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How to use this information These keywords are intended to reflect the content of the images in our archive The keywords are structured like a tree, with a main or 'root' term, each with a 'branch' and/ or 'sub-branch' Each entry has a scope note, explaining the how we have used a term. Please note that this does not reflect common use of a term, but our use, specific to the CIViC Archive. An entry may have multiple synonyms, each separated by a /. This is to facilitate varied users of the Archive - for instance, the word 'harem' is often used synonymously with 'zenana'. Both these terms are listed as synonyms under 'Architecture', reflecting a type of building. However, in case synonymous terms appear in an entry, the preferred term (i.e. the term that will actually appear in our archive's database) has been underlined so that you know what keyword to use when searching the database, or while making an online request. BRANCH SUB BRANCH ROOT SCOPE NOTE Structures and/ or buildings of all types. See branches and sub-branches for types found in the Architecture CIViC database. House Place of domestic habitation, may contain more than one dwelling unit and/ or more than one Bungalow/ storey. Residence/ Apartment/ Quarters Public building Buildings or groups of buildings that act as centres of administration, governance, academics, Civic building entertainment, law and order, etc. May be owned and operated by a governing body and often occupied by a government agency. See sub- branches for types found in the CIViC database. Office Any space used as a place of business for non- manual work, including for administrative or maintenance activities. GPO A building where postal business is transacted. Town Hall A building used for the administration of local government. Could also be a centre fo cultural activities and could include auxiliary services such as libraries. Hospital Institutions built, staffed, and equipped by Nursing Home / government or private agencies for medical and Sanatorium / surgical treatment of the sick and the injured. Sanitorium Nursing home, sanatorium etc. are similar but are private or smaller establishments in comparison to a hospital. They also act as centres of learning and teaching. Hotel Establishment where travellers are provided with Guesthouse / Inn overnight accommodation, meals, and other services; inns are smaller in size and range of facilities. Guesthouses can be both government- owned or private houses that accommodate paying guests. School Building or buildings that house institutions of College/ University/ learning that provide education. Could refer to Vishwavidyalaya primary, secondary, tertiary, or higher education. Club Buildings occupied by a club (a formal associaton Gymkhana/ Tavern / established mainly for recreational purposes) or Saloon/ Pub commonly used for club activities. Courthouse Buildings that contain rooms for courts of law and Nyayalaya often judges' chambers and other offices where judicial business is conducted. Jail Places of confinement for detention of sentenced Prison / Lockup / and unsentenced persons; sometimes also for Penitentiary rehabilitation. Shop Buildings offering merchandise for sale, usually on Store / Mart / a retail, but also possibly on a wholesale basis. Outlet/ Refers both to smaller establishments such as Supermarket shops as well as larger ones such as department stores/ supermarkets/ chains. Market Widened streets, neighborhood or town squares Bazar/ Mart/ Souk and open public spaces where booths and stalls may be erected for public sales. Could also be used for public gatherings. Esplanade The esplanade, usually in a town by the sea/ river, Promenade / is a wide, open road where people walk for Boulevard pleasure. Here, has been used to mean both esplanade (which often also incorporates lanes for traffic) and promenade (which can be anywhere and is exclusive for walking). Dock An enclosed area of water in a port for the loading, Wharf/ Jetty/ unloading, and repair of ships. Could be both Harbor natural as well as man-made. Also used for dockyards (indicating a group of such landing places in a port). Golf Course Field where the sport of golf is played, consisting of a teeing ground, fairway, rough, hazards, and a series of greens containing the 18 holes into which the ball is hit sequentially. Also includes club houses and associated facilties. Bridge Structures spanning and providing passage over waterways, topographic depressions, transportation routes. Railway Station A place where passenger/goods trains stop on a railway line, typically with platforms and buildings to accommodate the passage of both goods and passengers. Factory A building or group of buildings where goods are Warehouse / manufactured or assembled chiefly by machine. Industry / Plant / Can also be used for storing goods. Mill/ Karkhana/ Godown Church Any building or group of buildings used for worship and/ or communal rituals, functions, festivities, etc. Chapel / by any denomination of the Christian community. Cathedral Includes all types and sizes (eg. cathedral, basilica, etc.). Usually identified by a crucufix atop the stucture(s). Temple