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Download the Keywords File - CIViC Archives


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									How to use this information

These keywords are intended to reflect the content of the images in our archive

The keywords are structured like a tree, with a main or 'root' term, each with a 'branch' and/ or

Each entry has a scope note, explaining the how we have used a term. Please note that this does
not reflect common use of a term, but our use, specific to the CIViC Archive.

An entry may have multiple synonyms, each separated by a /. This is to facilitate varied users of
the Archive - for instance, the word 'harem' is often used synonymously with 'zenana'. Both
these terms are listed as synonyms under 'Architecture', reflecting a type of building.

However, in case synonymous terms appear in an entry, the preferred term (i.e. the term that will
actually appear in our archive's database) has been underlined so that you know what keyword to
use when searching the database, or while making an online request.
               BRANCH            SUB BRANCH
ROOT                                          SCOPE NOTE

                                              Structures and/ or buildings of all types. See
                                              branches and sub-branches for types found in the
Architecture                                  CIViC database.

               House                          Place of domestic habitation, may contain more
                                              than one dwelling unit and/ or more than one
               Bungalow/                      storey.
               Public building                Buildings or groups of buildings that act as centres
                                              of administration, governance, academics,
               Civic building                 entertainment, law and order, etc. May be owned
                                              and operated by a governing body and often
                                              occupied by a government agency. See sub-
                                              branches for types found in the CIViC database.

                                 Office       Any space used as a place of business for non-
                                              manual work, including for administrative or
                                              maintenance activities.
                                 GPO          A building where postal business is transacted.

                                 Town Hall    A building used for the administration of local
                                              government. Could also be a centre fo cultural
                                              activities and could include auxiliary services such
                                              as libraries.
Hospital             Institutions built, staffed, and equipped by
Nursing Home /       government or private agencies for medical and
Sanatorium /         surgical treatment of the sick and the injured.
Sanitorium           Nursing home, sanatorium etc. are similar but are
                     private or smaller establishments in comparison to
                     a hospital. They also act as centres of learning and
Hotel                Establishment where travellers are provided with
Guesthouse / Inn     overnight accommodation, meals, and other
                     services; inns are smaller in size and range of
                     facilities. Guesthouses can be both government-
                     owned or private houses that accommodate paying
School               Building or buildings that house institutions of
College/ University/ learning that provide education. Could refer to
Vishwavidyalaya      primary, secondary, tertiary, or higher education.

Club               Buildings occupied by a club (a formal associaton
Gymkhana/ Tavern / established mainly for recreational purposes) or
Saloon/ Pub        commonly used for club activities.

Courthouse             Buildings that contain rooms for courts of law and
Nyayalaya              often judges' chambers and other offices where
                       judicial business is conducted.
Jail                   Places of confinement for detention of sentenced
Prison / Lockup /      and unsentenced persons; sometimes also for
Penitentiary           rehabilitation.
Shop                Buildings offering merchandise for sale, usually on
Store / Mart /      a retail, but also possibly on a wholesale basis.
Outlet/             Refers both to smaller establishments such as
Supermarket         shops as well as larger ones such as department
                    stores/ supermarkets/ chains.
Market              Widened streets, neighborhood or town squares
Bazar/ Mart/ Souk   and open public spaces where booths and stalls
                    may be erected for public sales. Could also be used
                    for public gatherings.
Esplanade           The esplanade, usually in a town by the sea/ river,
Promenade /         is a wide, open road where people walk for
Boulevard           pleasure. Here, has been used to mean both
                    esplanade (which often also incorporates lanes for
                    traffic) and promenade (which can be anywhere
                    and is exclusive for walking).
Dock                An enclosed area of water in a port for the loading,
Wharf/ Jetty/       unloading, and repair of ships. Could be both
Harbor              natural as well as man-made. Also used for
                    dockyards (indicating a group of such landing
                    places in a port).
Golf Course         Field where the sport of golf is played, consisting of
                    a teeing ground, fairway, rough, hazards, and a
                    series of greens containing the 18 holes into which
                    the ball is hit sequentially. Also includes club
                    houses and associated facilties.

