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					TH01: The Distributed Workforce: Ensuring Quality in
the Virtual Office
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The Disclaimer:
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing
  professional education. As such, it does not include content that
  may be deemed or construed to constitute approval, sponsorship
  or endorsement by the AIA of any method, product, service,
  enterprise or organization. The statements expressed by
  speakers, panelists, and other participants reflect their own
  views and do not necessarily reflect the views or positions of The
  American Institute of Architects or of AIA components, or those
  of their respective officers, directors, members, employees, or
  other organizations, groups or individuals associated with them.
  Questions related to specific products and services may be
  addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
Learning Objectives:
  Share and measure best practices for existing mobile
   workforce systems and solutions for large and small
   organizations as well as gain a better understanding of
   the tools and techniques for developing a mobile,
   dynamic design workforce.
  Use case studies and lessons-learned as future
   migration paths towards a virtually connected
   architectural practice and map a current and future
   state model for the creation and management of a
   successful and sustainable distributed workforce.
  Identify risk and reward maps for employers with a
   growing distributed workforce, and employees who are
   operating in the realm of the always connected
   employer.
Acknowledgments/Credits
 Perkins+Will, Inc.
 The Balanced Scorecard
  Management for the Architectural
  Firm
                                Cliff S. Moser, AIA
Cliff S. Moser                  MSQA
•Operations Director Cadforce Los
 Angeles
•30 years in the industry
•Advisory Group (AG) Member, AIA
 Practice Management Knowledge
 Community (PMKC)‫‏‬
•Chair -American Society for Quality
 (ASQ), Design & Construction Division
•Author -Quality Management in
 Practice- for 14th Edition AIA
 Handbook of Professional Practice
cadforce.com                       Cadforce.com

• Computer aided drafting (CAD) services
  including, Construction document
  production, building information
  modeling (BIM), for US architectural,
  engineering, and construction firms
• “Blendshore”‫‏‬service‫‏‬delivery‫‏‬with‫‏‬
  Deming Prize-inspired quality control
  and project management
• Largest existing KPO and BPO
  blendshore provider to US architecture,
  engineering, construction (AEC) firms
Rich Nitzsche
Principal, Chief Information
 Officer
LEED Accredited Professional
Registered Architect, Illinois
Recovering programmer
Doing Technology in Architecture
 for over 25 years.
perkinswill.com
Founded in 1935
Architecture, Interiors, Branded Environments,
  Planning + Strategies, Urban Design
Corporate+Commercial+Civic, Healthcare, Higher
  Education, K-12, Science+Technology, Aviation
Commitment to sustainable design, creating
  solutions that contribute to human and
  environmental health of our global ecosystem
Highest number of U.S. Green Building Council
   LEED® Accredited Professionals
                                                  Ideas + buildings
2007 Building Design+Construction’s:‫‏01“‏‬Best‫‏‬    that honor the
  AEC‫‏‬Firms‫‏‬To‫‏‬Work‫‏‬For”
                                                  broader
                                                  goals of society
Practice Management Knowledge Community
  www.aia.org/pm_about
• Vision
  •   The Practice Management Knowledge Community wants people we touch to say:
      •   “I'm‫‏‬delighted‫‏‬that‫‏‬easy‫‏‬and‫‏‬effective‫‏‬access‫‏‬to‫‏‬and‫‏‬sharing‫‏‬of‫‏‬practice‫‏‬
          management‫‏‬knowledge‫‏‬has‫‏‬improved‫‏‬me,‫‏‬my‫‏‬practice‫‏‬and‫‏‬my‫‏‬profession.”

