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					IT For Managers I
What does business expect
        from IT?




                            2
   What does business expect from
                IT?
• Systems side:
   – Functional systems-> to run different functional areas in an
     enterprise e.g. finance, HR, marketing…
      • Again ERP systems, HR IS, CRM systems, SFA
   – Reporting and performance tracking, monitoring and control
     systems
   – Analytics and decision support
   – Automating routine, structured business processes
   – Managing business processes for performance,
     effectiveness, efficiency and optimal resource utilization


                                                              3
      What IT can do for business?
• Integrate-> create a unified view of enterprise
   – Reduce duplication of data and work efforts
   – Improve transparency and visibility-> anytime audit
     possible(HAL case)
• Makes organizations share data and innovate business models and
  collaborative partnerships (Walmart- CPFR, cross-docking cases)
• Make JIT, Kanban possible- as things are tracked in real time
  (Walmart RFID case)
• Make innovative business models execution-able (DELL case:
  w/o internet, no Dell)
• Supports fast innovation cycles, PLC management
• Improve customer-friendliness, better support, better service
  possible with analytics done in real-time (TESCO – body-heat
  based counter-opening mechanisms!)                           4
             Some Eye-openers
business models that wouldn‟t have been there w/0 IT!!!

  • Walmart vs the other retail chains
      – But, Best Buy still holds No. 1 position in
        Electronics Retail: WHY?
  •   Dell
  •   FedEx
  •   E-Chaupal !!!!
  •   Big Bazaar
  •   Tanishque- organized jewelerry retail
      across the country                              5
            Data and information
• Data
  –   Raw set of facts and figures
  –   Unformatted
  –   Unprocessed
  –   Unstructured
  –   Dis-organised
  –   No meaning associated
  –   Not in usable form
• Information: meaningful, usable, processed form
  of data
  – Formatted data : pre-defined structure/ templates
  – Processed :
       • Logical
       • Syntactic
       • semantic                                                       6
            IT For Managers 1st Part MIS DBMS NW -Tapati Bandopadhyay
                    Knowledge
• Information processed to
  –   Facilitate decision making
  –   Draw inferences
  –   Derive another information
  –   Use information for specific purposes
• Examples:
  –   Domain knowledge
  –   Functional knowledge
  –   Expertise
  –   Common sense
  –   General knowledge

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                  Systems
• Definition include
  – Goals: specific objectives to achieve it
  – Scope: boundaries
  – Components/ sub-systems
  – Architecture: relationships/ interaction
    between components
• Open systems/ closed systems


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         Computer systems: basics
• Hardware: CPU (ALU + CU), I/O, memory
• Software:
  – systems software
     • OS e.g. Windows/ UNIX/ DOS
     • Compilers e.g. Turbo C/C++
  – Application software e.g. MS Word, Access
• Platforms: operating system versions + underlying
  processor architecture
  – E.g. Windows XP on Intel Pentium IV
    OR UNIX V 5 on Sun Solaris
• Languages: e.g. Basic, FORTRAN, COBOL, C, C++,
  Java
• Development tools:ITe.g. VB/1st Part MIS
                      For Managers
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   Generic systems architecture
INPUT             RPOCESSING                  OUTPUT


• Business systems: How they qualify as
  systems
• Functional sub systems
• E.g. banks: ATMs, Databases, customers/
  employees/systems support people, bank
  operating procedures
• More examples from business?
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          Information systems
•   Hardware
•   Software
•   People (users/ developers/ administrators)
•   Networks
•   Data




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Information quality: attributes
          • Accuracy
          • Precision
          • Timeliness
          • Completeness
          • Security
          • Reliability
          • Utility
          • Objectivity
          • Integrity
          • Verifiability/ authenticity
          • Interpretability
          • Operability
          • ITModifiability MIS
              For Managers 1st Part
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                 IT Vs. IS
•   What is Information technology?



•   What are information systems?



•   What is ITES?

