Textile Materials

					Textile Materials
   Bilingual Lesson


     University of Textiles & Clothing
                  Jiangnan University
               Objectives

To grasp basic theory related to textile fibers


To understand properties of textile fibers


To enlarge vocabulary of textile fibers


To keep up with advance in textile fibers



                     2
             Course Syllabus

Textbook
 Zhang haiquan, Textile Materials, 2007
Reference book




                     3
            Grading



Attendance 5%

Homework 10%          Grade

Final exam 85%


                 4
          Topical Outline -1

1 Introduction to Textile Fibers   纤维



2 Natural Cellulosic Fibers    纤维素纤维



3 Natural Protein Fibers       蛋白质纤维



4 Regenerated Fibers           再生纤维


                   5
          Topical Outline -2

5 Synthetic Fibers                合成纤维



6 Absorption of Textile Fibers


7 Other properties of Textile Fibers




                     6
      1 Introduction to Textile Fibers

What is a fiber
     Large L/D
     Small ; flexible
Textile Fiber
     Length > 12.5 mm
     Strong ; processed
  
  Fiber        Yarn          Textile

                         7
 1.1 Classification of Textile Fibers

    Nature                 Man-made
     fiber                   fiber

Cellulosic fibers       Regenerated fibers


 Protein fibers          Synthetic fibers


 Mineral fibers           Mineral fibers

                    8
      1.1.1 Natural cellulosic fibers

Seed fibers: cotton, kapok
                          木棉

Bast fibers: jute, hemp, ramie, flax
               黄麻    大麻        苎麻   亚麻

Leaf fibers: Agave , pineapple, abaca
               剑麻      菠萝叶          蕉麻

Nut fibers: Coir
              椰子壳纤维

                      9
           1.1.2 Protein fibers

Animal-hair fibers:
             wool, specialty hair, fur fibers
           分泌物
Animal secretion: silk, spider silk




                     10
             1.1.3 Mineral fiber

 Asbestos


    A group of minerals
  Heat, electricity and chemical
 damage resistance; sound absorption
  Highly    toxic mesothelioma and
                        间皮瘤
 asbestosis.
     石棉沉滞病

                      11
        1.1.4 Regenerated Fibers

Regenerated cellulosic fibers
 Tencel        天丝

 Modal        莫代尔

 PLA         玉米纤维

Regenerated protein fibers
 Soybean fiber    大豆纤维

 Milk fiber       牛奶纤维



                    12
           1.1.5 Synthetic Fibers

        Name              Year      Company

Nylon           锦纶        1938   Du pont

Acrylic fiber   腈纶        1950   E.I. Du Pont

Polyolefin/   丙纶                 Hercules
                          1959
polypropylene                    Incorporated

Spandex         氨纶        1961   E. I. Du Pont



                     13
         1.1.6 Fineness of Fiber

Gravimetric (Direct system)
 Tex: Mass in grams of 1000 m of fiber
 Denier: Mass in grams of 9000 m of fiber
Metric count Ne (Indirect system):
 The length of meters per gram.




                    14
       1.1.7 Yarn Number System


  Direct system        Indirect system

1000m纱线具有的重量克数         1g纱线具有的米数

      Tex               Imp. count

    Den(ier)           Metric count

9000m纱线具有的重量克数         1磅纱线具有的840码的倍数



                  15
                 1.2 Fiber polymer

Polymerization                   聚合度


Degree of polymerization
               Average molecular weight of polymer
     =
       Molecular weight of thr repeating unit in the polymer




                             16
      1.2.1 Types of Polymer


Homopolymer
    均聚物

                               无规则


  Copolymer                    嵌段

    共聚物
                               交替


                17
 1.2.2 Interpolymer Forces of Attraction

Van der Waals’ forces
Hydrogen bonds
Alt linkages
Cross-links




                   18
1.3 Fiber Properties




         19
   1.3.1 Physical Properties
               White or colorless
Color         fibers and filaments
              are preferred.


