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Draft August 2007 - jetriver.com

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English-Sudanese Arabic
       Dictionary
        Draft: August 2007
                                                  2
a (= per)\per [j] fiy (fy)                            absent\away [o] maa fiy (fy)
a lot of sugar (e.g. in tea)\much sugar (e.g.         absent\away [o] maa fiy (ma)
  in tea)\sugar; a lot of s. (e.g. in tea) [ng]       absent\present; not p.\there; not t. [a]
  sukkar ziyaada (zyd)                                 #aayib –iyn (#yb)
a lot of sugar (e.g. in tea)\much sugar (e.g.         absent–minded (by dispositi1on)
  in tea)\sugar; a lot of s. (e.g. in tea) [ng]        \inattentive (by disposition) [a] #abyaan –
  sukkar tagiyl (skr)                                  iyn (not *[#abaaya]) (#ba)
a lot of sugar (e.g. in tea)\much sugar (e.g.         abstain from (food/drink/sex)\fast [vj] Saam
  in tea)\sugar; a lot of s. (e.g. in tea) [ng]        9an yaSuwm (Swm)
  sukkar ziyaada (skr)                                abstract\summary [n] mulaxxaS –aat (lxS)
a; a banana\single; a s. banana [n] Habbat            abuse; piece of abuse\insult [nsv] nabza –aat
  mawz ? (Hb;)                                         (nbz)
a; a banana\single; a s. banana [n] giT9at            abuse; pieces of abuse\insult/insults [ngv]
  mawz ? (gT9)                                         nabaz coll (nbz)
abandon (totally) [vt] hammal yihammil (hml)          abuse\insult [n] ∫atiyma ∫ataayim (∫tm)
abandon; a.ed (totally)\neglect; totally n.ed         abuse\insult [n] nabiy∫a nabaayi∫? (nb∫)
  [a] haamil –iyn (hml)                               abuse\insult/i.s [ngv?] nabiz (less common than
abandon\neglect totally [vt] hammal yihammil           [nabaz]) coll (nbz)
  (hml)                                               Abyssinia\Ethiopia [nx] al–Haba∫a (Hb∫)
abandoned object? [n] hamala (hml)                    accent; foreign a.\foreign accent [n] lakana ?
abash; a.ed\ashame; a.d\shamefaced [a]                 (lkn)
  xajlaan –iyn (xjl)                                  accent\dialect\vernacular language [n] lahja
able; be a. to\can"\power; have the p. to              –aat (lhj)
  [vtz+] gidir yagdar (gdr)                           acceptable\reasonable\satisfactory\please;
able\capable (of doing something) [ajz]                p.ing [a] magbuwl (gbl)
  gaadir (9alay ∫iy) –iyn? (gdr)                      acceptance\consent?\assent?\approval?
ablution (before prayers)\wash; ritual w.ing           [n] gubuwl (gbl)
  [n] waDuw (wDa)                                     accident\mishap [n] Haadsa Hawaadis (Hds)
abolish\cancel\annul? [vt] baTTal yibaTTil            accommodation [a] maHall jaahiz –aat jaahza?
