Top Italian scientists and artists

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Artists            Scientists
1. Dante Alighieri      8. Giuseppe Verdi

2. Michelangelo         9. Giovanni Boccaccio
3. Andrea Bocelli       10. Sofia Loren

4. Giotto               11. Roberto Bolle

5. Giacomo Leopardi     12. Botticelli

6. Alessandro Manzoni   13. Luciano Pavarotti

7. Roberto Benigni      14. Guccio Gucci

1. Leonardo Da Vinci      7. Leonardo Fibonacci

2. Galileo Galilei        8. Margherita Hack

3. Rita Levi Montalcini   9. Enrico Fermi

4. Alessandro Volta       10. Guido D'Arezzo

5. Guglielmo Marconi      11. Carlo Rubbia

6. Archimede              12. Renato Dulbecco

                     Dante Alighieri
                    The life of Dante Alighieri is closely linked to the events
of political life in Florence. At his birthday Florence was about to become
the most powerful city of central Italy.
Dante Alighieri was born on May 29. 1265 in Florence , into a family of
minor nobility. In 1274, according to the Vita Nova, he saw for the first time
Beatrice with whom he fell in love immediately and desperately when his
mother died. He was ten years old. The young Alighieri followed the
philosophical and theological teachings of the Franciscan school. At twenty
he married Gemma di Monetto Donati and they had four children.
In 1306 he undertook the writing of the Divine Comedy on which he worked
lifetime. He died in 1321 in Ravenna. Dante Alighieri also wrote many
sonnets and has been a source of inspiration for many artists in the world
with his Platonic love for Beatrice and the theme of journey through Hell,
Purgatory and Heaven.                                              Home

