   interested in having                                                    oped a Web site about the program that
                           results of the market survey, organizers
   delivered weekly to                                                     was hosted by North Carolina State Univer-
                           hoped to recruit 10 percent of RTI’s 1,700
   your workplace?                                                         sity. Through the sign-up days and other
                           employees to participate in the program.
4. Would you consider                                                      promotional activities, 118 CSA shares were
                           The project used face-to-face interaction
   this service to be an                                                   sold to RTI employees in the first year of
                           between farmers and employees as the
   employee benefit?                                                       the project and hundreds of additional em-
                           primary way to recruit employee CSA
                           shareholders. In April 2003, the 16 farms       ployees learned about the program.
                           participated in two CSA membership sign-
                           up days held on the RTI campus, one in the        Farm participation. Of the 16 farms that
                                                                           participated in the RTI sign-up days, 11
                                                                           had shareholders at RTI in 2003. Several of
    Figure 5.                                                              these 11 farms did not have enough sign-
    Sign-up days                                                           ups at RTI to warrant the cost of delivery to
    on the RTI                                                             the campus pick-up site and withdrew from
    campus each                                                            the program prior to the season. Many of
    spring give                                                            the farms that withdrew had limited prod-
    employees the                                                          uct availability (for example, a single prod-
    opportunity to                                                         uct such as eggs). Farms with a wide variety
    meet farmers,                                                          of products generally sold more shares in
    learn more                                                             Year 1. Farms that withdrew from the pro-
    about CSA,                                                             gram offered RTI shareholders the opportu-
    and purchase                                                           nity to select an alternative pick-up site for
    CSA shares.                                                            their share (if available) or a refund of their
                                                                           membership fee.

Lessons Learned: Program Design
Consider the number of farms in-              This formula is based on an anticipated
volved initially. This experience high-       employee participation rate of 5 percent
lights an important point regarding           during the first year. The target number
the initial design of a workplace CSA         of shares per participating farm is 25.
program—the workplace market is               Therefore, for a workplace with 1,500
competitive, so plan accordingly. The         employees, use the following formula to
goal of 10 percent employee participa-        estimate a starting number of farms:
tion was not reached in the pilot year
of the RTI-CSA. Organizers concluded          (1,500 x .05)/25 = 3 farms
that this was because the CSA concept
was new to most employees, and many           Again, this formula gives only an esti-
were not ready to commit to buying            mate of a reasonable starting point; it is
a share without learning more about           not a hard and fast rule. The outcome
CSA. The high ratio of farms to shares        for both farmers and consumer will be
meant that 16 farms were vying for ap-        influenced by many factors, including
proximately 120 shares, an average of         these:
less than 8 shares per participating farm.
For most farms, this level of customer        · actual level of employee participation,
participation did not warrant travel to       · employees’ initial knowledge about the
the RTI pick-up site. This problem may          CSA concept,
be avoided by limiting the number of          · types of products offered by CSA
farms that are part of a new CSA pro-           farms,
gram at a workplace or another limited        · target number of shares each farmer
market (such as a civic organization or         desires, and
church congregation). By doing so, each       · quality of the participating CSA farms.
farm in the program will have a greater
likelihood of recruiting the number of        Participation each year should serve as a
members it needs to make participation        guide to planning for the following year.
economically feasible. In addition, a suc-
cessful core group of farmers will create     Conduct a consumer interest survey.
a satisfied base of customers, which in       Another way to determine the appro-
turn will serve as a strong recruiting tool   priate number of farms to involve in a
to draw new members. As consumer              workplace CSA is a consumer interest
interest grows, more farms can join the       survey at the host company, as was
program to meet demand.                       conducted at RTI. Such a survey can
                                              give project leaders information on the
What is a good starting number of             potential number of employee partici-
participating farms? Based on the level       pants, the familiarity of consumers with
of participation experienced in year one      the concept of CSA, and factors con-
of the RTI-CSA program and discussions        sumers would use to determine whether
with farmers, the following formula may       they would join a CSA. The results can
help to identify a good starting point:       be used to determine the number of
                                              farms to include in the program initially,
(Number of potential participants x           guide promotional activities, and offer
.05)/25 = Number of farms                     farmers ideas on how to structure their
                                              CSA to meet the interests of employees.

                            Program logistics. As previously de-
                         scribed, each CSA farm managed their re-         Lessons Learned:
                         spective shares independently with regard
                         to share contents, financial accounting,
                                                                          Volunteer Committee
                                                                          The development of an internal,
                         and communication with members. The
                                                                          volunteer committee is important to
                         majority of farms, however, did use the
                                                                          long-term success. During the first
                         shared pick-up location and time. RTI pro-
                                                                          year, some very committed company
                         vided a parking lot for farms to bring mem-
                                                                          consumers at RTI decided they
                         ber shares each Thursday afternoon from 4
                                                                          needed to help make the program
                         PM to 6 PM. Farmers were also permitted to
                                                                          successful. Through their initiative and
                         set up small stands to sell additional items
                                                                          commitment, the program will now
                         to members and other employees. Delivery
                                                                          thrive on its own and does not need
                         began in May and continued through Sep-
                                                                          outside facilitation. The importance
                                                                          of an internal committed group of
                            Members of the RTI-CSA Employee Out-
                                                                          volunteers cannot be overstressed.
                         reach Committee helped coordinate logis-
                         tics for use of the parking lot, including
                         posting signs each Thursday and notifying         In August 2003, the RTI-CSA Employee
                         security of the weekly market. The commit-     Outreach Committee sponsored a farmer
                         tee also acted as a liaison between employ-    appreciation day during a Thursday pick-
                         ee CSA members and participating farms to      up session. The purpose of the event was
                         communicate consumer concerns to farm-         to recognize the CSA farms in the pro-
                         ers and answer questions about the overall     gram and give RTI employees who did not
                         program or a specific issue. The committee     participate in the program an additional
                         also assisted with all aspects of program      opportunity to learn how CSA works.
                         promotion.                                     RTI provided farmers with funds that en-
                                                                        abled them to bring sample items for CSA
                                                                        customers and other RTI employees. Em-
                                                                        ployees who were not CSA members had
                                                                        the opportunity to join a CSA listserv (an
                                                                        e-mail-based communication tool) if they
                                                                        wanted to receive more specific informa-
                                                                        tion about the RTI-CSA and notification of
                                                                        upcoming sign-up days and other events.
                                                                        As with other project activities, this event
 Figure 6. Each                                                         was advertised through RTI’s internal com-
 Thursday from
                                                                        munication channels. Farmer Appreciation
 April to October,
 participating farms
                                                                        Day has become an annual event for the
 bring CSA shares to                                                    RTI-CSA program.
 their RTI members.                                                        At the end of the 2003 pilot season,
 The drop-site is a                                                     RTI and several of the participating farms
 parking lot located                                                    agreed to continue the program in 2004,
 on the RTI campus.
                                                                        with the continued assistance of the CEFS
 Farms often set up
 a small stand to sell
                                                                        project coordinator.
 “extra” items to
 shareholders and                                                         Consumer feedback. In December 2003,
 other employees.                                                       CEFS and RTI conducted a follow-up survey
                                                                        of employees about the RTI-CSA program
                                                                        (Appendix 4). All RTI employees received

the survey, regardless of whether they had      such as fliers and direct mailings, as well as
participated in the CSA program in 2003.        developing strategies for person-to-person
The survey results provided suggestions for     contacts, such as lunchtime seminars, oth-
future program improvements and indicat-        er informational sessions, and a designated
ed the effectiveness of promotion activities.   CSA contact in each department.
   The survey findings indicated that partic-     “Provide more sign-up days in the spring.”     CSA SUGGESTIONS
ipating employees were generally satisfied                                                       FROM RTI
with the CSA program. Both participants                                                          CONSUMERS
and non-participants made several sug-          Year 2—2004
gestions to encourage greater participa-                                                         · Offer smaller and
tion in the program and to help tailor the        Farm participation. At the end of the            more affordable
CSA concept to meet consumer needs and          2003 season, five farms expressed an inter-        shares appropriate
expectations. Consumer suggestions also         est in continuing the program in 2004.             for individuals and
offered insight into various aspects of the     Those who remained with the program                couples.
program:                                        represented a good level of diversity for col-   · Increase consumer
   “Offer more consumer choice in share con-    lectively marketing CSA memberships with           choice in selecting
tents and alternative payment plans.” This      limited competition between individual             share contents.
suggestion implied that RTI employees           farms. The remaining farms offered sev-          · Add a farmers’ mar-
were more likely to join a CSA for practi-      eral options to consumers with regard to           ket component to
cal reasons (such as convenience or food        price, products, CSA structure, and growing        the CSA pick up day
quality) then philosophical (a desire to        practices (certified organic). One additional      so that consumers
share risks and take part in the life of the    farm was invited to join the program to of-        can buy additions
farm). The structure of a CSA marketed to       fer greater diversity to RTI-CSA customers.        to their subscription
this base of consumers should consider this                                                        from other farmers.
perspective. The suggestions made by RTI           Employee recruitment and participa-           · Offer “trial shares”
employees were shared with farms in the         tion. Strategies to advertise the program to       to allow customers
program to help them tailor their RTI-CSA       RTI employees in 2004 were based on the            to participate for a
shares to meet the needs of RTI consum-         results of the 2003 end-of-season survey.          few weeks to deter-
ers (see the farm profiles on pages 13, 15,     Most significantly, the RTI-CSA Committee          mine whether or not
and 17 for more information on individual       and participating farmers organized eight          they want to join
farms in the RTI-CSA).                          sign-up days in the spring of 2004 (as op-         a CSA for an entire
   “Improve communication about the pro-        posed to two in 2003). As in 2003, sign-up         season.
gram.” The need for improved communica-         days were held at several different locations    · Consider alternatives
tion was evidenced by the fact that many        on the RTI campus. By increasing the num-          to upfront payment
farms already offered some of the services      ber of opportunities to meet farmers and           for the full season
that employees suggested. For example,          learn about CSA, the organizers hoped that         such as payment
employees suggested that farmers bring ad-      more employees would participate in sign-          plans or options to
ditional items for purchase by walk-up cus-     up days and purchase a CSA share. Based            purchase short-term
tomers; farmers were already doing so, but      on the effectiveness of RTI’s e-mail news          shares.
employees were unaware of this service.         network, it was again used to advertise
Survey respondents and the CSA Employee         sign-up days and give general information
Outreach Committee cited several ways to        about the program. The RTI-CSA Commit-
improve communication about the pro-            tee also maintained a listserv for the previ-
gram. An important tool for advertising the     ous year’s CSA members and others who
program was the internal e-mail communi-        had signed up to join the listserv as an ad-
cation system, which most survey respon-        ditional means of advertising sign-up days.
dents considered an effective means of pro-     The program Web site hosted by North Car-
moting the CSA. Employees also suggested        olina State University was updated for the
increasing the use of printed materials,        2004 season. In addition, North Carolina

                           Cooperative Extension provided funds for        with the CEFS project coordinator serving
                           a color brochure about the 2004 program         as the primary channel through which the
                           and participating farms (Appendix 5).           RTI-CSA Employee Outreach Committee
                             Through word-of-mouth advertising,            and farmers communicated with one an-
                           employees at other companies in RTP had         other. Efforts were made during Year 2 to
                           learned about the RTI-CSA program and ex-       facilitate direct communication between
 PARTICIPATING             pressed an interest in participating in 2004.   the two groups and begin to lessen the role
 FARMS IN YEAR 2           RTI management agreed to allow non-RTI          of the grant-funded project coordinator in
                           employees to join the program, but limited      anticipation of the future when no grant
· Brinkley Farms,          the number of shares that could be sold         funding would be available. For example,
  Creedmoor: veg-          to non-RTI employees to 100. Promotion          RTI representatives, farmers, and the proj-
  etables raised us-       of the program at other companies was           ect coordinator met in November 2004 for
  ing integrated pest      through informal channels because RTI’s         a 2004 wrap-up and 2005 planning meet-
  management               management did not wish to use their            ing. At this meeting, the group evaluated
                           employees’ time to plan sign-up days and        the outcomes of the 2004 season, discussed
· The Growing Sta-         events for other companies. For example,        issues that arose during the season (such as
  tion, Wake Forest:       an RTI employee would pass information          RTI’s policies on non-employee sharehold-
  flowers, herbs,          regarding sign-up days to a single employee     ers), and made promotional plans for 2005.
  mushrooms, and           at another company.                             Tasks for the 2005 season were distributed
  garlic grown using         In 2004, six farms sold 190 shares to         to the RTI-CSA Committee, the farmers,
  organic methods*         RTI employees and employees of several          and the project coordinator. Farmers also
                           neighboring companies. Between 5 and 10         asked to be included in any meetings held
· Hannah Creek Farm,       percent of the shares were sold to non-RTI      by the RTI-CSA Committee and to receive
  Four Oaks: veg-          employees. Organizers estimate that 170         minutes of meetings they could not attend.
  etables grown using      to 180 shares were sold to RTI employees.
  organic methods          Though some individuals purchased shares
                           from multiple farms, estimated RTI em-          Year 3—2005
· Mystic Farm, Pitts-
                           ployee participation was nearly 10 percent
  boro: fruits and
                           in Year 2 of the project.                       Employee recruitment and participation.
  berries grown using
                                                                           The RTI-CSA Employee Outreach Commit-
  organic methods
                             Consumer feedback. Following the 2004         tee and participating farmers determined
                           season, project organizers (including farm-     that eight sign-up days were too labor
· NuHorizons Farm,
                           ers, RTI representatives, and the project       intensive and did not serve to increase
  Pittsboro: hormone-
                           coordinator) decided not to conduct an an-      employee participation in 2004. The farm-
  and antibiotic-free
                           nual end-of-season survey of RTI employees      ers also expressed an interest in holding
  livestock products
                           as in 2003. Results of the 2003 survey pro-     sign-up days in February and March as op-
  and value added
                           vided sufficient information to assist farm-    posed to March and April to enable them
                           ers in making any needed improvements           to better plan for the season. In 2005, the
· Timberwood Organ-        in their CSA structure and identify effective   group held only three sign-up days on the
  ics, Efland: certified   promotion strategies. Most farms had also       RTI campus in February, primarily aimed at
  organic vegetables       adopted their own end-of-season surveys of      recruiting new customers. Most farmers re-
                           members to assess their CSA programs.           ported that by 2005, they had established a
*new participant in                                                        good base of members at RTI. Farmers com-
 year 2                      RTI-farmer partnership. To ensure the         municated directly with the previous year’s
                           long-term existence and success of the          members in December, so many returning
                           RTI-CSA program, RTI and the participat-        members did not use the on-campus sign-
                           ing farmers had to build a good working         up days to purchase their 2005 share(s).
                           relationship. In the pilot year of the pro-     Sign-up days were announced through
                           gram, the groups worked independently,          RTI’s employee e-mail network, targeted

