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  • pg 1
                                                                                                                           Volume VII, Number 2
                                                                              Sabin Vaccine                                            Fall 2004

The newsletter of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute — dedicated to disease prevention                            www.sabin.org

                    Experts Say Global Vaccine Policy for Pandemic Influenza Is Needed
        Sabin Vaccine Institute’s Annual Vaccine Policy Colloquium Hammers Home Need for Vaccine Plan
   Health experts convened by the Sabin                               The colloquium, an annual meeting on “ W h e n
Vaccine Institute at Cold Spring Harbor,                            vaccine policy, took place as H5N1 these win-
New York, in October took steps to for- avian flu surveillance is on high alert and dows open,
mulate recommendations for vaccine within fresh recollection of the 2003 as is now
policy planning in the event of a pan- outbreak of sudden acute respiratory the case for
demic flu outbreak. The group sounded syndrome, or SARS, that so quickly tra- influenza,
a warning that an influenza pandemic, versed the globe from Asia to North m a x i m u m
which many experts consider overdue, America. This year’s colloquium was efforts must
would overshadow routine annual influ- titled Pandemic Disease Threats: Can be made to Meeting co-chairs Dr. Albert
enza epidemics. The looming event could We Develop a Global Vaccine Policy? address the Osterhaus, left, and Dr. David
be a calamity striking down millions                                  The 35 meeting participants repre- problem at Heymann.
across the globe.                                                   sented the World Health Organization, hand and
   Amid the discussion during the two- Pan American Health Organization, also increase resources in public health
day colloquium, at least two practical rec- UNICEF, U.S. Department of Health in general.”
ommendations sur-                                                                 and Human Services, Na-         A global flu outbreak—flu pandemic—
faced. On the interna-                                                            tional Institutes of Health, strikes approximately three or four times
tional cooperation front,                                                         Centers for Disease Control in a century, when humans come into
the numbers of influenza                                                          and Prevention, and interna- contact with a new strain of influenza
disease surveillance                                                              tional organizations from virus for which they have little or no prior
sites should be ex-                                                               Brazil, Canada, India, Ko- immunity. The pandemic flu of 1918
panded. In terms of pub-                                                          rea, the Netherlands, killed 40 million people, which constituted
lic health prevention, in-                                                        Singapore, Taiwan, and the more deaths than all casualties of World
creased global vaccine                                                            United Kingdom. Repre- War I. John M. Barry, author of The
manufacturing capacity Colloquium cochairs Lewis Miller, sentatives from several in- Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the
is needed.                                  left, and David Heymann, MD.
                                                                                 fluenza vaccine manufac- Deadliest Plague in History, related
                                                                                 turers attended.               anecdotes and statistics from his book
                                                                                    “Certainly the threat of                     on the 1918 pandemic at
I nside                                                             pandemic influenza is one                                    the opening of the collo-
                                                                    of the preoccupations of                                     quium. A global vaccine
   ViewPoint .................................................... 2
                                                                    the scientific community                                     strategy with advanced
   President’s Message ..................................... 3
                                                                    and (the World Health Or-                                    planning and government
   Human Hookworm Vaccine Team in Brazil 5
                                                                    ganization) at present,” said                                and industry commit-
   Cancer Vaccine Consortium News ................ 6
                                                                    David L. Heymann, MD,                                        ments is imperative to
   Book Corner ............................................... 8
                                                                    executive director, Com-                                     avoid a similar outcome
   Rotavirus Vaccine Progress .......................... 9
                                                                    municable Diseases, World                                    from the next pandemic.
   Sabin Board Expands by Two .................... 11
                                                                    Health        Organization                                     Fresh ideas generated
   Calendar ................................................... 12
                                                                    (WHO), who co-chaired Dr. Louis Cooper, Columbia Uni- at the meeting include
                                                                    the colloquium. “Public versity, and Michael Osterholm, broadening the base of
   SVI Celebrates Election of Institute                             health is all about windows University of Minnesota,discuss vaccine production by in-
   of Medicine Members, p 10.
                                                                    of opportunity,” he said. pandemic outbreak scenarios.            Continued on page 7
2           FALL 2004                                                                                                   SABIN VACCINE REPORT

         The Sabin Vaccine Report
              is published by the                                                             POINT
       Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute
              Subscriptions are free
                                                              Influenza and Our National Vaccine Shortage:
            Please direct inquiries to:                        Looking to the Legacy of Dr. Vannevar Bush
             SABIN VACCINE REPORT                             —by Frank Cilluffo and Peter J. Hotez, MD, PhD
               161 Cherry Street                    THIS COMMENTARY FIRST APPEARED IN THE ASBURY PARK PRESS ON OCT. 15, 2004
         New Canaan, CT 06840-4818
     phone: 203.972.7907/fax: 203.966.4763          The shortage of influenza vaccine for the 2004-05 flu season portends a potentially serious
               www.sabin.org                     health crisis for the United States. Influenza is the single greatest cause of death from infec-
    email: raymond.macdougall@sabin.org          tious disease in the U.S., far exceeding deaths from HIV-AIDS, West Nile fever, and other
                                                 infectious causes. During the 1990s, an average of 36,000 deaths from influenza occurred
               Raymond MacDougall                annually, with as many as 200,000 annual hospitalizations during a severe season.
       ASSOCIATE EDITOR         COPY EDITOR         Effective and appropriate use of an influenza vaccine could prevent up to 50% or more of
       Veronica Korn           David Bedell      the deaths caused by influenza. However, manufacture of the vaccine is a complicated pro-
         OFFICERS OF THE SVI BOARD OF TRUSTEES   cess and business. Because of the changing antigenic properties of the influenza virus it is
     H. R. Shepherd, DSc, Chairman               necessary to produce new vaccines annually. As a result, only a small window of time is
     William R. Berkley, Co-Chairman             available for the two major manufacturers of influenza vaccine, Aventis Pasteur and Chiron, to
     Michael E. Whitham, Esq., Secretary/        produce sufficient vaccine in time for flu season. The manufacturing process relies on an old
                                                 method of growing the virus in embryonated hens’ eggs. This method was used to produce
                     SVI STAFF                   the first influenza vaccines in the 1940s and has not been significantly modified in the last 50
     Dean D. Mason, President/CEO                years. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for environmental bacteria and fungi to colonize the
     Fran G. Sonkin, Executive Vice President    eggs resulting in unintentional contamination during manufacture.
     Ciro de Quadros, MD, MPH, Director,
                                                    If this winter’s flu season is severe, it is possible that hundreds if not thousands of Americans
       International Programs
     Raymond MacDougall, Director of             will die because they were not vaccinated. Sadly, the latest problem with our influenza vaccine
       Communications                            shortage could possibly have been prevented if funds were available to support the develop-
     David Bedell, Director, Educational         ment of a new-generation influenza vaccine. Bacterial contamination such as the type that
       Programs                                  occurred at Chiron’s plant in the U.K. is not unexpected. Although newer methods to produce
     Kari Stoever, CCRP, Program Manager,
       Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative
                                                 influenza vaccine using mammalian cell substrates would reduce the likelihood of contami-
     Jean Mitchell, Development Officer          nation, this requires the construction of new plants, which are prohibitively expensive for
                                                 most vaccine manufacturers.
                   SVI ADVISORS                     We could have, and should have, had new-generation influenza vaccines in our nation’s
     Philip K. Russell, MD, Senior Advisor to
                                                 stockpile for more than a decade. One reason for the delay is that research, development,
       the Chairman
     Peter J. Hotez, MD, PhD, Senior Fellow      manufacture and clinical testing for new vaccines occur at a snail’s pace relative to other
       & Chair, Scientific Advisory Council      pharmaceutical products. The major vaccine producers in North America and Europe have
     Anne Gershon, MD, Co-chair, Scientific      not had the incentive or the right business model to develop new products. Vaccines tradi-
       Advisory Council                          tionally provide a return on investment that pales in scale and scope compared to block-
     Hugh E. Evans, MD, Sabin Fellow
     William Muraskin, PhD, Sabin Fellow
                                                 buster drugs. In some cases, vaccines must be sold for pennies a dose. As a result, while the
     Patricia Thomas, Sabin Fellow               rest of the pharmaceutical industry is thriving, the leading vaccine manufacturing divisions of
     Nancy Gardner Hargrave, Development         larger companies are barely hanging on. This simple fact likely explains why we have only
       Counsel                                   four major pediatric vaccine manufacturers left to serve North America (Merck, Wyeth,
                                                 GlaxoSmithKline and Aventis Pasteur) and this number might easily dwindle to three, or even
                                                 two, in the coming years. Today, our nation’s vaccine supply is extremely fragile and there is
                                                 no redundancy in the system, so that often we have a sole source supplier for a single vaccine.
                                                 In recent years, this has resulted in acute shortages of vaccines for diphtheria-pertussis-
                                                 tetanus, measles-mumps-rubella, chickenpox, and pneumococcal meningitis. Though stock-
                                                 piles are now being built for the more common childhood vaccines, any shortage of signifi-
                                                 cant duration could result in national shortages even for those products.
                                                    The current shortage in influenza vaccine is a wake-up call that something is very wrong
                                                 with the way we develop, manufacture, and procure our nation’s vaccines. To begin seeking
                                                 answers we might look to similarities between our current vaccine crisis and the state of the
                                                 defense industry at the beginning of World War II. During the War years and in the years that
                                                 followed Dr. Vannevar Bush led a charge that reshaped the defense industry and laid the
                                                                                                                             Continued on page 12
dedicated to disease prevention                                                                                         www.sabin.org             3

