VideoPrototype2

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					Video prototyping
   For your game concept
Roots? Which industry?

• ……………………
Why does the car industry use
prototypes?




             ?
For whom?
Translate this to your business
game development
• What?
• Why?
• For whom?
Prototyping

Techniques for developing ideas
and
  visions – combine them
Communication tool that supports
  interaction and reflection
Participatory design
  –Active user involvement
  –Users to focus on the task to be
  solved
Philosophy
To visualise visions and ideas in
order to get qualified feedback from
the user
Objectives:
  – To create and expand a room of design
    for games – (software) systems.
  – To consider new possibilities and
    directions
  – To get a common language
Prototyping: definitions

Prototypes are experimental and
incomplete designs which are
relatively cheap and fast developed

Prototyping is the process of
developing prototypes
Different kinds of
prototypes
Low-Fidelity
                Paperbased-working models

                  Video prototypes

                      Computer-based full
                        functional simulation

High-Fidelity
 LO-FI example




Muck-up
LO-FI

• Building prototypes on paper.
• Construct models, not illustrations
Lo-fi prototyes: Storyboards
Storyboards
- key frames showing particular points in
   the interaction


                             Disposable pump usage
Lo-fi prototyes: Storyboards
Storyboards/Tutorials/Manuals
Manuals - storyboards set within textual explanations-
people often read manuals of competing products to check:
interface/functionality/match to task
LO-FI steps

1. Carefully plan doing Lo-Fi
   prototyping
  1. Assemble a Kit
  2. Set a deadline for the test session
  3. …..
2. Prepare for test
  1. Select your user
  2. Prepare test scenarios for typical work
     situations and have them reviewed
  3. Practice the session
LO-FI steps

3. Conduct the test
  1. Get ready
  2. Run the test meaning play the roles
     (rotate during the tests)
    1.   Greeter
    2.   Facilitator
    3.   Computer
    4.   Observers
  3. Debrief for ten minutes
4. Evaluate results
Outputs
Muckups (LO-FI):
 Use-and-throw-away prototypes.
The number depends on the
number of selected ideas
 E.g. to be used as a basis for
  requirements specification
Benefits
Why?
 – concrete experience instead of talk
 – Relatively fast and cheap to develop
 – Simple and easy to understand
 – Can be modified with simple tools:
   pen, scissors, glue, …. Also by the
   users
 – It’s fun !
Video prototyping




Project: Interactive Post-it notes
Mackay is one of the experts in the area and has written
different articles about video prototyping

E.g. ’A technique for developing hypermedia systems’
Why a video prototype?

• Computer prototypes offer a relatively inexpensive way to
  visualize at least parts of future systems, but may fail
  to communicate the overall feel of a new user experience,
  either because key hardware that will support the new
  system simply does not exist, or because of the difficulty
  of creating a fluid, interactive mock-up of a large system.
• Film or video enables one to build the ultimate demo
  out of pure "unobtanium." Gone are hardware limitations
  and computer artifacts. Everything works perfectly, no
  matter how many times the spectator looks at the tape,
  and messages, both subtle and explicit can move the user
  toward any conclusions the film maker had in mind. These
  are both the advantage and curse of video prototyping.
Examples

effective-video-examples-of-paper-
prototyping
Video Prototyping -
steps
1. Plan and set the scene
2. Observation and interview
3.  Analyse data
4.  Brainstorm ideas
5.  Design +videotape a design
   scenario
6. Critical walkthrough
1. Plan and set the
scene
• Deadlines etc.
• Assemble a kit:
  – Video recorder, mobile phone camera, …
  – Paper, cardboards, transparencies, post-it notes
  – Colored pens, whiteboards…..
2. Observation and
interview
• Critical incident technique
• Recalling a specific time
• Life cycle of…..

•   Post-it: electronic version?
•   Mobile phone call (Sweden)
•   Videotaping can be done
•   Interview/observe 10-15 minutes
    each person
3. Analyse data

• Elaborate on the results from the
  observation
• Make use scenarios
4. Brainstorm ideas
• To get one good idea – get many !
• Everyone suggests ideas to design
   – It is forbidden to criticize the ideas in
    this phase
   – Ideas need not to be defended in this
    phase
• A reporter writes down all ideas (visible for
  everyone)
• A facilitator makes sure that everybody is
  active and rules are respected
• Everyone gets at least one idea that is
  really crazy – without telling the others
  which it is.
4. Brainstorm ideas -
continued
• Evaluation of ideas:
  – Unclear ideas are explained
• Voting: which ideas should we
  continue with ?
  – Every person has got 3 votes
  – The ideas with the highest number of
   votes are discussed

• Videotaping -> easy to recall.
• About 1-2 hours
5. Design + videotape a
design scenario
• Usually begins on paper
• Follow the guidelines:
   – Title card, roles, storyboard (sequence of
     sketches like a comic)
• Make at least one test shot
• Do the actual take in real surroundings
• Think before you shoot – editing time
  consuming
• Keep track of takings
• Ethical guidelines
• 1-2 hours
Acting and video recording
6. Critical walkthrough

•   Review
•   At max one hour
•   One presenter
•   More opponents
Video prototyping - roles
Roles:
  – Director who decides upon the taking
  – Operator of the video camera
     (responsible for title card)
  – Actors (user roles)
  – Storyteller
    • What the user does
    • What the system does in response
    • What the visual feedback from the system is
Evaluation criteria

The videos should be
understandable later for persons
who wants to watch them and
communicate about them.
LoFi or HiFi?

• What do you prefer?
• Why?
            Comparing Lo-fi and Hi-fi
Type Advantages                                   Disadvantages
Lo-fi      Less time & lower cost                Limited usefulness for usability
           Evaluate multiple design concepts     tests

           Useful communication device              Navigational and flow limitations
                                                     Facilitator-driven
                                                     Poor detailed spec


Hi-fi      Partial/complete functionality           Time-consuming to create
           Interactive                           Inefficient for proof-of-concept
           User-driven                           designs

           Clearly defines navigational scheme   Blind users to major
                                                  representational flaws
           Use for exploration and test
                                                  Managements may think it is
           Marketing & sales tool                real