Luster        Varied in fibers


               Be examined both
Shape         in cross section and
              in its longitudinal.
              20
    1.3.2 Mechanical Properties
   强度            强力           挠性

Tenacity       Tensile    Flexibility


             Mechanical
             Properties


Resiliency    Abrasion      Pilling
  回弹性           耐磨性          起球性
                 21
        1.3.3 Chemical Properties

Absorbency
Effect of Heat
Flammability
Chemical Reactivity and Resistance




                    22
    2 Natural Cellulosic fibers

        Natural Cellulosic fibers


 Stem             Leaf          Seed

flax     亚麻    sisal 西纱尔麻     cotton   棉
hemp     大麻    abaca 蕉麻       kapok    木棉
jute     黄麻
ramie    苎麻

                   23
          2.1 Introduction

Relatively high density

Good conductor of heat and electricity

Tend to burn easily

Good resistance to alkalis

Insects do not attack cellulosic fibers

                  24
                 2.2 Cotton


Most widely used      Grow in 80 countries


                 Cotton

                          Favorable personal
Ideal for textiles
                          care items


                     25
         2.2.1 Cotton classification


  Breed            Process         Luster
                 roller
Upland                          White
                 ginned
Island           saw            Yellow
                 ginned
Asian                           Grey

African


                     26
   2.2.2 Cotton Fiber Morphology   形态结构


                     Longitudinal
Cross-section
                        section




Kidney-shaped        Convolution

                27
     2.2.3 Structure of Cotton Fiber




Cuticle   Primary    Secondary    Lumen
          wall       wall
 表皮层       初生层           次生层           中腔


                    28
        2.2.4 Polymer System


Linear cellulose polymer   (C6H10O5)n

               Polymer
               System

 DP = 5000           Crystallinity = 65-70%


                   29
     2.2.5 Chemical Properties

Weakened and destroyed by acids

Resistant to alkalis

Relatively unaffected by laundering




                   30
       2.2.6 Physical Properties

          Relatively inelastic


                 Physical
                 Properties

Very absorbent        Conduct heat energy
        吸收的

                     31
     2.2.7 Growth and Production
Preparation

 Planting

  Crop

Harvesting

 Ginning      轧棉


                   32
33
               2.3 Bast fibers
Be collected from Phloem (the "inner bark"
 or the skin) or bast surrounding the stem
 of a certain, mainly dicotyledonic plants.

                  Flax
                 Ramie
  Bast fiber
                   Jute
                 Hemp

                     34
            2.3.1 Flax Fiber


Cellulose                        Bast

                 Flax fiber


Multi-cellular            Density = 1.50 g/cm3


                     35
    2.3.1 Flax Fiber Morphology

                     Longitudinal
Cross-section
                        section




 Polygonal               Nodes

                36
       2.3.2 Polymer System


         Cellulose polymer


             Polymer
             System

DP = 18000           Crystallinity > 70%


                37
      2.3.3 Physical Properties

Very strong               Very inelastic


              Physical
              Properties

Very absorbent         Best heat resistance


                  38
     2.3.4 Chemical Properties

Weakened and destroyed by acids

Resistant to alkalis

Relatively unaffected by laundering

Not mercerized
           丝光


                   39
      2.3.5 Processing of Flax

Pulling

Retting    浸解


Breaking

Hackling

Spinning

                 40
      3 Natural Protein Fibers

         Natural protein fibers


  Hair                         Secretion

wool          羊毛          丝    silk
cashmere      山羊绒        柞蚕丝   tussah silk
mohair        马海毛        蜘蛛丝   spider silk
rabbit hair   兔毛

                    41
          3.1 Introduction

Be obtained from animal sources

Excellent moisture absorbency

Poor resistance to alkalis

Good resiliency and elastic recovery



                  42
                3.2 Wool

Wlna, wullo, wull          fleece of sheep


                Wool

                           multi-cellular
medium weight
                           staple fiber


                    43
      3.2.1 Fiber Morphology

                      Longitudinal
Cross-section
                         section




    oval             over-lapping scale

                44
          3.2.2 Felting of Wool
                 缩绒



Scales   Directional               √
                               Warm ,soft
          friction
                         Felting
     High resilience
                              Dimensional
                                   ×
         Wet and heat           stability

                    45
    3.2.3 The Polymer System

Linear, keratin polymer

has a helical configuration

Unit of wool polymer is amino acid




                46
         3.2.4 Structure of Wool

Wool fiber is composed of surface scale,
 cortex and medulla layer.




                     47
     3.2.5 Chemical Properties

Resistant to acids

Dissolve readily in alkaline solutions

Yellow in sun and weather

Easy to dye


                     48
       3.2.6 Physical Properties

    weak                  excellent resilience


                 Physical
                 properties

very absorbent            low heat resistance
        吸收的

                     49
         3.3 Specialty hairs

Mohair     马海毛

Cashmere 山羊绒
Camel Hair 骆驼毛
Alpaca     羊驼毛

Llama     美洲驼毛

Vicuna     骆马绒




                  50
               3.3.1 Mohair

Mohair refers to the hair of
 Angora goat.
Mohair fiber is approximately
 25-45µm in diameter. It is
 both durable and resilient. It
 is notable for its high luster.