• Mission
  •   The‫‏‬Practice‫‏‬Management‫‏‬Knowledge‫‏‬Community’s‫‏‬mission‫‏‬is‫‏‬to‫‏‬create‫‏‬delight‫‏‬as‫‏‬we:
      •   Connect people, invigorate communities and create networks to discover, gather,
          organize and share knowledge in the practice of architecture
      •   Continually build and improve access to practice knowledge resources and content
          experts
      •   Engender trust in our communities to encourage knowledge sharing and a culture
          that‫‏‬responds‫‏‬to‫‏‬members’‫‏‬changing‫‏‬needs‫‏‬
      •   Facilitate‫‏‬people’s‫‏‬optimal‫‏‬use‫‏‬of‫‏‬resources‫‏‬and‫‏‬networks‫‏‬
      •   Show leadership by shaping networks and change
ASQ: American Society for Quality
 The organization for
  professional quality
  membership
 Established in 1946 to train,
  mentor, and certify quality
  professionals
 90,000 members in US and
  Internationally
Distributed Workforce
 Today’s‫‏‬Program
    What is a distributed workforce?
    History of a distributed workforce.
    Distributed workforce in
     architecture.
    Tools for distributed workforce.
    Teaming and cultural requirements
     for distributed workforce.
    The future distro Bedouin
     workforce
What is a Distributed Workforce?
Contingent contract staff.
Off-site workers.
Telecommuters.
Your Consultants!
Contingent employed but currently
  distributed staff such as traveling
  executives/managers.
Also constitutes outsourced work
  activities such as overseas time-
  shifted work and real-time consultant
  work.
Examples of Distribution
Software Development
Journalism
Sales
Help Desk
History of Distributed Workforce
 Hudson Bay Company
 Linux Kernel Software development
 Wikipedia
Hudson Bay Company
 Chartered in 1670 –
  Governor and Company of
  Adventurers of England
  trading into Hudson Bay
 Central staff of 60
  employees in London
 Initially hired regular staff
 Turnover led them to find
  and hire workers who were
  comfortable to being alone
  and self sufficient –Orkney
  Islanders
Hudson Bay Company
 Trust and Control
 Flat organization - Company’s‫‏‬single‫‏‬
  headquarters in London, controlled
  each of seven posts along shore of
  James and Hudson Bays.
 Strong socialization – lavish send-off,
  dutiful training and mentoring during
  long voyage.
 Reading of orders aloud to keep staff
  mindful‫‏‬of‫“‏‬Duties‫‏‬they‫‏‬owed…whose‫‏‬
  servants‫‏‬they‫‏‬were”
 One of first distributed organization not
  dependent upon enslaved or enlisted
  staff.
Hudson Bay Company
 Establishing Communication Norms-
 Formal‫‏‬annual‫“‏‬Letter‫‏‬Outward”‫‏‬from‫‏‬
  London‫‏‬matched‫‏‬by‫“‏‬Letter‫‏‬Inward”‫‏‬
  from posts.
 Daily diaries and supporting post
  correspondance provided backup to
  annual letters.
 Staying On -initial 3-5 year contract
  was supplanted by careerists who
  became lifetime knowledge
  repositories for the company.
 “Half-Pay‫‏‬List”‫‏‬of‫‏‬pensioners‫‏‬and‫‏‬
  retirees
Linux Kernel Development & Open
Source
 Mobilized thousands of self
  directed programmers.
 No direction?
 Common cause.
 Mission and Vision.
Wikipedia
 Non-paid self-directed editors,
  illustrators, and guardians.
 Now contains 100x more
  information than Encyclopedia
  Britannica
 Example‫‏‬of‫“‏‬crowdsourcing”
 Publish then filter, rather than
  filter then publish
Wikipedia & Linux
Wikipedia
Distribution in Architecture
 MOBILITY
    Marketing Principals
    Managing Principals
    Project Managers
    Designers
    Support Staff
 Field office staff
    Construction Administration
    Construction Management (if you
     Design/Build)‫‏‬
Distribution in Architecture
   Multiple Offices
   Traveling Executives
   Contingent Staff
   Telecommuting
   “I’m‫‏‬working‫‏‬from‫‏‬home‫‏‬today”

 Consultants
Kinds of Distributed Workforce
 Mobile, individual or very small
  groups. Small granularity.
 Remote, semi-permanent
  posting. Small to medium
  granularity.
 Remote, permanent posting.
  Collaborating offices. Medium
  to large granularity.
 Remote, other party.
  Associates, consultants, clients,
  contractors. Granularity varies.
What is a Distributed Workforce?
Problems with quality with this group.
  Version control‫‏‬
  Hardcopy access.
  Current model (revit) access.
  Connection to the office/home team.
  Quality of the home office environment.
  Using technology to hide (my email is down)
Tools for enabling quality
  Make the work as seamless and available as
 possible.
  Use tools to make time and distance not
 matter.
Tools
Hard and Soft
Platforms or devices
Collaboration
Standards and Protocols
Knowledge Management
Keys to Success & Quality
It’s‫‏‬all‫‏‬about‫‏‬collaboration.
Collaboration is all about
 communication and
 coordination.
Nothing‫‏‬new‫‏‬here…


…this‫‏‬is‫‏‬about‫‏‬PEOPLE‫‏‬and‫‏‬
 architecture as a SOCIAL art.
Communication
Internal
 Behind my firewall