              What the American Public Should Know About the Influenza Vaccine Crisis
                                                          Message from the President
   Influenza kills approximately 36,000 people in the United States in      transferring it to each other before it is
an “average year.” In 1957, the Asian flu killed about 70,000 Ameri-        sold to the public. Of course, with each
cans and about 34,000 died from complications from the Hong Kong            transfer costs are added.
flu in 1968. The consequences of influenza are abundantly clear—               The tragedy is that the problem, while
the mode of prevention by vaccination is understood as well.                long talked about and known to be solv-
   The announcement this fall that a manufacturing problem would            able, has never been acted upon.
result again this year in a national influenza vaccine shortage should      1. The United States must attract other
serve as a wake-up call to the American public and our elected offi-           influenza vaccine manufacturers to
cials. In the U.S., only twice in the past six years has the influenza         this market, both domestic and inter-
vaccine supply been both sufficient and delivered in a timely manner.          national companies. To do so we must
The sad truth is that influenza vaccine supply disruptions and inad-           address those problems that are sig-
equacies are now the norm and not the exception. Steps must be                 nificant to industry including two re- Dean D. Mason
taken to establish confidence in the production, supply and admin-             current U.S. problems: regulatory is-
istration of influenza vaccines on a national scale every year.                sues and frivolous litigation.
   It is unfortunate that the wealthiest, most powerful and most influ-     2. Government must offer incentives that are sufficient to motivate
ential country in the world cannot solve the problem of assuring the           industry to participate.
protection of its citizenry against a disease that is usually preventable   3. The federal government must dedicate additional resources, in-
through vaccination. If influenza disease were declared a threat to            cluding more money and personnel, to the year-to-year manage-
our national security, would the response of our government leaders            ment of the influenza vaccine supply and to the stockpiling of anti-
be different? Does this problem inspire confidence that we could               viral drugs. This might include federal sponsorship of scientists
react in a meaningful way to the threat of a new influenza disease             working more directly with industry.
strain that might result in a pandemic outbreak?                            4. Communication links between regulators, industry and public
   Here are some key facts that the American public should know                health authorities must be improved, especially when manufactur-
about the production of influenza vaccine:                                     ing problems have the potential to disrupt vaccine supply.
1. The production of influenza vaccine is complicated because it is         5. The U.S. government must be given authority to direct vaccine
   essentially a new vaccine every year and there are no guarantees            supply during periods of national crisis.
   concerning the yield or amount of vaccine that will be produced          6. Consideration should be given to the federal purchase of all influ-
   by the manufacturer.                                                        enza vaccine or at least to the purchase of a guaranteed amount.
2. The turn around time between the identification of the circulating       7. Stockpiling influenza vaccine, including surplus kept in manufac-
   strains to be included in the trivalent vaccine and actual vaccine          turing storage from the previous year, should be considered. The
   production is less than six months.                                         stockpiled vaccine might be of use even if there is not an exact
3. There are only two major companies now producing influenza                  strain match because it could modify the illness, reduce infectivity,
   vaccine for the U.S. market compared to four manufacturers only             and the period of infection.
   five years ago.                                                          8. More long-term strategies include the need for new technologies
4. Influenza vaccine production requires the use of thousands of               for more efficient and timely production of vaccine in the neces-
   embryonated eggs, a technology that dates back over 50 years.               sary quantities.
   The problem extends far beyond the 40 to 50% national shortage              The influenza vaccine manufacturing problems facing the United
we will experience this year. When there are shortages, the govern-         States are fundamentally economic. Involved is a commodity vaccine
ment has almost no control over the dispersement of the vaccine.            that is undervalued and represents a relatively low profit for manu-
National guidelines for influenza vaccine use are strictly voluntary.       facturers. Adding to the problem is the fact that market demand is
Though concerted efforts are made by industry to direct the available       uncertain, there are high regulatory burdens and associated costs,
vaccine to healthcare providers and organizations that serve those          and manufacturers bear substantial risks. The combined effects have
most at risk, the reality is that supermarkets often receive the vaccine    been to drive several firms out of the market. Government interven-
before primary care providers. Also, advance-sell contracts, pre-           tion is needed to save domestic vaccine manufacturing and to diver-
ferred by industry, can legally obligate the pre-commitment of per-         sify the manufacturing base.
haps 30% or more of the vaccine. Less well known is that a few mid-
level distributors set price based on the knowledge that the demand
exceeds the supply, leading to significant and widely varying prices
for the vaccine. Even worse, influenza vaccine in times of shortages                 Dean D. Mason
can be treated as a commodity with two, three, or four wholesalers                   President and Chief Executive Officer
4       FALL 2004                                                                                         SABIN VACCINE REPORT