A building or group of buildings devoted to the worship of a god or gods. Used for Hindu, Jain and Shrine Buddhist places of worship. Can also be used for communal rituals, functions, festivities, etc. Mosque A building used by the Muslim community for prayer. Mosques consist of an area reserved for Masjid prayers, in a domed building with a minaret, and with a niche (mihrab) indicating the direction of Mecca. Tomb Structures typically erected in memory of the dead or of an important event. Can contain grave(s) of Mausoleum/ the deceased. Samadhi Monument A building or other structure of historic value. Could be erected to commemorate a notable person or event (differentiated from a tomb). Barrack A large building or group of buildings used to house soldiers or members of the larger armed forces. Cantonment / Quarter/ Garrison Zenana Women's quarter, or the part of a house for the seclusion of women. Harem Hammam Islamic public baths consisting of a series of cold and hot pools and steam rooms, primarily used for Turkish bath ritual purification. Mardana Men's quarter or, the part of a house where women were excluded. Selamlik Architectural A distinctive attribute or aspect of architecture, that constitutes a part of a building's overall Feature appearance. Archway A curved structure forming a passage or entrance is an archway, sometimes used as a gateway. An Gateway/Arch arch is a curved symmetrical structure spanning an opening and supporting the weight of a bridge, roof, or wall above it. Can also be a decorative device or motif when used repetitively. Column A tall vertical (usually cylindrical, sometimes square, and often tapering) structure of stone, Pillar/ Colonnade/ wood, or metal, used as a support for a building, or Sthambh as an ornament or monument. Screen A fixed or movable upright partition used to divide a room and provide concealment for privacy and Awning / Divider/ shelter from heat & light. Can be elaborately decorated. Fountain Ornamental structure with jets of water to spout or flow periodically or continuously. Spring / Wellspring Costume Any set of clothes in a style typical of a particular country or historical period, eg. here, Asian costumes and European Costumes. Sari Main garment consisting of five to seven yards of lightweight cloth draped around the body so that one end forms a skirt and the other a head or shoulder covering. Turban Headdress consisting of a long cloth wound around the head. Pagri Skullcap Close-fitting cap, often made of mesh, wool, silk, or velvet, covering only the crown of the head. Often worn by males of the Islamic and Jewish communities. Dhoti A garment consisting of yards of cloth tied around the waist and extending below the knee to cover Sarong/ Mundu/ most of the legs; mostly worn by men, with or Veshti without a covering for the upper body. Kimono Loose, wide-sleeved garments fastened around the waist with a broad sash, traditionally worn by Japanese men and women. Burqa Loose garments covering the entire body and having a veiled opening for the eyes, worn by Abaya Muslim women. Sash A long strip or loop of cloth worn over one shoulder or around the waist, especially as an honorary Cummerbund / symbol over a uniform or official dress. Obi / Ribbon Hat Shaped coverings for the head worn for warmth and protection, or as an accessory/ part of Helmet / costume. Headgear / Bonnet Skirt A woman's outer garment fastened around the waist and hanging down around the legs; can be of variable length. Also used for kilts, which are worn by men and are knee-length, or just below the knee. Trousers An outer garment covering the body from the waist to the ankles, with a division accommodating each Pants / Overall / leg. Slacks Coat An outer garment with sleeves, usually worn outdoors and typically extending below the hips. Jacket / Tuxedo Used to refer to shorter variants as well. Lingerie Women's underwear and nightclothes. Glove / Mitten/ A covering for the hand worn for protection against cold or dirt and typically having individual coverings Mitt for each digit. Footwear Partial or full uter coverings for the feet, such as shoes, boots, and sandals. Shoe/ Sandal/ Boot Accessory Any thing which can be added to something else in order to make it more useful, versatile, or attractive. Jewellery Items of personal adornment, such as necklaces, rings, brooches, earrings, bracelets, anklets, Ornament / nosering, kalgi etc. Jewellery may be made from Adornment any material, such as gemstones, precious metals or shells, besides other materials, depending on cultural differences and availability of materials Medal Small pieces of usually of metal bearing a relief design on one or both sides and usually having a Medallion Laurel/ commemorative purpose. Can have any shape. Badge Can also be worn for religious purposes. Walking Stick Sticks held in the hand and used for support in walking. Can be plain or intricately worked. Handstaff / Cane Umbrella Portable, usually waterproof canopies consisting of a folding frame with handle, carried for protection Parasol against the weather. Hookah A tobacco pipe/ bowl with a long, flexible tube which draws the smoke through water contained in a bowl. Toy Material objects