Brinkley Farms—Creedmoor: William and Diane Brinkley
Brinkley Farms is located approximately      receive in a given week. Instead of giv-
25 miles from the RTI campus. Wil-           ing shareholders a traditional box, the
                                                                                            FARM PROFILE 1.
liam and Diane Brinkley run the farm         Brinkleys allow shareholders to choose
                                                                                            Brinkley Farms
with the help of their son, Michael, and     the types and quantity of produce they
daughters Ty and Christine. The 60-acre      receive each week up to a specific mon-
farm began as a tobacco farm and has         etary value (for example, $8.00 a week).
expanded over the years to include fresh     The weekly value is based on the share
vegetables, pumpkins, horse hay, soy-        size purchased (individual, couple, or
beans, grains, and pasture-raised pork.      family). The range of share sizes avail-
The Brinkleys use a variety of direct mar-   able addresses another common con-
keting channels to sell their farm prod-     cern for CSA shareholders—having too
ucts, including an on-site farm stand,       much food. Each week, the Brinkleys
farmers markets, and the RTI-based CSA.      e-mail their shareholders a price list of
Their CSA experience began in 2003           the fruits and vegetables available for
with the RTI-CSA program. The Brinkleys      delivery. The Brinkleys then custom-pack
have seen a steady increase in the num-      each shareholder’s box based on the
ber of shares they sell at RTI and have      e-mail order. In addition to sending the
added CSA shareholders outside of the        list of available items, the Brinkleys offer
RTI community.                               their members a weekly farm report and
                                             a “recipe of the week.” Both their share-
The Brinkley Farm CSA offers sharehold-      holders and the Brinkleys enjoy the rela-
ers a variety of fresh produce grown         tionship fostered by the CSA program.
using sustainable methods of integrated
pest management. The CSA has several         Overall, the Brinkleys are happy with
features designed to meet the needs of       their decision to add the CSA to their
RTI shareholders. For example, Brinkley      farm operation. For them, the RTI-CSA
Farm CSA shares can be purchased for         offers the convenience of delivering a
an early season from late April to late      large amount of shares to one location
June, a late season that runs from late      and has helped them to build a com-
June through mid-September, or both.         mitted customer base. They also see the
Both seasons function as individual          benefit of the CSA promotion offered by
shares and can be purchased indepen-         RTI. Developing the CSA has not been
dently of each other. The early season       without its challenges, as it has required
share is priced lower than the late sea-     changes (including increases) in farm
son share. Diane Brinkley says that the      planning and learning the products and
split-season shares allow more flexibility   quantities needed to meet CSA share-
for members who travel during the sum-       holder demand. Even with the success
mer, although many members end up            of their CSA, the Brinkleys plan to con-
buying shares for both the early and late    tinue using farmers markets and other
seasons. In 2005, the Brinkleys had ap-      direct marketing strategies. They appre-
proximately 40 shares for each season.       ciate the flexibility offered by multiple
                                             outlets and enjoy the opportunity to
In designing their CSA, the Brinkleys also   continually meet and serve new custom-
wanted to insure that their shareholders     ers.
could choose the produce they would

                      e-mails, and printed posters.                    farms and CSA members and underscored
                         The RTI-CSA Web site also played an im-       RTI’s commitment to making the program
                      portant role in recruiting shareholders for      a success.
                      2005. In fall 2004, RTI officially launched         Approximately 200 shares were pur-
                      an RTI-CSA Web site hosted by RTI and            chased for the 2005 season.
                      maintained by the RTI-CSA Employee Out-
                      reach Committee. One version of the Web            Farm participation. The RTI-CSA Com-
                      site is available on RTI’s external site: www.   mittee and participating farmers concluded
            , with another version available      that the demand for CSA shares anticipated
                      on the company’s internal Web site. The          for 2005 could be met by the six farms
                      Web site contains an overview of the RTI-        that participated during the 2004 season.
                      CSA program, general information on CSA,         No additional farms were invited to join
                      directions to the pick-up site, descriptions     the program for 2005, and all six farms re-
                      of each farm in the program, and links to        turned for the season. Interviews with five
                      membership information for each farm (a          of six participating farmers during the 2005
                      CSA description and membership applica-          season indicated that most were satisfied
                      tion developed by the farm). In addition         with the program. Of these farmers, four
                      to using the Web site to invite employees        were new to CSA when they began the pro-
                      to the RTI sign-up days, many farmers re-        gram. All now consider CSA an important
                      ported that RTI employees (as well as em-        component of their overall marketing plan.
                      ployees from other RTP companies) used           Three of the five farmers interviewed were
                      the site to obtain membership forms for          satisfied with the number of sharehold-
                      the 2005 season. No information is avail-        ers they had at RTI in 2005. Most reported
                      able on whether those using the Web site         having established the minimum number
                      for this purpose were returning or new           of shareholders they would need to con-
                      members.                                         tinue to participate in the RTI program and
                         The internal Web site was a valuable          the maximum number they could manage
                      communication tool throughout the 2005           reasonably. One farmer, in fact, reported
                      season. The RTI-CSA Committee updated            that she had sold the maximum number of
                      the site weekly and listed “extra” items         RTI shares she could manage for the 2005
                      that farms would bring to each Thursday’s        season. All six farmers have shareholders
                      pick-up for walk-up sales, based on weekly       outside of the RTI program, and none have
                      communication with each farmer. The Web          expressed an interest in having 100 percent
                      site enhanced communication between the          of their CSA membership at RTI.
                                                                         With regard to the perceived benefits of
                                                                       their participation in RTI-CSA, farmers sur-
 Figure 7. RTI-                                                        veyed felt that RTI helped them promote
 CSA employee                                                          their CSA and effectively recruit and retain
 shareholders enjoy                                                    members. The RTI program has also opened
 a broad range of                                                      new marketing opportunities to the farms,
 products delivered
                                                                       such as an invitation to participate in an
 weekly to the RTI
                                                                       Earth Day celebration at a company near
                                                                       RTI. As detailed in the farm profiles (pages
                                                                       13 - 17), most farmers found that changes
                                                                       to their original CSA structure were nec-
                                                                       essary to meet the needs and interests of
                                                                       members from RTI and other workplaces.
                                                                         After the 2004 season, the six farms in
                                                                       the program had discussed the possibility

Nu Horizons Farm—Pittsboro: Susan and Leigh Lorraine

Nu Horizons Farm is located approxi-        sizes by analyzing RTI employee demo-
mately 35 miles from the RTI campus.        graphics to predict the quantity of food    FARM PROFILE 2.
Prior to their involvement in the RTI-CSA   that would be consumed in a household       Nu Horizons Farm
program, the Lorraines did not have ex-     in half a year and the value of those
perience operating a CSA and were en-       items on a weekly basis. Shareholders
couraged to add the CSA to their opera-     are able to purchase more items at ad-
tion through the program. In addition       ditional cost.
to the RTI-CSA and farmer’s markets, Nu
Horizons offers their products through      The Lorraines value the addition of the
their Web site and their own country        CSA to their farming operation. Since
market.                                     first offering CSA shares at RTI in 2003,
                                            they have expanded their CSA member-
Nu Horizons products include pasture-       ship beyond the RTI-CSA program. They
raised beef, pork, lamb, and chicken        now offer pickups for their shareholders
that is free of antibiotics, hormones,      at their own farm and at the farmers
steroids and animal byproducts. They        markets they attend, in addition to the
also offer fresh brown eggs from free-      RTI drop point. In fact, Leigh Lorraine
ranging chickens; homemade breads,          says he would like to convert as many of
pies, cookies, cinnamon rolls and pound     his regular market and Web customers
cake; fresh pasta and pasta sauces;         as possible to CSA shareholders.
jams, jellies and assorted “canned” (jar)
goods; and seasonal produce.                In hindsight, he says, using the CSA
                                            model may have been a better way
With a product base of items suited to      for them to get their business off the
storage and considerable business ex-       ground, as opposed to working to build
perience, the Lorraines developed their     a customer base through markets and
own unique Web-based CSA structure.         online sales. The CSA offers Nu Ho-
CSA memberships are available year-         rizons a guaranteed market for their
round, with the year separated into two     products, enables them to better know
“seasons” of 26 weeks each. A “season”      their customers and the products their
begins on the first week of the month       customers want to buy, and allows them
following a customer’s payment. Share-      to test-market new and less common
holders may purchase a full share or a      products before investing in a new area
half share, which entitles them to pur-     of production.
chase $30 or $15 worth of products for
18 of the 26 weeks in any season.

By logging into their own online ac-
counts, shareholders place their weekly
orders, which are then custom-packed
and delivered to each shareholder’s se-
lected pick up location. Leigh says that
they determined the appropriate share

     of becoming a more formal organization         participating farmers took full responsibil-
     (the Triangle Farmers’ CSA) to retain their    ity for the program, recruiting a new farm
     position as the farms with which RTI would     (one farm left the program in 2005), carry-
     work. The organization would make deci-        ing out spring sign-up days, and promoting
     sions regarding whether or not additional      the program among RTI employees. Infor-
     farms were needed to meet consumer de-         mation was not yet available on employee
     mand at RTI and develop an application         participation for 2006 when this guide was
     process through which other farms could        written.
     join the program. The group also discussed        RTI’s approach to hosting a multi-farm
     approaching other companies to host            CSA program provides a model that other
     workplace CSA programs, allowing group         employers can use to develop similar part-
     members to share the work of contacting        nerships with local farmers. The next sec-
     businesses and handling the logistics of       tion of this guide describes the benefits of
     replicating the RTI program with another       hosting a workplace CSA, the basic func-
     company. Were other workplace CSA pro-         tions a company must carry out to serve as
     grams to begin, the Triangle Farmers CSA       a host, and suggestions for other activities
     would serve as the entity with which com-      a company may take on to ensure that the
     panies could work, as opposed to having to     CSA program is a success. Companies or
     initiate relationships with individual farm-   organizations with an interest in hosting a
     ers. The organization would then also de-      CSA should also contact their local agricul-
     cide which of their farmer members would       tural extension office for additional infor-
     work with each company that wanted a           mation and assistance.
     CSA program and recruit farms to join the
     organization as needed. As of May 2006, no
     further action had been taken to formalize
     the work of the Triangle Farmers’ CSA or
     market the workplace CSA concept to other
     companies in RTI.

       RTI-farmer partnership. In June 2005,
     one of two project co-directors for RTI com-
     mented that in its third season, the RTI-
     CSA program more or less ran itself. The
     RTI-CSA Committee maintained regular
     communication with participating farm-
     ers to assure that all promotional plans
     were carried out prior to the beginning of
     the season, including gathering farm in-
     formation for the RTI-hosted Web site and
     coordinating on-campus sign-up days. Use
     of the RTI parking lot as a pick up location
     has also continued.