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Types of information systems
                •   TPS
                •   MIS
                •   EIS
                •   DSS
                •   ES
                •   ERP
                •   OAS
                •   CRM
                •   E-commerce
                •   Functional
                •   Groupware
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         Simplified acronyms
• TPS- Transaction Processing System
  – Definition of a transaction:
     • A Unit of related jobs that are to be completed as a
       whole or none at all (e.g. cash withdrawal from
       ATM – txns can not be completed w/o writing back
       the deducted amount to you‟re a/c balance)
     • ACID properties: Atomicity, Consistency(across
       systems and rules), Isolation(independent to other
       transactions), Durability (changes are permanent)
     • Typically a TPS has a performance criteria to meet
       too – max. 3-5 seconds per transaction

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       MIS and EIS- differences
• MIS-Management Information Systems-
   – mainly operational reporting
   – routine reports and simple analysis- can be automated, e.g.
     sales incentives due of the sales force/ per month.
   – target/ consumers: middle level decision makers,
     operational/tactical managers, supervisors
• EIS- Executive Information Systems:
   – Summarized, with options to drill down(e.g. total travel expenses
     -> variance reported to be significant -> so drill down per cost
     center to identify the cause
   – Has to support ad-hoc(i.e. non-routine) queries too
   – So, can not be fully automated
   – Target/ consumers: Strategic decision makers, e.g. CXOs.
                                                                    16
                   DSS and ES
• DSS- Decision Support Systems
   – Reporting ++ analysis
   – Should be able to generate different visualization on
     the same report/ data (e.g. MIS report may contain
     only variance, DSS tool can show it in Pie charts, YoY
     deviations, 3-D visualization etc.)
   – Can be „intelligent‟ enough to help in decision process
• ES- Expert Systems
   – Work on concepts of Artificial Intelligence
   – Tries to „emulate‟ the deductive knowledge as well as
     the decision making logic/ decision process of the
     experts, hence „expert systems‟
   – E.g. trouble-shooting software: questions-> probable
     cause identification ->repeat till get a solution
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                  ERP, OAS, CRM
• ERP – Enterprise resource Planning systems, e.g. SAP, Baan,
  Oracle 11i
   – Integrates enterprise data (master data and transaction data)
   – Automates routine internal business processes e.g. inventory
     control, MRP I and II(Material Requirement Planning,
     Manufacturing Resource Planning), order processing, supplier
     payments, goods receiving, invoice checking etc.
   – Latest: ERP + APO(Advanced Planning and Optimization)
• OAS- Office Automation System
   – Automated routine office processes e.g. document management,
     file management
   – Can have systems linked to HR Information Systems e.g.
     attendance management, maintaining leave records
• CRM- Customer Relationship Management
   – Manages customer database
   – Helps analysis in designing promotions/ schemes
   – Helps simulate scenariosManagers 1st Part MIS
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  E-Comm, functional, groupware
• E-commerce-
   – Handling commercial transactions over the Internet
   – Different from e-business
• Functional-
   – E.g. financials/ HR IS/ SFA(Sales Force Automation)
     systems
• Groupware- manages group communication elements,
  e.g.
   – Group mails
   – Bulletin boards
   – Crucial for long-distance projects, virtual teams- for
     synchronization, sharing
   – e.g. Lotus Domino, Sharepoint
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                     Levels
• Operational
• Tactical
• Strategic

Comparisons : ??




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       ERP – promises and delivery
• History of ERP -inventory control systems -lowering operating costs and
  improving logistics. Material Requirement Planning (MRP) ->MRP-II
  (Manufacturing Resource Planning) :optimizing the production process of
  the entire plant=>extended to areas like Finance, HR, Engineering and
  Project Management etc.
• cross-functional coordination and integration to support the production
  process.
• better business practices and equipping them with correct information for
  taking timely decisions.
• It is software driven business management system that helps to integrate all
  functions of a business including planning, manufacturing, sales, and
  marketing.
• SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, JD Edward and Baan : 2001- the global ERP
  market was valued at $ 23 billion. SAP was the market leader with a 20%
  market share, followed by Oracle with 7.5% marketshare.