                    Hookworm Disease Weighs Heavily on the Developing World Poor
                    New England Journal of Medicine Article Illuminates Latest Findings on Bloodthirsty Parasite
   An article published in the August        fects childhood memory, reasoning abil-       The authors of the article are Dr.
19, 2004 New England Journal of              ity and reading comprehension.              Hotez, Jeffrey M. Bethony, PhD and
Medicine calls attention to the enor-           The current method of hookworm re-       Maria Elena Bottazzi, PhD, from The
mous impact of parasitic hookworm            moval is a single dose treatment with       George Washington University, Wash-
infection on the developing world poor.      anti-helminthic drugs. However, in highly   ington, DC; Simon Brooker, PhD, Lon-
The authors of “Current Concepts:            endemic areas, hookworm infection of-       don School of Hygiene and Tropical
Hookworm Infection” have studied the         ten reoccurs within just a few months.      Medicine, London; Alex Loukas, PhD,
parasite over many years and describe        This, compounded by growing con-            Institute of Medical Research,
the disturbing effects of mild infection     cerns about emerging drug resistance,       Brisbane, Australia; and Shuhua Xiao,
as well as the devastating disease           has prompted efforts to identify new        MD, Chinese Center for Disease Con-
state that results from heavy hook-          tools for hookworm control, including       trol and Prevention, Shanghai, China.
worm infection.                              a vaccine.
   According to Peter J. Hotez, MD,
PhD, the article’s lead author, hookworm           Hookworm is one of the most common infections in humans
is one of the most common infections in            with an estimated 740 million cases in areas of rural poverty in
humans with an estimated 740 million               the tropics and subtropics.— Hotez
cases in areas of rural poverty in the
tropics and subtropics. In China alone,
approximately 190 million people are in-      Hookworm Vaccine Initiative Names New Program Manager
fected. Measured against other diseases,           Stoever Steps into Role for Clinical Trials of Hookworm Vaccine
hookworm outranks African trypanoso-
miasis, dengue, Chagas disease, schis-         The Human Hookworm                                      thalmology, oncology, and
tosomiasis, and leprosy in its impact on     Vaccine Initiative (HHVI)                                 infectious diseases.
individuals and society.                     welcomed Kari Stoever,                                      Stoever previously
   Hookworm infection plagues vast ar-       CCRP, as program man-                                     served as clinical research
eas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America       ager in November 2004.                                    manager for the Retina
and was once prevalent in the United         Stoever, whose offices are                                Group of Washington,
States. Here it was surmounted by sani-      at the SVI’s Bethesda,                                    where she developed and
tation improvements that accompanied         Maryland site, will play a                                implemented a clinical trial
20th century economic development.           key role in managing vac-                                 program and managed
Ultimately, poverty reduction and eco-       cine clinical trials soon to                              seven clinical studies for
nomic development has done the most          begin at HHVI.                                            the practice. She was a
to eliminate hookworm in industrial-           Stoever was most re- Kari Stoever, CCRP                 consultant for Berlex
ized nations, but for those living in        cently a clinical research                                Laboratories and man-
poor endemic areas around the world,         coordinator, study monitor, and protocol aged the quality assurance program of
such socioeconomic reforms are a             development team member for Anthrax Midwest Cancer Research Group.
distant prospect.                            Vaccine Clinical Studies at the U.S. There, she served as a site coordinator
   The term “hookworm disease” refers        Army Medical Research Institute of In- for a multi-hospital hematology and on-
to the iron deficiency anemia that re-       fectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Mary- cology research program and was clini-
sults from moderate and heavy infec-         land. There, she coordinated clinical re- cal trials coordinator for phase II and
tions. Worms fasten onto the inner layers    search studies, including development of phase III pharmaceutical studies.
of the small intestine and cause blood       clinical study protocols, and was a vot-      Stoever currently is enrolled in The
loss. According to the authors, each         ing member on the Human Use Com- George Washington University School
hookworm can grow to one centimeter          mittee, Institutional Review Board. She of Medicine and Health Sciences Clini-
and cause up to 0.2 cc of blood loss per     has experience as principal point of con- cal Research Program. She has been
day, and chronic intestinal blood loss re-   tact for regulatory affairs, quality assur- certified as a clinical research profes-
sults from heavy infections. Because         ance and clinical monitoring issues, re- sional with the Society of Clinical Re-
women and young children have the low-       views, audits and reports.                  search Associates (SOCRA) since 2001
est iron stores, they are the ones most        With extensive experience as a study and is a member of the Drug Informa-
vulnerable to chronic hookworm blood         coordinator and institution contact, tion Association (DIA) and Regulatory
loss. Hookworm infection adversely af-       Stoever has worked on studies in oph- Affairs Professionals (RAPs).
dedicated to disease prevention                                                                              www.sabin.org           5

