Authoring and Multimedia by chenmeixiu

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									Authoring and Multimedia

      Legal, Social, Ethical and
      Industrial Issues
Legal Issues

   Copyright
   Piracy
   Intellectual Property
   Security and Protection
   Copyright is a form of protection granted by governments to
    the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary,
    dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works.
    This protection is available to both published and unpublished
   All computer applications are copyright, but some software
    programmers allow others to use their applications freely or
    within certain limitations.
   However, for commercial software programs, when you
    purchase the software, you do not actually own it. What you
    have purchased is a license to install it and use it on one or
    more computers depending on the type of license.
   Microsoft provides many software
    applications for use by many people.
    Investigate the different types of licensing
    agreements including:
       End User Licenses
       Trial based Licenses
       Single user Licenses
       Multi-user licenses
   Write a brief description for each type of
    license stating who can use it and when it is
   Piracy is the copying, and/or distribution of software
    without the permission of the writer or publisher.
   Most retail programs are licensed for one computer
    or for one user at any time. Purchasing the software
    entitles the buyer to become a licensed user.
   A licensed user is allowed to make copies of the
    program for backup purposes but it is against the
    law to give copies to friends.
   People who sell software that they have copied
    without authorisation are considered to be selling
    stolen goods.
Intellectual Property
   Intellectual property refers to creations of the mind:
    inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols,
    names, images, and designs that has commercial
   Intellectual property is divided into two categories:
    Industrial property, which includes inventions
    (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and
    geographic indications of source; and Copyright,
    which includes literary and artistic works such as
    novels, poems and plays, films, musical works,
    drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures,
    and architectural designs.
Security and Protection
   Like copyright laws, there are laws that are designed to
    protection information systems and to protect people who
    create or spread computer viruses.
   Computer viruses are programs that are written for the
    purpose of destroying data or other programs without the
    agreement of the user.
   A virus is typically understood to be a software program that
    can infect other programs by modifying them to include a
    version of itself.
   When we buy a computer, we normally by an antivirus
    program to help protect against such viruses. Antivirus
    programs can be used to scan the computer for the existence
    of viruses and to destroy the virus. To work effectively, an
    antivirus program needs to be updated regularly
     We have all heard stories about computer viruses destroying user’s
      files or corrupting the user’s software including the operating system.
      Investigate the following types of viruses by filling out the table.
     There are other means of protection our computers against computer
      viruses. Investigate the following methods used to protect against
             Firewalls
             Proxies
             Sniffers

                   Types of Computer Viruses
    Type                  Definition
    Logic or Time Bomb
    Boot Sector
Social Issues

   Equity, Access and Control
   The nature of our society
   The Changing Nature of work and
Equity, Access and Control
   Equity and access refer to the belief that all people should
    have equal rights and all people should enjoy the benefits that
    information software technology offers.
   Control refers to the power to make decisions about who does
    and does not gain access to information and software
   Many people in society do not have this access and there for
    do not gain the benefits that technology can provide. Many
    marginal groups such as indigenous people, elderly, people
    with disabilities or people from a lower socio-economic
    background will find it difficult to access the available
The nature of our society
   Our society is quickly evolving and
    constantly changing. With the advancement
    of technology we are now able to do more
    things quicker and cheaper than 20 years
   We rely more and more on robots, artificial
    intelligence and automated manufacturing
    systems to do our work for us.
   We need to understand these changes in
    technology and the impact that these
    changes will have on our society.
The Changing Nature of work
and enterprise
   Information and software technology has had a major
    influence on the way people earn a living. It has altered the
    nature of work and enterprise to the extent that most hobs in
    the developed world now involve computers and some
    workers have been made redundant as a result of the new
   On the other hand, information and software technology is
    more likely to have changed someone’s work rather than have
    eliminated it completely.
   Other impacts that information and software technology has
    had on our way we work and communicate with one another,
    is the introduction of telecommuting, video conferencing and
    virtual offices.
   Identify the basic equipment needed for a
    virtual office.
   How have computers changed the nature of
    work and enterprise?
   Outline the potential employee benefits and
    disadvantages of telecommuting.
   Why do so many people find it difficult
    gaining access to information and software
Ethical Issues

   Code of practice and conduct
   Privacy and Security
   Inappropriate use of information and
    software technology
   Accuracy, validity and bias of data
Code of practice and conduct
   Codes of practice and conduct are developed by
    business and industry groups in order to promote
    honest and fairness in their dealings with the public.
   A code of conduct is basically a set of rules which
    sets out, for customers and staff, the standards of
    service to be provided and what can be done if
    these standards are not met.
   These codes may not be legally enforceable but are
    used as a means to regulate industry.
Privacy and Security
   If we examine any computer, we would find
    a lot of personal data. We need to be aware
    of what we store on a computer and who
    can access this information. We should ask
    ourselves the following questions:
       What personal details are stored about me on
        the computer?
       Can this information be used against me in any
       Are there procedures in place to ensure
        important information is not accidentally or
        deliberately lost or used?
Inappropriate use of information
and software technology

   We have all heard of hackers,
    someone who gains unauthorised
    access to a computer system.
   Hacking can involve the electronic
    theft of money, information or even
    deliberate vandalism by changing the
    data stored or spreading a virus.
Accuracy, validity and bias of data

   Data accuracy refers to the extent of how many
    errors are found in a data set. Most times,
    inaccurate data is a mistake, a typo or something
    forgotten. In some cases it is deliberate, like editing
    a photo, altering it in some way and therefore is no
    longer a valid piece of evidence or piece of data.
   Data bias is manipulating data in order to present a
    one-sided view. A graph is a common way of
    manipulating data to present a persons findings in a
    particular way.

   Identify three types of computer crime.
   Define the term data validation
   Why do you think such a small
    percentage of computer fraudsters
    (criminals) get caught?
Industrial Issues

   Rights and responsibilities of users
   Industry standards
   Ergonomics
Rights and responsibilities of

   It is impossible to ensure that all users of
    information and software technology will act
   Although computers affect how individuals
    communicate and interact with each other,
    computers do not change underlying values
    with respect to the rights and responsibilities
    of users.
Industry standards
   Industry standards are put in place to
    ensure the wellbeing of people while they
    are at work and cover things like
    Occupational Health and Safety.
   Risks to people involved with information
    technology can be as straightforward as
    regular use of a keyboard or mouse, which
    may cause Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI),
    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome or Occupational
    Overuse Syndrome (OOS).

   Ergonomics is an important consideration
    when designing safe and comfortable working
   Ergonomics is the study of the relationship
    between machines and the people who use
    them, including furniture design and the
    design of the parts of the computer.

   As a computer user we all agree to a set of
    rules, in your school diary you signed an
    agreement. What does this agreement state.
    Investigate the ten commandments of
    ethical computer use.
   Investigate the three risks people can
    sustain from incorrect computer use (RSI,
    OOS, and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome)

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