Bridge              Structures spanning and providing passage over
                    waterways, topographic depressions, transportation
             Railway Station      A place where passenger/goods trains stop on a
                                  railway line, typically with platforms and buildings to
                                  accommodate the passage of both goods and
             Factory              A building or group of buildings where goods are
             Warehouse /          manufactured or assembled chiefly by machine.
             Industry / Plant /   Can also be used for storing goods.
             Mill/ Karkhana/
Church                            Any building or group of buildings used for worship
                                  and/ or communal rituals, functions, festivities, etc.
Chapel /                          by any denomination of the Christian community.
Cathedral                         Includes all types and sizes (eg. cathedral, basilica,
                                  etc.). Usually identified by a crucufix atop the
Temple                            A building or group of buildings devoted to the
                                  worship of a god or gods. Used for Hindu, Jain and
Shrine                            Buddhist places of worship. Can also be used for
                                  communal rituals, functions, festivities, etc.

Mosque                            A building used by the Muslim community for
                                  prayer. Mosques consist of an area reserved for
Masjid                            prayers, in a domed building with a minaret, and
                                  with a niche (mihrab) indicating the direction of
Tomb                              Structures typically erected in memory of the dead
                                  or of an important event. Can contain grave(s) of
Mausoleum/                        the deceased.
                Monument            A building or other structure of historic value. Could
                                    be erected to commemorate a notable person or
                                    event (differentiated from a tomb).
                Barrack             A large building or group of buildings used to house
                                    soldiers or members of the larger armed forces.
                Cantonment /
                Quarter/ Garrison

                Zenana              Women's quarter, or the part of a house for the
                                    seclusion of women.
                Hammam              Islamic public baths consisting of a series of cold
                                    and hot pools and steam rooms, primarily used for
                Turkish bath        ritual purification.
                Mardana             Men's quarter or, the part of a house where women
                                    were excluded.
Architectural                       A distinctive attribute or aspect of architecture, that
                                    constitutes a part of a building's overall
Feature                             appearance.
                Archway             A curved structure forming a passage or entrance
                                    is an archway, sometimes used as a gateway. An
                Gateway/Arch        arch is a curved symmetrical structure spanning an
                                    opening and supporting the weight of a bridge, roof,
                                    or wall above it. Can also be a decorative device or
                                    motif when used repetitively.
          Column               A tall vertical (usually cylindrical, sometimes
                               square, and often tapering) structure of stone,
          Pillar/ Colonnade/   wood, or metal, used as a support for a building, or
          Sthambh              as an ornament or monument.

          Screen               A fixed or movable upright partition used to divide a
                               room and provide concealment for privacy and
          Awning / Divider/    shelter from heat & light. Can be elaborately
          Fountain             Ornamental structure with jets of water to spout or
                               flow periodically or continuously.
          Spring /
Costume                        Any set of clothes in a style typical of a particular
                               country or historical period, eg. here, Asian
                               costumes and European Costumes.

          Sari                 Main garment consisting of five to seven yards of
                               lightweight cloth draped around the body so that
                               one end forms a skirt and the other a head or
                               shoulder covering.
          Turban               Headdress consisting of a long cloth wound around
                               the head.
          Skullcap             Close-fitting cap, often made of mesh, wool, silk, or
                               velvet, covering only the crown of the head. Often
                               worn by males of the Islamic and Jewish
Dhoti               A garment consisting of yards of cloth tied around
                    the waist and extending below the knee to cover
Sarong/ Mundu/      most of the legs; mostly worn by men, with or
Veshti              without a covering for the upper body.
Kimono              Loose, wide-sleeved garments fastened around the
                    waist with a broad sash, traditionally worn by
                    Japanese men and women.
Burqa               Loose garments covering the entire body and
                    having a veiled opening for the eyes, worn by
Abaya               Muslim women.
Sash                A long strip or loop of cloth worn over one shoulder
                    or around the waist, especially as an honorary
Cummerbund /        symbol over a uniform or official dress.
Obi / Ribbon
Hat                 Shaped coverings for the head worn for warmth
                    and protection, or as an accessory/ part of
Helmet /            costume.
Headgear /
Skirt               A woman's outer garment fastened around the
                    waist and hanging down around the legs; can be of
                    variable length. Also used for kilts, which are worn
                    by men and are knee-length, or just below the
Trousers            An outer garment covering the body from the waist
                    to the ankles, with a division accommodating each
Pants / Overall /   leg.
Coat                An outer garment with sleeves, usually worn
                    outdoors and typically extending below the hips.
Jacket / Tuxedo     Used to refer to shorter variants as well.
            Lingerie            Women's underwear and nightclothes.