External
 Outside my firewall
Coordination
Frequency
Content
Issue management
Action and closure
Record-keeping
 Legal‫‏‬wanted‫‏‬to‫‏‬make‫‏‬sure‫‏‬we‫‏‬mentioned‫‏‬this…
 Who had what action and did they complete it.
Kinds of Collaboration
Serial
 Short duration iterative serial
 • Time shifted offshore operations
 • 24x7 operations around global
   time zones
 Long duration non-iterative serial
 • e.g. SD/DD phase hand-offs to
   associate for CD/CA phase
   completions
Kinds of Collaboration
Parallel
 In-office interdisciplinary
 Inter-office
 • Same discipline
 • Interdisciplinary
 Consultant interdisciplinary
Other?
Standards & Protocols
This is HUGE. Get this wrong and game
  over.
Don’t‫‏‬get‫‏‬egotistical‫‏‬or‫‏‬anal‫‏‬retentative
  about this. Get to practical decisions
  and then agree to enforce them, live by
  them.
Discipline. No renegades.
Flexibility and change management.
  You’re‫‏‬not‫‏‬going‫‏‬be‫‏‬perfect‫‏‬and‫‏‬
  better/smarter methods approaches
  may emerge. Be prepared to adjust,
  just‫‏‬don’t‫‏‬do‫‏‬it‫‏‬too‫‏‬often.

Don’t‫‏‬leave‫‏‬it‫‏‬to‫‏‬luck…
Knowledge Management & Quality
Timely access to useful information
 Search tools
 Topologies
 Metadata (This takes real work, but it makes
search go. Are you prepared to commit to
this discipline?)‫‏‬

Information maintenance
 Wiki community
 Information quality, editorial controls
 PRACTICE GOOD DATA HYGIENE!
Building the Infrastructure to Support
Collaboration
Simple and cheap
Complex and expensive
  Lines of communication are a function of On
  Frederick P. Brooks Jr’s The Mythical Man-
 Month
Big multi-office firm*
Small single office practice
What are you and what are your
  issues?

*case study subject
Multi-office BIG firm…
Perkins+Will

Over 20 offices, 1400 staff,
 lots of mobility

International
  operations/offices

Multi-company (in the family)
 interactions
How We Do Connectivity
Flat full-meshed MPLS network, Riverbed
    acceleration
  VPN Access
VoIP (Avaya style)‫‏‬
Intercall Reservationless Plus Conferencing
Polycom IP-based Video Conferencing
Microsoft Office Communication Server
  Microsoft LiveMeeting
  Office Communicator (IM client)‫‏‬
Palm/Goodlink powered smartphone fleet (350+
   units)‫‏‬
Microsoft Exchange Unified Messaging
  Outlook Fat Client
  Outlook Web Access (OWA)‫‏‬
  Voice Messaging
Lots of laptops
  Broadband wireless cards
  WiFi
How We Do Collaboration
Newforma
 Project Center
 InfoExchange project collaborative websites
Microsoft Sharepoint
 Ideaspace intranet
 Blogs
 Wikis
Deltek Vision CRM
BIM
 Revit
 Navisworks
Where‫‏‬we’re‫‏‬going
Fully converged communications
  platform
Pushing more applications out the
  web
Who needs a laptop?
Pushing more applications out to
  the smartphone
Focused, small UI, purpose-built
  apps
Get information into the backoffice
  databases
Skype instant messaging
   Computer to computer captured IM
   Removes accents from communications
   Problem with syntax and spell check
   Linguistic whaterism
   ESL workers Stateside
   The‫‏‬Queen’s‫‏‬English‫‏‬in‫‏‬India‫‏‬
      Our Man-in-India
      The facilities in India
Teaming and Cultural Requirements
Results Oriented Work Environment
Who needs a laptop?
Skype
Mediated Communication vs F2F
Creating Common Ground
Creating a Shared Mission
Conflict
Case Study
Results Oriented Work Environment
(ROWE)
Trying to change the nature of work (onshore)

Collaboration times (10a to 2p PT)

Where work is that talking and communicating stuff.
  Training, meetings, worksessions.

No client deliveries

Before 10 and after 2 is the heavy lifting work

Second collaboration 9p to 12m to match India
ROWE (our on-shore team)
Get on skype (chat) after uploads

Go-to-meeting to show the team what to do.

Answer questions real-time; no over-the-wall.

Confirm deliverables before going to bed.