                   Michelangelo was born in Caprese, near Arezzo, in 1475.
When he was young he studied the Florentine culture of the fifth Century
and, especially, the works of painters like Gentile da Fabriano and
Masaccio. In 1496 he moved from Florence to Rome. Here he realized his
first sculpture, the Pietà. In 1501 he came back to Florence, where he
made another famous sculpture, the David. In 1503 he went back to Rome
to paint the Sistine Chapel, that today is famous all over the world together
with many other, like the Moses (a sculpture) and the Sacred Family (a
painting). He died in Rome in 1564. Michelangelo was one of the
protagonists of the Renaissance. He was a restless artist, but also a
genius, and he defined his activity the research of the ideal beauty. After his
death, the next generations created a school of art called Manierismo,
inspired to him and based on his criterion to represent a higher beauty than
the one existing in nature.                                   Home
                      Andrea Bocelli
                        Andrea Bocelli was born in Lajatico, Tuscany, Italy,
about 40km south of Pisa, in 1958.
He has problems with his sight, and after visits to many doctors, Bocelli
was diagnosed with glaucoma.
As a young boy, Bocelli showed a great passion for music. His mother has
often said that music was the only thing that would comfort him. At the age
of six, he started piano lessons. He also learned to play the flute,
saxophone, trumpet, trombone, harp and guitar.
In 1992 the Italian rock star Zucchero held auditions for tenors to sing with
him the song “Miserere”, to send to the Italian tenor Luciano Pavarotti. In
Zucchero‟s European concert tour in 1993, it was Bocelli who accompanied
him to sing the duet.
Since that moment he has become more and more famous, both as an
Opera singer and as a pop singer, realizing very successful songs like “
Nessun dorma” and “Con te partirò”.                             Home
             Giotto was an Italian painter: he was born in Vespignano in
1267. The parents sent the child to the shop of the painter Cimabue,
registered at the powerful wool art, that was in Santa Maria Novella‟s church
in Florence. The first masterpiece he realized was “Santa Maria Novella
Cross” in 1290. It is a revolutionary work, that shows a suffering man: only
the halo remembers his divine nature. Giotto travelled much: in Padua he
painted “The Scrovegni Chapel”, in Assisi “Saint Francis Church”. He lived in
Florence for a long time, in Santa Croce‟ s Church he painted a few chapels
for rich Florentine families: the Peruzzi and Bardi‟s chapels. At the Uffizi
Museum there is “La Maesta‟ di Ognissanti”: the Throne is in the middle, the
Virgin Mary is surrounded by angels and four Saints on gold background. In
the last years he worked in Florence as an architect too and was named
superintendent to the public works of the Town Council. He directed the
building of the Cathedral‟s Bell Tower. He died in Florence in 1337 and he
was buried in Santa Reparata Church.
                            Giacomo Leopardi
             Giacomo Leopardi, a poet of rare talent and sensitivity,
is one of the figures Italy is most proud of. Leopardi was a Romantic poet,
but his vision of life was extremely realistic. He was born in 1798 in Recanati,
a little town in Marche (central Italy). His family was noble and rich, but his
father lost most part of the properties. Giacomo was a very gifted boy and,
after his self-taught studies, he spent his whole life trying to escape from his
hometown and from his father. Year by year he developed his own
philosophy that showed his pessimism. He lived a miserable life because of
his family and his poor health and he died in 1837 at the age of 39. He wrote
wonderful poems and he also brought many innovations: his lines are
musical, even if some are without rhymes, and his words are full of meaning.
Some of his most famous poems are “L‟infinto”, “Il sabato del villaggio” and
“A Silvia”. He also wrote a diary called “Zibaldone” and published the
“Operette Morali”. For foreigners it could be hard to feel the sensations that
his poetry gives in Italian: his words refer to images, sounds and smells that
you can understand only knowing the language.
                 Alessandro Manzoni
                Alessandro Manzoni is one of the most important exponents
of Italian literature. He was born in 1785 in Milan; his father was Pietro
Manzoni and his mother Giulia Beccaria. When he was a child, he spent a
lot of time in several boarding-schools, and when he became a teenager,
he left Italy to go to his mother, in France. There he wrote his first work and
he attended an intellectual group, called "ideologi", that believed in freedom
and justice. They didn't like Napoleon, who was Emperor of France, and
what he did, so Manzoni started taking an interest in history, in moral
problems and in religion. After his marriage with Enrichetta Blondel, a
Calvinist woman, and her conversion to Catholicism, Manzoni believed
permanently in religion that will be his guide and his focus in all his life. He
died in 1873.
His most important work is “I Promessi Sposi“ (The Betrothed), started to
be written in 1821; the first edition of it was published in 1827, and is called
"twenty-seven edition"; the definite edition was published in 1840.
This work is a history novel, so there are some invented persons and
some who really lived, in a true context. Actually characters , also the
protagonist, are poor people: this was an innovation, because
Manzoni's poor are the main point of the story. Before that, novels
talked about princes and powerful figures, and poor men were used for
secondary roles, like servants, or to tease them. This happened to
comfront poor and rich: the first category had all the negative
characteristics that the second didn't have.
The first book that mixes both is the Bible , the second " The Divine
Comedy" written by Dante, and the third "The Promessi Sposi". Among
these works were written other writings that had, as protagonist, rich
people. Manzoni, with his main book, tried to fight illiteracy and to write
an educational literature. He wrote about poor people also because in
his opinion they were the real Italians, while the rich were only
For all these reasons he is considered one of the most important
authors in Italian literature.
                       Roberto Benigni
                Roberto Benigni is an Italian actor, comedian and director.
He was born in the district of Arezzo (Tuscany) in 1952.
He debuted in 1972 at the theater. In 1988 directed three films where he
was the principal actor: „Il piccolo diavolo‟ (The little devil), „Johnny
Stecchino‟ (Johnny Toothpick) and „Il mostro‟ (The monster), but Benigni
achieved success with the film „La vita è Bella‟ (Life is beautiful) in 1997.
The film is about holocaust: a Jewish family was deported in a
concentration camp, where the father Guido (Roberto Benigni) tries to
protect his child, hiding from him the atrocity of the camp, and sacrifices his
life for him.
This film received three Oscar awards: the best sound-track, the best
foreign film and the best actor, and was a success in the USA.
Recently Benigni recited the Divine Comedy in the squares of Florence and
on tv.                                                              Home
Benigni is the most wordly famous actor of the contemporary Italian
                        Giuseppe Verdi

