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    CH 18         STUDY GUIDE                  THE NEW SOUTH AND THE TRANS-
                                                            MISSISSIPPI WEST

1. The “Exodusters” & “colonial” economies
2. “New South” & development
3. “the Southern burden” & low-paid labor
4. Post-Civil War southern economy
5. “Sharecropping” & rent
6. Textile workers in the South
7. Tenantry & land ownership
8. New South’s developing industries
9. South’s economy
10. Southern wages
11. South’s opportunity to control a national market
12. South’s persistent poverty
13. South & growth in industrial production
14. Southern life & the church
15. Southern society & religion
16. “Jim Crow”
17. Redeemers
18. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
19. The 98th Meridian
20. The environment in the West
21. Plains Indians & sod-busters’ common characteristic
22. William Gilpin’s vision for the West
23. Federal Indian policy of “concentration”
24. Post-concentration U.S. Indian policy
25. The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
26. Western economic booms
27. Western boom industries
28. Californian labor & the transcontinental railroad
29. The cattle boom on the Great Plains
30. Farming on the western plains
1. Former slaves who followed reports of better opportunities to the promised land of Kansas
   were nicknamed “[                                       ].”
2. After Reconstruction ended, northern and southern whites achieved national harmony
   because they shared a similar willingness to disregard the Constitutionally protected rights
   of [                                                                          ].
3. The southern economy after the Civil War was based on one dominant product: [cotton].
4. The system of farming in which the farmer put up his anticipated crop as security for a loan
   for seed and tools is known as the [                                            ] system.
                                                       Chapter 18: The New South and the Trans-Mississippi West

5. The Supreme Court in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) upheld segregation, coining
   the famous phrase “[                                                   ].”
6. [Water] has been the key to growth and development in the area west of the 98th meridian.
7. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner proclaimed that the West (and indeed the character of
   America in general) was shaped by the experience of [                                  ].
8. Westerners sought two primary benefits from Congress; both were granted during the Civil
   War. The first was a transcontinental railroad to make the West more accessible; the other
   was [                                                                          ].
9. Thanks to a generous Congress and the diligent labor of Chinese and Irish workers, the first
   [                                               ] was completed shortly after the Civil War.
10. The Southwest had a distinct and complex development: as the South relied on the labor of
    a particular group, former slaves, the Southwest grew on the labor of [                 ].
Students should be able to describe the following key terms, concepts, individuals, and places,
and explain their significance:
Terms and Concepts
Freedmen                       Exodusters
crop lien                      tenantry
laissez faire                  Redeemers
Jim Crow                       policy of concentration
bonanza farms                  nesters
Dawes Severalty Act            Plessy v. Ferguson
Homestead Act
Individuals and Places
James Buchanan Duke            Henry Grady
John Wesley Powell             Tennessee Coal and Iron Co.
98th Meridian                  Charles Crocker
William Gilpin                 Great American Desert
Crazy Horse                    Little Big Horn
Chisolm Trail
Students have been given the following map exercise: On the map below, label or shade in the
following places. In a sentence, note their significance to the chapter.
1. Santee Uprising
2. Sand Creek Massacre
3. Battle of Little Bighorn
4. Wounded Knee Massacre
5. Omaha
6. San Francisco
7. Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads

                                                    Chapter 18: The New South and the Trans-Mississippi West

1. What have you learned from the text that would allow you to explain the patterns of tenantry
   shown in the map on page 570?
2. What does the pattern of railroad construction in the West (page 591) suggest about the
   relationship of the West to the national economy?
3. Historians often discuss tenantry and sharecropping as part of the southern economy. Look
   at the map on page 570. Write a statement that you think more accurately describes
   tenantry and sharecropping in the United States during the late nineteenth century.
1. In the picture of mining at Idaho City (page 589), how are the miners searching for ore?
   What contrasts suggest themselves between the upper and lower halves of the picture?
   What effects does the picture reveal of the environmental impact of such mining?
2. What does the picture of baptism (page 575) suggest about the racial make-up of church
   congregations in the South?
3. If a formal portrait reveals a good deal about a family’s aspirations and feelings, what
   qualities does the portrait of sodbusters (page 596) suggest? What significance might be
   attributed to the table in front of the house? Of the cow on the roof? The horses?
4. Examine the graph on school expenditures in the South (page 578). How many dollars per
   white pupil was being spent by Alabama in 1890? How many dollars per black pupil? What
   was the ratio of support between white and black pupils?
5. Which state had the most equal amounts of money being spent on white and black
   education in 1890? Which state had the least equal spending? In whose favor? How do the

