IEEE Communications Society Seminar, 10th November 1999 HDTV/DTV: Technical Overview and Roadmap Dr. Nikhil Balram Vice President of Advanced Technology Faroudja Laboratories, Sunnyvale, CA Overview HDTV/DTV Overview • History & current status • Technical overview • Major players • Barriers to rapid penetration/deployment Source Channel Receiver/Display Forecasts Summary Acknowledgements References Disclaimer: All opinions/material presented in this seminar are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of current or past employers. Any trademarks or brand names mentioned here are the properties of their respective holders and are hereby acknowledged. HDTV/DTV Overview History Technical overview Major players Barriers to rapid penetration/deployment HDTV/DTV Overview History 1987 • Broadcasters petition FCC to institute rules for terrestrial HDTV broadcast • FCC creates Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Services (ACATS) to gather information and recommend a standard 1988 • US Broadcasters create Advanced Television Test Center (ATTC) to conduct tests of the proposed systems 1989/90 • Cable industry through Cable Television Labs (CableLabs) prepares to test proposed Advanced Television (ATV) systems over cable networks • 9 systems offered to ATTC for testing: all analog except Zenith hybrid – Faroudja Labs, MIT, North American Phillips (NAP), Production Services Inc., Zenith Electronics, 2 from David Sarnoff Research Center (DSRC), 2 from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) HDTV/DTV Overview History (cont.) 1990/91 • FCC favors simulcast (full HDTV with eventual shutdown of NTSC) versus augmentation • Shift to digital started by General Instruments (GI) DigiCipher • 6 systems (4 digital) from different coalitions tested by ATTC 1992 • Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) agrees to coordinate task of documenting standard chosen by FCC 1993 • Analog options eliminated • Proponents of the 4 digital systems form Grand Alliance (GA) – AT&T, DSRC, GI, MIT, NAP, Thomson Consumer Electronics, Zenith Electronics 1994 • ACATS approves GA system 1995/96 • ATSC documents and approves standard based on GA system HDTV/DTV Overview History (cont.) 1996 • FCC proposes to adopt GA system as documented by ATSC • Computer Industry Coalition on Advanced Television Services (CICATS) files strong objection and proposes progressive SDTV with future path to HDTV through an augmentation signal Dec 24 1996 • FCC adopts ATSC DTV standard except for table 3 with 18 formats (6 HD, 12 SD) 1997 • HDTV rollout schedule agreed to – Some stations in top 10 markets to offer some programming by November 1, 1998 – Top 10 markets (covering 30% of US households) to be on air by May 1, 1999 – Top 30 markets (covering 50% of US households) to be on air by November 1, 1999 – All commercial stations on air by May 1, 2002, (public stations get 1 more year) – NTSC broadcasting to cease on May 1, 2006, (later changed to whenever 85% of market is using HDTV sets) Nov 1998 • HDTV broadcasts begin HDTV/DTV Overview Current Status November 1999 • Overall – 474 TV stations have filed construction permit applications – 220 have been granted DTV construction permits – 66 are on air with full facilities – 25 are on air with special or experimental DTV authority • Top 10 market network affiliates - 40 stations – 32 are on air with full facilities – 8 have requested second extensions • Markets 11-30 network affiliates - 79 stations – 20 are on air with full facilities See www.fcc.gov/mmb/vsd/files for more information HDTV/DTV Overview Technical Overview Video: • MPEG2 Main Profile @ High Level (MP@HL) • 18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SD Audio: • Dolby AC-3 Transport: • Subset of MPEG2 • Fixed length 188-byte packets RF/Transmission: • Terrestrial: – 8-VSB (Vestigial Side Band) with Trellis coding – effective payload of ~19.3 Mb/s (18.9 Mb/s used for video) • Cable: – 16-VSB – effective payload of ~38.6 Mb/s HDTV/DTV Overview HDTV/DTV System Layers layered system with header/descriptors 996 Mb/s Picture 1920 x 1080 Multiple Picture Formats Layer and Frame Rates @60I Compression MPEG-2 video and Dolby AC-3 Layer Data Motion Chroma and Luma compression Headers Vectors DCT Coefficients syntax Variable Length Codes Packet Headers Flexible delivery of data Transport and future extensability Layer Video packet Audio packet Video packet