                 Giuseppe Verdi was born on the 10th of October 1813 in
Roncole of Busseto from poor parents. At first he studied music with the
Roncole organist, Pietro Baistrocchi. At twelve he went to Busseto and
started working for the shop-keeper Barozzi, who then became his protector,
while also studying music with the teacher Provesi. At nineteen he tried to
enter the conservatory but he wasn‟t admitted and he continued his studies.
In 1835 he married his protector‟s daughter Margherita who died with their
two children during the 1838-1840 years. His first opera was “Oberto conte di
San Bonifacio” (1839). He continued his prodigious activity for a long time
producing famous works like “La Traviata” and “Il Nabucco”. He died in
Milan on the 27th of January 1901. Verdi‟s innovations are so distinctive that
other composers do not use them and call them Verdi‟s tricks. His operas are
full of passion and intensity, with a deep union between text and music and
with the entire orchestra occasionally sounding as if it were one large
accompanying instrument. Some critics say that he paid insufficient attention
to the technical aspects of the composition as a result of the Homeof teaching.
                Giovanni Boccaccio
                 Giovanni Boccaccio was born in June 1313, near Certaldo
(in Tuscany/central Italy): he is one of the best Italian writer. But when he
was a boy, his father (like other fathers of the world of today) wanted a safer
career than that of a poet. In fact Boccaccio was obliged to leave Certaldo
and go to Naples (southern Italy), where he lived in whealthiness. After a lot
of failures, he could leave Naples to go to Florence and learn literature.
His most important book is THE DECAMERON (1348), that was set in the
fourth century, the years of the plague. The narrators are three males and
seven females, who go on a hill near Florence to escape from the plague
and decide to tell ten stories for ten days to pass the time. The stories are
very humorous and written in medieval Italian, differently from other literary
works of previous times, that were about serious themes and written in Latin.

                          Sofia Loren
Sophia Loren was born in 1934 in Rome. She grew up in Pozzuoli, just
outside Naples, with her mother, but without her father who left them
alone. Sofia, a young and beautiful girl, was introduced into the world of
cinema by her mother Romilda.
She lived her childhood in harshness and this past deeply influenced her
performances. In fact Sopfia's characters have always distinguished for
her peculiar traits: she was a beautiful and bold southern Italy woman, a
brave and romantic mother, but also a dreamer. This was the key of her
success, she was the mirror of the Italian people and of the Italian history
in the 50s.
Even when she entered the American studios and Sofia became Sophia,
she never lost her Italian features and she alway represented Italy
She had a beautiful body but she never made it seem vulgar, because of
her sincere laugh. In fact she is considered one of the most charming
woman in the world, an international symbol of style and elegance. Sophia
Loren is a living myth, a model of star that we no longer find in the 2000s.

                       Roberto Bolle

                 Roberto Bolle is an Italian dancer. He was born in 1975 in
Casale Monferrato, near Alessandria. He started dancing at seven, in a local
school, and at the age of 12 he was accepted by the prestigious ballet
school “La Scala” in Milan. Once he was noticed by Rudolf Nureyev, and he
was chosen to play a part in a ballet. In 1996, at the end of an appearance of
Romeo and Juliet, he was appointed as Principal Dancer at La Scala. Since
then he began to dance for the Royal Ballet, the Tokyo Ballet, the National
Ballet of Canada, the Staatsoper in Berlin, the Theatre of Opera in Rome
and many others. Derek Deane, the English National Ballet director, created
two productions for him, Swan Lake and Romeo and Juliet. On the 10th
anniversary of the Opera Theatre in Cairo, he performed in Aida at the
pyramids of Giza and afterwards at the Arena in Verona for a new version of
the opera live worldwide.
He also danced at Buckingham Palace at the presence of the queen
in 2002, in St.Peter‟s Square in front of Pope John Paul II in 2004 and
at the opening ceremony of 2006 Winter Olimpic Games in Turin. He
has been Etoile of La Scala since the 2003-2004 season. He has
danced with a lot of important female dancers in a lot of theatres all
over the world and he has received a lot of awards. Nowadays he is
very famous among dance lovers and he‟s considered one of the best
male dancers ever. Since 1999 Roberto Bolle is Goodwill
Ambassador of UNICEF, he also went to South Sudan to report the
tragical situation of these places.