  (bTl)                                                (jhz)
abortive\unsuccessful\fail; f.ed/f.ing? [o ?]         accommodation [n] maHall jaahiz –aat jaahza
  maa naajiH (ma)                                      (Hl;)
abortive\unsuccessful\fail; f.ed/f.ing? [a ?]         according to"\in …'s opinion"\opinion; in
  maa naajiH (njH)                                     …'s o."\view; in …'s view" [vt+] iftakar
about to\point; on the p. of\verge; on the v.          yaftakir (fkr)
  of [az?] daayir –iyn (dwr)                          according to\in …'s opinion\opinion; in
about to\point; on the p. of\verge; on the v.          …'s o.\view; in …'s view [j] fiy Raay … (r'a)
  of [az?] daayir –iyn (dwr)                          according to\in …'s opinion\opinion; in
about\concerning [j] 9an (9n)                          …'s o.\view; in …'s view [j] fiy Raay … (fy)
about\concerning [j] min (mn)                         according to\in accordance
above\over\on\top; on t. of\more                       with\depending on [j] Hasab (Hsb)
  than?\beyond? [j] fawg (fwg)                        accountant\bookkeeper\auditor [n]
abridge\summarize\sum up [vt] laxxaS                   muHaasib –iyn (Hsb)
  yilaxxiS (lxS)                                      accurate; a.ly?\precise; p.ly\punctual;
absence (in school +?) [n] #iyaab (#yb)                p.ly?\exact; e.ly [n] biD–DabT (DbT)
absent; he's a. (e.g. at school) [vtjm] maa jaa       accuse (wrongly) of [vtj] bahat bay yabhat
  (jy)                                                 (bht)
absent; she's a.\away; she's a. [o] maa fiy∫a         accustom; get a.ed to [vj] it9awwad 9ala
  (fy)                                                 yit9awwad (9wd)
absent; she's a.\away; she's a. [o] maa fiy∫a         accustom; get a.ed to [vt] it9awwad
  (ma)                                                 yit9awwad (9wd)
absent; they're a.\away; they're a. [o] maa
  fiy∫iyn (ma)
absent; they're a.\away; they're a. [o] maa
  fiy∫iyn (ma)                                         1
                                                   3
accustom\habituate\condition\used; get u.              adhere?\cling?\cleave?\stick [vi] liSig yalSag
 to [vd] 9awwad yi9awwid (9wd)                          (lSg)
accustom\habituate\condition\used; get u.              adjourn?\delay\postpone\put off\defer [vt]
 to [vtj] 9awwad 9ala yi9awwid (9wd)                    ajjal (passive: [it–]) yi'ajjil/yiajjil ('jl)
acquaint; bc. a.ed with\know; get to k.\get            administrator\headmaster\boss\manager
 to know [vj] it9arraf 9alay yit9arraf (9rf)            [n] mudiyr –iyn (dwr)
action (normally bad)\deed (normally                   admiration (expression of a.) [n] yaa salaam
 bad)\act (normally bad)\bad deed/act [n]               (slm)
 fi9la –aat\fi9al (f9l)                                admiration (expression of a.) [o] yaa salaam
action\deed [n] 9amal a9maal (9ml)                      (ya)
active (in positive                                    admiration; – expresses admiration [n] yaa
 sense)\enthusiastic\plucky (prepared to                salaam (slm)
 have a go at things) [a] Harbiy (Hrb)                 admiration; – expresses admiration [o] yaa
active (moves around a lot)\lively (moves               salaam (ya)
 around a lot) [a] Harakiy –iyn (Hrk)                  admission (e.g. to university)\reception?
active (of market)\bustling (of market) [a]             [n] gubuwl (gbl)
 Haarr (Hr;)                                           admission\acceptance?\acknowledgement
active (of market)\bustling (of market) [a]             ? [n] i9tiraaf ? (9rf)
 gaayim (gwm)                                          admit (under
active\energetic\enterprising\busy [a/]                 duress)\acknowledge?\confess? [vj+]
 na∫iyT –iyn\nu∫aaT (n∫T)                               garra bay yagirr (gr;)
actor [n] mimassil –iyn (msl)                          admit\allow to enter\enter; allow to e. [vdm]
actor (female)\actress [n] mimassila –aat (msl)         xa∫∫a∫ fiy/OBJ. yixa∫∫i∫ (x∫;)
add (in maths)\plus [vi] zaad yaziyd (zyd)             admit\allow to enter\enter; allow to e. [vtjm]
add (liquid, etc.) to\put (liquid, etc.) in [04]        xa∫∫a∫ fiy/OBJ. yixa∫∫i∫ (x∫;)
 adda yaddiy (d;a)                                     adopt (as a son +daughter?) [vt] itbanna
add/add to\increase [vt] zaad yaziyd (zyd)              yitbanna (bna)
add\plus\and (in additions only) [a?] zaayid           adversary\antagonist?\opponent? [n]
 (zyd)                                                  xaSiym xuSama (xSm)
addict; bc. an a.\addicted; get a. [vi] adman          adversary\antagonist?\opponent? [n]
 yadmin (dmn)                                           xaSiym *–iyn\*xuSuwm (xSm)