     In 2006, RTI employees again had the op-
     portunity to purchase CSA shares from six
     local farms. The RTI-CSA Committee and

Timberwood Organics—Efland: Ray and Maria Christopher
The Christophers grow certified organic         perience, though they quickly saw that
produce on their farm, which is within          their CSA structure would need some
30 miles of RTI. Timberwood has had or-         changes to meet the needs of the RTI         FARM PROFILE 3.
ganic certification since 1992 and began        population. For example, their tradi-        Timberwood
a CSA in 2000. Non-RTI-CSA members              tional CSA offers only two share sizes:      Organics
enjoy a variety of fresh, organic produce       standard (for two to three people) and
delivered to their homes from April             large (for four to six people). Based on
through October. Like other farms in            the number of one-person households
the RTI-CSA program, the Christophers           that wanted to join the CSA at RTI, the
deliver weekly boxes to their RTI mem-          Christophers decided to offer a third
bers on the RTI campus each Thursday.           share size, a small share for one person.
In addition to their traditional CSA and        Ray has also observed other differences
the RTI-CSA, Timberwood sells produce           between RTI and his traditional CSA
at several area farmers markets and to          members. Traditionally, CSA members
an organic wholesale distributor, Eastern       have sought out the opportunity to
Carolina Organics.                              be a shareholder in a farm, or were in-
                                                troduced to the concept by family or
Timberwood Organics represents a                friends who valued not only fresh pro-
blend of the traditional CSA model              duce, but also the philosophy of CSA.
(members receive a weekly mixed box)            Marketing CSA to a “captive audience”
with more business-oriented aspects             at a corporation means that more mem-
(no work requirement for members and            bers join based on the business-oriented
numerous customer-focused services).            qualities of the CSA as opposed to the
Though the Christophers rely on several         philosophy. This shift in motivation led
marketing channels to maximize sales,           Timberwood to make more changes to
the CSA is the priority when planning           the structure of its RTI-CSA, namely de-
what to plant, how much, and when.              creasing the number of weeks of mem-
Ray says they have learned many les-            bership in order to lower the season
sons about operating a CSA, for instance        price. This lessened the “sticker shock”
choosing produce varieties that are bet-        and helped to attract more sharehold-
ter suited to CSA customers. Offering           ers. This also helps the Christophers
certified organic produce and home              and their work crew ease into the CSA
delivery also makes Timberwood a                season each spring by decreasing the
unique CSA operation that is attractive         number of boxes that must be packed
to potential new members. Ray doesn’t           for the first several weeks.
feel organic certification is critical to at-
tracting new members, but it definitely         Of course, Timberwood Organics isn’t
enables the farm to receive higher prices       strictly business and works to build a re-
on the wholesale market. Organic certi-         lationship between its members and the
fication also demonstrates the Christo-         life of the farm. In the true CSA spirit,
phers’ commitment to environmental              the Christophers invite all CSA members
stewardship.                                    to join in pick-your-own days through-
                                                out the season to learn how their food is
The Christophers joined the RTI-CSA             grown and enjoy the fruits of their own
program with several years of CSA ex-           farm labors.

                     Hosting a Workplace CSA

 Figure 8. A CSA                                                   vironmental conservation. As RTI stated in
 host provides an                                                  their 2004 annual report, the CSA program
 on-site location                                                  enabled them to “turn [their] ideals into
 for CSA sign-up                                                   action – right here in [their] own backyard”
 events in which
                                                                   (RTI, 2005).
 employees meet
 farmers and
 have the                                                          What Does a CSA Host Do?
 opportunity to
 purchase shares                                                   A workplace CSA is a mutually beneficial
 for the coming
                                                                   partnership between a company and a
 season. The host
                                                                   CSA farm or farms. As a partner, the host
 also assists in
 advertising the                                                   company provides several resources to help
 sign-up event. At                                                 farmers promote their CSA programs and
 RTI, a volunteer                                                  serve their company customers.
 committee           Why Host a CSA?
 of employees
                                                                      Provide space for the weekly delivery
 worked with           Being a CSA host provides a valuable        of CSA shares to employee-members. A
 farmers to plan
                     service to farmers, employees, and the        parking lot or other outdoor location is
 and carry out
                     community. For farmers, the opportunity       generally appropriate for share pick-up. The
 spring sign-up
 days.               to market their products directly to local    logistics involved in providing this space
                     consumers through a CSA can mean im-          will depend on the company. The com-
                     proved cash flow, higher income, and an       pany should take responsibility to see that
                     overall stronger business. As a CSA host, a   all necessary steps (such as approval from
                     company can help a farmer connect with        management and notification of security
                     potential CSA shareholders more efficiently   services) are carried out so that farmers
                     and build a customer base more quickly        and customers have access to the space at a
                     than traditional at-large CSA marketing.      designated time. In addition, the company
                                                                   should inform farmers and customers of
                       A CSA provides company employees            any policies regarding the use of the space.
                     fresh farm products and offers the con-       This work will likely involve the time of at
                     venience of having food brought to the        least one employee.
                     workplace. As the RTI consumer interest
                     survey demonstrated, many employees             Provide resources to assist farmers in
                     consider having a company CSA program a       promoting the CSA program to their em-
                     benefit of employment. Therefore, hosting     ployees. Most often this resource involves
                     a CSA can give a company a competitive        the use of internal communication net-
                     edge in attracting new employees.             works, for example, e-mail services or com-
                                                                   pany newsletters. In the RTI-CSA program,
                       CSA helps build a secure regional food      volunteers on the CSA Employee Outreach
                     system and strong local economy. To host      Committee distributed information ma-
                     a CSA is to make an investment in the         terials through an existing e-mail news
                     wellbeing of the local community by pro-      network. Another communication tool the
                     moting entrepreneurship, investment in        company may offer farmers is the company
                     small businesses, consumer health, and en-    Web site. RTI has several pages on its inter-

nal and external Web sites dedicated to the
CSA program. This is an excellent service
to farmers who do not have Web pages and
clearly demonstrates that the program is
                                                An unforeseen issue in the RTI-CSA program was interest in joining the
a company-supported initiative, giving it
                                                program from employees of companies other than RTI. For farmers,
greater credibility. Members of the RTI-CSA
                                                the opportunity to include outside employees seemed beneficial, as it
Committee provided text, maps and other
                                                would mean more customers. RTI, however, had two concerns:
relevant pieces for the Web pages to the
company’s Web site manager, who insured
                                                • They did not want to invest their employees’ time in promotional
that the format was consistent with the
                                                  activities for other companies.
overall site. Farmers also contributed CSA
                                                • They did not want to host a centralized CSA program for multiple
descriptions and membership application
                                                  businesses in the area.
forms in portable document format (PDF)
that linked to the Web site.
                                                   From RTI's perspective, other companies that wanted to offer the
                                                benefit of a CSA program to their employees should host a program
   Host sign-up days each winter or spring.
The sign-up days play an important role in
                                                   To resolve the issue, RTI proposed a policy limiting non-RTI share-
educating employees about the CSA con-
                                                holders to 100 and restricting activities of the RTI-CSA Committee
cept and giving farmers the opportunity
                                                to the RTI audience. Farmers could, however, work to promote the
to market CSA shares. The face-to-face in-
                                                program in other companies, and non-RTI employees would be wel-
teraction between farmers and employees
                                                comed at spring sign-up and share pick-up days. The RTI-CSA Com-
was critical to the success of the RTI-CSA
                                                mittee discussed this policy with farmers, who agreed that the policy
program and a worthwhile investment.
                                                was reasonable and would not prohibit them from reaching their
The RTI-CSA Committee was responsible
for identifying and reserving suitable loca-
                                                   By communicating its expectations to the farmers in responding
tions at the company for the sign-up event;
                                                to this issue, RTI demonstrated its commitment to the farmers' needs
arranging for door prizes (often farm prod-
                                                while protecting its own interests. Fostering a relationship between
ucts); and advertising the date, time, and
                                                the company (as represented by a CSA volunteer committee) and the
location of each sign-up event to employ-
                                                farmers is critical to assuring that a workplace CSA meets the needs
ees. During an annual planning meeting,
                                                and expectations of both partners.
the RTI-CSA Committee and participating
farmers determined the number and target
dates of sign-up days that would occur the                                                                Figure 9.
following spring.                                                                                         A parking
                                                                                                          lot on the
                                                                                                          RTI campus
Building a Strong Partnership                                                                             a central
Communication is the key to any success-                                                                  for CSA
ful partnership, including one between a                                                                  members
company and its CSA farmers. Prior to the                                                                 to pick up
first CSA season, partners should meet to                                                                 their weekly
                                                                                                          share and
clarify policies and responsibilities as well
as discuss their individual expectations                                                                  additional
for the program. Annual meetings should                                                                   products
continue as a means of assessing the part-                                                                as they are
nership and addressing any issues that may                                                                available.
arise as the program develops.

     The Importance of an
     Employee Committee                              Example

     A workplace CSA needs the continued sup-        In addition to carrying out basic re-
     port of the host company to carry out the       sponsibilities, volunteers on the RTI-CSA
     necessary activities. At RTI, a volunteer CSA   Committee also adopted additional
     Employee Outreach Committee led these           activities to encourage fellow employees
     activities. It is recommended that all CSA      to participate in the program. Volun-
     host companies form a similar committee         teers served as liaisons between custom-
     for several reasons:                            ers and farmers, answering questions
                                                     from employees as needed and voicing
     • The committee sees that logistics are         customer concerns to farmers. In addi-
       carried out and that the program meets        tion, the committee initiated the annual
       company expectations.                         Farmer Appreciation Day as a service to
     • It helps to build a strong working rela-      both the farmers and employees. Even
       tionship between the company and par-         with these additional activities, volun-
       ticipating farmers. A good partnership        teers have not reported a need to spend
       creates shared ownership of the pro-          a considerable amount of time carrying
       gram, enables partners to work directly       out tasks related to the CSA program
       with one another to resolve issues in         and all enjoy the benefits of being CSA
       manner that meets both partners’ inter-       members.
       ests, and contributes to the long-term
       success of the program.
     • It demonstrates to other employees that
       the company supports the program and
       encourages participation.

Farm Participation in Workplace CSA
Approaching existing groups, including lo-          have enough shares available to meet
cal employers, can be an efficient and effec-       consumer demand?
tive means of recruiting and retaining CSA          As discussed earlier, a market survey or
members (Henderson and Van En, p. 35). A         simple mathematical operation can yield
farmer should consider several factors be-       a reasonable estimate of the number of
fore initiating or joining a workplace CSA       shares employees will purchase when a
program.                                         workplace CSA begins.

Your Marketing Strategy                          Partnering with a Workplace

Does a workplace CSA fit your marketing          Are you willing to devote the time required
strategy and capabilities? The most impor-       to partner successfully with a workplace?
tant consideration before approaching a          Farms must maintain a good relationship
business to initiate a workplace CSA (either     not only with customers, but also with the
as an individual farmer or group of farmers)     business that hosts the CSA. Building an
is whether or not adding CSA shares from a       effective and long lasting partnership re-
workplace program fits the farm operation.       quires time, flexibility, and willingness to
Evaluate the potential number of shares          compromise. As discussed in the section on
available at the business or corporation:        “Building a Strong Partnership” (p. 19), the
                                                 efforts to foster a strong working relation-
• Does the number warrant adding a new           ship contribute to the long-term success of
  drop-site to the farm’s existing market-       a workplace CSA program and help to en-
  ing strategy (especially if the business is    sure that it meets the needs of the sponsor-
  a long distance from the farm)?                ing workplace, employee shareholders, and
• Do all the farms that might participate        the farmers involved. This effort requires a


  Many farmers in the RTI program set a minimum and maximum number of members
  they wanted to recruit through the program. The minimum represented the number of
  shares each farmer needed to make delivery to RTI shareholders profitable, considering
  the time, labor, and cost involved. The maximum represented the number of shares each
  farmer could reasonably prepare for delivery to RTI in light of other marketing activities.
     The RTI-CSA program also provides evidence that workplace CSA members often have
  different interests and needs than members who actively seek out a CSA to join. If a farm
  does not have experience working with this type of audience, the farm profiles included
  in this report provide excellent examples of the types of shares a farmer may consider of-
  fering or changes that can be made to an existing CSA structure. Introducing changes to
  the share structure can alter the amount of time and labor needed to prepare members’
  weekly shares (negatively or positively), making it important to evaluate the impacts of
  such changes on overall operation.

     commitment to attend meetings and col-
     lectively solve any problems that arise.
        The type of program established at RTI
     is only one example of a workplace CSA.
     Less formal arrangements with a business,       Each participating farmer in the RTI-CSA
     its employees, or both may also benefit a       managed his or her own CSA operation,
     CSA operation. For example, a farmer or         meaning that farms were competing
     group of farmers may approach a business        with one another to attract members.
     to help advertise their CSA without using       The group of farmers in the RTI-CSA,
     the location as a drop-site. This type of ar-   however, worked well together because
     rangement can be called a sponsorship, with     there was little overlap in the products
     the workplace sponsor allowing farmers use      offered and many employees purchased
     of the workplace internal communication         shares from more than one farm. Par-
     networks to reach employees and possibly        ticularly in year two of the program, in-
     providing an on-site location for employee      dividual farmers who had products that
     sign-up. Asking a current CSA member to         would compete directly with another
     help initiate this type of program is the       farm opted not to offer selected prod-
     best way to approach a workplace sponsor.       ucts. When it became apparent that
     Even less formal than sponsorship is ask-       enough demand existed for such items,
     ing a current CSA member to simply share        those farmers again included the items
     information about CSA with his or her co-       in RTI shares. This was an unspoken
     workers.                                        agreement among the group.

     Working in Groups

     Are you willing to consider the needs of
     other farmers within the group? Though
     not all workplace CSA programs involve
     multiple farms, the RTI-CSA program raised
     several points about working together as a
     group of farmers. It may be advantageous
     for initiating farmers, together with the
     host, to develop guidelines regarding key
     points, such as how and when new farms
     will be invited to join the program and
     how to balance product availability during
     the first or second year to avoid potential
     conflicts later in the program.