                    SVI to Team with Brazilians on Human Hookworm Vaccine Trials
                             Agreement Signed in Rio de Janeiro Clears Hurdle on Vaccine Production
   Brazil is the fifth largest country in the   international collaboration I’ve ever had
world by area and population. This land         in 20 years of work in tropical medi-
of famed beauty and diversity is also           cine.” Hotez is professor and chair of
home to hookworm. SVI Human Hook-               the Department of Microbiology and
worm Vaccine Initiative representatives         Tropical Medicine at the GW Medical
traveled to Brazil in September to sign a       Center and senior fellow at the Sabin
memorandum of understanding for pro-            Institute. He has spent more than 20
spective hookworm vaccine production            years studying hookworm disease and
in Brazil that could alleviate the distress     devising a vaccine to prevent infection.
that hookworm disease causes among              His team met with Brazilian scientists
a segment of the population there.              at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, a re-
   SVI sponsors the research funded by          search arm of the Brazilian Ministry of
the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation on          Health, and with researchers at the
                                                                                            Dean Mason, SVI president, signs memoran-
a newly developed vaccine to prevent            Butantan Institute, both of which oper-
                                                                                            dum of understanding on behalf of the Sabin
human hookworm disease. The memo-               ate vaccine-manufacturing plants. Of-
                                                                                            Vaccine Institute.
randum of understanding with federal            ficials from each group signed the memo
and state vaccine production facilities in      of understanding.                           stitute. He and Hotez participated in the
Brazil is for clinical development of the          According to Hotez, Brazil is like only  visit along with Ciro de Quadros, MD,
vaccine, including clinical trials and vac-     a few countries in the world having both    MPH, director of Sabin’s International
cine manufacture.                               high endemic incidence of hookworm          Programs, Maria Elena Bottazzi, PhD,
   Representatives from both the Sabin          and pockets of extreme poverty, along       project manager and GW assistant pro-
Institute and The George Washington             with a high technology capacity and abil-   fessor of microbiology and tropical medi-
University (GW) were greeted by Bra-            ity to develop biological products. “These  cine, and Jeffrey Bethony, PhD, project
zilian officials hopeful that the new vac-      features would also describe such middle    clinical director.
cine will prevent an ages-old disease           income countries as China, Mexico, In-         “What is remarkable is the openness
endemic in Brazil that is caused by the         dia and South Africa,” he said. “Brazil     and cooperation of the government of
devastating intestinal parasite. Fieldwork      is one of the few countries with the        Brazil at the highest levels,” said Ma-
research on the hookworm vaccine is             technical capacity and intrinsic interest   son, who signed the agreement on be-
underway already and Brazilian officials        in the problem because hookworm is a        half of the Sabin Institute. “This is a
offered visits to research and produc-          public health threat in their nation.”      country where they are willing to get the
tion plants affiliated with the government         The trip was arranged in order to gar-   vaccine to the needy. The whole idea, if
of Brazil.                                      ner the support of the Brazilian govern-    the vaccine field trials prove successful,
   Elated with the success of the trip, lead    ment for their commitment to produce        is to make the hookworm vaccine avail-
scientist Peter J. Hotez, MD, PhD, said,        the hookworm vaccine, says Dean Ma-         able for those afflicted and the poorest
“This is the best and most substantive          son, president of the Sabin Vaccine In-     of the poor. No one is looking to make a
                                                                                            commercial profit, but instead we are
                                                                                            doing this for the best of reasons … ne-
                                                                                               The hookworm vaccine developed by
                                                                                            Hotez will soon undergo clinical trials,
                                                                                            so a team of a dozen workers led by
                                                                                            Bethony is now assembling baseline
                                                                                            data. The team is based in Belo
                                                                                            Horizonte, Brazil, near the rural area
                                                                                            impacted by hookworm disease. In just
                                                                                            more than a year, that data and data
                                                                                            from safety and tolerability trials in the
                                                                                            United States will serve as required
                                                                                            groundwork for a wider clinical trial to
Brazilian officials welcome SVI and GW representatives at Castelo Mourisco, headquarters of ascertain the efficacy and safety of the
the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.                                       new vaccine.
6          FALL 2004                                                                                                                  SABIN VACCINE REPORT

         Cancer Vaccine Consortium Joins Forces with International Partner Cancer Society
                                    Report from the Fourth Meeting of the Cancer Vaccine Consortium
  Participants at the Fourth Semi-An-            the Consortium and the International                              breakout session to kick off each of the
nual Meeting of the Cancer Vaccine               Society for Biological Therapy of Can-                            workstreams.
Consortium were told to “memorize the            cer took place, and a joint initiative was                          The project has an ambitious work
moment” because in years to come, the            agreed to in principle. Members of the                            schedule. It will include many telecon-
meeting may be known as the birthplace           iSBTc are joining forces with the CVC                             ference calls, a spring meeting of
of several important steps in the devel-         to create a Cancer Vaccine Clinical Tri-                          workstream leaders to prepare a pre-
opment of cancer vaccines.                       als Working Group (CVCTWG). The                                   liminary document for wider circulation,
  Although not formally announced, sev-          working group aims to write a scientific                          ultimately culminating in an important
eral meetings between the leadership of          paper describing the “state of the art”                           workshop at the iSBTc meeting in Al-
                                                 of clinical development of cancer vac-                            exandria, Virginia, in November of 2005.
                                                 cines and combination immunothera-                                Many experts will have the opportunity
       Correction of Fact in the                 pies. There is active liaison with the                            to contribute to this comprehensive work.
       History of Polio Vaccines                 FDA, and hopes are high that the pub-                               Keynote speakers at this year’s CVC
      The path of scientific discovery, in-      lication could contribute to a future FDA                         meeting November 7-8 in San Francisco
    cluding vaccine discovery, is often          guidance document.                                                included Dr. Drew Pardoll (Johns
    complex and evolves from the contri-            Chairpersons of the CVCTWG in-                                 Hopkins Medical School) whose talk on
    butions of many. Such has been the           clude Dr. Axel Hoos from Antigenics,                              “Regulatory Barriers for Cancer Vac-
    case with the discovery of vaccines to       Dr. Geoffrey Nichol from Medarex, Dr.                             cine Development” engendered good-
    prevent poliomyelitis. In the Summer         Giorgio Parmiani from the Istituto dei                            humored debate with the second
    2004 issue of The Sabin Vaccine Re-          Tumori in Milan, Italy, and Dr. Mario                             speaker, Dr. Steven Hirschfeld from the
    port we published a letter celebrating       Sznol from Yale University. The group                             FDA. His presentation, “Clinical Trial
    the 50th anniversary of the launching of     has divided the work into four                                    Endpoints for Biologics Developments
    a mass vaccination trial with a polio        workstreams. Each workstream is co-                               in Oncology,” drew much interest from
    vaccine developed by Jonas Salk, MD.         chaired by a member of the CVC and                                the audience. Also of keen interest was
    The letter referred in error to the 1954     the iSBTc and includes broader repre-                             the third speaker’s subject. Dr. Holden
    landmark mass vaccination campaign           sentation from the CVC, iSBTc, indus-                             Maecker (BD Biosciences) talked about
    with the Salk vaccine as the “first-ever     try, academia, and regulatory agencies.                           “Standardization of Cellular Immune
    polio vaccination.” In fact, earlier vac-    Drs. Hoos and Nichol were in attendance                           Monitoring Assays and What They Can
    cination trials had occurred.                at the CVC meeting and co-chaired the                             Tell Us.” All attendees received a com-
      The Salk vaccine was later replaced        morning’s activities, which included a                            plete meeting presentation package.
    on the immunization schedule by the

                                                  Your gift is no small drop.
    oral polio vaccine developed by Albert
    B. Sabin, MD. Neither the vaccine
    developed by Salk nor that developed
    by Sabin was used in the “first-ever polio                                  Your donation goes a long way in support of the Sabin Vaccine Institute.
    vaccination.” A polio vaccine developed
    by Hilary Koprowski, MD was                                                 As a partner with us, your donation promotes disease prevention through
    administered in a trial four years earlier                                  immunization, effective vaccine policy, and vaccine research and devel-
    to 20 subjects and was reported in
    March 1952 at a meeting of the                                              opment. We hope you will consider a tax-deductible contribution to the
    National Foundation for Infantile                                           Sabin Vaccine Institute. Readers may enclose a check in the envelope (no
    Paralysis in Hershey, Pennsylvania.
    There were at least two previous                                                                          postage is necessary if mailed in the U.S.). If
    vaccine candidates tested in the 1930s
                                                                                                              you are reading this online, our address is
    that were not proven safe and effective
    and were abandoned. The editor                                                                            161 Cherry Street, New Canaan, CT 06840.
                                                     Photo: Marcel Crozet/WHO

    thanks Dr. Koprowski for taking time to
                                                                                                              You may also phone 203-972-7907, or visit
    inform the readers of The Sabin
    Vaccine Report of his groundbreaking                                                                      our website to arrange your contribution.
    discovery. We regret the error.
                                                                                                                              Thank you!
dedicated to disease prevention                                                                                         www.sabin.org              7

