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					                  Building Web Scale
    VALA
                  for Libraries
7 February 2007




                  Stuart L. Weibel
                  Senior Research Scientist
                  OCLC Programs and Research
                  (Standing in for Robin Murray)
                  VP for Global Development
OCLC Enterprise Product
Strategy -
Bringing Web-Scale to
Libraries


Robin Murray
Vice-President Global
Product Management

September 2007
Overview



 Today‘s Web Environment

 The importance of ‗Web-Scale‘
    • Search Engine Optimisation, The ‗Long Tail‘

 The Library environment & web-scale

 The OCLC Enterprise Product Strategy
    • Enterprise Product Architecture

    • Building Web-scale

 Global Roll-out Issues

 Summary
                         Increase the
Reduce unnecessary       impact of libraries
fragmentation and
redundancies

                              Put libraries
                              at the point of need

 Make the network work
 for libraries



                 Create system-wide
                 efficiencies
The importance of Web-scale - examples




 Search Engine Optimisation



 The ‗Long-tail‘
Search Engine Optimisation the Library Brand and Library Use
How to Optimise



 Increase traffic

 Promote linking
    • Social networking

    • Persitent URLs

 Build ‗URL equity‘
    • URL structure

    • Focus links on single URLs

    • Aggregate web disclosure



 Exponential return…
Union Catalogs, FRBR and Serach Engine Optimization




 Build equity in the work URL
     • Globally aggregated web disclosure

     • FRBR                                     Don Quixote work view
                                                aggregates information
                                                from 2,367 editions in
                                                40,212 libraries
The Long Tail…
The Library Long Tail
(using holdings as measure of popularity)




                                        “Head”
                                                                             Figure not drawn to scale;
                   Number of Holdings

                                                                             for illustration purposes only



                                                               “Long Tail”




                                         Items ranked by system-wide popularity
Head:
Top 10% of WorldCat records (ranked by holdings)
account for 80% of total WorldCat holdings

Long Tail:
Bottom 90% of WorldCat records (ranked by holdings)
account for 20% of total WorldCat holdings
Releasing the Long Tail



 Unified Discovery
    • Web-scale



 Rich connections
    • Recommenders
        • Tagging, usage stats, faceted browse…

        • All benefit from network effects AND connection concentration
            • URL equity
Libraries and the Long Tail



                                                  • 20% of collection accounted for
          Number of Holdings

                                                  90% of use
                                                  • ‘Long tail’ accounted for 10% of
                                                  use
                                                  (2 research libraries over ~4
                                                  years)


                                     Items ranked by system-wide popularity


     By comparison, Chris Anderson (The Long Tail, 2006) reports:

                               Amazon: ~ 25% of sales from the “long tail”
                               Netflix: ~ 20% of sales from the “long tail”
Libraries Need…



 Web Scale presence

 Optimised disclosure to search engines

 Efficient systems for mobilising the long-tail
    • Web-scale recommenders

    • Web-scale usage data

    • Web-scale social networking

    • …
But…
The library presence is disaggregated and disconnected…




                                          Global Systems



                            We
                            b

Local Libraries                            Group Systems
OCLC Product Strategy – Bringing Web-Scale to
Libraries…



 The enterprise product architecture
     • How we are organized to deliver

 The ‗fly-wheel‘ business strategy
     • Concrete product initiatives against
       the fly-wheel
Enterprise                Global
product
architecture

                            Group

               WorldCat
                Grid




Local
Network level

    OCLC’s unique strategic
    advantage is the ability to deliver
    local, group, and global solutions
    that simultaneously leverage the
    value of the network, and add
    value to the network.


                             Web-scale
Enterprise Product Architecture




                                  The specific product
    Product Lines                 lines which provide
                                  access to services and
                                  automate business
                                  processes.