                     51
             3.3.2 Cashmere

Cashmere is a type of fiber
 obtained from the Cashmere
 goat, or Pashmina.
cashmere fiber is highly
 adaptable.
Cashmere is similar to wool
 in most properties.



                   52
              3.3.3 Camel Hair

Camel-hair are both light in
weight and warm; they have a
distinctive golden brown colour
with a pleasing lustre. The
fabrics are soft, comfortable, and
good wearing, and they drape
 attractively.



                       53
                3.3.4 Alpaca

Alpaca offers excellent warmth and
insulation. The fibres are strong and glossy
and make fabrics similar in appearance to
mohair.




                      54
                3.3.6 Llama

Llama fibre is soft, strong,
 and relatively uniform in
 length and diameter but
 somewhat weaker than
 alpaca or camel hair.




                      55
                 3.3.7 Vicuna

Vicuna is one of the
softest fibres in the world.
It is fine and lustrous, has
a lovely cinnamon brown
or light tan colour, and is
strong enough to make
very desirable fabrics. It is
also very light in weight
and very warm.

                       56
                3.4 Silk

        secretion of silkworm


                 Silk

                           density
medium weight
                           1.34 g/cm3


                   57
      3.4.1 Fiber Morphology

                        Longitudinal
Cross-section
                           section




rounded triangle          smooth

                   58
       3.4.2 Polymer System

linear fibroin polymer
      丝心蛋白
sixteen different amino acids
                   氨基酸
not contain sulphur

only in beta-configuration



                  59
     3.4.3 Chemical Properties
        Compared with wool
More readily affected by acids

Swell in alkaline solutions

Be affected by bleaches

Resistance to sunlight is poor

                  60
   3.4.4 Physical Properties

strong       more plastic than elastic


         Physical
         Properties


    more sensitive to heat

              61
3.4.5 Silk Production




         62
        4 Regenerated Fibers

Natural material    Wood, cotton


    Dissolve


    Extrude


Regenerated fibre    Viscose, acetate, triacetate

                    63
            4.1 Viscose Fibres

Viscose process was discovered and patented
in 1891 by C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan.


              viscose fibre       rayon
 viscose
               cellophane


                     64
      4.1.1 Manufacture

      pulp           浆粕


 alkali cellulose

xanthate cellulose   纤维素黄酸酯


     viscose

viscose filaments
               65
        4.1.2 Modified Viscose Fibres


               modified rayon



 HVM rayon           HWS rayon          HT rayon

high wet modulus   high wet strength   High tenacity



                          66
        4.1.3 Polymer System

           cellulose polymer


              Polymer
               system


amorphous 65-60%    crystallinity 35-40%

                   67
68
粘胶纤维纵、横截面
       4.1.4 Physical Properties

    weak                            limp


                 Physical
                 properties

most absorbent            low heat resistance


                     70
      4.1.5 Chemical Properties

similar to cotton

sensitivity to acid, alkali, bleach, sunlight

color more brightly




                    71
         4.2 Acetate and Triacetate


                           Acetate     filtration
                            醋酸纤维
Celluloseacetylize

                          Triacetate   textile
                           三醋酯纤维

 乙酰化:纤维素大分子上的羟基被醋酯取代




                     72
         4.2.1 Structures

DP= 250-300        Cross-section: lobed



              Structures


        Skin-core structure

                  73
           4.2.2 Properties

    Acetate               Triacetate

hydrophilic 亲水的        hydrophobic 疏水的
thermoplastic          high crystallinity

 Wrinkle easily in hot water
 Swells in water
 Resist to weak alkali and acids

                  74
       5 Synthetic Fibers

coal       petroleum       natural gas


           extrusion

           spinnerets

        Synthetic Fibers

               75
     5.0 Types of spinning methods

   Melt              melt polymer to a
              熔体纺丝   viscosity suitable for
 Spinning            extrusion

Dry Solvent          polymer solution is
              干法纺丝   extruded into gas or
 Spinning            vapor

Wet Solvent          Polymer solution     is
              湿法纺丝   extruded      into    a
 Spinning            precipitation bath
                     76
               5.1 Nylon

February 28, 1935
                               DuPont
Wallace Carothers


                    Nylon


           聚酰胺
                            thermoplastic
  polyamides
                            silky material
                    77
78
                5.1.1 Types