Aux data MPEG-2 packets Transmission 19.3 Mb/s 8-VSB Layer Source:Sarnoff Corporation 6 MHz HDTV/DTV Overview HDTV/DTV MPEG2 Transport ...packets with header/descriptors enable flexiblility and features... Many services can be dynamically multiplexed and delivered to the viewer video TEXT video audio 1 video video audio 2 video video PGM GD video 188 Byte Packet 184 Byte Payload (incl. optional Adaptation Header) Video Adaptation Header (variable length) 4 Byte Packet Header Time synchronization Media synchronization Packet sync Random access flag Type of data the packet carries Bit stream splice point flag Packet loss/misordering protection Encryption control Priority (optional) Source:Sarnoff Corporation HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Sequence (Display Order) GOP (Display Order, B B I B B P B B P B B P N=12, M=3) Cr Picture Y Slice Cb Note: Y = Luma Cr = Red-Y Cb = Blue-Y 0 1 MacroBlock 4 5 2 3 Y Blocks Cr Block Cb Block Source:Sarnoff Corporation HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics MPEG2 Profiles/Levels • MPEG specification is generic - intended to cover wide range of applications • “Profiles” and “Levels” used to put bounds around parameters for applications – “Profile” is subset of bitstream syntax – “Level” constrains parameters within allowed syntax • Main Profile @ Main Level (MP@ML) - DVD – 4:2:0 I,P,B, bit rates up to 15 Mb/s • Main Profile @ High Level (MP@HL) - HDTV – 4:2:0 I,P,B, bit rates up to 80 Mb/s Block Diagram of MPEG2 Encoder Present frame DCT Coefficients + DCT Q VLC + - Q-1 “Previous” & Motion “Future” Compensation Frames IDCT Motion Motion Vectors Estimation HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Spatial Spatial Reconstructed Image Transform domain domain domain 8x8 8x8 Image DCT DCT-1 8x8 pixels 8x8 coefficients 8x8 pixels DCT is an orthogonal transformation 2-D DCT is separable in x and y dimensions Has good energy compaction properties Close to Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT), which is optimal but depends on image statistics. Efficient hardware realization Theoretically lossless, but slightly lossy in practice due to round off errors Source:Sarnoff Corporation HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) “DC” low horizontal high 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 300 59 89 39 7 -13 -12 -7 low 255 187 204 255 255 255 255 255 137 -94 -35 4 17 16 7 2 255 122 20 102 230 255 255 255 51 25 -42 -20 -14 1 5 7 255 153 0 0 35 136 213 255 8x8 -12 40 -8 -16 -4 -4 -5 -5 255 196 0 0 0 0 17 94 DCT -8 3 17 -13 -4 0 2 -1 255 247 43 0 0 0 0 0 2 14 14 5 -7 0 -1 0 255 255 82 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -3 -2 12 0 -4 0 1 255 255 128 0 0 0 0 0 high -6 2 -6 6 8 0 0 0 vertical frequency coefficients pixels Note: Transform values in this example are for illustration only. 8x8 pixel blocks transformed to 8x8 frequency coefficient blocks Applied to intra-field blocks and motion-compensated (prediction error) blocks Source:Sarnoff Corporation HDTV/DTV Overview MPEG2 Video Basics: Motion-compensated Prediction F X Current MVF Macroblock Previous I or P Picture Current P or B Picture Instead of sending quantized DCT coefficients of X, send: 1. quantized DCT coefficients of X-F (prediction error). If prediction is good, error will be near zero and will need few bits. 2. MVF, the motion vector. This will be differentially coded with respect to its neighboring vector, and will code efficiently. This will typically result in 50% - 80% savings in bits. HDTV/DTV Overview ATSC Formats Vertical Horizontal Aspect Ratio Picture Rate 1080 1920 16:9 60I, 30P, 24P HDTV 720 1280 16:9 60P, 30P, 24P 480 704 16:9 & 4:3 60P, 60I, 30P, 24P “HD0” SDTV 480 640 4:3 60P, 60I, 30P, 24P 18 formats: 6 HD, 12 SD • 720 vertical lines and above considered High Definition • Choice of supported formats left voluntary due to disagreement between broadcasters and computer industry – Computer industry led by Microsoft wants exclusion of interlace and initially use of only those formats which leave bandwidth for data services - “HD0” subset • Different picture rates depending on motion content of application – 24 frames/sec for film – 30 frames/sec for news and live coverage – 60 fields/sec, 60 frames/sec for sports and other fast action content 1920 x 1080 @ 60 frames/sec not included because it requires ~100:1 compression to fit in 19.3 Mb/s terrestrial