            Glove / Mitten/     A covering for the hand worn for protection against
                                cold or dirt and typically having individual coverings
            Mitt                for each digit.
            Footwear            Partial or full uter coverings for the feet, such as
                                shoes, boots, and sandals.
            Shoe/ Sandal/
Accessory                       Any thing which can be added to something else in
                                order to make it more useful, versatile, or attractive.

            Jewellery           Items of personal adornment, such as necklaces,
                                rings, brooches, earrings, bracelets, anklets,
            Ornament /          nosering, kalgi etc. Jewellery may be made from
            Adornment           any material, such as gemstones, precious metals
                                or shells, besides other materials, depending on
                                cultural differences and availability of materials

            Medal               Small pieces of usually of metal bearing a relief
                                design on one or both sides and usually having a
            Medallion Laurel/   commemorative purpose. Can have any shape.
            Badge               Can also be worn for religious purposes.
            Walking Stick       Sticks held in the hand and used for support in
                                walking. Can be plain or intricately worked.
            Handstaff / Cane
            Umbrella            Portable, usually waterproof canopies consisting of
                                a folding frame with handle, carried for protection
            Parasol             against the weather.
Hookah                                  A tobacco pipe/ bowl with a long, flexible tube which
                                        draws the smoke through water contained in a
Toy                                     Material objects contrived for amusement by
                                        children or pets, or intended as collectibles by
Plaything / Doll                        adults.
Fan                                     Electrically powered implements used to produce a
                                        current of air. Some handheld fans serve as purely
Handfan                                 decorative accessories, they may be rigid or
Eyeglasses                              Eyeglasses kept in place by sidepieces passing
                                        over the ears. Single lenses or monocles were
Spectacles/                             positioned in place.
Mace                                    Bottle-shaped, originally metal or wooden, clubs
                                        swung for arm exercise, but also can be used as
Mallet / Club                           weapons.
Vessel/ Container   Pot                 Cylindrical or rounded, lipped containers, often of
                                        metal or earthenware and varying in size.

                    Churn               A device for making butter by agitating milk or
                    Water vessel        Containers for water. Could be large bags of
                    Bhishti/ Drinking   leather or fabric hung from one side of a saddle or
                    horn                water bearers. Also, drinking vessels originally
                                        made of horn, especially those elaborately mounted
                                        in bronze or silver. Can also refer to similary-
                                        shaped and functional vessels.
Mirror                                  Objects with a highly polished surface, often
                                        framed, designed to reflect images.
Handheld Mirror
Bag                Medium-sized bags suspended at the top corners
                   from one or two straps, designed to be suspended
Satchel /          from the shoulders or across the chest.
Haversack /
Rosary             Refers to string of beads or knotted cord used for a
                   religious exercise in which prayers are recited and
Prayer Beads       counted on the beads or knots.
Garland            Objects strung together often on a circular piece of
                   rope or string, but also from two points. Usually
Festoon / Wreath   flowers and/ or fruits/ leaves. Also includes motifs
                   or images of the same.
Conch Shell        The spiral shell of gastropods, often blown as
                   sounding horns.
Spinning Wheel     Device for turning fiber into thread or yarn, in which
                   the formation of the thread is performed by the help
Charkha            of a wheel worked by a hand or foot pedal.

Globe              Maps, charts, or plans that show the the lie of the
                   land. Can show location, boundaries, and
Map/ Panorama/     ownership of individual properties. Globes are three
Plat/ Blueprint    dimensional.
Lighting           Any equipment in a room, building, or street for
                   producing light, such as, oil lamp, chandelier,
                   candle, gas lamp etc.
Furniture          Movable articles that are used to make any place
                   suitable for living or working in , such as tables ,
                   chairs, bed, storage etc.
Spittoon           Any vessel typically having a funnel-shaped top ,
                   used for spitting into.
                  Flag                A piece of cloth or similar material, typically oblong
                                      or square, attachable by one edge to a pole or rope
                  Jhanda/ Tiranga     and used as the symbol or emblem. Can include
                                      emblems of a country.
                  Scissors            An instrument consisting of two blades laid one on
                                      top of the other and fastened in the middle, used for
                                      cutting cloth, paper, and other material.