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         ERP – promises and delivery
•   Acceptance order: Manufacturing -> FMCG->automotive->steel, oil-> textile and
    pharma companies.
•   India story: TISCO, TELCO, Nestle, Reliance, Godrej, Larsen & Toubro, HLL, Maruti,
    BPCL, IOCL, ONGC, Coke, Pepsi, ITC, Colgate-Palmolive, P&G, Shopper‟s Stop
    and M&M
     – ERP market grew substantially with a CAGR of 70% during the late 1990s (Refer
        Table I),
•   1996-97: 270(in Rs million) to 2001-02*: 6500
•   However, a majority of ERP implementation exercises in India proved to be failures.
     – small scale companies even being driven to bankruptcy.
     – poor understanding, planning and implementation of the system, and not to the
        inherent problem in the software.
     – Frost & Sullivan :“Most CIOs we spoke to said that ERP packages cost the earth,
        take ages to implement and at the end of the day deliver nothing.”
     – Gartner -2001: average cost overrun in Indian ERP implementations was 178%,
        the average implementation time overrun was 230% of original expectations and
        the average decline in productivity was 59%.


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                              DBMS NW -Tapati Bandopadhyay
SAP R/3 at BPCL-ERP for organic and inorganic growth
• 2001: BPCL‟s nationwide retail network - 4,500 outlets, 60% of company-
  owned or leased (highest percentage among oil PSUs).
• Retail sales -60% of the company‟s sales volume
• However, its share in lubricants(most profitable product): low
• Plans:
   – to increased its emphasis on retail business
   – increase its non-fuel revenues
   – leveraging on the strength of its retail network by providing value-
     added services :
       • convenience stores,
       • automated teller machines (ATMs) and
       • internet kiosks.
• Other drivers:
   – Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) - compensated producers, refiners and marketers
     for operating costs and gave them an assured return on their assets.
   – With the abolition of APM, private players were allowed to enter the
     oil sector.
                               IT For Managers 1st Part MIS                        23
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                            IT initiatives
• organizational restructuring exercise=>six Strategic Business Units (SBUs) –
  Retail, Aviation, Lubricants, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Industrial &
  Commercial (I&C), and Refinery.
    – Integrated Information Systems, Finance, Human Resources, Strategy and
      Brand Management.
    – restructuring -organization focus on specific customer segments and address
      their individual needs.
    – streamline its processes and integrate the organization as a whole.
• =>implement ERP.
• 3-pronged strategy:
   – create a communication network within the organization; Intranet -
     Microsoft Exchange Server as the platform, integration with the
     desktop environment and MS Windows NT Server.
   – create a basic information network for the entire corporation-
     locations connected using Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT)-
     based network- bandwidth of 64 kilobytes per second (Kbps) to
     share Time Division Multiplexing/Time Division Multiple Access
                                                     IT For Managers 1st Part MIS
     (TDM/TDMA)                                    DBMS NW -Tapati Bandopadhyay
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   – process transactions with customers all over the country.
                         Projects
• CUSEC (Customer Service and Satisfaction)=>imbalance
  between refining and marketing.
• SAP R/3 -successfully used by major oil companies in the
  world, oil industry specific package and an India specific
  package.
• Connectivity cloud: web servers, WAN, Internet Gateways,
  routers, VSAT.
• E-biz initiatives
   – allow I&C customers to track the status of their orders
     online.
• Petrocard :4K-microprocessor smart card used at retail outlets
  across the country.
   – 2.5 lakh customers - over 20,000 daily transactions
• Success of Petrocard and Fleet card=>online payment system-
  credit card payments. IT For Managers 1st Part MIS         25
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     Problems : CASE examples
•   Disasters: solutions?
•   Availability 24X7: ??
•   Mission critical: ??
•   Real-time: ??
•   Competitive advantages: ??
•   Strategic systems: ??
•   Business continuity plans: ??
•   Quality: ??
                 IT For Managers 1st Part MIS   26
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      Real-life Caselets on data and
Case 1:
           information systems
The director of a promotions and marketing has been with a company for eight
years. He originally started out in sales. He has a good understanding of the
business and knows from past experience that the till scanners can generate
anything up to a 10% margin of error on the official sales figures, and
consequently has an instinctive distrust of the official sales data.