 Nylon 6
                               mostly
Nylon 6,6



Nylon 3, Nylon 4, Nylon 5,
Nylon 7, Nylon 8, Nylon 12,   small amount
Nylon 4,6, Nylon 6,10

                     79
              5.1.2 Structures
                                     酰胺
linear zigzag molecules       amide group




                  structures



       H-bond              crystallinity:65~86%

                      80
               5.1.3 Properties

Tenacity: high due to high orientation and
 crystallinity
Elongation: high due to zigzag structure
Recovery: high due to zigzag
Energy of rupture: high due to high tenacity and
 high elongation.
Abrasion resistance: high
Water absorption: highest among all synthetic
 fibers
                       81
          5.1.3 Properties

high tenacity

high elongation

high recovery

high abrasion resistance

highest water absorption
                  82
            5.2 Polyester

  DuPont, 1945           the largest volume



              Polyester        聚酯




 Dacron, Tetoron             versatility
Terelenka, Lavsan
                    83
          5.2.2 Types

 PET     Polyethylene terephthalate
涤纶,的确良   聚对苯二甲酸乙二酯


 PBT     Polybutylene terephthalate
         聚对苯二甲酸丙二酯


 PTT     Polybutylene terephthalate
         聚对苯二甲酸丁二酯

               84
      5.2.3 Fiber Morphology
                     Longitudinal
Cross-section
                        section




                85
         5.2.4 Structures


 DP =115-140            very oriented



               structures


even diameter          crystallinity: 35%

                 86
           5.2.5 Properties

high tenacity

high failure elongation

low compressional resilience

very low moisture regain

high electrical resistivity
                   87
            5.2.6 Modification
                     higher crystallinity
High tenacity        and DP

                     指纤维从一处向另一处传递
  Wicking       芯吸   水分的能力

                     polyester core, low
Sheath-core     芯鞘   melt polymer sheath

  Coolmax            hydrophilic treated

                     88
            5.3 Acrylic


1950, DuPont              腈纶



                Acrylic


Perlon, Orlon         synthetic wool

                 89
          5.3.1 Polymerization

Addition or chain growth
Homopolymer: polyarylonitrile strong but
 compact and highly oriented
   virtually impossible to dye
Copolymers: other types of monomers are
 included for a dyeable fiber and easier to
 process:
   e.g. acrylic acid and vinylpyrrolidone
   most acrylic fibers are copolymers
                    90
      5.3.2 Fiber Morphology
                      Longitudinal
Cross-section
                         section
          5.3.3 Properties

medium tenacity

medium failure strain

high elastic recovery

moderate abrasion resistance


                  92
           5.4 Elastomeric


polyurethane-based        H2NCONH2
  聚氨酯
                                  尿素


             Elastomeric


         lightest apparel fibre

                   93
         5.4.1 Fibre Morphology

Longitudinal appearance has distinct
 striations and specks.
Cross-section of fiber has the dump-bell or
 dog-bone shape




                     94
           5.4.2 Polymer System

Two types of elastomeric polymers are
 synthesized. Each is extruded into
 filaments with excellent elastic properties
 but differing in their resistance to alkalis.
The polyether type (for example Lycra)
 resistant to alkalis
The polymer type (for example, Vyrene)



                      95
     5.4.3 Physical Properties

weak tenacity

excellent recovery

hydrophobic

thermo-plastic


                 96
        5.4.4 Chemical properties

Effect of acids: Elastomeric textile material
 in general are resistant to acids.
Effect of alkalis: The elastomeric is
 sensitive to alkalis.
Colour-fastness: Elastomeric textile
 material tend to be difficult to dye owing
 to the hydrophobic and very crystalline
 nature of their polymer system.

                      97
      5.4.4 Chemical Properties


resistant to acids        sensitive to alkalis


              Chemical
              properties

            difficult to dye

                     98
     6.1 Introduction of Absorption
      吸附
Adsorption in a non-swelling medium, for
 example, the adsorption of gases on
 charcoal, is a comparatively simple
 process, but the absorption of water by
 fibers is an example of a process that
 comes midway between these two and
 partakes of some features of each.



                   99
             6.2 Equilibrium

When a textile material is placed in a
 given atmosphere, it takes up or loses
 water at a gradually decreasing rate until
 it reaches equilibrium, when no further
 change takes place. This is a dynamic
 equilibrium.