Cooperative Extension Support for Workplace CSA
Cooperative extension and other groups,        ber, in turn, should determine the number
such as nonprofit organizations, can serve     of farms that initially participate in a CSA
as outside initiators of workplace and other   program. Optimally, there should be suf-
group-based CSA programs. Outside initia-      ficient consumer interest so that each farm
tors have expertise and contacts that are      in the program can sell the minimum of
valuable to both farmers and businesses        number shares needed to make the CSA
interested in a workplace CSA.                 a viable part of the farm’s overall market-
                                               ing program. In some cases, survey results
                                               will indicate that consumer interest is only
Identification and Recruitment                 sufficient for one farm in the CSA partner-
of a Host Company                              ship. A consumer survey will also provide
                                               information on the products consumers
Through interactions within their com-         are most interested in buying through CSA.
munity and research on local companies,        This information, too, should be used to
extension agents can identify potential        determine the make-up of the farmer group
consumer groups, including workplaces, to      or single farm that a host organization will
host a CSA program. Following identifica-      partner with.
tion, agents may also work to recruit CSA         Farms in the program will have a greater
hosts through written correspondence,          opportunity for success if they offer prod-
face-to-face meetings, and other promo-        ucts that their market demands. Initially,
tional efforts. This guide can serve as a      consumer feedback may exclude some
useful resource in developing recruitment      farms from participating in a CSA partner-
materials and providing information on         ship; however, as the consumers at a host
the benefits and requirements of being a       company or organization learn more about
CSA host.                                      CSA and have positive CSA experiences,
                                               their interests may expand to include
                                               other products and farms in the program.
Matching Consumer Interests                    Further, a host organization may serve as
                                               a test market for less-common products to
with Local CSA Farms                           be sold through CSA, with the understand-
                                               ing on the part of the farm that they are
One lesson learned in the RTI-CSA project
                                               likely to sell only a small number of shares.
is the importance of matching CSA farm
                                               Because of their knowledge of local produc-
and consumer interests. A survey of con-
                                               ers, extension agents are in a good position
sumers at a potential host company or or-
                                               to identify farms that are a “good fit” for
ganization should precede the creation of
                                               a CSA host and facilitate the creation of
the farmer group to be involved in the pro-
                                               a partnership between the host and local
gram. The consumer interest survey con-
                                               CSA farms.
ducted at RTI before the project began (see
Appendix 2) is a good example of research
that can be conducted by Extension to as-
                                               Facilitating a Strong CSA
sure the success of a CSA partnership.
   Survey information will identify the        Partnership
number of shares that consumers at the
host company are likely to buy. This num-      Based on the interests of the workplace
                                               host and the farms, Extension may con-

     tinue involvement in a workplace CSA or
     similar project to facilitate a good working
     relationship between the CSA partners.
     Activities may include helping partners
     develop a formal agreement on how their
     CSA program will work, arranging meetings
     between farmer and host representatives,
     and identifying and delegating tasks to
     each partner during the initial stages of the
        The facilitating agent may also serve as a
     resource person to the volunteer committee
     at the host workplace by providing gen-
     eral information on CSA for promotional
     materials, advising on promotional activi-
     ties, and leading consumer informational
     workshops. Similarly, agents can continue
     to support participating farms in the CSA
     partnership. One critical service to farms
     is to conduct follow-up consumer surveys
     at the host company or organization. In-
     formation gathered in follow-up surveys of
     the RTI-CSA project played an important in
     role in helping farmers design CSA shares
     that met the needs of the RTI market. Ex-
     tension can play a lead role in conducting
     similar surveys as well as assisting farmers
     to apply the feedback they receive from
     consumers to strengthen their individual
     CSA programs.

The success of the RTI-CSA project sug-
gests that similar workplace CSA projects or       Table 1. Summary of farm and consumer participation in the
partnerships between CSA farms and other           RTI-CSA program from 2003 to 2005
community groups—such as churches,
neighborhoods, and civic groups—are vi-           Calendar      Project        Number of          Number of
able direct marketing strategies for farmers.       Year         Year      Participating Farms    Shares Sold
Such a partnership provides unique ben-            2003            1                11               118
                                                   2004            2            6 (1 new)            190
efits to the CSA host, consumers within the
                                                   2005            3                6                200
host group, and the participating farmers.
External agents, such as Cooperative Exten-
sion Centers and nonprofit organizations,
can assist in initiating CSA projects. Ulti-
mately, projects should be self-sustaining
and operated fully by the host and farm         References
   By its fourth year, the RTI-CSA project      Henderson, E. and R. Van En. 1999. Sharing
reached this goal of complete management           the Harvest. White River Junction, VT:
by the host workplace and farmers. Table 1         Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
provides a summary of participation in the      Kane, D.J. and L. Lohr. 1996. Maximizing
RTI-CSA program. Six CSA farms currently           Shareholder Retention in Southeastern CSAs:
sell shares to RTI employees, and more             A Step Toward Long Term Stability. Final
than 10 percent of RTI employees partici-          Grant Report. Santa Cruz, CA: Organic
pate in the program. Several key factors           Farming Research Foundation.
have contributed to its success:                Kolodinsky, J.M. and L.L. Pelch. 1997. Fac-
• Involvement of a volunteer committee             tors influencing the decision to join a com-
   of dedicated RTI employees.                     munity supported agriculture (CSA) farm.
• Effective use of RTI's communication             Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 10(2-3):
   channels for promotion and recruit-             129-141.
   ment.                                        Lass, D., G.W. Stevenson, J. Hendricksen,
• Farmer responsiveness to consumer                and K. Ruhf. 2003. CSA Across the Nation:
   feedback to develop shares that fit RTI         Findings of the 1999 CSA Survey. Madison,
   consumer interests.                             WI: Center for Integrated Agricultural
   Lessons learned in the RTI-CSA project          Systems.
can be used to replicate similar projects in    McFadden, S. 2004. Community farms in
rural and urban communities throughout             the 21st century: Poised for another wave
the United States.                                 of growth? New Farm Magazine. Online:
                                          (accessed December
                                                   1, 2005).
                                                Research Triangle Institute (RTI). 2004. An-
                                                   nual Report. Research Triangle Park, NC:
                                                Strochlic, R. and C. Shelley. 2004. Com-
                                                   munity Supported Agriculture in California,
                                                   Oregon and Washington: Challenges and

       Opportunities. Davis, CA: California Insti-   National Campaign for Sustainable Agri-
       tute for Rural Studies.                         culture
     USDA-AMS. 2000. Direct Marketing Today:           P.O. Box 396
       Challenges and Opportunities. Online:           Pine Bush, NY 12566              phone 845-744-8448, fax 845-744-8477
       keting/DirectMar2.pdf ( accessed Janu-          e-mail:
       ary 2006).                            

     CSA Resource list                               Robyn Van En Center for CSA Resources
                                                       Fulton Center for Sustainable Living
     Alternative Farming Systems Informa-
                                                       Wilson College
     tion Center
                                                       1015 Philadelphia Ave
        National Agricultural Library, ARS, USDA
                                                       Chambersburg PA 17201
        10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 304
                                                       phone 717-264-4141 ext. 3352; fax 717-
        Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
        phone 301-504-6559, fax 301-504-6409

     Appropriate Technology Transfer for Ru-
     ral Areas
        P.O. Box 3657
        Fayetteville AR 72702
        phone 800-346-9140
        (M-Th 8:30am-4:30pm CST; F 8:30am-
        12:30pm CST)

     Biodynamic Farming and Gardening As-
       P.O. Box 29135
       Bldg 1002B, Thoreau Center, The Presi-
       San Francisco CA 94129-0135
       phone 888-516-7797; fax 415-561-7796

                                                              Published by the
                                             NORTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
                                                                  and the
                                                 Center for Environmental Farming Systems

                                                                        AG-680-W                                               E07-45860/BS/05/2007

     Distributed in furtherance of the acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State
     University commit themselves to positive action to secure equal opportunity regardless of race, color, creed, national origin, religion, sex, age,
     or disability. In addition, the two Universities welcome all persons without regard to sexual orientation. North Carolina State University, North
     Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.

  Appendix 1. Farm Promotion and Application Samples

Appendix 2. RTI Employee CSA Interest Survey—March 2003

Appendix 3. Sample Informational Materials for Consumers

Appendix 4. RTI Employee CSA Evaluation—December 2003

          Appendix 5. 2004 Program Brochure

                     Appendix 1. Farm Promotion and Application Samples

 Brinkley Farms

                  Brinkley Farms has been a family operation since 1941. Our farm
                  is located in Northside, NC which is a small community between
                  Raleigh and Durham. We proudly grow all our own produce and
                  market directly to our customers. We have been able to survive in
                  farming because we value our customers and their opinions, and
                  we try to keep learning and doing new things to serve our
                  customers. We hope to be able to serve you in 2004!

                  Name:             William & Diane Brinkley
                  Farm Name:        Brinkley Farms
                  Phone:            919-528-0513
                  Address:          10225 Boyce Road, Creedmoor, NC 27522

                                                                                        Kristin Brinkley proudly delivering a
                                                                                        weekly share box to RTI employee!
                  We are offering two 2004 seasonal sessions:
                  Spring/Summer (10 weeks) and Summer/Fall (12 weeks). In addition, we are making three different share sizes
                  available to accommodate your family. The table below is an example of the different seasonal sessions and share
                  combinations you can choose from. We definitely have more variety available, but this is just a typical idea of how we
                  are working out our share offerings to you. Our family will need to have a minimum of 14 family shares, OR 20
                  couple shares, OR 40 individual shares to make deliveries to RTI. Thanks for your support!

                               Spring/Summer-Typical share sizes & value       Summer/Fall-Typical share sizes and value

                                               Individual Share                               Individual Share
                            1 head cabbage                 $1.00            1 lb. shelled butterbeans     $4.00
                            1 lb. Kale                     $1.00            1 cantaloupe                  $1.50
                            1 bunch radishes               $1.00            2 slicing cucumbers           $1.00
                            2 lbs potatoes                 $2.00            1 lb. snap beans              $1.50
                            Total:                          $5.00           Total:                        $8.00

                                                Couple Share                                    Couple Share
                            1 head Romaine lettuce       $1.50              1 lb okra                              $2.50
                            1 lb. shelled English Peas   $4.00              1 Sugar Baby Watermelon                $3.00
                            2 lbs. potatoes              $2.00              1 lb. shelled Purple Hull Peas         $4.00
                            1 bunch broccoli             $1.50              1 lb. tomatoes                         $1.50
                            1 Green pepper               $1.00              1 lb. yellow squash                    $1.00
                            Total:                       $10.00             Total:                                 $12.00

                                                Family Share                                    Family Share
                            1 pointed head cabbage       $1.00              1 doz. Corn                   $4.00
                            1 head lettuce               $1.00              1 lb. shelled butterbeans     $4.00
                            1 bunch broccoli             $1.50              1 watermelon                  $5.00
                            1 lb. shelled English Peas   $4.00              2 lbs Roma beans              $3.00
                            3-1/2 lbs. potatoes          $3.50              1 lb. yellow squash           $1.00
                            2 lbs. Spinach               $4.00              1 lb. zucchini                $1.00
                            Total:                       $15.00             4 slicing cucumbers           $2.00
                                                                            Total:                        $20.00

        Please Sign up with our family in 2004! Please mail this form and your payment to us at:
                                                          Brinkley Farms
                                                      C/O: RTI-CSA Program
                                                         10225 Boyce Road
                                                       Creedmoor, NC 27522
Day Phone:                      Evening Phone:

Our Session & Share Choices (Please check all options that apply):

  Session 1: Spring to Summer Session (10 weeks): April 28th to July 1st
          Individual Share (10 weeks x $5.00 per week) = $ 50.00 x ______ number of shares
          Couple Package (10 weeks x $10.00 per week) = $100.00 x ______ number of shares
          Family Package (10 weeks x $15.00 per week) = $150.00 x ______ number of shares

  Session 2: Summer to Fall Season (12 weeks): July 8th to September 23rd
          Individual Package (12 weeks x $8.00 per week) = $ 96.00 x ______ number of shares
          Couple Package (12 weeks x $12.00 per week) = $144.00 x ______ number of shares
          Family Package (12 weeks x $20.00 per week) = $240.00 x ______ number of shares

  CHECK HERE, if you would like an email notifying you of what is available each week

My share commitment will be: $____________

*If you’d like to pick and choose from available veggies (as they become available) each week, here is our listing of
typical seasonal vegetables and prices.