When the time comes to write his quarterly report he uses his personal contacts
within both sales and marketing to double check the facts, and then generates
his figures on a spreadsheet – and continues to work in this way even when the
BI tool is introduced. He is unaware that approximately 12% of his marketing
and mailing budget is being wasted per year by mailing promotional offers to
incorrect addresses.


                            IT For Managers 1st Part MIS                 27
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                       Analysis
Incident: 10% margin of error on the official sales figures
Manifestation event(Effect):12% of marketing and
mailing budget is being wasted per year by mailing
promotional offers to incorrect addresses.
• Root cause analysis:
    – Problem: distrust->own, unvalidated, non-standard
      method
    – Causes of problem: techno-fobia? Relevance problem?
• Solutions:
    – Cross-check: all? Select randomly? Select few?(biased)
    – Change the data capture workflow?
       • Completely automate?

                     IT For Managers 1st Part MIS         28
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                          Solution
      AS-IS            TO-BE: problem 2: customer address wrong

 Morning: Go to              Morning: Go to
Branch Office and           Branch Office and
  Collect Leads               Collect Leads
 Visit customers,           Visit customers,
                                                      Ask about address
 make sales pitch           make sales pitch
                                                           change
Interested? Y-> Fill       Interested? Y-> Fill
up order form, scan        up order form, scan
and send to branch         and send to branch          Yes? -> get new
                                                          address
Hard copy printed           Hard copy printed
   and signed                  and signed
 Ur order put in ur         Ur order put in ur
  bin by the boss            bin by the boss

Count and calculate        Count and 1st Part MIS
                        IT For Managerscalculate                          29
    incentives         DBMS NW -Tapati Bandopadhyay
                                incentives
  Morning: Go to
 Branch Office and
   Collect Leads

 Visit customers,
 make sales pitch

Interested? Y-> Fill
up order form, scan
and send to branch

 Boss sees the soft
 copy and enters in
     the BI tool

The software links the
    order to your
performance records
                          IT For Managers 1st Part MIS   30
Count and calculate      DBMS NW -Tapati Bandopadhyay
                                 Case 2
The regional marketing officer is new to the business. The Managing Director
mentioned they were investing in a new BI tool during the job interview and the
new appointee sees it as key to her future within the business. The BI tool is
both her ticket to understanding the inner-workings of the business and a
means of gaining ground on more experienced colleagues.

She has already uncovered some interesting oversights: for some reason her
predecessor has been ignoring the fact that 37.8% of the customer base are
retired.
She sees an opportunity to make her mark, and begins quietly using the BI tool
to profile the spending habits of this valuable demographic and target them with
a marketing campaign.

She does not realize is that 70.4% of this demographic is a totally random
grouping caused by call centre operatives choosing the „retired‟ option in Date
                              IT it Managers 1st Part MIS                   field.
Of Birth drop down list becauseForis the quickest way to add a value to the31
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                              Analysis
• Incident:70.4% of this demographic is a totally random grouping caused by
  call centre operatives choosing the „retired‟ option in Date Of Birth drop
  down list because it is the quickest way to add a value to the field.
• Manifestation:37.8% of the customer base are retired. (wrong data)
• Root cause analysis:
   – Problem identification: data entry operators
      • Lazy
      • Not trained adequately
      • Not sensitized, hence ignorant of consequences of
        knowingly committing errors
   – Causes of problem: data entered and analyzed/ used
     without getting validated / cross-checked, data quality
     checks not in practice
• Solutions: all „retired‟ values null-ed. Then, missing data
  problem…                  IT For Managers 1st Part MIS                32
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                      Solutions:
• Scenario 1: the case here- field required for customer
  segmentation and focused promos-
   – Solution: use regression/ some other methods to find
     a predictor for this field using other fields e.g. salary,
     marital status etc., then fill the values with approx.
     ages statistically
• Scenario 2: the PlanetM Birthday special discounts
   – Exact date-of-birth required
   – Solution: try to find supporting documents of
     customers -> Y: update based on that, N: call/email/
     contact and get to know
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Case 3:
The most successful of the sales representatives is paid mostly on commission.
He has a good mental picture of who his most valuable customers are, and
knows that most of them have more than one customer record in the CRM
system. He makes sure he consults all records before he goes out on his visits.