                  11th Annual Vaccine Policy Colloquium on Pandemic Influenza Vaccine
      Sabin Vaccine Institute—“New, Important and Credible Participant” in Worldwide Influenza Partnership
          Continued from page 1                   be done. This meeting
cluding developing country manufactur-            identified some impor-
ers in the discussions—two developing             tant gaps in the plan-
country manufacturers of quality as-              ning.” The number of
sured vaccine were present at the meet-           people who would
ing. According to Heymann, they are               need to be vaccinated
now committed to explore the possibil-            greatly exceeds the
ity of technology transfer between com-           number of vaccine
panies to increase influenza vaccine pro-         doses that can be
duction and to promote discussions with           manufactured today.
other        developing          country          The time it would take
manufacturers. “The pandemic influ-               to make the vaccine
enza meeting could be a launch point              available using existing Pictured with author John Barry, signing book, are from left, Lewis A.
for a new way of working on influenza             technologies and plan- Miller, SVI trustee; David L. Heymann, WHO; Barry; and Dean Mason, SVI
vaccines internationally if particular rec-       ning for the use of anti- president. Berry’s book, titled, The Great Influenza, chronicles the 1918
ommendations are followed up,”                    viral drugs are other pandemic. Photo by M. Chua, CSH Laboratory.
Heymann said.                                     areas where contin-                             including AIDS, TB, malaria, childhood
   “This meeting can serve as a catalyst          gent planning is needed.                        diarrheal diseases, and pneumonias—
among participants from around the                   A further goal of pandemic disease are the target for research to develop
globe,” said organizer Dean Mason,                preparedness beyond strengthening the vaccines or improve coverage and ef-
president of the Sabin Vaccine Institute.         global vaccine manufacturing enterprise fectiveness of existing products. Accord-
“Though a number of countries and re-             would be development of new vaccine ing to WHO’s Heymann, “The meeting
gional organizations have drafted plans           technologies to prevent other killer dis- will have direct positive impact on
to address pandemic influenza, there is           eases. Each year approximately 15 mil- WHO’s activities in influenza pandemic
still much coordination and planning to           lion people in the world die of infectious planning and adds a new, important and
                                                  diseases and most of these diseases— credible participant to the worldwide in-
                                                                                                     fluenza partnership.” It also adds to the
                                                                                                     international coalitions working to bet-
                                                                                                     ter assure that influenza vaccine will be
                                                                                                     made available to all countries.
                                                                                                        The colloquium, held at the Banbury
                                                                                                     Conference Center, Cold Spring Har-
                                                                                                     bor Laboratory, New York, was co-
                                                                                                     chaired by Heymann, with Lewis A.
                                                                                                     Miller, principal of WentzMiller & As-
                                                                                                     sociates and Sabin trustee, and Albert
                                                                                                     Osterhaus, DVM, PhD, head of virol-
                                                                                                     ogy at Erasmus Medical Center in
                                                                                                     Rotterdam, Netherlands. Also serving
                                                                                                     on the expert committee for the collo-
                                                                                                     quium was Ciro de Quadros, MD, MPH,
                                                                                                     director, International Programs, at the
                                                                                                     Sabin Vaccine Institute. It was the 11th
                                                                                                     annual vaccine policy colloquium in an
Colloquium participants gathered at the Banbury Conference Center at Cold Spring Harbor              ongoing series sponsored by the Bill &
Laboratory are, from left, front row: Helen Garey, Chun Kang, Dean Mason, David Heymann, Lew         Melinda Gates Foundation.
Miller, Albert Osterhaus, Theresa Tam; 2nd row: Conny Mason, Isaias Raw, James Matthews, Veronica       The proceedings of the colloquium is
Korn, Sharon Hammer, and Suresh Jadhav; 3rd row: Sarah Landry, John Barry, Michael Osterholm,        being prepared for publication in Janu-
Lance Gordon, Diane Simpson, Karen Nielsen, Richard Knox, and Louis Cooper; back row: David
                                                                                                     ary 2004. The document will be pub-
Salisbury, Mary Ann Chaffee, Shanelle Hall, Otavio Oliva, James LeDuc, Benjamin Schwartz, Mark
Miller, Clem Lewin, John Woodall, Klaus Stohr, and Raymond MacDougall.                               lished in print and made available online
                                                                                                     at www.sabin.org.
8       FALL 2004                                                                                           SABIN VACCINE REPORT

                 Vaccine Shortages Examined, Prescription Formulated in SVI Release
           Public Health Experts Provide Guidance to Vaccine Supply Problem in Meeting Proceedings
   Recent highly publicized vac-                                   zation. Each is-          “The complexities and pitfalls chal-
cine shortages have cast a                                         sue received           lenging the stability of vaccine supply are
shadow over the otherwise                                          thorough consid-       much better understood following the in-
enormous success of vaccines                                       eration by the         depth analysis and guidance shared by
as a tool for disease prevention                                   group of global        this group,” said H.R. Shepherd, chair-
around the world. Vaccines                                         experts repre-         man of the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Ed-
have been the cornerstone of                                       senting       the      ited by Gloria Parkinson, Feasible So-
public health for the past 50                                      medical and            lutions to Global Vaccine Shortages
years and shortages have                                           public health          is the latest in a series of colloquium pro-
shaken public confidence and                                       communities,           ceedings that the Sabin Vaccine Insti-
exposed real vulnerabilities in                                    U.S. and interna-      tute has published in order to generate
the current system of vaccines                                     tional govern-         discussion on critical topics related to
production. A new publication of                                   ments, interna-        vaccines.
the Sabin Vaccine Institute                                        tional agencies,          Review copies of this proceedings pub-
(SVI), Feasible Solutions to                                       non-governmen-         lication are available upon request to
Global Vaccine Shortages, addresses          tal organizations, academia, and the         sabin@sabin.org. A pdf version may
a set of issues that may hold the key to     manufacturing sector.                        be downloaded from www.sabin.org.
remedying the threats of vaccine short-
   A precipitous decline in the number                       Spanish Edition of Vaccines Available
of manufacturers in the 1990s was am-
plified by sudden regulatory decisions,        PAHO Offers Spanish Edition of Centennial Commemorative Volume
heightened liability concerns, and a rela-
                                                 In the previous issue of The Sabin       sues, ranging from improving the im-
tively low return on investment for vac-
                                              Vaccine Report we ran a review of a         pact of immunization programs using
cine producers. SVI convened the 10th
                                              recent publication release from the Pan     existing vaccines to the frontiers of
Annual Vaccine Colloquium at Cold
                                              American Health Organization                vaccine research. The text consists
Spring Harbor in the fall of 2003 to bring
                                              (PAHO), which has since been pub-           of 48 chapters written by 76 authors,
together key players to address key re-
                                              lished in the Spanish language.             most of whom are among the top in-
lated issues, namely stockpiling, financ-
                                                 To reiterate a brief description, dur-   ternational authorities in their fields.
ing, advocacy, and regulatory harmoni-
                                              ing 2002, the centennial year of PAHO,
                                              a meeting was held to review the ac-
                                              complishments of vaccines and vacci-        Visit the PAHO web page for order
                                              nation programs—both within the Re-         information: publications.paho.org
                                              gion of the Americas and throughout         or call 301-617-7806.
                                              the world—and challenges for the Fu-
                                              ture. Over 250 scientists, health care      English Edition
                                              and public health officials participated.   2004,412p.,
                                              From that meeting, has come Vaccines:       ISBN 92 75 11596 6
                                              Preventing Disease and Protecting           Order code: SP 596
                                              Health. The book, edited by Ciro de         Spanish Edition
                                              Quadros, the major driving force be-        2004, 452 pp.
                                               hind many of PAHO’s successful im-         ISBN 92 75 31596 5 4
                                                munization initiatives, represents a      Código: PC 596
                                                comprehensive and easily readable         Price/Precio: US$62.00 / US$46.00 in
                                                 compilation of outstanding articles on   Latin America and the Caribbean/ en
                                                  a wide variety of immunization is-      América Latina y el Caribe
dedicated to disease prevention                                                                                           www.sabin.org                 9