channel, which cannot be done at high quality with MPEG2 HDTV/DTV Overview Aspect Ratios Two options: 16:9 and 4:3 4:3 standard aspect ratio for US TV and computer monitors HD formats are 16:9 • better match with cinema aspect ratio • better match for aspect ratio of human visual system • better for some text/graphics tasks – allows side-by-side viewing of 2 pages 800 800 600 600 450 4:3 aspect ratio 16:9 aspect ratio HDTV/DTV Overview Aspect Ratios Aspect ratio conversion will be required • 4:3 material on 16:9 monitor • 16:9 material on 4:3 monitor Several options (shown below) Video 16 x 9 Display Modes 4 x 3 Display Modes Transmission Variable Zoom Squeeze Zoom Squeeze Variable Format Full Expand Full Shrink 16 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) (j) 4 3 (e) (f) (g) (i) (h) HDTV/DTV Overview Viewing Distance Versus Resolution V E MINIMUM VERTICAL LINES R T I C A L L I N E S PER P I C T U R E H T. Source: McLaughlin Consulting Group HDTV/DTV Overview Display Size SDTV vs. HDTV • SDTV is adequate for small size TVs (<30 inches) at normal (>2 meters) viewing distances • Current PC monitor definition offers excellent HDTV imaging at close viewing distances (<1 meter) – However, it may not feel the same as a large screen display even though it subtends the same angle ? • Major opportunity for HDTV is for big screens (>>30 inches) viewed at > 2 meters PC vs. TV • Both SDTV and HDTV can be displayed on 19”/21” PC monitors • Big screens TVs for family entertainment The widescreen requirement • Major new requirement of DTV is widescreen format • Requires widescreen home PC monitors and SDTVs HDTV/DTV Overview Interlace vs Progressive Odd Even Direct-view and projection CRT TVs typically use interlaced scanning, alternating between all odd lines and all even lines Odd & Even CRT monitors and Flat Panel Displays put lines up in consecutive order Reasons for interlacing in NTSC/PAL • Conserves bandwidth & storage • Maintains frame rate & vertical resolution • Minimizes line structure HDTV/DTV Overview Interlaced Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines @ 60I Spectrum of (NTSC) interlaced video: I is original content, II, III, IV, V are replicas caused by V-T sampling Interlacing artifacts: line twitter/flicker, line crawl, feathering Spatial Freq. (cycles/picture height) 525 II C IV 262.5 D V B E I III 0 A 30 F 60 Temporal Freq. (Hz) HDTV/DTV Overview Progressive Vertical-Temporal Spectrum: 525 Lines at 60P Spectrum of (NTSC-like) progressive video: I is original content, II, III, IV are replicas caused by V-T sampling Absence of replica V avoids artifacts created by interlacing Uses 2X as much bandwidth as 525 @ 60I Spatial Freq. (cycles/picture height) 525 II IV 262.5 I III Temporal Freq. (Hz) 0 30 60 HDTV/DTV Overview Addressability vs Resolution Addressability refers to number of pixels/lines that can be addressed Resolution is number of pixels (lines) that can be resolved • Measured as line pairs or TV-lines Resolution is usually less than addressability due to • Bandwidth of channel and electronics – cables, video amplifiers, etc • Characteristics of reconstruction filter (display system) – CRTs (horizontally): Gaussian spot – described by Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) – FPDs (and CRTs in vertical direction): spatially varying – this is why NTSC is considered to have ~330 lines of resolution even though there are 480 active lines. # active lines is derated by Kell factor of 0.7 – described by Multi-valued Modulation Transfer Function (MMTF) Major implications for design of optimal video display system HDTV/DTV Overview Interactivity & Data Services DTV bandwidth can be used for digital data • Allows new data enhanced viewing modes – instant access to information such as player statistics, profiles of actors, etc. • Simulated and actual interactivity – real interactivity possible if platform has backchannel Sophisticated electronic programming guide needed to manage much greater choice created by multicast of SDTV streams • HDTV channel can be used to send multiple audio/video stream – exact number depends on format and content. Infrastructure for data services and interactivity lagging HDTV/DTV Overview Major Players Content providers • Studios • Broadcasters Highway providers • Cable • Direct Broadcast Satellite • Broadcasters Receiver/Platform providers • Consumer electronics • Computer Technology providers • Equipment • Semiconductor Supervisors/regulators • FCC • Congress Consumers HDTV/DTV Overview Distribution of US TV Viewers 1998 2002 Total households ~ 100M ~ 105-110M Total TV households ~ 99M ~ 104-107M Total Cable subscribers ~ 65M ~ 65-70M Total DBS subscribers ~ 8M ~ 13-20M Total Terrestrial only ~ 25M ~ 20-22M Cable dominates and will continue to do so • ~ 2/3 of US viewers HDTV/DTV Overview Barriers to Rapid Deployment Source • Infrastructure costs – New towers, transmitters, antennae • Equipment costs – Large amount of NTSC equipment • Operating costs – Higher electricity bills – Greater programming costs - chicken & egg problem with viewers vs advertising revenues • Existing archives – Huge existing archives of material will still need to be used HDTV/DTV Overview Barriers to Rapid Deployment Channel • Approx 2/3 of US TV households get programming via cable • Cable BW is NOT free – Huge investments made by cable companies to increase bandwidth – More choice (of SD or 480i channels) and data services may offer better ROI than HD programming – No “must carry” rules yet Receiver/Display • Large high resolution displays are very expensive • New electronics is expensive and still evolving • Chicken & egg problem – volumes vs cost Crossing the Barriers: Source Upconversion of 480i to ATSC • Huge NTSC archive and installed base of NTSC equipment can continue to be used by addition of Digital Format Translator (DFT) which upconverts 480i (NTSC, S-Video, D1, D2) to any ATSC HDTV format in real-time • Allows gradual introduction of HD equipment as volumes increase and costs drop 480i Digital Format ATSC formats Translator Crossing the Barriers: Source Upconversion 480i (NTSC, S-Video, D1, D2) to any ATSC HDTV format in real-time Network Broadcast:Cable:Satellite Video Source Network Digital Switching HD MPEG2 Satellite Uplink Format Transmission Tape Archive Analog or Compressor Translator or Disk Source CCIR601 To Affiliates TV Affiliate or Cable Operator Broadcast Affiliate Affiliate HD MPEG2 Receiver & Transmission Television Tower From Satellite Downlink Compressor Decompressor Network Video Source Digital Tape Archive Format Cable System or Disk Source Translator Crossing the Barriers: Channel Cable adding significant capacity by upgrading to hybrid fiber/coax • fiber from headend to node • coax from node to homes Premium channels/content might use full HD Channel bandwidth can be conserved by combination of good down/up conversion • Cable (and DBS/DSS) control both sides of channel that delivers content to the home ATSC formats ATSC 480i or 480p Downconvert Upconvert HDTV/DTV formats channel Headend or Set-Top box node inside home Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Receiver and display currently separated in most offerings • Enhanced DTV – addressability < 720 lines vertically – cost < $5000 – direct-view and rear projection – usually include line doubler (de-interlacer) – Hitachi, Samsung, Panasonic, and many others • HDTV-capable – full HD addressability – cost typically > $5000 – no HD receiver – HD input from external receiver, often via proprietary interface – mainly rear-projection, but some direct-view – Mitsubishi HD1080 Diamond Series with 4:3 and 16:9 options, Panasonic, Faroudja, Hitachi, Samsung, and many others • HDTV-ready – full HD addressability – includes HD receiver and possibly others (e.g., DirecTV) – mainly rear-projection but some direct view – Thomson, Sony, Toshiba, Hitachi, Samsung, and others Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Receiver/Display Options Display options • Direct-view CRT TV • Rear-projection CRT TV • Rear-projection LCDs & DMDs – Liquid-Crystal-On-Silicon (LCOS) devices could offer cheap high-def solution • Front-projection LCDs & DMDs • LCOS Headsets • Plasma • Direct-view LCD • 17”-21” CRT computer monitors – rapid decline in price + rapid increase in volumes Receiver options • Set-Top Box (STB) – simplest option is simple decoding device similar to DSS/Cable STB – most popular option under development is low-cost multi-functional computer that can be used for gaming, DVD, digital VCR, interactivity, Internet surfing, etc • PC-DTV – PC with low cost DTV receiver Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box Basically a PC-like device • Low cost: < 500$ • Multi-functional – HDTV/DTV tuner, demux, decode, conversions – NTSC tuner, decode, upconversion – 3D Games – DVD