Soft Furnishing                       Textile furnishings for interiors such as curtains and

                  Carpet              A carpet originally denoted a thick fabric that
                                      covered a table or bed; a rug is generally smaller
                  Dhurrie/ Rug /      than a carpet. Also used for dhurrie, which is made
                  Tapestry / Runner   of lighter fabrics such as cotton, or woll, but without
                                      a pile.
                  Curtain             Fabric or other material hung in front of windows,
                                      doors and other openings to screen them. Can
                  Blinds/ Drapery     involve heavy fabric hung in carefully arranged
Weaponry                              All weapons regarded collectively.

                  Sword               Edged weapons consisting basically of a blade &
                                      grip designed for cutting or thrusting blows.
                  Talwaar/ Kirpan/    Includes all such varieties, of varying sizes and
                  Katar/ Dagger /     functions. Most forms are sheathed, or have a
                  Rapier              close-fitting covering.
             Bow & Arrow           A bow is a stringed projectile weapon designed to
                                   propel arrows, consisting of a long curved stave
                                   with a length of strong string fastened to the tips.
                                   Arrow is a weapon made of a straight stick with a
                                   sharp point, designed to be shot from a bow.
             Shield                A term for armor pieces used to parry an
                                   opponent's blows or provide shelter from
             Spear                 Simple staff having a sharp-pointed head used
                                   both in warfare and hunting. Different from an arrow
             Lance / Harpoon       in that it is hurled or thrown by hand.
             Trident               A three-pronged spear.

             Firearm               Firearms, either rifled or smoothbore, with a metal
                                   tube from which bullets/shells are propelled. Can be
             Pistol/ Gun/ Rifle/   used with one or both hands depending on size.
             Topidar/ Todedar

             Axe                   Cutting tool/ weapon consisting basically of a
                                   relatively heavy, flat blade fixed to a handle,
             Hatchet /             wielded by either striking or throwing. Usually used
             Chopper               as a tool such as for chopping wood, but can also
                                   function as a weapon.
Musical                            Any object or device used for producing sounds
                                   considered musical.
             Violin                Can refer to any one of a family of stringed
                                   instrument with a curved resonant case, and
             Fiddle/ Viola         stringed stem, played with either a bow or the
          Veena            Veena is an instrument, composed of a hollow tube
                           to which gourd resonators are attached, usually on
          Sitar/ Tanpura   both ends. Tanpura has gourds attached on one
                           end only. Sitar belongs to the same family,
                           distinguished from Tanpura by the fretted
          Flute            A musical wind instrument consisting of a hollow
                           cylinder or pipe of wood, metal, or another material,
          Bansuri          with holes along its length that are stopped by the
                           fingers to produce sound.
          Baton            Sticks with which the conductor of an orchestra or
                           similar ensemble beats the time.
          Piano            A keyboard musical instrument with an enclosed
                           soundboard and metal strings. Keys when
          Keyboard/        depressed, produce sound. Harmoniums work in a
          Harmonium        similar fashion, using bellows.
          Guitar           A stringed musical instrument, with a fretted
                           fingerboard, typically incurved sides , and six or
                           twelve strings , played by plucking or strumming
                           with the fingers or a plectrum.
          Saxophone        Metal wind instruments with a reed like that of a
                           clarinet, used especially in jazz & blues.
Setting                    Any place or type of surroundings where something
                           is positioned or where an event takes place.

          Studio           An enclosed space for working. Here, refers to a
                           space where a photographer takes pictures or
          (Indoors)        shoots his subjects, including its props and
                           Painted backdrop   A painted setting or background for a scene, event,
                                              or situation.