                               Sandro Botticelli was an Italian painter born
in Borgo Ognissanti, near Florence on the 1st March 1445 and died on the
17th May 1510. Sandro grew in a mild but not poor family, with 3 brothers. His
real name was Alessandro of Mariano of Vanni Filipepi and Botticelli was just a
nickname. Apparently it initially belonged to his brother Giovanni, who looked
quite fat and, because of that, called “Botticello” (“little barrel”). Since then the
nickname was extended to the entire family and obviously to the painter too.
His real apprenticeship was held in the renowned shop of Filippo Lippi from
1464 to 1467. A series of Holy Marys are dated from that period. As time went
by, he painted in a more elaborated way: entire scenes with a lot of figures,
placed in order to give rhythm to the painting.
With regard to the objects, he painted some portraits, but he especially
focused on many Holy Marys and religious or mythological scenes.
 Botticelli was said to be a representative of the Neo-Platonism,
which is about the relation between religion and philosophy. Neo-
Platonism was diffused during the Renaissance, and Greek and
Roman myths were reinterpreted by the scholars in a religious way.
In fact, his most famous masterpieces are the “Spring” and the
“Birth of Venus”, two allegorical paintings with mythological
characters representing mythological events but also the natural
passing of seasons. They were dated respectively 1477-1490 and
1483-1485 and both requested by Lorenzo the Magnificent‟s
nephew. Now they are shown on the Uffizi Gallery, in Florence.

                     Luciano Pavarotti

             Luciano Pavarotti was born on the outskirts of Modena on
October 12th 1935. His father was a baker who had a fine tenor voice but
rejected the possibility of a singing career because of nervousness. The
teenage Pavarotti and his father travelled with “Chorus Rossini” to Wales,
and went on to win first prize in Llangollen international singing competition.
The experience lit up the young Pavarotti‟s musical ambitions for a life as a
tenor. He had originally trained to become a teacher but in 1961 he won the
prestigious “Concorso Internazionale” and made his operatic debut as
Rodolfo in “la Bohème” at the Teatro Reggio Emilia. The huge success of
that evening persuaded the young Pavarotti to seriously carry on the
vocation of being an opera singer: that very evening his career began and
never stopped until his death. Pavarotti also carried out a charitable project.
It was called “Pavarotti and Friends”. It consisted of singing in Modena with
other famous singers and give the money they got to charity. That project
was carried on for a lot of years. He died in Modena on September 6 th 2007.
                          Guccio Gucci
                    In 1921, Guccio Gucci opens a company specialized in leather
products and a small luggage store in Florence, his hometown.
Having spent years working in a Hotel in London, he absorbs English nobility’s
refined taste and brings to Italy this kind of sensibility. In the 30s, the brand obtains a
great success in order to attract international and stylish customers who appreciate
the bags , trunks, gloves, scarves and belts collections, which are inspired from the
equestrian world. In fact, the reason for clamp and stirrup, which are still symbols of
this brand, derive from this world. To face material lack, in fascist dictatorship years,
Gucci proves himself to be a synonym of exceptional creativity and initiative: in
these years the “Bamboo” bag is created, and it becomes the first of many “Gucci
icon” products. In the 50s Gucci opens a boutique in Milan and New York, becoming
a luxury symbol of that age. Guccio Gucci dies in 1953 and his sons go on with the
paternal activity. In the 60s Gucci makes some products which are “loved” by
famous people: Jackie Kennedy prefers his shoulder bag, today known as “Jackie
O”; Liz Taylor, Peter Sellers and Samuel Beckett use the “Hobo”; for Grace Kelly,
Gucci creates a scarf of printed silk called “Flora”.
Gucci opens some boutiques in London, Palm Beach and Beverly Hills,
extending a lot.
In the middle of the 60s, Gucci adopts the legendary interlocking double
“G” logo, reminding the name of the founder. In the 70‟s Gucci heads for
the Far East, opening some boutiques in Tokyo and Hong Kong. The
company invests in new luxurious materials and innovative approaches
for design, renews the great classics with new colors and forms,
alongside with new products. In 1994, Tom Ford becomes the Creative
Director of Gucci, and infuses to the brand an audacious and
provocative sense: high heels and silk jersey dresses with sight inset
and metal details become Ford icons.
Gucci reaches a big world–wide success. In 2007 Frida Giannini is
nominated Creative Director for all categories of production.