addition (in maths) [n] ziyaada (zyd)                  advertisement\advertise; a.ing [n] di9aaya –
addition (mathematics)\integration (maths)              aat (d9a)
 [n/] jami9 (jm9)                                      advice; ask for/seek a.\consult\counsel;
address (a letter) [vt] 9alwan yi9alwin (9lwn)          take c. [vt+] ∫aawar yi∫aawir (∫wr)
address (a letter) [vt] 9anwan yi9anwin (9nwn)         advice; ask for/seek a.\consult\counsel;
address/public a. (normally in a                        take c. [vt+] ista∫aar yasta∫iyr (∫wr)
 mosque)\sermon (in a mosque) [n] xuTba                advice; piece of
 xuTab (xTb)                                            a.\counsel\exhortation\admonishment [n]
address/public a. (normally in a                        naSiyHa naSaayiH (nSH)
 mosque)\sermon (in a mosque) [n] xuTba                advise against/not to\counsel against/not
 xuTab (xTb)                                            to\admonish not to\exhort not to [vtj+]
address\speak to\talk to [vtj] kallam yikallim          naSaH (zawl, min Haaja) yanSaH (nSH)
 (klm)                                                 advise\counsel\admonish\exhort [vtj+]
address\title (of book                                  naSaH (zawl, bay Haaja) yanSaH (nSH)
 etc)\heading\headline? [n] 9ulwaan                    aeroplane\aircraft [n] Tayyaara –aat (Tyr)
 9alaawiyn (9lwn)                                      affable\cheerful\amiable [a] ba∫uw∫ –iyn (b∫;)
address\title (of book                                 affect?\feign?\simulate?\pretend?\purport?
 etc)\heading\headline? [n] 9inwaan                     [vt+] idda9a yaddi9iy (d9a)
 9anaawiyn (9nwn)                                      affection\love (affection) [n] Hanaan (Hn;)
address\title (of book,                                affix?\stick (on?)\paste (on?) [vt] lazag yalzig
 etc.)\heading\headline? [n] 9anwaan                    (lzg)
 9anaawiyn (9nwn)                                      affix?\stick (on?)\paste (on?) [vt] laSag
adhere?\cling?\cleave?\stick [vi] lizig yalzag          yalSig (lSg)
 (lzg)
                                                 4
afraid of\frighten; f.ed of\scare; s.d of [aj]       agreed\idea; that's a good
 xaayif min –iyn (xwf)                                 i.\fine\okay\good [a/] kalaam samiH (smH)
afraid; be a. of [vj+] xaaf min yaxaaf (xwf)         agreed\idea; that's a good
Africa [nx] afriyqiya ('frg)                           i.\fine\okay\good [n] kalaam Hiluw (klm)
Africa [nx] ifriyqiya ('frg)                         agreed\idea; that's a good
African [ax] afriyqiy –iyn\afaarqa ('frg)              i.\fine\okay\good [n] kalaam jamiyl (klm)
African [ax] ifriyqiy –iyn\afaarqa ('frg)            agreed\idea; that's a good
after [j/] ba9ad (b9d)                                 i.\fine\okay\good [n] kalaam kiwaiyis (klm)
after [j] ba9ad maa (b9d)                            agreed\idea; that's a good
after [j] ba9di maa (b9d)                              i.\fine\okay\good [n] kalaam maZbuwT (klm)
after [c] ba9ad (b9d)                                agreed\idea; that's a good
after [c] ba9di (b9d)                                  i.\fine\okay\good [n] kalaam samiH (klm)
after [o] ba9ad maa (ma)                             agreed\idea; that's a good
after [o] ba9di maa (ma)                               i.\fine\okay\good [n] kalaam tamaam (klm)
after; the day a. tomorrow\day; the d. after         agreement [n] ittifaag –aat (wfg)
 tom. [j] ba9ad bukra (b9d)                          agreement to meet [n] maW9id mawaa9id
afternoon (four pm. to dusk?) [n/] 9aSur               (w9d)
 (9Sr)                                               agreement; in a. [a] muwaafig –iyn (wfg)
afternoon; in the a. [j] ba9d aD–Duhur (b9d)         agreement; in a. (on part of all
afternoon; in the a. [j] ba9d aD–Duhur (b9d)           people/parties)\agree; a. ing (all
afternoon; in the a. [n/] ba9d aD–Duhur (Dhr)          people/parties) [a] mittafig –iyn (wfg)
afternoon; in the a. [n/] ba9d aD–Duhur (Dhr)        agreement; in a. (on part of single
afternoon; in the a. [n/] bil–9aSur (9Sr)              person/party)\agree; a. ing (single
afternoon; in the a. [n/] fil–9aSur (9Sr)              person/party) [a] muwaafig –iyn (wfg)
afternoon; in the a. [n/] ma9a l–9aSur (9Sr)         agricultural\agrarian\farm– (in compounds)
afternoon; in the a./this a.? [n/] al–9aSur            [a] ziraa9iy ? (zr9)
 (9Sr)                                               agriculture\till; t.age/t.ing\farm; f.ing [n]
again\once more\more; once m. [n] maRRa                ziraa9a *–aat (zr9)
 taanya (mr;)                                        ahead; a. (of you)\distance; in the d.