                                  The network interfaces &
    Grid Services                 common components that
                                  share services across
                                  nodes and product lines
                                  The content &
    Content & Metadata Services   Metadata that underpins
                                  all our services
Enterprise Product Architecture : Organizing to
deliver…


3rd Party                            End-user              Delivery         Management               Digital                              Grid      Metadata
Content                             Environment            Portfolio         Systems               Repository                           Services    Services
Portfolio                             Portfolio                              Portfolio              Portfolio                           Portfolio   Portfolio
  3rd Party Content




                                       Environment
                                       End User




                                                               Delivery




                                                                                Systems
                                                                                Management




                                                                                                       Digital Repository
                                                                              QuestionPoint
                                                                              Business Intel.
                                                                              ERM
                                                                              Union Cat
                                                                              ILS/Circulation
                                      Social Stuff
                                      Picarta
                                      Portals…
                                      EU Platform
                                      WorldCat.org



                                                             …
                                                             ILL`IIAD
                                                             1CATE
                                                             VDX
                                                             WCRS




                                                                                                                            CONTENTdm
                      FirstSearch
                      NetLibrary




                                                     Data utilities                Network services
Grid Services                                        Standards                     Common Components
                                                     Developer Network             Registry Infrastructure



                                                                          WorldCat       Cataloguing…
Content & Metadata Services                                               Registry Content
                                                                          Batch Loading Data Expertise…
                    Provide the most compelling Web-Scale
                    presence for libraries
                    WorldCat.org : Focus on what users do…
                        • Keep it simple…
                    Add social networking features
                        • Reviews & rating improvements
                        • Personal lists, recommendations
                        • Tagging
FY 08 initiatives       • Build community
                    Add features
                        • WorldCat Identities
                    Search Engine Optimization
                        • Maximize efficiency of Search-engine access
                        • URL structures
                        • Motivate linking


                    Every library should realize they NEED to be represented
                      on worldcat.org               Build Web Scale
                       Leverage the value of Web-Scale into end-
                       user solutions for Libraries

                      Discovery
                          • Launch and widely deploy WorldCat Local
                          • Add features
                              • Article metadata, Delivery options…
                          • Integrate WorldCat into End User Environments
FY 08 initiatives     Delivery
                          • Worldcat.org / Local as the entry point
                          • Comprehensive & intelligent delivery options
                              • Electronic resource resolution
                              • Consortial borrowing
                              • Buy-it
                          • Home delivery – from pilot to product
                    Leverage the value of Web-Scale into end-
                    user solutions for Libraries

                                                 Create Local Value
                        Syndicate Grid services through partner
                        programs


                       Make data work harder
                           • xISBN, Audience-level,…

                       Integration components
                           • ILS Service integration
FY 08 initiatives
                           • Authentication / identity management…

                       Build community
                           • Developer network



    Syndicate Grid services through partner
                       Making it easier to participate & build web-scale
    programs
                                                       Maximize Uptake
                    Reduce the cost of library management
                    through Grid-enabled systems & services



                    Cataloging
                        • Move record capture upstream
                            • Generate efficiencies in cataloging, selection &
                              acquisitions
                        • Radically improve batch-load
                    Digital Repository
FY 08 initiatives
                        • Link local, group and global nodes
                        • Integrate physical and digital metadata
                    Electronic Resource Management
                        • Investigate potential for network-based ERM
                    Physical Repository
                        • Investigate potential for network-based
                          circulation/acquisitions


                                               Increase Efficiency
                    Enrich the WorldCat Grid through greater
                    data & service coverage



                    Greater data acquisition
                        • Global coverage (national library loads)

                        • Increase participation

                        • Add local data with global significance
FY 08 initiatives
                    New data types
                        • Registries…, Policy Directory
                            • Make the network work

                    Fuller integration of existing services
                        • Search Services, Circ Services, Authentication,
                          IFM…

                                           Move to the Network
Global Issues
- Regional Roll-out
                                                               e
Americas                           EMEA                     Asia Pacific




 e
                                   e
      WorldCat-based products
      Centralized services                Although the relative size of


  e
                                          symbols may not be an exact
      eContent/digital content            representation, the image
      NL, FS, PiCarta, ECO, etc.          visually represents the
                                          differences between markets
      Local systems and institution-      in OCLC product heritage
      focused products
Americas