    PRODUCT                       PRICE           AVAILABLE         PRODUCT                              PRICE           AVAILABLE
    CABBAGE                                                         PURPLE HULL PEAS                     $1.50/lb **     June – October
       POINTED HEAD               $1.00/head       April – June     PURPLE HULL PEAS                     $4.00/lb
           SAVOY                  $1.00/head       April – June     ROMA BEANS                           $1.50/lb        May - October
          CHINESE                 $1.00/head       April - June     SQUASH
    LETTUCE                                                                  YELLOW                      $1.00/lb        May – October
           LEAFY                  $1.50/head       April – June     ZUCCHINI                             $1.00/lb        May – October
         ROMAINE                  $1.50/head       April - June     CORN–SUPERSWEET                      $4.00/doz       June – Oct
    ENGLISH (garden) PEAS         $1.50/lb **      April – June     SWEET POTATOES                       $1.00/lb        Sept – Oct
    ENGLISH (garden) PEAS         $4.00/lb                          TOMATOES                             $1.50/lb        June – October
    BEETS                         $1.00/lb         April – June     CUCUMBERS
    TURNIPS                       $1.00/lb         April – June     SLICING                              2/$1.00         May – October
    COLLARDS                      $1.00/lb         April – June     PICKLING                             $1.00/lb        May – October
    POTATOES                                                        WATERMELONS
            RED                   $1.00/lb        May – August                10 – 20 lbs                $5.00           July – Sept
           WHITE                  $1.00/lb        May – August           2 – 4 lb (Sugar Baby)           $3.00           July – Sept
    GREENS                                                          CANTALOUPES                          $1.50/each      July – Sept
          MUSTARD                 $1.00/lb         April – June     BUTTERBEANS                          $1.50/lb **     June – October
           TURNIP                 $1.00/lb         April – June     BUTTERBEANS                          $4.00/lb        June – October
            KALE                  $1.00/lb         April – June     SNAP BEANS                           $1.50/lb        May – October
          SPINACH                 $2.00/lb         April – June     OKRA                                 $2.50/lb        June- Sept
    BROCCOLI                      $1.50/bunch      April – June
    RADISHES                      $1.00/bunch      April – May
    BELL PEPPER                   $1.00/each      June – August
           GREEN                  $1.50/each      June - August
           SPRING                 3 for $1.00       May – July
       VIDALIA TYPE               $1.00/lb          May – July

    **Unshelled beans will be available upon request. Otherwise the beans will be shelled and weighed in 1 lb. bags.

 The Growing Station

                       Name:               Allison Tucker
                       Farm Name:          The Growing Station
                       Phone:              (919) 554-0494
                       Products for sale: Cut Flowers and Edible Herbs
                       (Grown without pesticides, organic methods used)

                       ABOUT OUR FARM:
                       The Growing Station is a local organic cut flower and herb
                       farm located in Wake Forest, NC. We practice sustainable
                       agriculture and grow with nature by providing a natural
                       habitat for butterflies, birds, and bees. We are pesticide and
                       chemical free. Customers benefit by having the freshest,
                       most fragrant flowers and herbs to share with their friends
                       and family.

                       Our children Haleigh 6, Rachel 4, and Grayson 2, are learning how to be good stewards of the
                       land as their ancestors were. We receive joy, in return for our labor in the faces of our children,
                       our customers, and the creatures that live around us. Share in our bounty by bringing healthy,
                       safe & beautiful flowers & herbs to your loved ones.

                       ABOUT OUR CSA:

                       A Typical weekly share would include a bucket of sunshine for $20 per week (half-share or half
                       a bucket of sunshine for $10.00 per week) AND/OR a mixed bunch of culinary herbs and
                       edible flowers for $7 per week (no half share available for herb option). The flowers in the
                       buckets of sunshine will be in growers bunches (bunched according to type) leaving the floral
                       designing up to them. Each bucket of sunshine will have enough flowers for several bouquets.


Here are examples of what you may receive
(for a HALF SHARE OPTION, please cut quantity in ½):

An Example of a Bucket of Sunshine:
10-Zinnias (2 or 3 varieties including benary giants, bicolored, and traditional)
7-Sunflowers (from 20 varieties including yellows, apricots, reds, bicolored, white,and jade)
3-Stems of Basil (from 4 varieties including cinnamon, lemon, thai, and purple)
5-Stems of Calendula
4-Stems of Mountain Mint
3-Stems of Ammi "Queen Anne's Lace"

Another Example of a Bucket of Sunshine:
5-Stems of Purple Lisianthus (single variety)
5-Stems of Pink Lisianthus (single variety)
5-Stems of Ammi "Queen Anne's Lace"
5-Stems of Mountain Mint
5-Stems of Salvia

One more Example of a Bucket of Sunshine:
10-Sunflowers (from 20 varieties including yellows,
apricots, reds, bicolored, white,jade)
3-Stems of Snapdragon (from rocket mix)
5-Stems of Calendula
2-Stems of Bells of Ireland
3-Stems of Salvia
4-Stems of Ammi "Queen Anne's Lace"

From week to week the bouquets will be different but will include Sunflowers and Zinnias all

These are the varieties growing over the 20 week period.
Sunflowers, Zinnias, Lisianthus, Bells of Ireland, Tuberoses, Calendula, Salvia, Ornamental Peppers,
Basil, Mountain Mint, Queen Anne's Lace, Bee Balm, Lavender, Love in a Mist, Snapdragons,
Echinacea, Celosia, Yarrow, and Pink Pop.

An Example of mixed bunch of culinary herbs with edible flowers (with recipes):
Italian basil
Calendula (orange flower heads)
Chives (pink flower heads)

These will also be different from week to week. These are the varieties growing over the 20
week period: Parsley, Sage, Thyme, Rosemary, Chives (Common and Garlic), Borage, Sorrel, Basil
(Lemon, Cinnamon, Italian, Purple), Lavender, Mint, Bee Balm, Calendula, Fennel, Cilantro,


     Our shares will be delivered every Thursday (20 weeks): June 3rd to Oct 28th.
     Cost of Shares:
     Bucket of Sunshine-$20 per week x 20 weeks for a total of $400
     Half Share-Bucket of Sunshine-$10 per week x 20 weeks for a total of $200
     Mixed Herbs and Edible Flowers-$7 per week x 20 weeks for a total of $140
     Bucket and Herb Combo-$26 per week x 20 weeks for a total of $520 (a $20 savings)

     Additional flowers are available for special events with a week’s notice to my email address: Edible flowers and floral confetti is also available with a week's prior

            **Floral designing tips and recipes will be provided via e-mail to each share holder**

                   I will need a minimum of five (5) orders to make my first delivery to RTI.

                     Please sign up with Growing Station in 2004! Membership can be mailed to:
                                                                 The Growing Station
                                                                  332 Railroad Lane
                                                                 Wake Forest, NC 27587
     Day Phone:                                                Evening Phone:

     I would like to pre-purchase the following shares:
       Bucket of Sunshine Share: 20 weeks x $20.00 per week = $400.00 per season
       HALF-SHARE: Bucket of Sunshine Share: 20 weeks x $10.00 per week = $200.00 per season
       Edible Herb Share: 20 weeks x $7.00 per week = $140.00 per season
       Bucket & Herb Combo Share: 20 weeks x $26.00 per week = $520.00 per season

     This agreement represents a season-long contract; if for any reason a member must end their
     subscription, The Growing Station will transfer your share to an individual of your choice. If for any
     reason, a member is unable to pick up their weekly share, arrangements should be made to have
     someone else pick up the share.

     Signature:             ______________________________
     Date:                  ______________________________



             HANNAH CREEK FARM CSA                                                           APPENDIX 1C
                INTRO LETTER 2004                                                            Hannah Creek Farm

EAT ORGANIC                                                      BUY LOCAL

                            WHAT IS A CSA?
partnership of mutual commitment between a farm and a community of supporters,
providing a direct link between the production and consumption of food. Members
cover a farms yearly operating cost by purchasing a share of the seasons harvest, usually
in early spring. CSA members make a commitment to support the farm throughout the
season, and assume the cost, risks and bounty of growing food, along with the farmer. In
return, the farm provides, to the best of it’s ability, a healthy supply of seasonal fresh
produce throughout the growing season. Becoming a member creates a responsible
relationship between people and the food they eat, the land on which it is grown and
those who grow it. This mutually supportive relationship between local farmers and
community members helps create an economically stable farm which members are
assured fresh, local produce.

                     HANNAH CREEK FARM
Hannah Creek Farm is a 14-acre organic produce farm. We are located in Johnston
County, just south of Four Oaks. We have been selling organic produce in the Raleigh-
Durham area since 1992 and operating the CSA since 1997. The farm also sells
wholesale statewide through Carolina Organic Growers (COG), a farmer owned
                                       Farm History
Hannah Creek Farm is a family farm that was passed to me by my grandparents. While
not growing up on the farm, a lot of time was spent here on holidays and summers. I
learned very quickly that if you are going to milk a cow, your hands need to be warm.
That’s why I was to carry the bucket of warm water to the crib. In winter, that water was
then taken to the chicken coop to make sure their water wasn’t frozen. There were 200
chickens that my grandma raised for egg production. She sold eggs and butter to
neighbors and local stores.

The move on to the farm was in January 1989. Working as an exploration geologist,
always traveling, I was ready for a base. A lot of work went into this transition. An old
mule barn, that my grandfather put a floor in, became home (it still is).

     the number of members for that year. It also provides the farm with the needed funds to
     purchase seed, make repairs and complete any farm projects before the new season starts.
     For more info, or to join contact:

                                     JIM BRITT
                                    JIM BRITT
                               2382 THOMPSON RD.
                               2382 THOMPSON ROAD
                                FOUR OAKS, NC 27524
                              FOUR OAKS, NC 27524

                                VEGETABLE LIST
                                  VEGETABLE LIST
                              vegetables grown on
                         (All(All vegetables grown on farm)farm)

     Vegetable list is not set in stone. It may vary year to year due to weather, crop failure,

     Please sign up by mailing the attached sign up form and payment to:

                                     JIM BRITT
                                    JIM BRITT
                               2382 THOMPSON RD.
                               2382 THOMPSON ROAD
                                FOUR OAKS, NC 27524
                              FOUR OAKS, NC 27524

                      Hannah Creek CSA
                           Member Info Sheet
                             (please print)

Address: ____________________________________________


Phone: __________________________________

Email(s) you want info sent: ____________________________


If you are sharing a share please add their info below:

Name: ______________________________________________

Email: ______________________________________________

Name: ______________________________________________

Email: ______________________________________________

Comments or additional info: ___________________________


   Mail form and payment to: Jim Britt 2382 Thompson Road, Four Oaks, NC 27524

 Mystic Farm
                                                          Mystic Farm                  began with a simple herb
                                                          garden and has evolved over a period of seven years
                                                          and continues to grow. We had become increasingly
                                                          frustrated with our lack of connection to the land and
                                                          felt far removed from what we put on the table. Four
                                                          years ago we turned to farming as our full-time
                                                          profession. Farming is not an easy job, but it is
                                                          something we love and believe in very strongly; it is
                                                          our life-style as well as our careers.

               Organic growing methods are very important to us‹we use absolutely no chemicals whatsoever:
               no artificial fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides (we actually have a soft spot for
               insects, including the good, the bad, and the ugly). We are in the process of studying and
               learning to apply biodynamic methods and hope to eventually apply a harmonic blend of the two.

               Our farm production consists of two operations: one that has raised beds used primarily for
               early- and late -season crops, herbs, and flowers; the other is a section of leased land on an old
               20-acre farm/orchard where we have nearly two acres under production. Here we also manage
               the orchard production of several hundred blueberry bushes and a number of fruit-bearing trees.
               We are in the process of transitioning the orchard trees toward producing through organic and
               biodynamic methods, with a heavy emphasis on compost teas. Our vegetables are older,
               heirloom and gourmet varieties; we specialize in heirloom tomatoes, primarily older varieties
               from Europe and Russia, from these, we select only the most flavorful or complex-tasting ones.

               Beekeeping was something we¹d been interested in for a while (back to those bugs), and as a
               result we have a small honey operation consisting of 12 hives that we keep on both properties.
               Our bees are also “organic,” it has taken some experimenting and many trials by error, but we¹ve
               managed to make our bees mite-free and no chemicals are used to treat them. We also never
               cook our honey before bottling.

               Since Mystic Farm began with an herb garden (they make incredible companion plants and are
               great soil nutrient indicators), we decided to incorporate the herbs into soaps, herbal remedies
               and, later, we added skin-care products, which allowed us to use our beeswax (everything here
               earns its keep)! All we make is handmade (by us) and natural.

               Mystic Farm is in now its second year of providing a CSA program (community supported
               agriculture) for the 2004 growing season. Our drop-offs are at RTI in Research Triangle Park and
               near downtown Raleigh off Hillsborough Street.

               We sell at the Carrboro Farmer¹s Market (Sat., March through December) and at the Durham
               Farmer¹s Market (Sat., April through November). This is just a small snap-shop of our over-all
               operation. We love what we do and hope you¹ll stop by and visit our market stands, and perhaps,
               join our CSA program.

               Suzanne and Matthew Holt, contact us at: 919.545.0487 or

                 Mystic Farm delivers seasonal & fresh fruit/berry subscriptions to friends at RTI in 2004!

Name:            Matthew & Suzanne Holt
Farm name:       Mystic Farm
Address:         P O Box 1673, Pittsboro, NC 27312
Phone:           919-545-0487
Product:         Local and Seasonal Fruit & Berries

                  Please see our farm’s choice of subscription plans below.
                   A full seasonal share of 20 weeks, will consist of the following:
                        Delivery to begin: Approx. second week of May 2004;
                      Delivery to end: Approx. second week of September 2004
 You will be treated to a weekly combination of fruit and/or berries as they are harvested:

Produce                    Time of Delivery

Strawberries               May/ June
Blackberries               June/July
Plums                      June
Peaches                    Late-June to September
Blueberries                July to Late Aug
Apples                     August to September
Pears                      August
Figs                       August

         Sign up with us for our 2004 season! Membership can be mailed to:
          Mystic Farm, C/O: RTI-CSA Program, P O Box 1673, Pittsboro, NC 27312
Day Phone:                                   Evening Phone:

I would like to pre-purchase the following shares:
  Full Share: 20 weeks x $25.00 per week = $500.00 per season (enough fruit for 4 people)
  Half Share: 20 weeks x $12.50 per week = $250.00 per season (enough fruit for 2 people)

This agreement represents a season-long contract; if for any reason a member must end their
subscription, Mystic Farm will transfer your share to an individual of your choice. If for any
reason, a member is unable to pick up their weekly share, arrangements should be made to have
someone else pick up the share.