He‟s also aware that a rival company is targeting these customers with a
high-profile promotional campaign and a competitively priced product. Like the
director of sales and marketing he has to use his initiative to work the data, in this
case by organizing the multiple views of his high value customers into a single
record, before he can try and identify a strategy that can stop them leaving.

By the time he has done this, however, the competition has the third phase of its
strategy in place, and a group of customers representing 60% of his commission
And 10% of the companies overall turnover have already made their move.
The two most valuable customers were not slow to take the opportunity to move
their business elsewhere.



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                             DBMS NW -Tapati Bandopadhyay
Case 4:
A managing director needs to replace his most senior advisor, who is retiring,
and is hoping that technology will be able to take on part of his role. He has
read a few articles in the press about the falling cost of analytics and bought an
analyst report on the subject and, on the strength of this, has decided to invest
in the BI, with the ultimate aim of developing a dashboard that would inform him
in real-time about the success and sales of the business.

Unfortunately the picture this dashboard gives is distorted by the poor quality of
the data it aggregates. Duplicates of customer records have swelled the
customer base by 15%. „De-duping‟ these into a single customer record will not
only speed the increase the efficiency and agility of the company, it will also go
some way in helping to protect both companies and customers from fraud.

Similarly 12% of the addresses recorded are wrong. Cleaning the mailing list he
would save the marketing department 12% of their yearly mailing budget. Errors
in his pricing database are hemorrhaging 2% off his production costs, while
rethinking his pricing strategy could win him an extra 15% of business.

- A typical MDM case!- no integrated view of customer master!
                                IT For Managers 1st Part MIS                35
                              with NW BI tool.
None of this is visible, even DBMSthe-Tapati Bandopadhyay
 Multiple dimensions of information
              systems
• Multi-dimensional data: various related attributes,
  granularity/ modality, complexity, cardinality
• Multi-user, distributed systems: control??
• Volume of data handled
• Frequencies of various operations on data e.g. retrieval
  (R), update (R/W or W), insert (W), delete: system
  requirements change accordingly
• Concurrency control
• Validation, data integrity checks
• Logical complexities: processing requirements
• Various levels of users
• System‟s operational level: primary objectives
• Typical business/ operations requirements e.g. multimedia
                                       books
  databases/ image databases/1st Part MIS databases
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  What system for what business?
• Depends on business requirements- system
  functionality fit
• E.g. ERP: SAP R/3 and Titan group:
  – SAP worked wonders for Titan Watches division
    • Mainly manufacturing and assembly support
  – But, didn‟t work for Tanishque!
    • Business-system misfit in e.g. pricing- very different from
      watches: daily gold price(variable) X gold weight(done in
      front of customer, may vary) => calculating total inventory
      cost – impossible!
    • Risk hedging for day-2-day commodity price fluctuations
      for precious metals: what business rules are possible?
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             Database systems …..
• Paper-based file systems earlier
• Computerized file systems: heap files/ flat files/ sequential/
  indexed sequential
• Random access: search-criteria based access needed
• Main problem:
   – Program data interdependence: program(i.e. process that
     uses data holds the data mingled in between the process
      • changing difficult,
         – e.g. COBOL: CASE: Y2K problems:
             » date formats dd/mm/yy mixed within the .cob files
             » Year 2000 will show up as „00‟ in YY, meaning
               Year 1900!
             » TCS came up with a software that searched for
               these dd/mm/yy format strings in cobol files and
               changed yy to yyyy.
• Solution: DBMS       IT For Managers 1st Part MIS         38
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    Other Problems with file-oriented
       data maintenance systems
• Speed- retrieval/update very slow due to non-standard, non-
  optimized data structures:
   – think of manual attendance registers per faculty
     member!-
      • names written not in any sequence, hence random
         search,
      • name values also do not follow any format, hence
         searching even more difficult!
• Accuracy- lots of duplications
   – E.g. for each faculty member one file, so 6 times same
     names are written
• Representation/ visualization/ modification
• Standardization/ benchmarking/ performance measurement/
  predictability
   – Standardization is not there as there is NO UNIFIED view
     of the same data! IT For Managers 1st Part MIS         39
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 Other Problems with file-oriented
    data maintenance systems
• Cross- validation/ enforcement of standards or business
  rules/ authenticity check
• Concurrent access/ sharing of data
   – Suppose one would like to see someone‟s comparative
     performance in each subject, not possible
• Data redundancy control
   – Full of duplication! – and remember the case what
     happens with duplicates!
• Loose structure
• Right data at right time for right people: not ensured
• Remote access/ sharing- not possible
• Optimal resource utilization not ensured: system/ data
  resources
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What that means…
• names written/ visible in same format/ structure across
  the system -=> makes sense
• Inherent meaning: data + process=> explicit meaning i.e.
  information
   • E.g. like coal mining: the ore is data, the processed
     coal(different forms, different quality depending on
     processes and ore quality) is information=> you know
     what to do with which coal, charcoal- painting,
     bituminous->cooking coal, lignite-> thermal power
     plant
• Specific purpose -> no one has a hobby called „data
  collection‟, like stamp/coin collection! It‟s a serious
  business, nothing amateur / casual about it!