12m to 6a black-out

Flex Friday nights (India Saturday Mornings)

Skype chat Sunday night (India Monday Mornings)
Teaming & Cultural Requirements

Communication media topology
Creating Common Ground
F2F or remote, speakers rely on
  common ground.
 Remote -misunderstandings in
  communications and strangely
  escalating conflicts and self-
  perpetuating feuds
 Out of sight/out of mind (OS/OM)
  paradox
 Distance hampers corrective feedback
  provided by chance encounters.
 Short is Long/Time is Distance/Smaller
  More Vulnerable
Creating Shared Mission
Implement practices that span
  distances & differences
 F2F meetings focus on gaining
  commitment‫‏‬to‫‏‬project/group’s‫‏‬vision,‫‏‬
  purpose, direction and goals
 Shared understanding vital to working
  across time/distance
 Shared humor/jokes –singing songs in
  native tongue –celebrating Durga Puja
 Group leadership
 Group learning
Creating Shared Mission
Bring team members here to
 understand the team,
 environment, clients.
 Visit Disneyland
 See architecture and world of
  walmarts, piers, Las Vegas.
 The QC discussion.
 Learning how to fail
 Learning how to say no
Conflict in distributed teams
Conflict and resolution is
 fundamental to group work
 Resolution dependent on the
  differentiation of relationship or task
  conflict
 How does one deal with someone who
  emails at 3am on Saturday expecting a
  response by Sunday at 9am?
 Trust breaks the cycle
 Trust requires different set of behaviors
 Trust helps differentiating task or
  relationship
…to‫‏‬mitigate
Singing songs in their native tongue..
 Once the team connects as individuals
  struggling‫‏‬for‫‏‬the‫‏‬same‫‏‬goal,‫‏‬it’s‫‏‬harder‫‏‬
  to hold grudges
 I have a 2 hour commute on a packed
  bus trough dusty streets
 My kid has soccer practice and an after-
  school parent-teacher conference
 My mother is dying of cancer
 I’m‫‏‬divorced‫‏‬and‫‏‬trying‫‏‬to‫‏‬see‫‏‬my‫‏‬kids
…disambiguity
 Both solution and problem
 ..tempting to assume that primary objective is
  to improve the precision and veracity of
  communication
 …sometimes‫‏‬less‫‏‬precise‫‏‬information‫‏‬about‫‏‬
  how to do things makes it possible to do
  better work across geographic distances
 Standards are a two-edged sword. A standard
  is implemented to stop undirected
  innovation.
 ..should stop inefficient innovation around
  things that are already good enough.
Case Study
Rubrics
 Drafting Scores increased
  34%
 Communication Scores
  increased 32%
 Acceptable deliverables
  increased 24%
 Turnaround time
  increased 21%
 Client acceptance
  increased 40%
Case Study
Packing Slip Process
 Map
 Swim-lane diagram
  shows‫‏‬who’s‫‏‬done‫‏‬what
 Client to production then
  back again
 Random checks
  throughout the process
 Establish template and
  customize for client
Astronauts or Hermit Crabs
 Carry everything
 …or‫‏‬virtually‫‏‬nothing
 From tethered desktops to
  untethered phones
…the‫‏‬future
 Sims or Second Life-style virtual
  workspaces
 Staff and Client avatars working
  together on a project
 New client orientation room where
  drafting / modeling team meet the
  client and review the deliverables
 Project room where clients and team
  exchange models.
 Project Platform room where model
  lives and changes made real time.
…the‫‏‬future
 Distributed staff is available 24
  hours a day from all over the
  world
 Perfect mediated space where
  everyone can meet and greet,
  find files, review projects.
 Guardian Avatar protecting
  intervention
 Questions are posted for review
  and response.
...silents,‫‏‬boomers,‫‏‬genX’rs,‫‏‬millennials,‫‏‬
and genZ..
 How to get from here to the future
 While we focus on us, the focus is
  actually on them..

 4bil BOP (Base of Pyramid) low income
  World population
    2005 London Business School study
     concluded that for every additional 10
     mobile phones per 100 people, a
     country’s‫‏‬G.D.P.‫‏‬rises‫‏5.0‏‬percent.
   How will you interact to this workforce?
Discussion
Evaluation
Speakers
 • Cliff S. Moser
 • Rich Nitzsche
Contact Information
Cliff Moser
Cadforce.com
Cliff.Moser@gmail.com 310.947.8509


Rich Nitzsche
Perkins+Will perkinswill.com
Rich.Nitzsche@perkinswill.com 312.755.4720

				
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