Signature:        ______________________________
Date:             ______________________________

 APPENDIX 1E                                   Welcome to Community Supported Agriculture
 Nu Horizons Farm                                         at Nu Horizons Farm

                    Nu Horizons Farm is a small, family owned and operated farm located approximately 4 miles from the Chatham
                    County Courthouse Circle on the Pittsboro Goldston Road in Pittsboro, NC. We have owned and operated the
                    farm since 1995 when we began to produce most of our own food because of concerns about food safety and the
                    health of our children. Every effort is made to raise livestock in a natural “pastured” environment without
                    confinement and in the outdoors, as nature intended, while employing sustainable practices to protect the
                    environment. We care for our animals and provide them with the best veterinary care to assure that they are
                    happy and healthy. We want to serve your family the highest quality food in the most convenient
                    way at reasonable prices. Following is information about the Nu Horizons Farm Community Supported
                    Agriculture (CSA) Program and how you can become part of it. We want you to make an informed decision, so
                    please feel free to contact us if you have any questions or if you require additional information. We look
                    forward to being of service to you and hope this is the beginning of a long and mutually beneficial relationship.

                    What is a          CSA is a unique way for consumers to form a lasting relationship with a local farmer to
                    CSA?               receive a weekly allotment of the farmer’s production. In a CSA arrangement, consumers are
                                       able to pre-purchase a “share” of the farmer’s production even before the crops are grown or
                                       the livestock is raised! This may require a good deal of trust on the consumer’s part, but by
                                       making a financial commitment to the farmer consumers become “members” (or “share-
                                       holders”) of a farm’s CSA. The trust involved for the consumer and the farmer builds close
                                       ties between rural and urban communities. The CSA movement is growing in the United
                                       States. In 1990, it was estimated there were about 50 operating CSA farms. A decade later,
                                       there are over 1,000 CSA farms, and the trend is steadily increasing.

                    Why is CSA                 You know where your food is coming from. You can visit the farm and see how the
                    important?                 animals are being cared for and inspect the kitchen where the homemade goods are
                                               being produced.
                                               Contributes to the financial stability of regional food production, by keeping food
                                               “dollars” in the local economy.
                                               Increases cooperation and communication among farmers and consumers.
                                               Provides a secure market for farm products, so farmers are able to do the best job
                                               possible, farming rather than looking for buyers.
                                               Your dollars go directly to the farmer; no “cuts” are taken by retailers and other
                                               people in the middle. This provides the farmer with the capital needed to raise
                                               healthy animals using high quality agriculture practices.
                                               Supports the sustainability of a regional area and contributes to agricultural diversity
                                               by preserving small, family owned and operated farms that grow a variety of
                                               different crops.
                                               Inspires social responsibility and land stewardship.
                                               Gives a personal identity to where food comes from, which helps increase consumer
                                               understanding of how, where and who grew their food. You can actually visit the
                                               farm where your food is produced and establish a relationship with the farmer!
                                               Especially now, that due to the feeding of animal by products, mad cow
                                               disease has come to the United States. DON’T YOU WANT TO INSURE A
                                               SAFE SUPPLY OF FOOD FOR YOUR FAMILY?

                    Our Products:      Antibiotic, hormone, steroid and animal byproduct free, pasture raised, beef, pork, lamb and
                                       chicken. Farm fresh brown eggs from free-ranging chickens. Homemade breads, pies,
                                       cookies, cinnamon rolls and pound cake. Fresh pasta and pasta sauces. Jams, jellies and
                                       assorted “canned” (jar) goods. Seasonal produce and cut flowers.

               Nu Horizons Farm CSA (Community Supported Agriculture)
                            Share-holder Enrollment Form
Instructions: Print-out and complete this Enrollment Form. Mail the completed
              Enrollment Form and your check for the appropriate Share Value ($500.00 or $250.00) to:

                     Nu Horizons Farm
                     975 Pittsboro Goldston Road
                     Pittsboro, NC 27312

Please call (919) 542-4007 or e-mail if you have any questions or if you
require additional information

First Name: ______________________ Last Name: __________________________
Address: ______________________________________________________________
City: _________________________________, NC Zip Code: __________________
Home Telephone: (__ __ __) __ __ __ - __ __ __ __
Business Telephone: (__ __ __) __ __ __ - __ __ __ __
Cell Phone: (__ __ __) __ __ __ - __ __ __ __
E-Mail Address: ____________________________________________

   Full Share = $500.00
      Entitles you to select and receive $30.00 of products per week (for 18 out of 22 weeks) from the
      products listed on the CSA Program Page of our website (

   Half Share = $250.00
      Entitles you to select and receive $15.00 of products per week (for 18 out of 22 weeks) from the
      products listed on the CSA Program Page of our website (

           Please indicate where you want to pick-up your weekly order (Select only one)
         Wednesday at the Farm
         Thursday at the Farm                        Thursday at RTI
         Friday at the Farm                          Fearrington Farmers’ Market (Tuesday)
         Saturday at the Farm                        Pittsboro Farmers’ Market (Thursday)
         Cary Farmers’ Market (Saturday)             Carrboro Farmers’ Market (Saturday)
         Carrboro Farmers’ Market (Wednesday)        Southern Village (Saturday)

                                       **We update our CSA product price list frequently,
                                      Please visit our webpage:

                                          Click on the red tab titled: Our CSA Program


               Timberwood Organics is delighted to                                            Typical Seasonal Produce Availability
               deliver the best of its seasonal,
               organic, fresh produce to new friends
               at RTI. We will make a total of 23
               weekly deliveries to RTI employees
               approximately beginning the week of
               May 24th, 2004 and ending the week
               of October 28, 2004.

               We offer three subscription options. All subscription options can be
               paid in two-half payments (1/2 at time of subscribing and the balance
               by July, 2004). Each week you will receive a box of seasonal
               produce that will include a diversity of produce items we grow on our
               farm. Please see the chart at the right to see what you may receive in
               your box throughout the season.

               Options           Share Price       Volume of Produce
               Small Box:        $240.00           Feeds 1 person
               Standard Box:     $460.00           Feeds 2-3 people
               Large Box:        $600.00           Feeds 4-6 people

               Name:             Ray and Maria Christopher
               Farm Name:        Timberwood Organics
               Phone:            919-563-9464
               Address:          4619 Timberwood Trail, Efland, NC 27243                x = months when produce is typically available, weather permitting

                         We need 25 shares to deliver to RTI, but can accept up to 75 RTI-CSA members in 2004!
                                       Please sign up with Timberwood Organics in 2004!
                                                       Please mail this form & your payment to us.

               Day Phone:                                            Evening Phone:

               I would like to pre-purchase the following (you may choose more than one):

                 Small Box    = $240.00 x ______ number of shares
                 Standard Box = $460.00 x ______ number of shares
                 Large Box    = $600.00 x ______ number of shares

               Payment Options:
                Pay in full
                Pay in one-half now (plus $15.00) and pay the balance by July 2004.

               My share commitment will be: $____________

               Please note: Our members will have the option of picking up their shares at our other drop off points, please
               contact us for more details. Thank you for your support of local certified organic farmers.

            Appendix 2. RTI Employee CSA Interest Survey
                             March 2003

                                                                                                                      APPENDIX 2
          Appendix 2. Employee Interest Survey conducted at RTI, March 2003                                           RTI Employee CSA
                                                                                                                      Interest Survey
           Note: the following report has been modified from its original format

      Community Supported Agriculture in Research
                    Triangle Park
                           RTI is teaming with North Carolina State University's Center for
                           Environmental Farming Systems and local farms in a Community
                           Supported Agriculture (CSA) pilot demonstration, starting in Spring

This pilot program will provide RTI employees with pre-ordered deliveries of North Carolina
farm-fresh produce and products.

CSA is the result of a mutual pledge of commitment between
local farmers and a community of members who agree to pay
farmers up front to help cover the production costs of their
farm. In return, CSA members will receive a weekly share of
the harvest during the local growing season. Through this
arrangement, members are treated to the weekly delivery of
fresh, nutritious and seasonal produce at reasonable prices, and
farmers receive financial support and are able to stay in          Participating farmer presenting sample basket to
business.                                                          Environment@RTP members, P. Benson & J.

Please take a moment to fill out the following survey for the Center for Environmental Farming
Systems, which will help determine what local and organic value-added farm products you
would be most interested in receiving on a weekly or bi-monthly schedule. Your answers will
help farmers determine what support exists for their particular products.

Watch for more details about the program soon, and thank you for responding to the
following questions.

                                     SURVEY SUMMARY
                  Total Survey Responses: 235
                    Date of Last Response: 4/8/2003 10:41:14 AM

   1. How likely would you be to participate in a Community Supported
      Agriculture demonstration at your workplace, where you would receive

       high-quality LOCAL and/or ORGANIC farm products delivered to your
       workplace, each week?

               Response          Count           Percentage
       Not likely                   0                        0%
       Somewhat likely              84                      36%
       Very likely                  148                     64%

     2. How often do you or your family members use organic farm produce and
        food products in meal preparation?

                 Response               Count        Percentage
       Never                              33                14%
       Less than once a month             34                15%
       Once a month                       24                10%
       Twice a month                      45                19%
       Once a week                        95                41%

     3. What are your most important considerations when deciding to support
        local farms by purchasing at your workplace?

          A. It sustains local farming communities

                      Response                 Count      Percentage
               Not important                     3                1%
               Somewhat important               73                31%
               Very important                   157               67%

          B. It promotes open space and rural character

                      Response                 Count      Percentage
               Not important                    27                12%
               Somewhat important               99                42%
               Very important                   107               46%

C. It can help counter urban sprawl

           Response            Count    Percentage
   Not important                30               13%
   Somewhat important           97               42%
   Very important               106              45%

D. It is convenient

           Response            Count    Percentage
   Not important                10                4%
   Somewhat important           78               33%
   Very important               145              62%

E. It is fresh (most products harvested and delivered on same day)

           Response            Count    Percentage
   Not important                 2                1%
   Somewhat important           12                5%
   Very important               219              94%

F. It is grown in accordance with USDA National Organic Standards

           Response            Count    Percentage
   Not important                28               12%
   Somewhat important           97               42%
   Very important               108              46%

G. It is grown with environmentally sound farming practices

           Response            Count    Percentage
   Not important                 5                2%
   Somewhat important           71               30%
   Very important               158              68%

     4. Would you be interested in a weekly delivery of the following locally
        produced food related items at your workplace?

           A. Seasonal, organically grown fruits and vegetables

                      Response             Count     Percentage
              Not interested                 6                 3%
              Somewhat interested            21                9%
              Very interested               207               88%

           B. Freshly baked goods

                      Response             Count     Percentage
              Not interested                 88               38%
              Somewhat interested           121               52%
              Very interested                23               10%

           C. Jellies, Jams, Honey, and Syrups

                      Response             Count     Percentage
              Not interested                102               44%
              Somewhat interested           115               50%
              Very interested                15                6%

           D. Salsas, mustards, sauces, relishes, and vinegars

                      Response             Count     Percentage
              Not interested                106               45%
              Somewhat interested           108               46%
              Very interested                19                8%

           E. Fresh herbs

                      Response             Count     Percentage

  Not interested               26               11%
  Somewhat interested          126              54%
  Very interested              82               35%

F. Garden plants: vegetables and herbs

          Response            Count      Percentage
  Not interested               58               25%
  Somewhat interested          100              43%
  Very interested              73               32%

G. Poultry meats

          Response            Count      Percentage
  Not interested               63               27%
  Somewhat interested          108              46%
  Very interested              62               27%

H. Pork meats

          Response            Count      Percentage
  Not interested               97               43%
  Somewhat interested          90               39%
  Very interested              41               18%

I. Beef meats

          Response            Count      Percentage
  Not interested               89               39%
  Somewhat interested          96               42%
  Very interested              44               19%

J. Lamb meats

          Response            Count      Percentage

       Not interested         164           71%
       Somewhat interested    46            20%
       Very interested        22             9%

     K. Goat meats

               Response      Count   Percentage
       Not interested         196           86%
       Somewhat interested    25            11%
       Very interested         6             3%

     L. Cut Flowers

               Response      Count   Percentage
       Not interested         64            28%
       Somewhat interested    121           52%
       Very interested        46            20%

     M. Dairy Products

               Response      Count   Percentage
       Not interested         60            26%
       Somewhat interested    104           45%
       Very interested        69            30%

     N. Fresh Eggs

               Response      Count   Percentage
       Not interested         43            19%
       Somewhat interested    95            41%
       Very interested        94            41%

      O. Please list specific produce requests and any other product
         suggestions here (Please type in space below)

5. Would you consider this service to be an employee benefit?

           Response           Count     Percentage
   Not a benefit                18                8%
   Somewhat a benefit           82               35%
   Definitely a benefit        131               57%

                   Appendix 3. Sample Informational Materials for Consumers

                                     RTI Community Supported Agriculture Program
APPENDIX 3A                             Frequently Asked Questions and Answers
RTI-CSA Program
FAQs              Q:   What is the RTI Community Supported Agriculture Program?
                  A:   In 2003 RTI teamed with the Center for Environmental Farming Systems (a cooperative
                       partnership which includes North Carolina State University, for more information visit:
              for an innovative pilot program to connect local farmers
                       directly with RTI employees who are willing to pay in advance to receive fresh farm

                  Q:   Who can participate?
                  A:   All RTI staff are eligible, although you’ll need to be able to pick up your products once a
                       week on RTI’s main campus.