contrived for amusement by children or pets, or intended as collectibles by Plaything / Doll adults. Fan Electrically powered implements used to produce a current of air. Some handheld fans serve as purely Handfan decorative accessories, they may be rigid or collapsible. Eyeglasses Eyeglasses kept in place by sidepieces passing over the ears. Single lenses or monocles were Spectacles/ positioned in place. Monocle Mace Bottle-shaped, originally metal or wooden, clubs swung for arm exercise, but also can be used as Mallet / Club weapons. Vessel/ Container Pot Cylindrical or rounded, lipped containers, often of metal or earthenware and varying in size. Churn A device for making butter by agitating milk or cream. Water vessel Containers for water. Could be large bags of Bhishti/ Drinking leather or fabric hung from one side of a saddle or horn water bearers. Also, drinking vessels originally made of horn, especially those elaborately mounted in bronze or silver. Can also refer to similary- shaped and functional vessels. Mirror Objects with a highly polished surface, often framed, designed to reflect images. Handheld Mirror Bag Medium-sized bags suspended at the top corners from one or two straps, designed to be suspended Satchel / from the shoulders or across the chest. Haversack / Pouch Rosary Refers to string of beads or knotted cord used for a religious exercise in which prayers are recited and Prayer Beads counted on the beads or knots. Garland Objects strung together often on a circular piece of rope or string, but also from two points. Usually Festoon / Wreath flowers and/ or fruits/ leaves. Also includes motifs or images of the same. Conch Shell The spiral shell of gastropods, often blown as sounding horns. Spinning Wheel Device for turning fiber into thread or yarn, in which the formation of the thread is performed by the help Charkha of a wheel worked by a hand or foot pedal. Globe Maps, charts, or plans that show the the lie of the land. Can show location, boundaries, and Map/ Panorama/ ownership of individual properties. Globes are three Plat/ Blueprint dimensional. Lighting Any equipment in a room, building, or street for producing light, such as, oil lamp, chandelier, candle, gas lamp etc. Furniture Movable articles that are used to make any place suitable for living or working in , such as tables , chairs, bed, storage etc. Spittoon Any vessel typically having a funnel-shaped top , used for spitting into. Flag A piece of cloth or similar material, typically oblong or square, attachable by one edge to a pole or rope Jhanda/ Tiranga and used as the symbol or emblem. Can include emblems of a country. Scissors An instrument consisting of two blades laid one on top of the other and fastened in the middle, used for cutting cloth, paper, and other material. Soft Furnishing Textile furnishings for interiors such as curtains and carpets. Carpet A carpet originally denoted a thick fabric that covered a table or bed; a rug is generally smaller Dhurrie/ Rug / than a carpet. Also used for dhurrie, which is made Tapestry / Runner of lighter fabrics such as cotton, or woll, but without a pile. Curtain Fabric or other material hung in front of windows, doors and other openings to screen them. Can Blinds/ Drapery involve heavy fabric hung in carefully arranged folds. Weaponry All weapons regarded collectively. Sword Edged weapons consisting basically of a blade & grip designed for cutting or thrusting blows. Talwaar/ Kirpan/ Includes all such varieties, of varying sizes and Katar/ Dagger / functions. Most forms are sheathed, or have a Rapier close-fitting covering. Bow & Arrow A bow is a stringed projectile weapon designed to propel arrows, consisting of a long curved stave with a length of strong string fastened to the tips. Arrow is a weapon made of a straight stick with a sharp point, designed to be shot from a bow. Shield A term for armor pieces used to parry an opponent's blows or provide shelter from projectiles. Spear Simple staff having a sharp-pointed head used both in warfare and hunting. Different from an arrow Lance / Harpoon in that it is hurled or thrown by hand. Trident A three-pronged spear. Firearm Firearms, either rifled or smoothbore, with a metal tube from which bullets/shells are propelled. Can be Pistol/ Gun/ Rifle/ used with one or both hands depending on size. Topidar/ Todedar Axe Cutting tool/ weapon consisting basically of a relatively heavy, flat blade fixed to a handle, Hatchet / wielded by either striking or throwing. Usually used Chopper as a tool such as for chopping wood, but can also function as a weapon. Musical Any object or device used for producing sounds considered musical. Instrument Violin Can refer to any one of a family of stringed instrument with a curved resonant case, and Fiddle/ Viola stringed stem, played with either a bow or the fingers. Veena Veena is an instrument, composed of a hollow tube to which gourd resonators are attached, usually on Sitar/ Tanpura both ends. Tanpura has gourds attached on one end only. Sitar belongs to the same family, distinguished from Tanpura by the fretted fingerboard. Flute A musical wind instrument consisting of a hollow cylinder or pipe of wood, metal, or another