against [j ] fiy (fy)                                  (ahead) [d] giddaam (gdm)
against (= opposed to) [j] Didd (Dd;)                aid (as part of emergency relief,
against; advise/counsel against [j] naSaH              development, etc.) [n] i#aasa (#ws)
 (zawl, min Haaja) yanSaH (min)                      AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
agent (commercial representative) [n]                  syndrome) [n] aydz ('ydz)
 wakiyl wukala (wkl)                                 aim [n] niyya –aat (nwa)
agent (for security forces [amn], or                 aim for/at [vt] gaSad yagSud (gSd)
 intelligence service [muxaabaraat]) [n]             air cooler/conditioner [n] mukayyif hawa –aat
 muxbir –iyn (xbr)                                     hawa (hwa)
agitate; a.d\trouble; t.d?\disturb; d.ed? [a]        air\atmosphere\wind\draught\weather?\cli
 mubahdal –iyn (bhdl)                                  mate? [nm] hawa hiwyaat (hwa)
agree (with oa.)/come to/reach an                    airfield?\airport\aerodrome? [n] maTaar –aat
 agreement [vr] ittafaguw 9ala/*fiy/*fawg              (Tyr)
 yattafiguw (wfg)                                    alcohol (any a.ic drink)\drink (alcoholic) [n]
agree with [vt+?] riDa yarDa (rDa)                     xamra xumuwr (xmr)
agree with about\concur with about [vtj]             alcohol (technical) [n] alkuHuwl ('lkH)
 waafag 9ala/*fiy/*fawg yiwaafig (wfg)               Algeria/Algiers [nxp] aj–jazaayir (jzr)
agree with\concur with [vt] Taawa9 yiTaawi9          Algerian [ax] jazaayriy –iyn (jzr)
 (Tw9)                                               all of us [n] kulla–na (kl;)
agree\approve of\consent to\assent to [vt+]          all; (not) at all (with neg. verb) [d] xaaliS
 gibil yagbal (gbl)                                    (xlS)
agreed with\agree with”\support” [j] ma9a            all; at all\altogether\complete;
 (m9a)                                                 c.ly\whatsoever [n?] kull-uw kull-uw (kl;)
agreed\idea; that's a good                           all; not at all (with neg. verb) [d] xaaliS xaaliS
 i.\fine\okay\good [a] kalaam jamiyl (jml)             (xlS)
                                                  5
allege\claim\maintain [vt+?] idda9a yaddi9iy          America [nx] amayrika ('mrk)
  (d9a)                                               America [nx] amiyrika ('mrk)
allow (so.)\permit (so.)\give permission              American [ax] amriykiy –iyn ('mrk)
  to\permission; give permission to [n/]              American [ax] imriykiy –iyn ('mrk)
  adda izin ('zn)                                     American (people only?) [ax] amriykaaniy
allow;                                                 amriykaan ('mrk)
  a.ed\permissable\admissable\lawful\legal            American (people only?) [ax] imriykaaniy
  [a] Halaal none (Hl;)                                imriykaan ('mrk)
allow\let\permit\empower?\authorize? [vjj+]           amiable\pleasant\amicable\charm;
  samaH (lay zawl bay Haaja) yasmaH (smH)              c.ing?\polite? [a] laTiyf –iyn (lTf)
allow\permit\authorize?\empower? [vj+]                amount (of money only?)\sum (of money)
  samaH (lay zawl bay Haaja) yasmaH\yasmiH             [n] mabla# mabaali# (bl#)
  (smH)                                               amount to?\cost\come to? [vt] saawa
allowance; housing a. [n] badal sakan –aat             yisaawiy (swa)