                      Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, a sculptor, an architect, an engineer, a
writer, a musician and an inventor, and he is considered one of the greatest
geniuses of mankind. He was born on April 15, in 1452 in Vinci, in a small
rural village. He was the illegitimate son of Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio
da Vinci, a Florentine notary, and Caterina, a peasant. At the age of 17, for his
skill in drawing, he was accepted as apprentice in the art studio of Andrea del
Verrocchio. In Florence, where he remained up to thirty years, he drew,
painted and studied all fields of human knowledge.
He didn't know Latin, so he decided to learn it on his own, considering himself
“man without literary education”. As self-taught man he also explored
anatomy, engineering, architecture and other sciences. After drawing, writing
was his passion. He wrote constantly, he took notes and made sketches on
sketches. But to keep his notes secret, he wrote them from left to right. He
thought that the laws that regulate nature are expressed through
mathematics. His scientific theories were based on careful observation and
precise documentation.
Leonardo studied in the field of anatomy the blood circulation and movement
  of the eyes. He made discoveries about meteorology and geology: he was
  among the first to understand what the fossils were and why they were on
  the top of the mountains, denying in this way the Flood. In astronomy he
  had fundamental intuitions too, like those one on the heat of the sun, on
  the glittering stars, on the Earth, on the centrality of the Sun and on the
  effect of the Moon on tides. In those years humanity was far from
  understanding the laws of gravitation, but Leonardo was already
  comparing the planets with magnets that attract each other. He was also
  one of the initiators of the science of hydraulics and he designed an
  effective system of canalization of rivers. He invented many ingenious
  machines, including the diving suit. He studied the flight of birds and he
  made important observation: first, he noticed that the leaves are not
  arranged randomly on the branches, but according to mathematical rules
  and he discovered that the concentric rings in the trunks indicate the age
  of the plant. Many of these machines were designed and realized by
  Leonardo but not universally used until centuries after his death, that
  took place in Amboise in 1519.
                       Galileo Galilei

                 Galileo was born on the 15th February 1564 and died
on the 8th January 1642. He lived in Pisa, Padua and Florence. He was
an important Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and even
philosopher. He played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His
achievements include improvements to telescopes, observations of
celestial bodies, maths, geometry... He was a supporter of the
Galileo has been called the "Father of modern observational astronomy",
"the Father of Science". In fact his most important discoveries were about
specific weight, telescopes, weight of air, light, moon and sun surface...
Unfortunately, the research on light was fruitless: he didn't discover
its velocity and ways of moving through different bodies, while the
researches about lenses were worthwhile. In 1609 he managed to
build a new telescope which had a lens able to expand the image
about 20 times. Then Galileo managed to see the sky and see the
Moon surface, and he discovered that the Moon has a lot of
craters. He discovered also the stars of the Milky Way Galaxy and
in 1610 he managed to discover the satellites of Mars: Io, Europa,
Ganimede and Callisto.
Thanks to his researches, nowadays scientists can see light years
far in the universe. The lenses that were produced when Galileo
studied how to improve them, were ridiculous: they could expand
the sky just 4-5 times. He improved their power until they
expanded 20 times! This is the demonstration which proves the
importance of Galileo for modern Science.
And that is why in 2009, on the occasion of the 4th centenary of the
invention of Galilei‟s telescope, Italy dedicated several exhibitions
to the scientist.
                    Rita Levi Montalcini
               Born in 1909 in Turin to a Sephardic Jewish family, she's
one of the most famous Italian scientists. She graduated in Medicine in
1936 overcoming the objections of her father. In 1938 Benito Mussolini with
his racial laws banished Jews form academic careers, so she went to
Belgium where she stayed for two years until the Nazi invasion, when she
returned to Turin. During the Second World War she built a sort of
laboratory in her house studying the growth of nerve fibers in chicken
embryos. In 1946 she went to the Washington University of St.Louis where
she spent almost thirty years and where she did her most important work:
isolating the nerve growth factor from observations of certain cancerous
tissues that cause extremely rapid growth of nerve cells. Because of this in
1986 she was given the Nobel Prize in Medicine. In 2001 she was
appointed Senator for Life. Rita Levi-Montalcini is currently the oldest living
and the longest-lived Nobel laureate who, though hard of hearing and
nearly blind, continues her studies. She has also been the first woman ever
admitted to the “Accademia Pontificia”.
                   Alessandro Volta
               The count Alessandro Volta was born on 18th February 1745, in
Como, Italy. He attended the state school in Como where he became
teacher of physics at the royal grammar high school. His passion was the
study of electricity. In 1775 he created the first “elettroforo”, a gadget that
produced static electricity. In 1779 he became lecturer of physics of the
Pavia university where he worked for 22 years. Around 1791 Volta began to
study the "animal electricity" noted by Luigi Galvani. When two different
metals were connected in series with the frog's leg and to one another, Volta
realized that the frog's leg served as a conductor of electricity and as a
detector of electricity. He replaced the frog's leg with brine-soaked paper,
and detected the flow of electricity by other means familiar to him from his
previous studies. This way he discovered the electrochemical series, and the
law of the electromotive force of a galvanic cell. In 1800, as result of a
professional disagreement with theories which Luigi Galvani affirmed,
Alessandro Volta developed the Volta‟s cell, which produced a steady electric
current; it was a precursor of the electric battery. In 1809 he became senator
of the Italian kingdom and in 1810 count of the Italian kingdom. In 1819 he
moved to his house in the countryside. Alessandro Volta died on 5th March
                Guglielmo Marconi
             Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian inventor. He was
born near Bologna and he was the second son of Giuseppe Marconi
and his wife Annie Jameson. Marconi was educated in Bologna in the
lab of Augusto Righi, in Florence and, later, in Livorno. During his early
years, Marconi had an interest in science and electricity. He is best
known for his development of a radiotelegraph system. His goal was to
use radio waves to create a practical system of wireless telegraph. He
began to conduct experiments, building much of his own equipment in
the attic of his home at Villa Griffone. The evolution of this system led
to the development of modern telecommunication methods such as
television, radio, phone and in general all the systems that use wireless
communication. In 1909, he shared the Nobel Prize of Physics with
Karl Ferdinan Braun. In 1937, he died in Rome at the age of 63
following a series of heart attacks.

