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HHD Revision Notes

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					HHD Revision Notes

       UNIT THREE
         AOS 1
UNDERSTANDING AUSTRALIA’S
        HEALTH
What is health ?
            There are four components of health

                        PHYSICAL
            How efficiently our body functions.
                         SOCIAL
            How effectively we relate to others.
                       EMOTIONAL
  The link between our thoughts, feelings & behaviours.
                        SPIRITUAL
              How we see the bigger picture.
Measurements of health.
                               Morbidity statistics
                The rate at which a particular disease or illness occurs
                  Prevalence (how many) & Incidence (new cases)

                               Mortality Statistics
                Number of deaths caused by a particular illness

                                Burden of disease
              How much disease there is & how it effects people.

                  Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)
     Amount of healthy life an individual is likely to lose due to disability.

                                 Life expectancy
 Estimate of how many years from the time of birth an individual is expected to
                                       live.

                      Health adjusted Life Expectancy
                    A person is expected to live in full health
Determinants.

             Biomedical influences
        Lifestyle & Behaviour influences
 Poor diet, alcohol, smoking, lack of activity, excess
           sun, no immunisation, unsafe sex.
         Knowledge, Attitudes & Beliefs
           Environmental influences
 Sanitation & water, housing, education, employment,
                        pollution.
                      Genetics
Specific population groups.
Rural & Remote.

 Differences can be contributed to :
      Lifestyle choices
      Greater exposure to injury
      Limited access to health care (specialists)
      Isolation & distance
      Lower levels of education
      Attitudes
      Economic factors
Specific population groups.
Indigenous.

  Differences can be contributed to :
      Lifestyle choices
      Poor community infrastructure & support
      Predisposition to disease
      Attitudes ( to & within community)
      Economic factors
      Poor nutrition
      Isolation & distance
Specific population groups.
Lower Socio-economic.

  Differences can be contributed to :
      Economic limitations
      Limited Education
      Poor quality of housing
      Lifestyle choices
      Poor Nutrition
      Limited health knowledge
Specific population groups.
Gender

  Differences can be contributed to :
      Genetic make-up
      Attitudes to health care
      Lifestyle choices
      Attitudes in general
      Level of risk taking behaviour
Nutrients.
     Nutrients are required by an individual for all bodily
 processes to occur. They are found in foods & provide the
   body with energy to grow & develop, and ensure it has
          the ability to carry out everyday functions

                   MACRONUTRIENTS
            (Large molecules & High quantities)
           Carbohydrates, Protein, Fats & Water

                  MICRONUTRIENTS
             (Small in size & small quantities)
                    Vitamins & Mineral
Nutrients.
Carbohydrates.
                          FUNCTION
         Are the preferred energy source for the body.
 During digestion both starches & sugars are broken down into
  glucose which provides essential energy for the brain & CNS
               and for muscles during activities.

                          EXAMPLES
       Starches (complex) are found in vegetables & grains.
         Sugars (simple) are found in fruit, honey & milk.

                            OTHER INFO
  Glycemic index (GI) ranks foods on how they affect blood sugar
                               levels.
     Fibre is a type of carbohydrate the body does not digest.
Nutrients.
Protein.
                               FUNCTION
   Protein is necessary for the growth, repair & maintenance of
                              body tissue.
  It is used to produce enzymes, hormones & antibodies which
 are vital for the regulation & metabolism and protection against
                                disease.
               It is also a secondary source of energy.

                            EXAMPLES
            Meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, milk & cheese

                            OTHER INFO
    Ther are 15 different amino acids, 8 of which the body cannot
                              produce.
                  Complete & Incomplete proteins.
Nutrients.
Fats.
                           FUNCTION
           Fats offer a concentrated source of energy.
    They provide more than twice as much energy as the same
   weight of carbohydrates or protein. However, fats are not the
  body’s preferred source of energy as they are more difficult to
             breakdown into a useable energy source.

                           EXAMPLES
                 Meats, almonds, oils, sardines, tuna

                              OTHER INFO
          Saturated, monounsaturated & polyunsaturated
 Cholesterol is a type of fat that is an essential part of the body’s cell
                               membranes.
Nutrients.
Vitamins.
                      FUNCTION
  Vitamins are essential for the regulation of the body’s
                  metabolic functions.

        They help the body use energy effectively.

 They are involved in regulating the actions of many other
                  chemicals in the body.

    Each vitamin has multiple functions in the body &
  interacts with other nutrients to successfully carry out
                      these functions.
Nutrients.
Vitamins : Water soluble
                           FUNCTION
                        Soluble in water
  Allow them to be carried around the body dissolved in blood
                            plasma.
                 Vitamin C & B group vitamins.

                             EXAMPLES
  Vitamin C assists in the formation of collagen in skin, aids in iron
              absorption, protects against infection
                        (citrus fruit, broccoli)

  B group vitamins (thiamine, niacin, riboflavin) assist in the release
                             of energy
                     (Thiamine – wheat & nuts,
                Niacin & Riboflavin – liver & kidney)
Nutrients.
Vitamins : Fat Soluble
                           FUNCTION
                      Not Soluble in water
  They need to be stored in the body either in the liver or in fatty
  tissue & are transported around the body by special proteins.
                       Vitamin A, D, E & K.