                    100
       6.3 Regain and relative humidity
                              p(H 2 O)
Relative humidity(RH)= p* (H            100%
                                  2 O)
p(H2O)-Partial pressure of water vapor
p*(H2O)—Saturation vapor pressure

              G  G0
Regain    W
               G0
                     100%

G - Mass of undried specimen
G0 -Mass of dried specimen



                        101
6.3 Regain and relative humidity

          p(H2O)
             *
                    100%
          p (H2O)




             G  G0
        W          100%
              G0


                  102
      6.4 Theories of moisture sorption

Sorption refers to the action of either
 absorption or adsorption. As such it is the
 effect of gases or liquids being
 incorporated into a material of a different
 state and adhering to the surface of
 another molecule.




                    103
  6.4.1 The effect of hydrophilic groups

As absorption, we take account of interac-
 tion between water molecules and molec-
 ules of the fiber. All the natural animal
 and vegetable fibers have groups in their
 molecules that attract water, such as –NH2,
 —CONH, —OH, —COOH.




                    104
6.4.2 Directly and Indirectly Attached Water
The first water molecules are absorbed
 directly onto hydrophilic groups, but, for
 the others: They may be attracted to other
 hydrophilic groups, or they may form
 further layers on top of water molecules.
                                        Fiber
         H2O         H2O         H2O   Direct

         H2O         H2O         H2O   Indirect

               H2O         H2O

                           105
 6.4.3 Absorption in crystalline regions

In crystalline region, the fiber molecules
 are closely packed together in a regular
 pattern. Thus it will not be easy for water
 molecules to penetrate into a crystalline
 region, and, for absorption to take place,
 the active groups would have to be freed
 by the breaking of cross-links.



                    106
7 Other Properties of Textile Fibers


Thermal
       热学
                      Performance of
                      processing and
Optical               usage of textile
       光学
                      fibers

Electric
       电学

                107
            7.1 Thermal properties

Thermal conductivity is a property of
 materials that express the heat flux(W/m2)
 that will flow through the material if a
 certain temperature gradient DT(K/m)
 exists over the material.
     Fiber material   Thermal conductivity[mW/(m.k]
       Cotton                      71
        Wool                       54
         Silk                      50

                       108
           7.1.1 Specific Heat Capacity
Specific heat capacity
                                  Heat, 热量 (J)
比热容(J/(g˙℃)
                              Q
                         C
              Mass(g)       m  T     Temperature(℃)



                              moisture
                    C         temperature
                              fiber structure

                            109
     7.1.2 Coefficient of Heat Conductivity
Coefficient of heat   Heat, 热量(J)    Thickness, 厚度(m)
conductivity
导热系数(W/(m˙℃)             Qd         Conduction surface
                                    传导面积 (m2)

Temperature difference  T  t  s
温差(℃)
                                          Time, 时间(t)




                          110
           7.2 Optical properties

When light falls on a fiber, it may be partly
 transmitted, absorbed or reflected.
Refractive index niso of an isotropic fiber is
 given by the mean of the refractive indices
 of an oriented fiber in 3 directions:
  niso  1/ 3(n  2n )
 n Polarized parallel to fiber axis
 n Polarized perpendicular to fiber axis

                      111
        7.2 Optical Properties

                 luster


                Optical
               properties

reflection                  light
refraction                  degradation
transmission                resistance
                  112
                   7.2.1 Luster
Laminate structure

Longitudinal morpha              Luster

Cross-sectional shape



 Light on collection of fibers


                        113
                 7.2.2 Birefringence

Birefringence, or double refraction, is the
 decomposition of a ray of light into the
 ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray
 when it passes through certain types of
 material.

Birefringence index     n  nP  n
                      Refractive index for light polarized parallel
                      (perpendicular)to the fiber axis.

                            114
          7.3 Electric properties

The electronic properties of fibers are of
 less importance than the mechanical
 properties.

                 electric
               conduction
                dielectric
             static electricity
                    115
       7.3.1 Electric Conduction
 Surface           Volume              Mass
resistivity       resistivity        resistivity
 表面比电阻                体积比电阻           质量比电阻
  Fiber       lg m          Fiber     lg m
 Cotton       6.8       Polyamide      9-12
 Ramie        7.5       Acetate        11.7
 Silk         9.8       Acrylic         8.7
 Wool         8.4       Polyester       8.0
 Viscose      7.0

                       116
            7.3.2 Dielectric

Fiber is dielectric material.

                                电容器极板间充满
                                电介质时的电容量
                     C
     介电常数
                r 
                     C0         电容器极板为
                                真空时的电容量




                   117

				
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