                   Archimedes was from Siracusa (Sicily), which, at the
time, was Greek Land (Magna Grecia), and lived from 287 to 212 b. C. He
was a mathematician, astronomer, physicist and inventor. Actually he is one
of the most important scientist of history. He invented many things for war
like a machine to turn over ships or to set fire to them. He also invented the
mechanism to pump water, used to irrigate fields, called Archimedes‟ screw,
a planetarium that reproduced sun, moon and planets movement. As a
mathematical scientist he made a lot of discoveries. Firstly he discovered
the measurement of the circle and the number of π. Secondly he wrote a
treatise about the balance of plans and introduced the concept of statics
and the centre of gravity. Then about geometry he studied the spiral,
sphere and cylinder. But the most important discovery is the principle of
buoyancy. The science of hydrostatic is based on it. Finally for the first time
he thought the earth to be round. The work of Archimedes represents the
peak of the ancient science.                                  Home
                     Leonardo Fibonacci
                  Leonardo Pisano is better known by his nickname
Fibonacci, filii Bonaccii, son of Guglielmo, a member of the Bonacci family.
Fibonacci was born in Pisa, where he also died, but he was educated in North
Africa where the family lived. The father represented the merchants of the
Republic of Pisa who were trading in northeastern Algeria. Here the young
Leonardo got to know the Arabic mathematical system. Around the year 1200
he returned to Pisa where he wrote some important texts like Liber abaci
(1202): the book introduced the Arabic decimal system and the use of Arabic
numerals into Europe. A problem in the third section of Liber abaci leads to the
famous Fibonacci sequence:<< A certain man put a pair of rabbits in a place
surrounded on all sides by a wall. How many pairs of rabbits can be produced
from that pair in a year if it is supposed that every month each pair begets a
new pair which from the second month on becomes productive?>>
The resulting sequence is 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55..; this
sequence, in which each number is the sum of the two preceding
numbers, has proved extremely fruitful and appears in different
fields of science (it has also been used in the modern novel „Da
Vinci Code“ by Dan Brown). Also at his time Fibonacci became so
famous that the Holy Roman emperor, Frederick II, wished to meet
him in Pisa around 1225. Fibonacci is mentioned for the last time in
Another book is Practica geometriae (1220) and it contains a
collection of geometry problems based on Euclid.
Liber quadratorum (1225) is Fibonacci's most impressive work; the
name means the book of squares and it examines methods to find
Pythogorean triples.