                                EXAMPLES
  Vitamin A assists in the formation & maintenance of skin tissue, vision for
                 dim light & normal growth of bones & teeth.
                              (liver, kidney, eggs)
  Vitamin D assists in the formation & maintenance of bones and enhances
                          calcium & phosphorus use.
                              (salmon, tuna, milk)
   Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant that prevents damage to cell membranes &
                               protects Vitamin A
                           (green leafy vegetables)
Nutrients.
Minerals
                         FUNCTION
 The human body needs at least 20 mineral to function properly.
       Some minerals are required in large amounts :
        Calcium –major part of bones & teeth (dairy)
 Potassium & Sodium – balancing ions & fluid (salt & GLV)
  Iron – transports oxygen around the body (meat & eggs)

  Some minerals are needed in smaller or trace amounts.
    These include magnesium, zinc, iodine & copper.
  These help functions in the body such as production of
                 enzymes & hormones.
Nutrients.
Water.
                              FUNCTION
  It is used to maintain the health of every living cell in the
      body by giving strength and structure to the cells &
                                 tissues.
     It creates the aqueous environment necessary for all
        chemical processes within the living cells. These
         processes result in energy production & growth.
 It plays an important role in digestion & absorption as well
                             as circulation.
      It is essential in the regulation of body temperature,
    lubrication of joints & the movement of waste material.
           It is the carrier of nutrients through the body.
RDIs
               Recommended Dietary intake
    Refer to the amount of essential nutrients (vitamins,
  mineral, energy & protein) that are considered adequate
   to meet the nutritional requirements of healthy people.

 Limitations
       Individuals have varying nutrient requirements.
       For healthy people only
       Do not account for interactions between nutrients
       Do not. Allow for adaptation to high or low intakes eg iron
BMI
                        Body Mass Index
        This is used as an estimate of the amount of an
                      individual’s body fat.
 It is a formula to assess body weight in relation to height.
                  BMI=weight (kg)/ height (cm)

Limitations
    Must take in consideration age & sex
    Not used for children as growth occurrence is at irregular
     intervals.
Importance of nutrients.
CVD
                                 What it is.
                Includes heart disease, stroke, angina.
 Mainly caused by a damaged blood supply to the heart, leg & brain. The
 most common cause is the gradual blockage of blood vessels by fatty
  or fibrous material. This material build up on the blood vessel walls
                          narrows the arteries.

                                Risk factors
 High consumption of saturated fats or trans fatty acids from processed foods.
                 A high diet in sodium & low in potassium.

                            Protective factors
              Intake of omega 3 (oily fish) & omega 6 fatty acids
                                  Vitamin E
                                    Folate
                                Soluble Fibre
Importance of nutrients.
Colorectal Cancer
                                What it is.
         Together the colon and rectum from the large intestine.
 They are part of the body’s digestive system that remove nutrients from
             food & store waste until it passes out of the body.


                               Risk factors
                           High fat diets (obesity)
                                 Burnt meat

                           Protective factors
      Vegetables (carotene –red & yellow as well as cruciferous –GLV))
                                 Legumes
                         Vitamin E (anti-oxidants)
                                   Fibre
Importance of nutrients.
Obesity
                            What it is.
  This is associated with heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high
     blood pressure etc. It is when a person consumes more
                     kilojoules than they burn.

                           Risk factors
                  A high intake of high GI foods
                          High fat intake

                      Protective factors
                        Low GI foods
                            Fibre
                    Consuming low fat foods
Importance of nutrients.
Diabetes (type 2)
                               What it is.
 In type 2 diabetes the body may produce enough insulin but its action
       is blocked because of excess fat around the cells. The body
 compensates for the resistance to the action by producing even more
                                insulin.

                              Risk factors
                               High GI foods
            Saturated fats can cause an increase in cholesterol
                                  Alcohol

                          Protective factors
                             Low GI foods
                                Fibre
                          Monounsaturated fats
Importance of nutrients.
Anaemia
                          What it is.
  This refers to an inadequate level of red blood cells or an
   inadequate level of haemoglobin in the body. When these
    levels are low the result is greater difficulty transporting
      oxygen around the body. Causes fatigue & low blood
                            pressure.

                             Risk factors
                         Low iron or folate intake

                          Protective factors
                      Adequate intake of iron & folate
   Vitamin C (as it aids in the absorption of iron into the bloodstream)
Importance of nutrients.
Dental Decay
                            What it is.
          Destruction of the outer surface of the tooth.

                           Risk factors
                      Foods high in sugar & starch
         If the diet is low in certain nutrients – gum disease

                       Protective factors
                      Calcium (increase saliva)
                                Water
  Proteins that forms a coating on the tooth & protects it from acid
                attack. Found in milk, yoghurt & cheese.
Importance of nutrients.
Osteoporosis
                            What it is.
 The term given to the progressive degeneration of the structure,
                      density & strength of the bone.
  It is not just due to a lack of calcium, other factors such as the
         activity of Vitamin D, oestrogen, Cortisol levels and the
         balance between bone building & remodelling activity.

                           Risk factors
                       Low intake of calcium.

                       Protective factors
                     Adequate intake of calcium
                 Eg. Dairy, GFV, orange juice & nuts
Costs of dietary
imbalance.
                                 Individual
 Suffer from the physical, social & emotional consequences of ill-health.
                                Community
      Suffer from the burden of the combined health problems of its
                                   members.

                                 DIRECT
                      Can be quantified in $ terms.
      Include medication, GP & Specialist’s time, hospital services,
                             ambulance, rehab.
                                INDIRECT
                Due to the consequences of the illness.
           Reduced productivity at work, impact of travel time
                              INTANGIBLE
              Relate to quality of life for sufferers & family
            Emotional stress, change in personal fulfilment.
Role of nutrients in public
health.
 Public health can be described as the prevention of
 disease, prolonging of life & the promotion of health
       through a systematic community effort.

 The approach includes :
     Use interventions that promote health
     Manage the community’s environment
     Promote healthy lifestyles
     Target specific populations that are vulnerable
     Require collaboration of all major stakeholders

				
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