player – Interactivity & data services – Internet surfing – Digital VCR • Open architecture – Not necessarily using Windows or x86 • Leveraging PC components and approach – PCI bus – Graphics and video components leveraged from PC – Software APIs to allow ISVs to offer enhanced services DBS/DSS and Cable STBs pursuing similar direction Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box: System View MTS 100 Stream Player HD S/PDIF In DTV NIM TV Tuner Audio Amplifier Digital S/PDIF Out Disk SDI In Reference Recorder SDI Out Composite Out Svideo Out Evaluation R (R-Y) RS232 G (Y) JTAG Tap B (B_Y) TL850 S CPU Software Development Tools Application Control Program Modem USB/P1394 Smartcard IR/IRDA Telco Remote Control USB Peripherals (or IRDA Peripherals) (Scanners, Keyboards, Joysticks, Printers ) Source:TeraLogic, Inc. Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box: Structure and I/Fs Source: TeraLogic Inc. Cougar DTV Reference Platform HW Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Set-Top Box: SW Architecture Source: TeraLogic Inc. Cougar DTV Reference Platform SW Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display DTV-STB Receiver Architecture SDRAM Descrambler/ CA sub system DTV HD Video Out DTV Tuner Demodulator Decoder Transport Stream Audio Out NTSC/ CCIR601 Aux. Video Out NTSC PAL Decod CCIR601 Digital er NTSC/PAL Encoder IIC SC PWM STB I/O PCI Bus GPIO RS-232 PCI Bridge Parallel 1394 Link USB Super I/O IDE EPROM FLASH SDRAM 1394 PHY CPU IR Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV Platform Near-term solution • add-in card with HDTV/NTSC tuner and demux/decoder – offers HDTV/DTV viewing on conventional CRT computer monitor or HD monitor – enhanced services and interactivity possible through other PC HW/SW – low cost: likely < 300$ in 2H99 • add-in card with HDTV/NTSC tuner – HW NTSC decode – SW HD demux and decode (with IDCT+Motion Compensation assistance from graphics accelerator - MP@HL likely by 1H00). – very low cost possible: could be < $100 in 1H00 Long-term solution • PC-based Integrated Digital Media Platform – Modular secure architecture based on compact enclosed receiver modules (Device Bay) with SW acting as bridge between receiver and renderer. – Big push by Microsoft in this direction Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV Add-in Card Add-in card option based on dual-input tuner and HW DTV decoder Could be < $300 in 2H99 PCI or AGP Graphics Card RGB VIP Port, 8/16/24 Memory - HD Digital Loop-back Cable 4/8/16 MB Video 64 Antenna HD Analog PC Monitor RGB Switch Janus ATSC/NTSC Xport DTVPC VSB Demod. Tuner CATV Decoder HDTV CCIR656 CCIR656 Video NTSC Decoder 32 PCI Bus Source: TeraLogic Inc. Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display DTV Decoder IC Highly integrated DTV decoder IC • Comprehensive set of features: transport demux, MPEG2 MP@HL decode, video processing, 2D graphics for GUI support, display processor, PCI I/F Suitable for STB or PC-DTV Memory (64) 4/8/16 MB 2D Graphics Janus Memory Controller •32 bit engine •Anti-alias filter •Alpha blending VIP Port HD Transport Stream Transport Transport Digital Video Decoder (8) Display Processor Digital HD Video Demultiplexer Demultiplexer •MP@HL MPEG2 •Multiple formats •Decodes all 18 •ATSC - 1080i, 720P,480P, 480i . RGB/YPbPr ATSC formats •DVB •PC Formats (3) Digital Video •1HD or 4 SD streams •DSS - VGA, SVGA, XVGA (8) •Decodes DVD video •Letterbox mode •ATSC, ARIB, DVB CCIR656 compliant Audio Out (6) Video Scaler Audio IN Audio • 19 tap H/V filters CCIR656 (9) (6) •Line Doubler Processor/ •High Quality SD Video Mixer PCI Controller up/down conversion (32) PCI Bus Source: TeraLogic Inc. Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display Philips Coney PCI ATSC/NTSC Reference Design Low cost add-in card option • NTSC/ATSC reception with single tuner • ATSC transport stream, scaled 656, and BTSC stereo audio sent out via PCI • Could be < $100 in high volume Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: HW/SW Partitioning HW/SW partitioning for low cost Coney card option NTSC/CC DTV app/UI app/UI AC3 decode DShow Analog/dig sound tuner driver VSB demod TS demux MP@HL DShow video driver video decode renderer PCI Bridge WDM Gfx driver Software Hardware Analog TV demod PCI MP@HL Gfx hardware Tuner Bridge h/w assist Digital TV demod Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: System View Enhanced