                      BUILDING WEB SCALE
                     Incrementally delivering
  e                   local & group systems
                        framework around
                      our content & services


 EMEA
                                                        Grid:
              BUILDING WEB SCALE                       Content-

                                                  e
             Incrementally delivering                  enabled
           our content & services into                Systems &
            our local & group systems                  Services

  e
APAC                 BUILDING WEB SCALE

 e                  Integrating activity into a
                      coherent strategy that
                       delivers web-scale,
                        content-enabled
                       systems & services
Summary



 Libraries need Web-Scale

 The library infrastructure creates fragmentation and dis-
  aggregation

 The OCLC Enterprise Product Architecture aims to:
    • Link Local, Group and Global systems together to create
      network effects

    • Incrementally build web-scale for libraries

 Roll-out approach will be different in different regions to
  take account of the starting point
Enterprise Product
Strategy
                  Photographic Title Slide
                  Title Line Two
  EVERY
CONNECTION
     has a
starting point.




                  Speaker‘s Name
                  Speaker‘s Job Title
                  OCLC
Section Break
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Thank You!

 Questions?
Strategic Introduction to
the State of Technology


Robin Murray
Vice-President Global
Product Management
OCLC
Overview



 Introduction


 Environmental Issues
    • Technology suppliers / Market Dynamics

    • The „Library system‟ requirement

    • User behaviour

    • The Web environment



 OCLC Response
    • Enterprise strategy
Personal Background


 20 years library technology experience
 Fretwell-Downing Informatics
     • Chief Technology Officer 1995
     • Chief Executive Officer 1997
     • Launched in
         • USA 1998
         • Australia 1999
         • Netherlands 2002
     • Raised Venture Capital 2001
     • Sold the company to OCLC PICA 2005
 Appointed Director of Strategy & Marketing OCLC PICA
 March 2007 – Appointed Vice President Global Product Management at
   OCLC


 Business / Library / Technology
OCLC



 Founded in 1967
     • Over 50,000 libraries in over 100 countries use OCLC services

 World‘s largest library co-operative and supplier of systems &
  services to libraries worldwide
     • Public, Academic, Corporate

 Mission Statement
     • OCLC exists to further access to the world‘s information and reduce
       library costs by offering services for libraries and their users.
                                      OCLC Online Computer Library
    Center




  OCLC Headquarters in Dublin, Ohio, U.S.A.                1,400 Employees
Other Offices in the U.S.A.                          Offices Outside the U.S.A.
California – Ontario and Santa Rosa                  Canada – Calgary, Winnipeg & Montreal
New York – New York City                             France – Paris
Pennsylvania – Bethlehem                             Mexico – Mexico City
Washington – Lacey and Spokane            The Netherlands – Leiden
Washington, DC                                       United Kingdom – Sheffield        .
OCLC Customers & members worldwide




                                      979
    4,943                            43,358
                  3,639


                                              795
Key OCLC Services



WorldCat – the world‘s largest library database
    • 70 Million bibliographic records

    • 1 Billion item locations

Online Databases
    • 5,000 electronic journals, 120,000 electronic books

Technology
    • Library Management Systems, Digital Repositories, Digitisation
      services
OCLC Product Portfolio Structure


3rd Party                            End-user              Delivery         Management               Digital                              Grid      Metadata
Content                             Environment            Portfolio         Systems               Repository                           Services    Services
Portfolio                             Portfolio                              Portfolio              Portfolio                           Portfolio   Portfolio
  3rd Party Content




                                       Environment
                                       End User




                                                               Delivery




                                                                                Systems
                                                                                Management




                                                                                                       Digital Repository
                                                                              QuestionPoint
                                                                              Business Intel.
                                                                              ERM
                                                                              Union Cat
                                                                              ILS/Circulation
                                      Social Stuff
                                      Picarta
                                      Portals…
                                      EU Platform
                                      WorldCat.org



                                                             …
                                                             ILL`IIAD
                                                             1CATE
                                                             VDX
                                                             WCRS