  sakan (bdl)                                         amount\quantity\magnitude [n] kimmiyya –
allowance; housing a. [n] badal sakan –aat             aat (km;)
  sakan (bdl)                                         amuse; a.ing (of people and things)\funny
allowance; housing a. [n] badal sakan –aat             (of people and things)\comical (of people
  sakan (skn)                                          and things)\laughable? (of people and
allowance; travelling a. [n] badal safar –aat          things)\ridiculous (of people and things;
  safar (bdl)                                          in negative sense) [a] muDHik –iyn? (DHk)
allowance; travelling a. [n] badal safar –aat         amuse; a.ing (of people and things)\funny
  safar (bdl)                                          (of people and things)\comical (of people
allowance; travelling a. [n] badal safar –aat          and things)\laughable? (of people and
  safar (sfr)                                          things)\ridiculous (of people and things;
alms (Muslim; two and a half per cent alms             in negative sense) [a] muDHik –iyn (DHk)
  tax on income) [n] zaka° –aat\*zakaawiy (zka)       amuse; a.ing\entertain; e.ing [a] musalliy
alms (voluntary in Islam)\charity (gift) [n]           (sla)
  Sadaga –aat (Sdg)                                   amuse\entertain [vt] salla yisalliy (sla)
alms/almsgiving?\charity?\tax; alms                   ancestor\forefather [n] jidd *ajdaad\juduwd
  tax(Islamic) [n] zaka° –aat\*zakaawiy (zka)          (jd;)
alone\lonely\only [a] waHiyd –iyn (wHd)               and [c] uw (w)
alone\only [d] bass (bs;)                             and [c] wa (w)
alone\own; on o.’s o. [j] baraa +PRONOUN              and/and then/and so\then/and then\so/and
  SUFFIXES (bra)                                       so [c] fa (fa)
already?\before (now) [n/] gabli kida (gbl)           and\also?\too? [c] wa\uw (w)
already?\before (now) [d] gabli kida (kda)            anger; easily a.ed\cross; easy to make c.
alseep\sleep; s.ing\slumber; s.ing [a]                 [a] Hargaan –iyn (Hrg)
  naayim –iyn (nwm)                                   anger\enrage? [vt] za99al yiza99il (z9l)
also\too\addition; in a.\well; as w.\as well          anger\fury?\rage? [n/?] za9al (z9l)
  [d] kamaan (kmn)                                    angle [n] zaawiya –aat (zwa)
also\too\as well\well; as w. [d] barD-uw (brD)        angle\corner?\nook? [n] zaawya
also\too\as well\well; as w. [d] burD-uw (brD)         zawaaya\*ziwiy? (zwa)
alter\change [vt] #ayyar yi#ayyir (#yr)               angry (= normally a.)\cross (tending to be
alter\modify?\different; make d.\change [vt]           c.) [a] Hargaan –iyn (Hrg)
  #ayyar yi#ayyir (#yr)                               angry (by nature)/easily a.ed (by
always [d] daayman (dwm)                               nature)\annoy; easily a.ed (by
ambassador (diplomatic) [n] safiyr sufara (sfr)        nature)\irascible [a] aHmag Hamga (=
ambulance [n] 9arabiyyat is9aaf 9arabaat               [maHmuwg], [mitHammig] (Jameel [LA78.4])
  is9aaf?\9arabiyyaat is9aaf? (s9f)                    Humug (Hmg)
ambulance [n] is9aaf ? (s9f)                          angry (temporary state)\annoy; a.ed
ambulance [n] 9arabiyyat is9aaf 9arabaat               (temporary state)\engrage; e.d
  is9aaf?\9arabiyyaat is9aaf? (9rb)                    (temporary state)?\infuriate; i.d
America [nx] amriyka ('mrk)                            (temporary state) [a] Hamgaan –iyn\Hamaaga