                    IT For Managers 1st Part MIS        42
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So, this is a software system that
manages the database!
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        Typical database system features
• Program- data independence
• Logical/ physical data independence: changes the external/ conceptual/
  physical schema should least affect other schemas
• Data integrity constraints: validation rules/ enforcement of standards or
  business logic much simpler
    – Structural integrity constraints
    – Referential integrity constraints
• Sharing/ concurrency control/ redundancy control ensured
• Better resource utilization, optimal performance, measurable response time
  (Tuning databases)
• Basic data definition/ manipulation operations made easy
• Scalability
• Better usability/ data visualization- interpretation facilities: can support users
  with views on same database at different complexity levels
• Interfacing with other programs: can handle data from various sources/ send
  data to various systems through appropriate interfaces
• Back-up, recovery facilities : e.g. mirrored databases
• Data security enforcement

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So …the worse part of it…. NOT an
  easy success story everywhere
• Large, expensive systems: initial
  investments very high
• Hardware requirements: expensive
• Very complex structures: need specialised
  manpower e.g. DBAs
• Implementation : rigorous
• Design: rigorous
• Many complex facets to handle
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     Classification of DBMSs
• Model-based
  – RDBMS ( Access/ Oracle/ Ingress)
  – Network DBMS (IDMS)
  – Hierarchical (IMS)
  – Object-oriented
• Architecture: stand-alone/ client-server/
  distributed: homogeneous/ heterogeneous
• Single-user/ multi-user
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DBMS system components




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 DBMS languages & interfaces
• DDL
  – VDL
  – SDL
• DML
  – High-level: set-oriented, non-procedural
  – Low-level: record-oriented, procedural
• Embedded SQL in host programming
  languages: needs pre-compiler installations, e.g.
  Pro*C, Pro*FORTRAN, Pro*ADA

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ERD example




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Introduction: What is ACCESS?

• MICROSOFT ACCESS is a relational
  database management system (DBMS).
  At the most basic level, a DBMS is a
  program that facilitates the storage and
  retrieval of structured information on a
  computer‟s hard drive.



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      Databases and DBMS
• Difference????
Despite the clear conceptual difference
between a database (a blob of binary
data) and a DBMS (software to manage
one or more databases), we often refer to
programs such as ACCESS and ORACLE
as“databases”: WRONGLY

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ACCESS database file includes
• more than just tables.

ACCESS “.mdb” file contains several different types of
database objects:

• saved queries for organizing data;
• forms for users to interact with the data onscreen;
• reports for organizing, summarizing, and printing data;
• macros and VISUAL BASIC programs for extending the
   functionality of database applications.