programming NTSC Video Audio Cable Data Cable Graphics chip/card 1394 Device 8VSB PCI Analog Bay or external Receiver (MPEG C.A. Receiver Module Encoding) Module Receiver Module On-chip MPEG acceleration 1394 PCI PCI AGP WDM driver WDM driver WDM driver Driver MPEG PC motherboard and software decode support TS split CS create CS store/retrieve CS split Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: Long-term System Architecture Receiver functions separate from rendering functions • All streams go through Microsoft DirectShow SW layer Cable Video Terrestrial display subsystem Satellite ADSL Telco DirectShow Audio subsystem (value adding filters) ???? DVD Data subsystem MPEG Enc Storage (Network) Crossing the Barriers: Receiver/Display PC-DTV: Long-term View Integrated Digital Media Platform (“PC-Inside”) Satellite TV receiver Cable box Atsc box Telco box A/V receiver Subsumes VCR functionality of some or DVD player all of these Web browser Game console Forecasts Depends on whether PC-based DTV (or PC-like STB-based DTV) can provide quick ramp up in volume • PC-DTV add-in cards for $99-$299 coupled with 17”-21” CRT monitors could provide significant early deployment to create the positive spiral needed for fast growth • PC & CE industry will try – ultimately depends on consumer preferences Traditional approach based on HDTV sets and vanilla HD receivers will be much slower Large installed base of Effective eyeballs advertising Positive spiral Low cost interactive receivers Better free programs Large volume receiver market Summary Transition to HDTV/DTV began with November 98 broadcasts • Current status is 66 stations on air with full facilities, 25 with partial Many barriers to rapid deployment, but most can be overcome • Upconversion • STB and PC DTV low cost receiver platforms – New functionality such as digital recording, interactive television, data services, at low cost could attract high volumes – PC/semiconductor industry price pressure could offer price-points as low as $99 (for lowest functionality option). • Emerging display technologies such as LCOS, low cost large PC CRT monitors, and enhanced CRT SDTVs could provide high quality viewing options at reasonable cost. Could be a significant opportunity for “enhanced TV” Ultimately will depend on consumer preferences Acknowledgements Speaker gratefully acknowledges material and/or information provided by • Chuck McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group • Mark O’Brien, TeraLogic, Inc. • Terry Smith, Sarnoff Corporation • Dave Marsh, Microsoft Corporation • Mark Farley, S3 Incorporated • Glen Sakata, Broadcast Group, Faroudja Laboratories References HDTV/DTV • “HDTV Status and Prospects”, B. Lechner, SID 1997 Seminar M-10. – detailed history of development of HDTV • “The Impact of DTV on Television and Computer Displays”, R. Cooke, C. McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group, December 1998 – provides in depth analysis of US market and a detailed product and technology forecast – www.mcgweb.com/reports/dtv.htm. • “Opportunities for Displays in the DTV Era”, R. Cooke, C. McLaughlin, McLaughlin Consulting Group, April 1999 – abridged version, summarizes market trends and forecasts DTV rollout – www.mcgweb.com/reports/dtvopps.htm. • www.atsc.org – web site for Advanced Television Systems Committee • www.teralogic-inc.com – white papers on set-top box and PC implementations of DTV • www.microsoft.com/winhec – presentations and white papers on PC-centric DTV • www.fcc.gov/mmb/vsd – web site for FCC - up-to-date information on TV stations DTV transition References MPEG2 • “An Introduction to MPEG-2” B. Haskell, A. Puri, A. Netravali, Chapman & Hall, 1997 PC multimedia architecture • “Multimedia Accelerators”, N. Balram, SID 1998 Seminar M-7. • Datasheets and data books from various multimedia accelerator companies Image/Video/Television • “Video Demystified: A Handbook for the Digital Engineer”, K. Jack, HighText Publications, 1993. • “Digital Television”, C. P. Sandbank (editor), John Wiley & Sons, 1990. • “High Quality Video De-interlacing”, N. Balram, B. Herz, Windows Hardware Engineering Conference (WinHEC98), 1998. • “Video Processing for Pixellized Displays”, Y. Faroudja, N. Balram, Proceedings of SID International Symposium, May, 1999. • “Principles of Digital Image Synthesis”, Vols 1 & 2, A. Glassner, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1995.