America [nx] imriyka ('mrk)                            (Hmg)
                                                      6
angry (very)\furious\enrage; e.d [a]                      ant/a.s (insect) [ng] namil coll (nml)
 maHruwg –iyn (Hrg)                                       antiquity; a.ies [np] aasaar ('sr)
angry (very)\furious\enrage; e.d\irate [a]                anxiety\apprehension\fear?\worry\concern
 ma#yuwZ –iyn (#yZ)                                        [n] galag (glg)
angry (very)\furious\enrage; e.d\irate [a]                anxious [a] galgaan (= [migallig]) –iyn (glg)
 mit#aaZ/mut#aaZ –iyn (#yZ)                               any [o] ayyi +GEN ('y;)
angry with\cross with\annoy; a.ed with [aj]               any; at a. time\anytime\whenever? [o] fiy
 za9laan min –iyn (z9l)                                    ayyi wakit ('y;)
angry; get a. with\annoy; get a. with\feel                any; at a. time\anytime\whenever? [o] ayyi
 (come to f.) angry\annoyed with [vj+] zi9il               wakit ('y;)
 min yaz9al (z9l)                                         any; at a. time\anytime\whenever? [n/] fiy
angry?\cross?\furious? [a] maHruwg –iyn?                   ayyi wakit (wkt)
 (Hrg)                                                    anybody\anyone\everybody\everyone [n/?]
angry\furious?\infuriate; i.d?\enrage; e.d?                ayyi baniy aadam ('bn)
 [a] #aDbaan –iyn (\[#aDaaba] – possibly; rural           anybody\anyone\everybody\everyone [nx?]
 (#Db)                                                     ayyi baniy aadam ('dm)
angry\furious\enrage; e.d [a] maHmuwg (=                  anybody\anyone\everybody\everyone [o ?]
 [aHmag], [mitHammig] (Jameel [LA78.4])                    ayyi baniy aadam ('y;)
 (Hmg)                                                    anyhow\any; by a. means/in a. way [n] bay
angry\furious\enrage; e.d [a] mitHammig (=                 ayyi Tariyga (Trg)
 [aHmag], [maHmuwg] (Jameel [LA78.4]) –iyn                anyhow\means; by any m.\way; in any way
 (Hmg)                                                     [n] bay ayyi Tariyga (Trg)
animal\beast\creature [n] Haywaan\HaYwaan                 anyone\anybody [n] waaHid (wHd)
 –aat (Hya)                                               anyone\anybody\everyone\everybody [o]
animal\beast\creature (big animal only;                    ayyi Hadd ('y;)
 small animals are [Ha∫ara] [n]                           anyone\anybody\everyone\everybody [o]
 Haywaan\HaYwaan –aat (Hya)                                ayyi waaHid ('y;)
annoy (deliberately) [vt] 9aakas yi9aakis (9ks)           anyone\anybody\everyone\everybody [o]
annoy YES\irritate\trouble?\bother?\worry?                 ayyi zawl ('y;)
 [vt] Daayag yiDaayig (Dyg)                               anyone\anybody\everyone\everybody [w]
annoy; a.ed with\irritate; i.d with\fed up                 ayyi Hadd (Hd;)
 with\sick (and tired) of\bored with                      anyone\anybody\everyone\everybody [n]
 (implying also annoyance/anger) [aj]                      ayyi zawl (zwl)
 zahjaan min –iyn (zhj)                                   anyone\anybody\everyone\everybody [a]
annoy?\exasperate?\anger\enrage?\infuriat                  ayyi waaHid (wHd)
 e [vt] #aDDab yi#aDDib (#Db)                             anything [o] ayyi Haaja ('y;)
annoy\irritate? [vt] za99al yiza99il (z9l)                anything [o] ayyi ∫iy (also [ayyu ∫i] – or perhaps