                                     Rotavirus Vaccine: A Major Tool for Child Survival
                       A Public Health Commentary by Ciro A. de Quadros, MD, MPH, and Jon Kim Andrus, MD
       The following Op Ed appeared in Latin American daily newspapers, including La Prensa in Managua, Nicaragua;
       O Globo in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; La Tribuna in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; and Ultima Hora in Asuncion, Paraguay.

    Over the course of the last century, the       of knowledge about rotavirus and efforts to        sectors are essential to ensuring full access
 Americas have repeatedly led the world in         combat it. The symposium marked a turning          to life-saving vaccines.
 tackling killer diseases. It was the first re-    point in the fight against rotavirus. It spot-        Health officials from 16 Latin American
 gion to free itself from smallpox and then        lighted recent efforts across Latin America,       countries emphasized this point of view
 polio—two killers of global dominion.             Africa and Asia to assess the burden of            when they delivered a declaration under-
 Once again, this region has the opportunity       rotavirus disease and produced new estimates       scoring support for immunization, with the
 to pave the way in a vital public health effort:  of global mortality, finding that rotavirus ac-    highest political priority, as a public good
 increasing child survival through targeting       counts for 39 percent of all diarrheal deaths,     for the region. The representatives called
 rotavirus, the most common cause of se-           up from the previous estimate of 22 percent.       upon the Pan American Health Organiza-
 vere diarrhea in infants and toddlers. Ev-           The symposium also noted the emergence          tion and its Revolving Fund for Vaccine Pro-
 ery year this virus claims the lives of more      of two vaccines, one developed by Merck &          curement to work with collaborating agen-
 than 500,000 children worldwide.                  Co., the other by GlaxoSmithKline, and pre-        cies, national and global health organiza-
    Severe rotavirus kills by inducing acute       liminary data presented at the meeting indi-       tions, and with vaccine manufacturers, “to
 diarrhea and vomiting that can quickly de-        cate that both will be safe and effective. Each    facilitate the introduction of vaccines against
 hydrate a small child. In such a dire emer-       has been tested in more than 60,000 infants        rotavirus at prices accessible to all coun-
 gency, children may need fluids delivered         and children. The GlaxoSmithKline trials           tries of the region as soon as they become
 intravenously if they are to survive. So, al-     were based in Latin America, and carried out       available.” The Pan American Health Orga-
 though nearly every child in the world will       in cooperation with Ministries of Health and       nization is committed to making this hap-
 become infected by rotavirus within their         scientific investigators from many of the          pen in a way that ensures vaccines are af-
 first years of life, children in poor countries   region’s leading hospitals and research uni-       fordable to all children, particularly those
 that lack adequate medical care suffer 85         versities. In fact, just days after the sympo-     who need them most. This provides an-
 percent of rotavirus deaths. For these chil-      sium, Mexican health authorities announced         other opportunity to reduce inequities in
 dren, a preventive vaccine against rotavirus      plans to offer this vaccine on Mexico’s immu-      health services.
 would offer the best protection against this      nization schedule next spring.                        In Latin America, rotavirus accounts for
 ubiquitous disease.                                  What is striking, however, is not only the      an estimated 75,000 hospitalizations annu-
     Until now, no such vaccines have been         scientific triumph of developing safe, effec-      ally, and the deaths of more than 15,000
 available to the world’s children. This, how-     tive vaccines against one of the largest killer    children. Country-by-country, the burden
 ever, is about to change, and Latin Ameri-        diseases of childhood, but also the deep com-      varies. In Mexico, 2,000 children die of
 can countries are at the center of this trans-    mitment evidenced by the public health com-        diarrhea each year, and a vaccine could
 formation.                                        munity and collaborating agencies to ensure        cut those deaths by 40 percent. Each epi-
    This past July, 350 public health experts,     that these, and any future vaccines against        sode of diarrhea costs families an average
 scientists, clinicians and representatives of     rotavirus, are made available to all children      of US$100, which represents 85 percent of
 governments, the vaccine industry and the         who need them.                                     the monthly income for families living on
 multilateral, bilateral and NGO community            Until now, vaccines have become available       minimum wage. In a single outbreak ear-
 met in Mexico City to assess the current state    first in developed industrialized countries,       lier this year in Guatemala, more than 6,500
                                                        which are able to pay a premium price         children were treated for rotavirus at hos-
                                                        for the new products that typically cost      pitals, and at least 50 children died.
                                                        up to $800 million to develop. New vac-          For all of these children, new vaccines
                                                        cines such as those for hepatitis B and       offer hope that rotavirus disease will no
                                                        Haemophilus influenzae type b have            longer be a rite of passage and test of sur-
                                                        taken 10 to 15 years to “trickle down” to     vival.
                                                        developing countries. In this regard, the     Ciro A. de Quadros, MD, MPH, is the Di-
                                                        new rotavirus vaccines represent a turn-      rector, International Programs at the
                                                        around of business as usual. Vaccine          Sabin Vaccine Institute. Jon Kim Andrus,
                                                        accessibility is an equity issue, and part-   MD, is Chief of the Immunization Unit at
 Benjamin, a one-year-old Chilean boy, almost died of
                                                        nerships between the public and private       the Pan American Health Organization.
 rotavirus, an infection that kills 500,000 children every
 year worldwide. (Photo: Victor Hugo Durán)
10      FALL 2004                                                                                             SABIN VACCINE REPORT