• temporary “locking” file named <file name>.ldb is also
  created.          IT For Managers 1st Part MIS
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                                                           76
Interface elements




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           More on queries
• SELECT * FROM emp
  WHERE FirstName LIKE „T%'
• SELECT * FROM emp
  WHERE FirstName LIKE '%i'
• SELECT f_name, l_name FROM student
  ORDER BY f_name
• SELECT f_name, l_name FROM student
  ORDER BY f_name, l_name
• SELECT f_name, l_name FROM student
  ORDER BY f_name DESC
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               More on queries
• SELECT * FROM Emp
  WHERE FirstName=„Tapati'AND LastName=„Chatterjee'
• SELECT * FROM Emp
  WHERE firstname=„Tapati„ OR lastname=„Chatterjee'
• SELECT * FROM Emp
  WHERE (FirstName=„Tapati' OR firstName=„Tapti')
  AND LastName=„Chatterjee'

• SELECT column_name FROM table_nameWHERE
  column_name IN (value1,value2,..)
• SELECT * FROM Emp WHERE LastName IN
  („Chatterjee',„Bandopadhyay')

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           More on queries
• SELECT Emp.Name, Dept.D_no
  FROM Emp, Dept
  WHERE Emp.D_no=Dept.D_no

• SELECT Emp.Name, Dept.D_no
  FROM Emp, Dept
  WHERE Emp.D_no=Dept.D_no AND
  Dept.D_name=„Design‟
• SELECT E_Name FROM Emp_India
  UNION
  SELECT E_Name FROM Emp_USA
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  More on SQL: Index & functions
• CREATE INDEX EmpIndex ON Emp(LastName)

• SELECT Emp_name,SUM(Advance) FROM
  Advance_due
  GROUP BY Emp_ID
• SELECT Emp_name,SUM(Advance) FROM
  Advance_due
  GROUP BY Emp_ID HAVING SUM(Advance)>10000
• SELECT MAX(SALARY)
  FROM PAY_ROLL;
• SELECT MIN(SALARY)
  FROM PAY_ROLL;


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            More on SQL: functions
• SELECT COUNT(DEPT_NO)
  FROM DEPT
• SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT DEPT_NAME)
  FROM DEPT

• LOGICAL FUNCTIONS:
  > greater than
  < less than
  >= greater than or equal to
  <= less than or equal to
  = equal to
• ARITHMATIC FUNCTIONS:
  + addition
  - subtraction
  / division
  * multiplication
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           SQL functions
• SELECT EMP_NAME
  FROM EMP
  WHERE SALARY > 50000
  OR (SALARY <= 50000 AND SALARY >
  =25000)

• SELECT (MAX(SALARY) – MIN(SALARY))
  FROM EMP

• SELECT E_NAME, ((SALARY*12) + BONUS +
  VOUCHER_VALUE)
  FROM EMP
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                      UPDATION
• UPDATE table_name
  SET column_name = new_value
  WHERE column_name = some_value

                       e,.g. :
Eg 1:
UPDATE Emp
SET FirstName = „Tapati„
WHERE LastName = „Bandopadhyay'

Eg 2:
UPDATE Person
SET Address = J-4', City = „Gurgaon„
WHERE LastName = „chatterjee'

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            Specially for retail
• Walmart no.1 in everything, EXCEPT
  Electronics -> Best Buy: Why?
• Big Bazaar-> Ezone vs Big bazaar‟s
  electronics offerings: what differences?
• Zarah- 19 days turn-around time in
  fashion, 50 countries, 1600+ stores: How?
• Titan- Retail or manufacturing?
  – Can we design our own watches?
  – What systemsIT For Managers 1st Part MIS
                   needed for that?              108
                  DBMS NW -Tapati Bandopadhyay
                     Tesco
• Latest- cumulative body heat counter
  – Constantly the waiting queues are checked
    for cumulative body heat-> whenever it
    crosses a threshold value, another counter
    opens
• Apple POS used for clearing shopping
  carts anywhere
• Flexi-shops

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