                 Outdoor                      Any place set in the open, outside of closed
                           Forest             A large area covered chiefly with trees and
                                              undergrowth. Foliage, garden etc. are manicured
                           Waterbody/         A body of water forming a physiographical feature,
                           Waterfront         for example a river, sea, lake, waterfall or a
                           Mountain           A large natural elevation of the earth's surface
                                              rising abruptly from the surrounding level, such as,
                                              a hill, mountain, plateau & all elevations.
                           Valley             A low area of land between two or more hills or
                           Snow               Ice crystals fallen in light white flakes, lying on the
                                              ground as a white layer
                           Parade Ground      Designates extensive, flat, open spaces used for
                           Maidan / Field     military exercises, marching, riding, or as a meeting
                                              ground, fairground.
                           Battlefield        Any piece of ground on which a battle is or was

Transportation                                The act of transporting people and/or goods from
                                              one point to another.
Carriage               Refers to all wheeled vehicles designed to convey
                       people in comfort and/ or goods. Can be drawn by
Barouche /             animals (generally horses, donkeys or bullocks) by
Buggy/ Cart/           hand, or pedalling. Chariots in particular are
chariot                ususally driven in the standing position and used for
Cycle                  A bicycle or tricycle.

Boat                   Any vessel used for transporting goods and/ or
                       people by floating on water. Can use manpower,
Sailboat / Canoe /     mechanical power or the winds for propulsion. Can
Catamaran/             range in size from one-man canoes to huge luxury
Tugboat/ Torpedo       liners. Also varies depending on the waterbody
                       being navigated.
Boat/ Ship/ Liner

Train                  Two or more rail transit vehicles physically
                       connected and operated as a unit. Can be used to
                       transport people as well as goods.
Bus                    Refers to large public street vehicles for large
                       numbers of persons. Can be single or double
                       decked. Can use animals or mechanical means of
Palanquin              Covered or open seating/ platforms for one or more
                       people, carried on the shoulders of bearers.
Palki/ Doli/ Litter/
Sedan chair

Aircraft               Refers to all craft that can transport goods/ people
                       by air.
           Tank (Military   Self-propelled, heavily armored combat vehicles
                            having a fully enclosed, revolving gun turret
           Vehicle)         containing the vehicle's major weapon and having
                            one or more machine guns; mounted on caterpillar
Religion                    The belief in and worship of a superhuman
                            controlling power, especially a personal God or
           Hindu            Relating to Hindus or Hinduism.

           Islam            The religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith
                            regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the
                            Prophet of Allah.
           Christian        Relating to or professing Christianity or its
           Sikh             Relating to Sikhism.

           Buddhist         Relating to the teachings of Buddha.

           Jain             Relating to Jainism, the teachings of Mahavira.

           Symbol           A mark or character used as a conventional
                            representation of an object, function, or process. In
                            this case it includes amulets, marks as religious
                            adornments, and symbols in imagery.
Portrait                    A painting, drawing , photograph, or engraving of a
                            person depicting face or head, along with
                            shoulders and sometimes show the entire body.
           Single           Representations of single individuals.

           Double           Depicting two individuals.
                Group            Portraits depicting two or more individuals. Could
                                 be related (i.e. family) or not.

Occasion                         A particular event, or the time at which it takes
                Court Scene      Formal or official depiction of ruling powers (often
                                 royalty) with their advisers/ ministers. Often
                                 depicted on important occasions, or with
                                 distinguished visitors.
                Festival         A day or period of celebration, typically, but
                                 necessarily for religious reasons.
                Procession       Occasions consisting of a group of people moving
                                 in orderly succession in a formal ceremonial
                Parade / March   context, such as anniversaries, to make political
                                 statements/ demands, etc.
Entertainment                    Any action or event that provides amusement or
                Diorama          Works in which three-dimensional objects, often
                                 figural sculpture, in the foreground blend with a
                                 realistic painted background.
                Tableau          Sculptural works that are composed of figures and
                                 objects arranged into a picturelike scene, usually
                Float            pertaining to history or culture. Includes floats,
                                 which are tableaus on wheels, drawn in a parade or
                Firework         A device containing gunpowder and other
                                 combustible chemicals which causes spectacular
                                 effects and explosions when ignited.
         Cinema              Performance captured on film and then re-played or
                             telecast, either on television or a motion picture
         Movie/ Motion       theatre.
         Performance         Arts that depend upon live performances given by
                             actors, musicians, poets, etc., and/or by public
         Theatre/ Concert    participation. Includes theatre, street gymnastics

People                       Human beings considered collectively.

         Man                 An adult human male.