                      Ciro de Quadros Elected to Institute of Medicine Membership
                             Also Elected Are SVI Trustee Osterholm, SVI Scientific Advisor Hoffman
   The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Acad-               “I am honored that the IOM
emies announced in October the election of 65 new mem-              membership elected me to join
bers, including Sabin Vaccine Institute (SVI) Director of In-       their distinguished ranks,” said de
ternational Programs Ciro de Quadros, MD, MPH. New mem-             Quadros, who joined the Sabin
bers bringing the roster to 1,416 also included SVI trustee         Vaccine Institute in early 2003 to
Michael T. Osterholm, PhD and SVI Scientific Advisory Coun-         direct several international advocacy
cil member Stephen L. Hoffman, MD.                                  projects. Beforehand, he was direc-
   According to IOM President Harvey V. Fineberg, mem-              tor of the Division of Vaccines and
bership is highly selective and recognizes people who have          Immunization of the Pan American              Michael Osterholm, PhD
made major contributions to the advancement of the medical          Health Organization in Washington,
sciences, health care, and public health. “Election is consid-      DC. He completed medical studies in
                              ered one of the highest honors in     Brazil in 1966 and received a Master of Public Health degree
                              the fields of medicine and health,”   from the National School of Public Health in Rio de Janeiro in
                              he said. Current active members       1968. He is among the pioneers in developing strategies of sur-
                              elect new members from candi-         veillance and containment for smallpox eradication. He also di-
                              dates nominated for their profes-     rected the successful efforts of polio eradication from the West-
                              sional achievement and commit-        ern Hemisphere and efforts to eradicate measles from the re-
                              ment to service. Members com-         gion.
                              mit volunteer time as members of         Michael T. Osterholm is director of the Center for Infec-
                              IOM committees, which engage          tious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Min-
    Ciro de Quadros, MD, MPH in a broad range of studies on         nesota, Minneapolis; Stephen L. Hoffman is chief executive
                             health policy issues.                                                  and scientific officer of Sanaria
                               The Institute of Medicine is a                                       Inc., Rockville, Maryland.
national resource for independent, scientifically informed                                             For more information on the In-
analysis and recommendations on issues related to human                                             stitute of Medicine see
health. Recent studies included the titles Immunization Safety                                      www.iom.edu.
Review: Vaccines and Autism, a report that closed the ques-                                            SVI Chairman H.R. Shepherd
tion of any such link; and Financing Vaccines in the 21st                                           is a longstanding member of the
Century: Assuring Access and Availability, which proposes                                           National Academies Presidents’
new strategies for assuring access to vaccines and sustain-                                         Circle, heading its Library Out-
ing the supply of vaccines.                                                  Stephen Hoffman, MD reach Program.

                                Weizmann Institute Recognizes Science’s Select
                              H.R. Shepherd Honored During Weizmann Institute’s New York Event
   The American Committee for the              “This event celebrated an exceptional       sol cosmetics and medical technology in-
Weizmann Institute of Science, New           group of talented scientists,”Shepherd        dustry. He is recognized as the devel-
York Region, hosted its gala dinner, In      said. “The Weizmann Institute is unpar-       oper of the metered-dose inhaler used
Celebration of Science, November 4,          alleled in the research and discovery it      broadly by asthmatics and others requir-
2004 at the Mandarin Oriental Hotel in       promotes, so I am honored to have             ing respiratory treatment.
New York City. The focus of the hon-         played a part in the celebration.” The          For the past 11 years, Shepherd has
ors were leading “Women of                   Weizmann Institute, located in Rehovot,       served as founding chairman of the
Vision”among a select group of others        Israel, is a top-ranking multidisciplinary    Sabin Vaccine Institute and established
celebrated for their scientific contribu-    research institution, noted for its wide-     a reputation of excellence for the Insti-
tions to humanity. Also honored at the       ranging exploration of the sciences and       tute within the scientific community
event were a group of “Distinguished         technology.                                   worldwide promoting vaccines and im-
Guests from the Scientific Community”           The “book of honors” distributed at        munization.
including H.R. Shepherd, DSc, chairman       the dinner mentioned Shepherd’s distin-
of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute.    guished career as a chemist in the aero-
dedicated to disease prevention                                                                               www.sabin.org          11

                     Pediatrician and Vaccine Executive Join Sabin Board of Trustees
                         Louis Cooper, MD and Kevin Reilly Elected at October Board Meeting
  The Board of Trustees of the Albert         Cooper was the founding co-chairman              He began his career at Connaught
B. Sabin Vaccine Institute announced of the Campaign for Healthy Children, Laboratories, Ltd. as a senior vice presi-
the election of two new board                                     which is best known dent in charge of Canadian and export
members during its September                                      for designing, advo- operations.
2004 meeting in New York                                          cating, and facilitat-       Reilly earned a bachelor of science
City. Members of the board                                        ing implementation of degree from the University of
provide guidance and valued                                       the Child Health Melbourne in 1963 and a master of busi-
expertise on all of the Institute’s                               Plus Program, New ness administration degree from York
programs. The election of                                         York’s effort to guar- University, Toronto in 1973. Mr. Reilly
Louis Z. Cooper, MD and                                           antee health insur- is also a 1981 graduate of the Advanced
Kevin Reilly to the SVI Board                                     ance for every child Management Program at Harvard Busi-
adds a depth of experience in                                     in the state. Dr. Coo- ness School.
vaccine research, immuniza- Louis Z. Cooper, MD                 per is a graduate of           In announcing the election of the two
tion advocacy, and vaccine                                      Yale University and new board members, SVI Chairman
manufacturing and economics.                received his medical degree from Yale H.R. Shepherd said, “Lou Cooper has
  Dr. Louis Cooper is a retired profes- University School of Medicine.                       been an advocate with us since the be-
sor of pediatrics at the College of Phy-      Kevin Reilly has more than 20 years ginning of the Institute. He is respected
sicians and Surgeons of Columbia Uni- experience in pharmaceutical manage- across the country and globally as a
versity and a past president of the Ameri- ment and was president of Wyeth Vac- champion for immunization and
can Academy of Pediatrics (2001-2002) cines and Nutrition, a division of Wyeth, children’s health.” Of Mr. Reilly, Shep-
and Chairman of the Board of Direc- for five years. Prior to join-                                            herd acknowledged the
tors of its Center for Child Health Re- ing the vaccine division,                                             insights into the chal-
search.                                     Reilly was president of                                           lenges and economics of
  Since 1964, Cooper has been exten- Wyeth Nutrition Interna-                                                 the vaccine manufactur-
sively involved in vaccine research. At tional and was responsible                                            ing that Reilly has pro-
Bellevue Hospital in New York, he cre- for management and direc-                                              vided as an industry part-
ated the Rubella Project, a vaccine re- tion of the business world-                                           ner representative. “The
search program, which evolved into a wide. During his rise                                                    value of having expertise
multidisciplinary team dedicated to de- through Wyeth, Reilly held                                            from the private sector
fining and resolving the rubella problem. the positions of group vice                                         is immeasurable. We
This project enabled Cooper to trans- president and area vice                                                 look forward to expand-
late scientific information into public president for the Pacific               Kevin Reilly                 ing the programs of the
policy, legislation and program building Rim Group, an area that en-                                         Institute and drawing
in health, education, and social services. compasses the Philippines, Australia, from the strength of leadership repre-
  Dr. Cooper served as chairman of the New Zealand, India and Pakistan.                      sented on our board of trustees.”
Department of Pediatrics at St. Luke’s-
Roosevelt Hospital Center for 25 years,          CDC’s Uyeki and SVI’s Mason Present New Canaan Lecture
becoming chair emeritus in 1998. He has            The Sabin Vaccine Institute participated in the first Davidoff-Sabin Health Science
served on numerous advisory bodies at         Lecture held at the New Canaan Library in New Canaan, Connecticut on December 9,
the federal, state, and city level, includ-
                                              2004. Guest speaker for the lecture was Tim Uyeki, MD, MPH, Medical Epidemiologist,
ing chairmanships of the Medical Soci-
ety of the State of New York Commit-          Influenza Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Pre-
tee on Medicaid and the Public Policy         vention, Atlanta, who along with SVI President and CEO
Committee (PPC) of the Pediatric In-          Dean Mason provided insight on influenza.
fectious Disease Society. He is also a           The free public lecture was titled Influenza Vaccine—
member of the corresponding PPC of            Missing the Point: Vaccine Shortages and the Larger
the Infectious Diseases Society of            Threat. The lecture provided an opportunity for the com-
America. He recently chaired a Blue
                                              munity to become better informed about the impact of
Ribbon Panel on Vaccine Safety for the
                                              influenza and the importance of a secure vaccine supply.
Centers for Disease Control.                                                                              Dr. Tim Uyeki
12       FALL 2004                                                                                              SABIN VACCINE REPORT