                  Q:   How many farmers are participating?
                  A:   Five different local farmers (organic or environmentally sustainable) are offering a
                       variety of products to RTI employees.

                  Q:   What kinds of products are the farmers offering?
                  A:   A wide range of farm fresh products. You will have to read each farmer’s fact sheet
                       carefully for details. In general, they are offering:
                           o Bath and body products
                           o Free-range eggs
                           o Free-range meats/homemade pastas
                           o Fruits (variety)
                           o Herbs
                           o Honey products
                           o Vegetables (varieties)

                  Q:   Where do I find out what the farmers are specifically offering?
                  A:   A special Web site has been set up for us, featuring general information about CSA’s,
                       links to all the farmers contact and product information, links to recipes, and a general
                       table that lists who is offering what general products:

                  Q:   How does it work?
                  A:   Each farmer has carefully prepared a fact sheet listing types of offerings, costs, contact
                       information, and much more, which you’ll find as PDF files (download most current
                       version of Adobe Acrobat Reader at: ) on the
                       CSA Web site. Most will also explain what a “share” means to them. After you have
                       read these sheets, contact the farmer directly to sign up with them.

                  Q:   Do I sign up with each farmer individually?
                  A:   Yes.

                  Q:   Are the farmers organic?
                  A:   In some cases, they may be certified organic farmers, and in some cases, they may
                       practice environmentally sound farming methods but don’t have the official “organic”
                       label. Please read the sheets and ask the farmers for more details about their particular
                       growing practices. Please keep in mind it takes three years to make the transition to
                       being an official certified organic farm as recognized by the U.S. Department of
                       Agriculture. Many North Carolina farmers are just starting to make the transition as they
                       switch from their traditional “cash crops” of tobacco to smaller, produce- and consumer-
                       oriented farms. It will be our help and direct support will help them afford to make this
                       transition more quickly.

Local Food

                                 Appendix 4. RTI Employee CSA Evaluation
                                             December 2003

RTI Employee CSA
                      Appendix 4. Employee CSA Evaluation Survey conducted at RTI, December 2003
                             Note: the following report has been modified from its original format

                                       2003 EMPLOYEE EVALUATION SURVEY:
                                       Community Supported Agriculture at RTI
                   In 2003, RTI worked with The Center for Environmental Farming Systems and local
                   farms in a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) demonstration. We are evaluating
                   how to improve this program in the future, and would appreciate hearing your opinion.

                                    Thank you for responding to the following survey.

                   For more information about the CSA program at RTI, or for information on how you can
                   help to publicize the program, please contact xxxx.

                   To learn more about CEFS, visit

                                                    SURVEY SUMMARY
                                    Total Survey Responses: 172
                                     Date of Last Response: 1/5/2004 9:12:27 AM

                      1. What is the size of your household?

                                Response              Count       Percentage
                         1 person                       31                  18%
                         2 people                       86                  50%
                         3 people                       30                  17%
                         4 people                       22                  13%
                         5 or more people               3                     2%

                      2. How did you first learn about the RTI-Community Supported Agriculture
                         (CSA) program? (Check ONE choice):

                                           Response                           Count        Percentage
                         This survey is the first I have heard about it         9                    5%

   Attended the farm sign up days at RTI                 31               18%
   Read about it on staffNet/NewsDesk                    99               58%
   Read about it on a posted flier/poster                8                 5%
   Heard about it from a co-worker                       16                9%
   Saw the tents and signs when driving by               5                 3%
   Other                                                 3                 2%

      A. If you first learned of the RTI-CSA program from an "Other" source,
         please specify source below:

     ID       Date                             Response
     116 12/10/2003     Stopped by the tents which are just outside my
         4:26:56 PM     building
      27 12/1/2003      A friend was doing it. We have now signed up. I
         10:17:52       think it is a great program.
      18 12/1/2003  I can't remember for sure, but I think I read about it
         9:46:17 AM in the N&O which piqued my interest. Then I learned
                    more about it on StaffNet.

3. The RTI-CSA program was well advertised to employees (Check ONE

           Response               Count     Percentage
   Strongly Agree                  74              44%
   Somewhat Agree                  73              43%
   Somewhat Disagree               16               9%
   Strongly Disagree                6               4%

4. What methods would be most effective to better advertise the RTI-CSA
   program to you? (Check ALL choices that apply)

                     Response                        Count    Percentage
   Informational fliers/posters                          99           23%
   Brown bag lunch seminars/other                        32               7%
   informational sessions

        Announcements on staffNet/NewsDesk                     131            31%
        Departmental bulletin board                            24                 6%
        Departmental web site                                  20                 5%
        Updates from a departmental contact person             36                 8%
        Presentations at departmental staff meetings           29                 7%
        Better signage on farmer delivery days                 57             13%

             A. Are there other methods that would be effective? (Please specify

          ID         Date                            Response
          174 12/17/2003        Regardless of methods, the details of how it works
              10:54:30 AM       and testimonials about its strengths need to be
          160 12/16/2003        E-Mail
              11:34:27 AM
             96 12/9/2003       locate it close to the cafeteria where everyone
                3:49:05 PM      generally goes while thinking about food

     5. Did you purchase farm products in the RTI-CSA Program in 2003?

              Response         Count         Percentage
        No                       92                       54%
        Yes                      77                       46%

     If you answered 'NO' to Question 5, answer Questions 6 and 7. Otherwise, skip
     to Question 8.

     6. Why did you NOT PARTICIPATE in the RTI-CSA program in 2003? (Check
        ALL choices that apply):

                            Response                    Count        Percentage
        Not aware of the program                          13                10%
        Unsure of how to sign up                          13                10%
        Sign-up process was too cumbersome                 8                 6%

Shares were too expensive                        26                20%
Shares had too much food to consume              44                34%
Products desired were unavailable                5                   4%
Farm I signed up with did not participate        4                   3%
Delivery day was inconvenient                    4                   3%
Delivery time was inconvenient                   5                   4%
Delivery location was inconvenient               8                   6%

   A. Are there other reasons you did not participate? (Please specify

  ID       Date                             Response
  188 12/21/2003      Biggest reason was that I knew I would be out 4
      2:11:10 PM      weeks during the summer. That, combined with
                      the cost, was the largest factor. I did not have the
                      time to look for someone to share during those 4
  184 12/18/2003      The main reasons I have not participated are that
      1:06:09 PM      I'm afraid of ending up with vegetables I don't
                      typically eat that I'll have to figure out how to
                      use, if there was a way to opt out of certain items
                      that would be nice but realize it may not be
                      possible. Also, I enjoy getting veggies from
                      farmer's market.
  181 12/18/2003      I didn't know anything about the program other
      10:35:43 AM     than you could get fresh veggies. Never took the
                      time to look into it.
  178 12/17/2003      Difficult to make realistic assessment of how
      3:12:33 PM      much food our family would consume before the
                      produce went bad, and difficult to compare
                      prices with grocery store prices.
  165 12/16/2003      My family has an established routine to purchase
      2:10:40 PM      staples. And it is usually my stay-at-home
                      spouse who does the shopping.
  156 12/16/2003      This does not seem like a program for
      10:10:18 AM     households of just 2 people, so I didn't look into
                      it further.
  152 12/16/2003      I grow my own organic produce.

               10:00:26 AM
          139 12/16/2003      Shares appeared to be expensive, although I did
              9:20:58 AM      not do a cost comparison between shares and
                              stores. (did not exactly know about quality and
                              exact quantity of shares)
          126 12/12/2003      Difficult to plan in advance.
              9:30:13 AM
          112 12/10/2003      Not exactly sure whether I'd be given a bushel of
              1:16:28 PM      things I don't eat or whether I had choice at all.
                              Not sure if I could purchase things individually.
                              Interested in some stuff from all vendors, not
                              necessarily all from one vendor.
           67 12/2/2003       I had never participated in anything like this
              10:38:41 PM     before and was leary at first because of the price,
                              so I did not buy a share. I also grow a lot of my
                              own vegetables. I did however buy something
                              almost every week from the farmers because
                              they brought extra.
           38 12/1/2003       I live near the farmer's market and it was easier
              12:39:57 PM     to go there than to have to "grocery shop" right
                              after work. Also, the up front costs seemed too
           36 12/1/2003       I enjoy so much going to the farmer's markets
              12:22:15 PM     and felt that I would lose that if I purchased my
                              produce through the RTI CSA (especially since I
                              thought it would provide me with more than I
                              needed and wouldn't have the need to go to the
                              farmer's markets) .
           24 12/1/2003       Just never got around to it. Going to the grocery
              10:03:12 AM     store seems easier.
           17 12/1/2003       I go to the local Farmers Markets and buy from
              9:50:06 AM      the same vendors.
           13 12/1/2003       I don't like all vegetables and I couldn't find an
              9:48:00 AM      affordable option that included only foods I liked.

     7. I am likely to participate in the program in 2004 (check ONE choice):

                Response            Count     Percentage
        Strongly Agree                13                13%

   Somewhat Agree                  42                42%
   Somewhat Disagree               32                32%
   Strongly Disagree               12                12%

If you answered 'YES' to Question 5, answer Questions 8 to 11. Otherwise,
skip to Question 12.

8. If you DID PARTICIPATE in the RTI-CSA program last year, about how
   much money did you spend on each week's share(s):

           Response         Count            Percentage
   $5 or less                 11                     14%
   $6-15                      31                     39%
   $16-25                     27                     34%
   $26-40                      6                      8%
   more than $40               4                      5%

9. What did you LIKE about participating in the program? (Check ALL choices
   that apply):

                Response            Count Percentage
   Convenience                          61           22%
   Price                                12            4%
   Quality                              66           24%
   Selection/Variety                    16            6%
   Supporting Local farms               75           27%
   Supporting Organic farming           47           17%

      A. Are there other reasons why you LIKED participating? (Please
         specify below):

       ID         Date                            Response
       163 12/16/2003       Getting to know the farmers and the recipes
           1:16:16 PM       they provided.

            103 12/10/2003     Freshness of products
                9:33:52 AM
             85 12/8/2003      Fresh baked products, fruit and vegetables not
                4:25:36 PM     available elsewhere.
             46 12/2/2003      It forced me to eat more fruits and vegetables
                8:38:18 AM     which in turn led me to shed a few extra
                               pounds over the summer! I really liked having a
                               say in what vegetables I got each week - I
                               would not have been as happy with one of the
                               farms that just gave you whatever they had that
                               week (unless they provided easy recipes for
                               preparing the vegetables).
             42 12/1/2003      It was good talking to the farmers about their
                2:34:14 PM     crops. You don't get that proximity at the
                               grocery stores.
             35 12/1/2003      Liked meeting the grower, fruit share was
                12:08:32 PM    fantastic - always got recipe ideas plus
                               information about what I was getting
             28 12/1/2003      Important for RTI to participate in such good
                10:22:22 AM    programs. Helps bring 'RTI's mission' closer to
             27 12/1/2003      It is simply the right thing to do.
                10:17:52 AM

     10. What did you NOT LIKE about participating in this program? (Check ALL
        choices that apply):

                       Response                    Count Percentage
        Sign-up process was too cumbersome           2               2%
        Shares were too expensive                    25              21%
        Shares had too much food to consume          31              26%
        Products desired were unavailable            10              8%
        Lack of choice in share contents             32              26%
        Farm I signed up with did not                6               5%
        Delivery day was inconvenient                3               2%
        Delivery time was inconvenient               7               6%

   Delivery location was inconvenient           5              4%

      A. Are there other things you DID NOT LIKE about participating?
         (Please specify below):

      ID       Date                          Response
      14 12/16/2003      As a single person, shares were just too large to
       7 9:31:33 AM      consume and therefore also expensive. I bought
                         tomatoes from a farmer on occasion and would
                         like the ability to purchase what I like and what I
      14 12/16/2003      Choice was very good in the beginning but
       1 9:25:11 AM      diminished during the summer, but this was
                         likely because of the excessive rain.
      11 12/11/2003      Amount and variety of foods was the challenge --
       9 10:53:01 AM     Sometimes there was so much of one thing that I
                         couldn't come up with enough things to do with
                         the item before it went bad. I believe some of the
                         farmers provided recipe suggestions, which
                         seems like a great idea.
      87 12/8/2003       I would have liked to have had more fruit options,
         5:55:49 PM      in addition to vegetables.
      37 12/1/2003       My family typically would not buy 50% of the
         12:38:49 PM     items received in the share at the grocery store.
                         Gave or threw away those items.
      35 12/1/2003       Didn't like veggie share - would get all these
         12:08:32 PM     strange "leaves" - didn't know what they were or
                         how to prepare them.