                                                          Chapter 18: The New South and the Trans-Mississippi West

    ratios change between 1890 and 1910? In which state is the difference between spending
    on black and white pupils greatest?
6. What events occurred in the South after 1890, according to the text, that might account for
   the sharp change in spending?
7. The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate schools were legal so long as
   they were equal. In point of fact, were these schools legal under the principles of that
   decision? If spending had remained equal, as in Alabama and North Carolina in 1890, would
   segregated schools have been equal in your opinion? Why or why not?
Students have been asked to read carefully the following excerpt from the text and then answer
the questions that follow.
       Some whites—usually those with the least contact with Native Americans—viewed them
       as “noble savages” whose “natural” way of life remained in harmony with the elements, a
       myth still too widely held. To be sure, Indians could be remarkably inventive about using
       scarce resources around them. The bark of the cottonwood proved good food for horses
       during the winter, while the buffalo supplied not only meat but bones for tools, fat for
       cosmetics, and sinews for thread. But Indians had traditionally hunted bison by
       stampeding them over cliffs, which resulted in a significant waste of food. They irrigated
       crops, set fires on the plains to improve the game and vegetation, and in other ways
       actively altered their environment.
       By the mid-nineteenth century, they had also become enmeshed in a web of white trade,
       supplying furs in return for firearms, cloth, metal tools, and jewelry. Since the
       environment could sustain only a finite amount of use, Indians suffered, just as white
       trappers did, when the fur trade led to overtrapping. And the Sioux nation expanded
       aggressively because its increasing population forced the tribe to enlarge its base of
       resources. It would be misleading, then, to view native societies in the Great Plains as
       isolated from white cultures, living as they had from time out of mind. For more than a
       century, the West had been in dramatic flux, as white, Hispanic, and Indian cultures
       borrowed and adapted from one another, often clashing in competing for the region’s
       limited resources.
Bill Simms was not, strictly speaking, one of the “Exodusters” described in the introduction
because he came to Kansas earlier. But his recollections, given in the mid-1930s, vividly detail
his experience heading west after the Civil War. The following excerpt is the summary of an oral
interview collected by the Federal Writers Project during the Great Depression.
       My name is Bill Simms. I was born in Osceola, Missouri, March 16, 1839.
       I lived on the farm with my mother, and my master, whose name was Simms. I had an
       older sister, about two years older than I was. My master needed some money so he
       sold her, and I have never seen her since except just a time or two....I had a good
       master, most of the masters were good to their slaves. When a slave got too old to work
       they would give him a small cabin on the plantation and have the other slaves to wait on
       him. They would furnish him with victuals, and clothes until he died. Slaves were never
       allowed to talk to white people other than their masters or someone their master knew,
       as they were afraid the white man might have the slave run away. The masters aimed to

From George P. Rawick, The American Slave: A Composite Autob iography, 19 vols. and supplements (1972).

                                                 Chapter 18: The New South and the Trans-Mississippi West

keep their slaves in ignorance and the ignorant slaves were all in favor of the Rebel
army, only the more intelligent were in favor of the Union army.
When the war started, my master sent me to work for the Confederate army. I worked
most of the time for three years off and on, hauling canons, driving mules, hauling
ammunition, and provisions....When the Union army came close enough I ran away from
home and joined the Union army...until the war ended. Then I returned home to my old
master, who had stayed there with my mother. My master owned about four hundred
acres of good land, and had had ten slaves. Most of the slaves stayed at home. My
master hired me to work for him. He gave my mother forty acres of land with a cabin on
it and sold me a [sic] forty acres, for twenty dollars, when I could pay him....My master’s
wife had been dead for several years and they had no children. The nearest relative
being a nephew. They wanted my master’s land and was afraid he would give it all away
to us slaves, so they killed him, and would have killed us if we had stayed at home. I
took my mother and ran into the adjoining, [St.] Claire County. We settled there and
stayed for sometime, but I wanted to see Kansas, the State I had heard so much about.
I couldn’t get nobody to go with me, so I started out afoot across the prairies for Kansas.
After I got some distance from home it was all prairie. I had to walk all day long following
buffalo trail. At night I would go off a little ways from the trail and lay down and sleep. In
the morning I’d wake up and could see nothing but the sun and prairie. Not a house, not
a tree, no living thing, not even could I hear a bird. I had little to eat, I had a little bread in
my pocket. I didn’t even have a pocket knife, no weapon of any kind. I was not afraid, but
I wouldn’t start out that way again. The only shade I could find in the daytime was the
rosin weed on the prairie. I would lay down so it would throw the shade in my face and
rest, then get up and go again it was in the spring of the year in June. I came to
Lawrence, Kansas, where I stayed two years working on the farm. In 1874 I went to work
for a man by the month at $35 a month and I made more money than the owner did,
because the grasshoppers ate up the crops. I was hired to cut up the corn for him, but
the grasshoppers ate it up first. He could not pay me for sometime. Grasshoppers were
so thick you couldn’t step on the ground without stepping on about a dozen at each step.
I got my money and came to Ottawa in December 1874, about Christmas time.