         Woman               An adult human female

         Child / Baby        A young human being below the legal age of
         Family              A group consisting of two parents and their children
                             living together as a unit. Can also include extended
         Clan / Kin          members of the family.
         Royalty             Members of the ruling class. Primarily the main
                             ruler, but here can also refer to the nobility usually
         Aristocracy         consisting of those who are descended from or
                             related to a monarch or line of monarchs.
         Audience            Assembled spectator(s) or listener(s) at an event
                             such as a play, film, concert, or meeting.
         Viewer / Onlooker
         / Gathering/
Mythology                       A collection of myths, usually belonging to a
                                particular culture or religion.
             God                A superior power or deity worshipped as having
                                power over nature or human fortunes. Can refer to
             Godess/ Deity      male or female. Includes demi gods which are
                                beings with partial or lesser divine status, such as a
                                minor deity, the offspring of a god and a mortal, or
                                a mortal raised to divine rank.

             Demon              Powers/ spirits believed to have harmful or negative
                                effects. Can be male or female.
             Devil/ Raakshas
             Composite Figure   A mythical figure, imagined as having of various
                                parts incorporated from (usually) real animals/

Occupation                      It is a job or a profession. It maybe noted that many
                                occupations also comprise communities, tribes and/
                                or castes.
             Priest             lergy who perform sacrificial, ritualistic, mediatorial,
                                interpretative, or ministerial functions. Can refer to
             Cleric/ Brahmin    such people who perform such functions in any
             Fakir              Ascetic practices include fasting, wandering, a
                                solitary life, meditation, celibacy, the renunciation of
             Ascetic/ Rishi     possessions, and the mortification of flesh. Can be
                                of any religious persuasion.
             Beggar             Those who subsist by asking for alms.
Dancer              Those who engage in the activity of dancing or who
                    practice the art of dance, especially as a
Nautch Girl/        profession. Does not include courtesans.
Musician / Singer   A person skilled or specializing in the art or practice
                    of music, such as composers, conductors, and
Labourer            A worker whose duties require physical strength
                    and stamina rather than skills or training.
Actor               A person who use movement, gesture, facial
                    expressions, speaking, and intonation to create a
                    fictional character for the stage, motion pictures, or
Military            The armed forces of a country/ state, it is inclusive
                    of soldier, warroir, cavalry and other units, armies
Snake Charmer       A person who uses his skills to manipulate snakes.

Farmer              A person who cultivates land or crops or raise
                    livestock, especially as their main occupation.
Peasant /
Landholder          Those who own, rent, or otherwise have a legal
                    right to occupy land.
Tailor              People who whose occupation is making and
                    altering garments.
Street Vendor       Refers to those who sell food or small goods from
                    temporary positions on the street. Includes
                    sweetmeat, paan, medicine, fruit & vegetable and
                    other sellers.
Acrobat            Those trained in or practicing acrobatics, tight rope
                   walking, walking on stilts etc.
Performer /
Water Bearer       Carrier/seller of water, carrying water in a leather
Concubine          A prostitute, especially one with wealthy, upper
                   class clients.
Sculptor           Artists who specialize in creating images and forms
                   that are carried out primarily in three dimensions.
Artist / Carver
Hunter             People who practice chasing wild animals, for
                   sustenance, profit, or sport. Wild animals may be of
Fisherman /        aquatic or non-aquatic in nature.
Political Leader   Refers to people who are actively involved in
                   politics or people who hold or seek political office.

Freedom Fighter    Also includes revolutionaries, i.e. those engaged in
                   or supporting a revolution, or who advocate
                   revolutionary doctrines or principles.
Spiritual Leader   Members of religious orders or communities.
Attendant          A person employed to provide assistance. Can be
                   in either a public or private capacity.
Aide / Orderly /
Artisan            A worker in a skilled trade, especially one that
                   involves making things by hand.
        Trader             A person who buys and sells goods, currency, or
                           shares, involved in the business of all three.
        Merchant/ Baniya

        Nomad              A person (usually a community) that travels from
                           place to place to find fresh pasture for its animals
                           and has no permanent home.
        Porter/ coolie     A person employed to carry luggage and other
        Housewife          A married woman whose main occupation is caring
                           for her family, managing household affairs, and
                           doing housework.
Flora                      Plants of a particular region, habitat, or geological
Fauna                      The animals of a given region or period considered
                           as a whole, eg., Horse, Elephant, Cat, Monkey,
                           Deer, Dog, Turtle, Fish, Cattle etc.

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