material, Bansuri with holes along its length that are stopped by the fingers to produce sound. Baton Sticks with which the conductor of an orchestra or similar ensemble beats the time. Piano A keyboard musical instrument with an enclosed soundboard and metal strings. Keys when Keyboard/ depressed, produce sound. Harmoniums work in a Harmonium similar fashion, using bellows. Guitar A stringed musical instrument, with a fretted fingerboard, typically incurved sides , and six or twelve strings , played by plucking or strumming with the fingers or a plectrum. Saxophone Metal wind instruments with a reed like that of a clarinet, used especially in jazz & blues. Setting Any place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place. Studio An enclosed space for working. Here, refers to a space where a photographer takes pictures or (Indoors) shoots his subjects, including its props and furniture. Painted backdrop A painted setting or background for a scene, event, or situation. Outdoor Any place set in the open, outside of closed confinements. Forest A large area covered chiefly with trees and undergrowth. Foliage, garden etc. are manicured greenery. Waterbody/ A body of water forming a physiographical feature, Waterfront for example a river, sea, lake, waterfall or a reservoir Mountain A large natural elevation of the earth's surface rising abruptly from the surrounding level, such as, a hill, mountain, plateau & all elevations. Valley A low area of land between two or more hills or mountains. Snow Ice crystals fallen in light white flakes, lying on the ground as a white layer Parade Ground Designates extensive, flat, open spaces used for Maidan / Field military exercises, marching, riding, or as a meeting ground, fairground. Battlefield Any piece of ground on which a battle is or was fought Transportation The act of transporting people and/or goods from one point to another. Carriage Refers to all wheeled vehicles designed to convey people in comfort and/ or goods. Can be drawn by Barouche / animals (generally horses, donkeys or bullocks) by Buggy/ Cart/ hand, or pedalling. Chariots in particular are chariot ususally driven in the standing position and used for war. Cycle A bicycle or tricycle. Boat Any vessel used for transporting goods and/ or people by floating on water. Can use manpower, Sailboat / Canoe / mechanical power or the winds for propulsion. Can Catamaran/ range in size from one-man canoes to huge luxury Tugboat/ Torpedo liners. Also varies depending on the waterbody being navigated. Boat/ Ship/ Liner Train Two or more rail transit vehicles physically connected and operated as a unit. Can be used to transport people as well as goods. Bus Refers to large public street vehicles for large numbers of persons. Can be single or double decked. Can use animals or mechanical means of propulsion. Palanquin Covered or open seating/ platforms for one or more people, carried on the shoulders of bearers. Palki/ Doli/ Litter/ Sedan chair Aircraft Refers to all craft that can transport goods/ people by air. Tank (Military Self-propelled, heavily armored combat vehicles having a fully enclosed, revolving gun turret Vehicle) containing the vehicle's major weapon and having one or more machine guns; mounted on caterpillar treads. Religion The belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods. Hindu Relating to Hindus or Hinduism. Islam The religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah. Christian Relating to or professing Christianity or its teachings. Sikh Relating to Sikhism. Buddhist Relating to the teachings of Buddha. Jain Relating to Jainism, the teachings of Mahavira. Symbol A mark or character used as a conventional representation of an object, function, or process. In this case it includes amulets, marks as religious adornments, and symbols in imagery. Portrait A painting, drawing , photograph, or engraving of a person depicting face or head, along with shoulders and sometimes show the entire body. Single Representations of single individuals. Double Depicting two individuals. Group Portraits depicting two or more individuals. Could be related (i.e. family) or not. Occasion A particular event, or the time at which it takes place. Court Scene Formal or official depiction of ruling powers (often royalty) with their advisers/ ministers. Often depicted on important occasions, or with distinguished visitors. Festival A day or period of celebration, typically, but necessarily for religious reasons. Celebration/ Ceremony Procession Occasions consisting of a group of people moving in orderly succession in a formal ceremonial Parade / March context, such as anniversaries, to make political statements/ demands, etc. Entertainment Any action or event that provides amusement or enjoyment. Diorama Works in which three-dimensional objects, often figural sculpture, in the foreground blend with a realistic painted background. Tableau Sculptural works that are composed of figures and objects arranged into a picturelike scene, usually Float pertaining to history or culture. Includes floats, which are tableaus on wheels, drawn in a parade or procession. Firework A device containing gunpowder and other combustible chemicals which causes