                                                                                                                            CONTENTdm
                      FirstSearch
                      NetLibrary




                                                     Data utilities                Network services
Grid Services                                        Standards                     Common Components
                                                     Developer Network             Registry Infrastructure



                                                                          WorldCat       Cataloguing…
Content & Metadata Services                                               Registry Content
                                                                          Batch Loading Data Expertise…
Environmental Issues



 Technology suppliers / Market Dynamics

 The evolving „Library System‟ requirement
    • “Synthesize, Specialize, Mobilize”

 User behaviour

 The Web environment
Technology suppliers / Market Dynamics




 Global market is steady-state
    • Still significant opportunities in niches
 Many first & second generation companies
    • Owner-managed / first round VC backing
 Need to generate growth to realise economies of scale
    • Organic growth
    • New markets
    • Acquisition essential
Technology suppliers / Market Dynamics




 All companies with strategic vision
     • are looking to acquire…
     • …or looking to be acquired
 Significant further rationalisation will occur


 Drivers:
     • Removing duplication – cost reduction
     • Geographic coverage
     • Niche players with ‗synthesizable‘ services
         • Note new players will pop-up and be acquired
Evolving Library Requirements




 Synthesize, Specialize, Mobilize
     • See ariadne July 2006
         • http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue48/murray/

 Some simple examples


 Conclusions & Opportunities…
                       Service Evolution…

                                                                  Workplace applications



      Acquisitions            Serials

                                            Synthesized
                    Catalog                 Information                Synthesized
      Circulation               …              Space                   Information
                                                                          Space



                                                                   Library ‘web services’
Collection                              Library ‘web services’

                                                                 Non-library ‘web services’


                                                      …System Revolution
        Workplace applications - points of need
     Library Systems                                              Mobilize - to put into action
                     Mobilize


                           Specialize                             Specialize - involve specific
                          • Local service                         knowledge in order to serve a
                          • Local added value                     particular purpose; to apply or
                          • Local context                         direct to specific end or use.
                          • Local knowledge



                                                                  Synthesize - to combine often
                           Synthesize                             diverse conceptions into a
                                                                  coherent whole.
Atomic Library Services           Atomic ‘non-Library’ Services
Adding Value…   Value - Created by
                broadening scope of
                mobilization



                    Mobilize

                                      Value - Created by generating
                                      tight, minimal Interface
                                      definition
                                      - KEY SYNTHESIZED
                                      SERVICES


                   Synthesize

                Value - Created by
                broadening scope of
                synthesization
Some ‗first-gen‘ examples…




 Synthesize



 Specialize



 Mobilize
Synthesize - Discovery
Synthesize - Discovery

                   Synthesis allows
                   value-added services
                   to be applied to all
                   data sets




                         Expect more
                         of these
Synthesize - Delivery
Specialize

 Synthesis enables specialization
    • Local branding

    • Local data sets & authorisation

    • Localised data presentation
Specialize
Mobilize – ―Getting in the flow‖




 Synthesis enables mobilisation…
      • Where are the users?
          • Internet – search engines

          • Intranet

          • Workplace applications

          • …

 Mobilize D2D services to the point of need…
Mobilize: Internet – OpenWorldCat…
                                        SEO for libraries
Mobilize: Internet – OpenWorldCat…



                                     Synthesize, network
SSM - Conclusions & Opportunities…

  Libraries
          • Synthesize, Specialize, Mobilize…


          • be ready to synthesize new services that add value to their
            offering


          • be ready to outsource internal services to network service
            providers who can realize economies of scale


          • External focus - Mobilize!
SSM - Conclusions & Opportunities…


Network service providers
    • have to be looking for opportunities to provide new ‗synthesizable services‘.

Systems providers
    • opportunities for revolutionary systems

    • have to ensure ‗plug-and-play‘ compatibility with network services.