     National Vaccine Shortage                                 SABIN
          Continued from page 2                              CALENDAR                          April 2 - 5     Copenhagen, Denmark
groundwork for our present-day industrial-                                                     15th European Congress of Clinical
academic-military complex. In his capacity               JANUARY-JUNE 2005                     Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
                                                    January 24 - 25          Washington,DC     www.akm.ch/eccmid2005
as director of a newly created Office of Scien-
tific Research and Development, Dr. Bush            2nd Workshop on Strengthening the          April 9 - 15             Banff, Alberta
coordinated the activities of some 6,000 lead-      Supply of Vaccines in the U.S.             HIV Vaccines: Current Challenges and
                                                    www.hhs.gov/nvpo                           Future Prospects (X8)
ing American scientists and engaged the de-
                                                    February 8 - 9          Washington, DC     www.keystonesymposia.org/Meetings
fense industry, the U.S. military, and major
                                                    National Vaccine Advisory Committee        April 16 - 20      Anaheim, California
research universities in an unprecedented
                                                    Meeting www.hhs.gov/nvpo                   96th Annual Meeting of the American
dialogue and partnership, aided by federal
                                                    February 10 – 11        Atlanta, Georgia   Association for Cancer Research
support. Our national military strengths are
                                                    Advisory Committee on Immunization         www.aacr.org
partly a result of his vision and legacy.
                                                    Practices (ACIP) www.cdc.gov/nip/acip      April 19 - 20        Montreal, Canada
   Vaccines, whether for influenza, major
                                                    February 17 - 22 Santa Fe, New Mexico      World Vaccine Congress Montreal 2005
childhood illnesses, biodefense, or global                                                     www.lifescienceworld.com/2005/wvcm_CA
                                                    Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Cancer
health, have effectively become orphan drugs.       www.keystonesymposia.org/Meetings          April 24 - 30           U.S. Nationwide
If we realistically expect a new generation of
                                                    February 24 - 26 Hershey, Pennsylvania     National Infant Immunization Week
vaccines, we have to look at alternative busi-                                                 www.cdc.gov/nip/events/niiw
                                                    8th Annual Meeting of the Regional
ness models to ensure their development and         Cancer Center Consortium for the           May 9 - 11         Baltimore, Maryland
testing. We need to develop novel private-          Biological Therapy of Cancer               8th Conference on Vaccine Research
public partnerships between the remaining           www.cancerbiologicaltherapy.org/           www.nfid.org/conferences
vaccine manufacturers, research universities,       symp.html                                  May 10             Baltimore, Maryland
the Department of Health and Human Ser-             March 17 - 18 London, United Kingdom       Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal Ceremony
vices, and the U.S. military. In so doing, we       DNA Vaccines Forum                         www.sabin.org/awards_gold.htm
would create a critical vehicle to marshal and      www.marcusevans.com/events/                May 23 - 25Amsterdam, The Netherlands
mobilize the best and brightest American bio-       CFEventinfo.asp?EventID=9175               Phacilitate Vaccine Forum Spring 2005
medical scientists into vaccine development.        March 18 - 20             Madrid, Spain    www.phacilitate.co.uk
We need to develop new business models for          Frontiers in Neonatal & Infant             June 7 - 8               Washington, DC
ensuring a steady pipeline for our nation’s         Immunity www.themacraegroup.com            National Vaccine Advisory Committee
vaccine supply. We need also to attract vac-        March 18 - 22        San Antonio, Texas    Meeting www.hhs.gov/nvpo
cine manufacturers from other countries to          American Academy of Allergy, Asthma        June 15 - 18            Lisbon, Portugal
the U.S. market, support/subsidize research         and Immunology                             12th International Congress on
and development, streamline our regulatory          www.aaaai.org/members/annual_meeting       Infectious Diseases (12th ICID)
system, better protect against frivolous litiga-    March 19 - 24       Keystone, Colorado     www.isid.org
tion and encourage competition among vac-           Basic Aspects of Tumor Immunology          June 21 - 24 Cold Spring Harbor, New York
cine makers, giving consumers more choice.          www.keystonesymposia.org/Meetings          7th Annual Sabin Colloquium on Cancer
   Some estimates suggest that vaccines saved       March 21 - 24           Washington, DC     Vaccines and Immunotherapy
almost 200 million lives in the 20th century –      39th National Immunization Conference      www.sabin.org/programs_walkers_cay.htm
more lives saved than all lives lost in wars        www.cdc.gov/nip/NIC
over the same period. Almost all of these were
produced by the vaccine industry. In this                                                                               NON-PROFIT ORG.
sense, our remaining vaccine manufacturers                                                                                U.S. POSTAGE
should be thought of as national and interna-                                                                                 PAID
tional treasures. Because vaccines are our                                                                                MONTROSE, PA

greatest resources for disease prevention,                                                                                PERMIT NO. 2

their manufacture and distribution are de-         161 Cherry Street                                          RETURN SERVICE REQUESTED
                                                   New Canaan, CT 06840-4818
serving of thoughtful support and leadership.      U.S.A.
Peter Hotez, MD, PhD is co-chair of the SVI
Scientific Advisory Council and is chair of
Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The
George Washington University (GW). Frank
Cilluffo is vice president for Homeland Se-
curity at GW.

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