spectacular effects and explosions when ignited. Cinema Performance captured on film and then re-played or telecast, either on television or a motion picture Movie/ Motion theatre. picture Performance Arts that depend upon live performances given by actors, musicians, poets, etc., and/or by public Theatre/ Concert participation. Includes theatre, street gymnastics etc. People Human beings considered collectively. Man An adult human male. Woman An adult human female Child / Baby A young human being below the legal age of majority. Family A group consisting of two parents and their children living together as a unit. Can also include extended Clan / Kin members of the family. Royalty Members of the ruling class. Primarily the main ruler, but here can also refer to the nobility usually Aristocracy consisting of those who are descended from or related to a monarch or line of monarchs. Audience Assembled spectator(s) or listener(s) at an event such as a play, film, concert, or meeting. Viewer / Onlooker / Gathering/ Spectator Mythology A collection of myths, usually belonging to a particular culture or religion. God A superior power or deity worshipped as having power over nature or human fortunes. Can refer to Godess/ Deity male or female. Includes demi gods which are beings with partial or lesser divine status, such as a minor deity, the offspring of a god and a mortal, or a mortal raised to divine rank. Demon Powers/ spirits believed to have harmful or negative effects. Can be male or female. Devil/ Raakshas Composite Figure A mythical figure, imagined as having of various parts incorporated from (usually) real animals/ creatures. Occupation It is a job or a profession. It maybe noted that many occupations also comprise communities, tribes and/ or castes. Priest lergy who perform sacrificial, ritualistic, mediatorial, interpretative, or ministerial functions. Can refer to Cleric/ Brahmin such people who perform such functions in any religion. Fakir Ascetic practices include fasting, wandering, a solitary life, meditation, celibacy, the renunciation of Ascetic/ Rishi possessions, and the mortification of flesh. Can be of any religious persuasion. Beggar Those who subsist by asking for alms. Dancer Those who engage in the activity of dancing or who practice the art of dance, especially as a Nautch Girl/ profession. Does not include courtesans. Performer Musician / Singer A person skilled or specializing in the art or practice of music, such as composers, conductors, and performers. Labourer A worker whose duties require physical strength and stamina rather than skills or training. Actor A person who use movement, gesture, facial expressions, speaking, and intonation to create a fictional character for the stage, motion pictures, or television. Military The armed forces of a country/ state, it is inclusive of soldier, warroir, cavalry and other units, armies etc. Snake Charmer A person who uses his skills to manipulate snakes. Farmer A person who cultivates land or crops or raise livestock, especially as their main occupation. Peasant / Cultivator Landholder Those who own, rent, or otherwise have a legal right to occupy land. Tailor People who whose occupation is making and altering garments. Dressmaker Street Vendor Refers to those who sell food or small goods from temporary positions on the street. Includes sweetmeat, paan, medicine, fruit & vegetable and other sellers. Acrobat Those trained in or practicing acrobatics, tight rope walking, walking on stilts etc. Performer / Aerialist Water Bearer Carrier/seller of water, carrying water in a leather bag. Bhishti Concubine A prostitute, especially one with wealthy, upper class clients. Courtesan Sculptor Artists who specialize in creating images and forms that are carried out primarily in three dimensions. Artist / Carver Hunter People who practice chasing wild animals, for sustenance, profit, or sport. Wild animals may be of Fisherman / aquatic or non-aquatic in nature. Chaser Political Leader Refers to people who are actively involved in politics or people who hold or seek political office. Freedom Fighter Also includes revolutionaries, i.e. those engaged in or supporting a revolution, or who advocate revolutionary doctrines or principles. Spiritual Leader Members of religious orders or communities. Guru Attendant A person employed to provide assistance. Can be in either a public or private capacity. Aide / Orderly / Servant Artisan A worker in a skilled trade, especially one that involves making things by hand. Trader A person who buys and sells goods, currency, or shares, involved in the business of all three. Merchant/ Baniya Nomad A person (usually a community) that travels from place to place to find fresh pasture for its animals and has no permanent home. Porter/ coolie A person employed to carry luggage and other loads. Housewife A married woman whose main occupation is caring for her family, managing household affairs, and doing housework. Flora Plants of a particular region, habitat, or geological period Fauna The animals of a given region or period considered as a whole, eg., Horse, Elephant, Cat, Monkey, Deer, Dog, Turtle, Fish, Cattle etc.
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