Standards Bodies
    • External focus – mobilization

    • Facilitate use of wider industry standards
User behaviour & the web environment




 With thanks to Lorcan Dempsey, Chief Strategist, OCLC.
      Then: the user built their
     workflow around the library


Now: the library must build its service
      around the user workflow
Then: resources were scarce and attention
              was abundant


  Now: attention is scarce and resources
              are abundant
    Then: Web1.0 – static content,
 “hub-and-spoke”, little user interaction,
             little re-use


Now: Web 2.0 - user-contributed content,
   peer-to-peer, social networking,
               mash-ups
The Web Environment
 Brand is the
new real estate
The rich get
 richer
OCLC Product Strategy
                         Increase the
Reduce unnecessary       impact of libraries
fragmentation and
redundancies

                              Put libraries
                              at the point of need

 Make the network work
 for libraries



                 Create system-wide
                 efficiencies
Overview



 The enterprise product architecture




 Building web-scale - the ‗fly-wheel‘
  business strategy
Enterprise                Global
product
architecture

                            Group

               WorldCat
                Grid




Local
Library assets:
• People
• Information objects
• Collections
• Policies
• Services
• Rights and licenses
• Vocabularies
• Institutions
• Other
Enterprise                Global
product
architecture

                            Group

               WorldCat
                Grid




Local
Network level

    OCLC’s unique strategic
    advantage is the ability to deliver
    local, group, and global solutions
    that simultaneously leverage the
    value of the network, and add
    value to the network.


                             Web-scale
Enterprise Product Architecture




                                  The specific product
    Product Lines                 lines which provide
                                  access to services and
                                  automate business
                                  processes.




                                  The network interfaces &
    Grid Services                 common components that
                                  share services across
                                  nodes and product lines
                                  The content &
    Content & Metadata Services   Metadata that underpins
                                  all our services
Summary



 Environmental Issues
    • Technology suppliers / Market Dynamics

    • The „Library system‟ requirement

    • User behaviour

    • The Web environment



 OCLC Response
    • Libraries must build „Web Scale‟
Strategic Introduction to
the State of Technology


Robin Murray
Vice-President Global
Product Management
User behavior:
Web-scale & the long tail
Web-scale



 Search-Engine Optimization

 The long-tail
Search Engine Optimisation the Library Brand and Library Use
Search Engine Optimisation – Aggregated Disclosure
Optimization



 Build equity in the work URL
    • Globally aggregated web disclosure

    • FRBR                                 Don Quixote work view
                                           aggregates information
                                           from 2,367 editions in
                                           40,212 libraries
Mobilization targets…
Sites with ‗gravitational pull‘




  • URL is the currency of the web
  • Maximize equity in URLs
The Long Tail…
The Library Long Tail
(using holdings as measure of popularity)




                  Number of Holdings   “Head”
                                                                            Figure not drawn to scale;
                                                                            for illustration purposes only



                                                              “Long Tail”



                                        Items ranked by system-wide popularity

Head:
Top 10% of WorldCat records (ranked by holdings)
account for 80% of total WorldCat holdings

Long Tail:
Bottom 90% of WorldCat records (ranked by holdings)
account for 20% of total WorldCat holdings
Releasing the Long Tail



 Unified Discovery
    • Web-scale



 Rich connections
    • Recommenders
        • Tagging, usage stats, faceted browse…

        • All benefit from network effects AND connection concentration
            • URL equity
Libraries and the Long Tail



                                                  • 20% of collection accounted for
          Number of Holdings

                                                  90% of use
                                                  • ‘Long tail’ accounted for 10% of
                                                  use
                                                  (2 research libraries over ~4
                                                  years)


                                     Items ranked by system-wide popularity


     By comparison, Chris Anderson (The Long Tail, 2006) reports:

                               Amazon: ~ 25% of sales from the “long tail”
                               Netflix: ~ 20% of sales from the “long tail”
Union Catalogues – Purposes / Value Propositions




 ‗Traditional‘
     • Efficient data maintenance
     • Item location / Resource sharing
     • Collaborative collection management
 ‗New‘
     • Aggregated web disclosure
     • Web-scale library presence
     • Data mining
     • Benchmarking

				
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