                   Margherita Hack
                Margherita Hack was born in 1922. She‟s an astrophysicist
and an Italian divulger. She was the first woman to direct an
observatory in Italy. She contributes to the research for spectral
classification of stars. From 1948 to 1951 she taught astronomy as
assistant and in 1950 she became supply teacher. In 1954 she qualified for
university teaching and she started her career as scientific divulger. She
collaborates with some universities of California, New Jersey, France,
Holland, Mexico and Turkey. In 1980 she created an institute of Astronomy
that she led until 1990. Margherita co-operated with the most important
astronomers of the last century. Her research consists in spectral
classification and evolution of stars. In 1987 she started the magazine
“l‟Astronomia”, that she still edits. In 1980 she received “Accademia dei
Lincei”‟s prize and in 1987 she received “Cultura della Presidenza del
Consiglio”‟s prize. In 1992, Margherita ended her career as a teacher, but
she still continues her research.                            Home
                          Enrico Fermi
                    Enrico Fermi (Rome 29th September 1901 - Chicago
29th November ) was a great Italian physicist of the XX century, especially
known for his studies in the quantum mechanics, an area of the physics. His
most famous discoveries in the quantum mechanics are: his theory of the β
decay, the Fermi-Dirac quantum statistics, his results about the nuclear
interaction of neutrons and the discovery of new radioactive elements as the
“fermio”, a highly radioactive element called to his credit. Enrico Fermi also
planned and guided the building of the first fission atomic reactor, who
produced the first nuclear reaction. He was also one of the technical
directors of the Manhattan Project, who took to the realization of the nuclear
bomb. Several things were named after him: the “fermioni” (one of the two
main classes where the particles separate), the Fermi unit of measurement,
the American lab “Fermilab” and the University of Chicago physics
department where he used to work and which is now known as The Enrico
Fermi Institute.
Among the several prizes received by Enrico Fermi there is the Nobel
Prize for Physics, got in 1938 for his identification of new elements of
the radioactivity and the discovery of nuclear reactions through slow
neutrons. To him was also dedicated a crater on the Moon and called
the first Italian nuclear power station: the system of Trino (VC). The
activity of Fermi was shown in several areas of the physics, and he is
universally recognized as one of the greatest scientists ever. Enrico
Fermi died in Chicago on 29th November1954 because of cancer. He
was 53.

                     Guido D'Arezzo

                  Guido d‟Arezzo was born in Arezzo in 992 ad. He was a
benedettinian monk. He invented the stave of music which consisted in
5 parallel lines where you can put musical notes. In this way people
could hand down each song. He also called the first 6 musical notes
from the first lines of Saint John‟s hymn: ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. The note si
will be added later and the note ut will be called “do” later too. He said
that each note could be pointed in a specific point of your hand. This
was called Guidonian hand. In 1023 he went to teach these things to
priests of Aretinian church, and there he wrote the Micrologus. We don‟t
know when he died, but we think it was between 1045 and 1055 ad.

Carlo Rubbia
                         Renato Dulbecco
                   Renato Dulbecco was born in Catanzaro in 1914, he lived
in Liguria where he started studying medicine and he specialized especially
in biology but in 1936 he had to go to fight in the war. After the war he started
again with the biological studies. He wished to devote to genetics, in fact he
went to the USA and at the Institute of Technology in California he
discovered the virus of poliomyelitis. This virus attacks only the human body
and it's transmitted from human to human. Nowadays every child in Western
countries is vaccinated against this virus. Years later he discovered the virus
that could be the reason of the tumours and he took part in the Genom
Project called HGP (Human Genome Project).This Project had the objective
to determine the couples of genes which build the DNA and identify how the
twenty-twentyfive thousand genes of the human genom behave. This project
lasted many years and Renato Dulbecco was one of the first promoters. With
all these discoveries he earned the Nobel Prize for the medicine in 1975.