11. I am likely to participate in the program in 2004 (check ONE choice):

           Response            Count     Percentage
   Strongly Agree                36                 42%
   Somewhat Agree                32                 38%
   Somewhat Disagree             12                 14%
   Strongly Disagree              5                 6%

12. What type of information do you desire to help you decide on participation
    in the RTI-CSA program?

                 Response                   Count Percentage
     Simple recipes for CSA food items        48            21%
     Nutritional and other health data        24            11%
     Organic agriculture information          35            15%
     Environmental impact data                22            10%
     Comparative price data (vs.              97            43%
     groceries; farmers markets; etc.)

        A. Is there other information that would be helpful to you when deciding
           whether to participate in the program in 2004? (Please specify

            ID        Date                         Response
            189 12/24/2003       A flyer with info stating "what's in it for the
                9:16:55 AM       consumer" and "what's in it for the farmer"
                                 would have been helpful.
            181 12/18/2003       I try to buy organic. I would want info on
                10:35:43 AM      how the veggies are grown and it they are
                                 certified organic.
            178 12/17/2003       Would like to know all pricing options
                3:12:33 PM       before participating. If pricing options are
                                 limited, might be wise to increase those
            156 12/16/2003       Clearer information on exactly how much
                10:10:18 AM      food is included in a "share" would make it
                                 easier to decide whether this is worth the
                                 money or not.
            146 12/16/2003       Info about the program--what it is and how it
                9:31:50 AM       works
            142 12/16/2003       List of items likely to be there by
                9:24:00 AM       month/week
            140 12/16/2003       More structured system....less competition
                9:23:08 AM       among farmers.
              31 12/1/2003       Which vegetables are in season at which
                 10:35:44 AM     times
              28 12/1/2003       Ability to split a share with other
                 10:22:22 AM     person/household

13. What delivery day works best for you? (Check ONE choice):

       Response           Count       Percentage
   Monday                  24                      17%
   Tuesday                 15                      10%
   Wednesday               22                      15%
   Thursday                63                      44%
   Friday                  20                      14%

14. Moving the delivery site from RTI's main campus to another location in
   RTP would reduce the likelihood of me participating in the program (Check
   ONE choice):

                      Response                        Count Percentage
   Strongly Agree (would reduce likelihood)              109       68%
   Somewhat Agree                                        32        20%
   Somewhat Disagree                                     13         8%
   Strongly Disagree (would not reduce likelihood)       7          4%

15. How can the RTI-CSA program be improved in 2004? (Check ALL choices
   that apply):

                      Response                        Count Percentage
   Make smaller volume shares available                  110       23%
   Make less expensive shares available                  90        19%
   Increase variety of farm products in shares           65        14%
   Give customers more control over what is              93        20%
   included in their weekly share
   Combine program to be farmers market & CSA            89        19%
   Make the sign-up process easier to understand         20         4%
   Change delivery day                                   7          1%

      A. Please specify other ways the program could be improved in 2004:

            ID     Date                          Response

                146 12/16/2003     More info about the program, its purpose,
                    9:31:50 AM     logistics, etc. I've been at RTI for 3 years but
                                   have only overheard others' conversations
                                   about it and not received any info directly.
                116 12/10/2003     I will definitely participate if a share is made
                    4:26:56 PM     available that would be appropriate for one
                                   person to consume.
                 86 12/8/2003      Have more farms deliver and more things
                    4:06:31 PM     that do not have to be signed up for in
                 81 12/8/2003      Shares that occasionally cannot be picked
                    3:23:31 PM     up on delivery date should be stored cool for
                                   later pick up.
                 28 12/1/2003      Have RTI purchase shares from farmers and
                    10:22:22       use the food at the cafeteria to promote the
                    AM             program (could do special things vs. only
                                   using CSA food).

     16. If you would like to receive updates on sign-up and other news about the
        RTI-CSA program, please enter your e-mail address below:
     17. If you would like to be partnered with a fellow RTI employee to split a large
        sized share, please enter your email address below:
     18. What other local farm items would you like to see delivered to RTI in the
        future? (Please specify below):

     19. What other suggestions or comments do you have? (Please specify

         ID        Date                            Response
         172 12/17/2003       THANKS!
             10:07:40 AM
         169 12/16/2003       Farmers' Market-style individual sale of products
             4:29:11 PM       would be ideal.
         133 12/13/2003       I think this program is a great idea. Please keep it
             1:38:12 PM       up.
           99 12/10/2003      Needs much better coverage in RTI
              7:51:30 AM      announcements to make the program better
                              known. Benefits seem slim, except for helping the

                 farmers. Perhaps you need to show that the
                 farmers need help and to what extent CSA helps
84 12/8/2003     I really enjoyed the program at first. Hope we will
   3:46:37 PM    have more farmers join in next year and would
                 love to see it become a farmer's market as well -
                 might make it easier to buy what we need.
81 12/8/2003     It is a great idea and I am sure the program can be
   3:23:31 PM    expanded.
27 12/1/2003     This is a good program. Give it time. It will grow
   10:17:52 AM   nicely.
30 12/1/2003     I would have liked to have participated in the
   10:09:40 AM   share program, but only if I could choose what
                 was/wasn't in my share. Instead, I chose only to
                 buy tomatoes because that was the only thing I
                 could buy without getting other products I
                 wouldn't use. A farmers market would definitely
                 be a great idea!

                                                              Appendix 5. 2004 Program Brochure

       APPENDIX 5
al, Sustainable – Taste the Difference!                              Fresh, Local, Sustainable – Taste the Difference!

 Participating Farmers
y Farms, William & Diane Brinkley
sing sustainable methods of integrated pest management. Phone: 919-528-0513
 ad, Creedmoor, NC 27522
Creek Farm, Jim Britt & Terry Miller
rganic methods. Phone: 919-894-8918
n Road, Four Oaks, NC 27524
                                                          After a successful pilot year in 2003, the RTI-CSA program continues
c Farm, Matthew & Suzanne Holt                            in 2004. Exciting changes include delivery to RTI’s 800 Park building,
and berries, grown using organic, biodynamic methods.     off of Hwy 54. Also, farmers will regularly bring extra goods for sale Phone: 919-545-0487
ittsboro, NC 27312                                        on Thursdays at RTI’s Hanes building parking lot, off of Cornwallis
~tjnartea/mystic_farm_spring_2004.pdf                     Rd. Customers who purchase prepaid shares of goods will have                           priority when supplies are limited.
rizons Farm, Susan & Leigh Loraine
e, antibiotic-free livestock products and foods.          Why? Phone: 919-542-4007                            Reasons to participate include food quality, taste, freshness,
oldston Road, Pittsboro, NC 27312                         convenience, value, and support for sustainable growing methods and
                                                          for local farmers.

Growing Station, Allison Tucker
and edible herbs, grown using organic methods.
om Phone: 919-554-0494                                    It’s easy! See the website for sign-up forms, visit the farmers during
ne, Wake Forest, NC 27587                                 one of the advertised sign-up events, or contact the farmers directly
~tjnartea/GROWING_STATION_2004.pdf                        using the contact information on the back of this brochure.
od Organics, Ray & Maria Christopher
ing USDA certified organic standards.                     When? Phone: 919-563-9464                            Nu Horizons Farm delivers year-round, and other farms deliver Spring
 od Trail, Efland, NC 27243                               through Fall (exact dates vary by farm), typically on Thursday
                                                          afternoons. Sign up now, as memberships are filled on a first-come,
                                                          first-served basis.
vine, RTI Employee Outreach Chair:                                           Learn more and sign up at:     Phone: 919.485.5578                                 
 n web at:

            Fresh, Local, Sustainable – Taste the Difference!                                Fresh, Local, Sustainable – Taste th

                          Participating Farmers
                 Brinkley Farms, William & Diane Brinkley
Local vegetables grown using sustainable methods of integrated pest management.
Email: Phone: 919-528-0513
Address: 10225 Boyce Road, Creedmoor, NC 27522
Personal Web:
              Hannah Creek Farm, Jim Britt & Terry Miller
Vegetables grown using organic methods.
Email: Phone: 919-894-8918
Address: 2382 Thompson Road, Four Oaks, NC 27524
                                                                                  After a successful pilot year in 2003, the RTI-C
                  Mystic Farm, Matthew & Suzanne Holt                             in 2004. Exciting changes include delivery to R
Local and seasonal fruit and berries, grown using organic, biodynamic methods.    off of Hwy 54. Also, farmers will regularly br
Email: Phone: 919-545-0487
Address: PO Box 1673, Pittsboro, NC 27312                                         on Thursdays at RTI’s Hanes building parking                        Rd. Customers who purchase prepaid shares o
Personal Web:                             priority when supplies are limited.
                Nu Horizons Farm, Susan & Leigh Loraine
All natural, hormone-free, antibiotic-free livestock products and foods.          Why?
Email: Phone: 919-542-4007                              Reasons to participate include food quality, tas
Address: 975 Pittsboro Goldston Road, Pittsboro, NC 27312                         convenience, value, and support for sustainable
Personal Web:
                                                                                  for local farmers.

                      The Growing Station, Allison Tucker
Pesticide-free cut flowers and edible herbs, grown using organic methods.
Email: Phone: 919-554-0494                                    It’s easy! See the website for sign-up forms, vis
Address: 332 Railroad Lane, Wake Forest, NC 27587                                 one of the advertised sign-up events, or contact                           using the contact information on the back of th
             Timberwood Organics, Ray & Maria Christopher
Our veggies are grown using USDA certified organic standards.                     When?
Email: Phone: 919-563-9464                                 Nu Horizons Farm delivers year-round, and ot
Address: 4619 Timberwood Trail, Efland, NC 27243                                  through Fall (exact dates vary by farm), typical
Personal Web:
                                                                                  afternoons. Sign up now, as memberships are
                                                                                  first-served basis.
              Dan Levine, RTI Employee Outreach Chair:                                               Learn more and sign u
            Email:   Phone: 919.485.5578                                               www.rti-csa.ncsu.ed
             Visit us on web at:

                Fresh, Local, Sustainable – Taste the Difference!                    Fresh, Local, Su
             What is Community Supported Agriculture?
     The Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) movement began in
     Europe and Japan over 30 years ago, with the first CSA established in the
     U.S. in 1986. The adoption of CSA concepts by farmers and communities
     continues to grow, with over 1,000 such farms across the nation today.
     CSA directly connects consumers with local farmers. In a CSA system,
     the farmer grows food for a group of customers who pledge to buy a
     portion (called a share) of the farm’s harvest for the upcoming season.
                                                                                 Convenient – Cho
     This system gives growers the upfront, interest-free cash to finance and    Value – Buying dire
     sustain their operation. In addition, the grower receives a higher income   produce.
     from their produce (and the customer saves money), since a “middleman”      Fresh – Grown for
     is not necessary.                                                           hours before delivery
                                                                                 Healthy – Studies s
                                                                                 produce grown using
                                                                                 Safe – Farms practic
                                                                                 Livestock are raised w
                                                                                 are easier on the land
                                                                                 farms helps protect g
                         How does it work at RTI?                                Triangle.
     In 2004, the RTI-CSA program will include six farms, providing a wide       Stewardship – Ma
     range of vegetables, fruit, berries, meat, poultry, eggs, pasta, baked      local family farms an
     goods, flowers, herbs, jams, honey & more. Most farms deliver on
     Thursdays between 4 and 6 p.m. at the Hanes building parking lot on         Unique – All your
     RTI’s main campus. Farmers will also drop off orders at RTI’s 800           find in grocery store
     Park building lobby, on their way to the Hanes delivery location.           Connect – Know &
     Each farm offers shares of different sizes and costs. Many farms allow
     customers to choose exactly what they want each week, while others
     provide a variety of goods each week, depending on availability.
     Signing up for a share helps local farmers to earn needed funds in
     advance, and your commitment pays off in the priceless dividends of
     better health, food safety and environmental protection for you, your
                                                                                      Visit us on web
     family, and your community.

e Difference!                 Fresh, Local, Sustainable – Taste the Difference!
ovement began in
 CSA established in the
armers and communities
oss the nation today.
                                     Reasons to Participate in CSA
ers. In a CSA system,
ho pledge to buy a
e upcoming season.
                          Convenient – Choice of two delivery spots for easy pick-up.
 e cash to finance and    Value – Buying direct means competitive prices for quality
ceives a higher income    produce.
y), since a “middleman”   Fresh – Grown for taste, not for transport. Usually harvested just
                          hours before delivery, at the peak of ripeness.
                          Healthy – Studies show health and nutritional benefits of
                          produce grown using organic methods.
                          Safe – Farms practice reduced or no pesticide use for crops.
                          Livestock are raised without antibiotics, hormones, or animal
                          Environmentally friendly – Organic and sustainable methods
                          are easier on the land and its inhabitants, and supporting family
                          farms helps protect greenspace and agricultural areas in the
TI?                       Triangle.
farms, providing a wide   Stewardship – Make your food dollars count by supporting
, eggs, pasta, baked      local family farms and helping to sustain communities.
ost farms deliver on
uilding parking lot on    Unique – All your favorite foods, as well as varieties you won’t
 orders at RTI’s 800      find in grocery stores. Fresher, healthier, more flavorful.
 delivery location.       Connect – Know & trust the people who grow the food you eat.
sts. Many farms allow
 h week, while others
g on availability.
n needed funds in
priceless dividends of
otection for you, your
                               Visit us on web at:


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