annoy\irritate? [vt] 9aakas yi9aakis (9ks)                 [aYYu ∫i]) ('y;)
annoyance\irritation\trouble?\inconvenienc                anything [n] ayyi Haaja (Hwj)
 e?\disturbance [n] daW∫a (dw∫)                           anything [n] ayyi ∫iy (∫y)
annoyance\irritation\trouble?\inconvenienc                anything (spoken about) [o] ayyi kalaam ('y;)
 e?\disturbance [n] iz9aaj –aat (z9j)                     anything (spoken about) [n] ayyi kalaam
annoying\troublesome\irksome\nuisance"                     (klm)
 [a] muz9ij –iyn (z9j)                                    anyway\rate; at any r.\anyhow\whatever
annoying\troublesome\irksome\nuisance"                     (the case) [o] 9ala ayyi Haal ('y;)
 [a] fagriy –iyn\*fagaariy\fagaara (fgr)                  anyway\rate; at any r.\anyhow\whatever
another [a] taaniy –iyn ([taaniyn], or [taaniyiyn])        (the case) [n] 9ala ayyi Haal (Hwl)
 (tna)                                                    anyway\rate; at any r.\anyhow\whatever
another; one a.\each other\other; each o.                  (the case) [n] 9ala kullu Haal (Hwl)
 [n/?] ba9áD–um ba9aD (b9D)                               anyway\rate; at any r.\anyhow\whatever
answer\reply\respond [vd] jaawab 9ala                      (the case) [j] 9ala ayyi Haal (9la)
 yijaawib (jwb)                                           anyway\rate; at any r.\anyhow\whatever
answer\reply\respond [vtj] jaawab 9ala                     (the case) [j] 9ala kullu Haal (9la)
 yijaawib (jwb)                                           anyway\rate; at any r.\anyhow\whatever
ant (insect) [ns] namla –aat (nml)                         (the case) [n] 9ala kullu Haal (kl;)
                                                  7
anywhere\everywhere [o] fiy ayyi Hitta ('y;)          appropriate; be a. for [vt] naasab yinaasib
anywhere\everywhere [o] fiy ayyi maHall ('y;)          (nsb)
anywhere\everywhere [o] ayyi makaan ('y;)             appropriate; be a.\fit; be f.for?\suitable; be
anywhere\everywhere [o] ayyi Hitta ('y;)               s.for [vt?] ∫ibih ya∫bah (∫bh)
anywhere\everywhere [o] ayyi maHall ('y;)             approximate; a.ly\around\about\rough; r.ly
anywhere\everywhere [n] fiy ayyi Hitta (Ht;)           [j] Hawaalay (Hwl)
anywhere\everywhere [n] ayyi Hitta (Ht;)              Arab [a] 9arabiy 9arab (9rb)
anywhere\everywhere [n] ayyi maHall (Hl;)             Arab (A.ic–speaking nomad) [a] 9arabiy
anywhere\everywhere [n] fiy ayyi maHall                9arab (9rb)
 (Hl;)                                                Arab (i.e. Sudanese; used as insult) [n]
anywhere\everywhere [d]? ayyi maHall (Hl;)             9arbájiy –iyya (9rb)
anywhere\everywhere [d]? ayyi makaan (kwn)            Arab; non–Arab (anyone who doesn’t
anywhere\everywhere [n] fiy ayyi makaan                pronounce Arabic properly; used as
 (kwn)                                                 insult)\foreigner? anyone who doesn’t
apart from [o?] #ayr (#yr)                             pronounce Arabic properly; used as
apartment\flat\compartment (in a train)? [n]           insult) [n] 9ajamiy –iyn\9ajam (9jm)
 ∫igga\∫agga\∫ugga ∫igag\∫ugag (∫g;)                  Arab; non–Arab anyone who doesn’t
apartment\flat\compartment (in a train)? [n]           pronounce Arabic properly; used as
 ∫igga\∫agga\∫ugga ∫igag\∫ugag (∫g;)                   insult)\foreigner? anyone who doesn’t
apology [n/] 9uzur a9zaar (9zr)                        pronounce Arabic properly; used as
apology (asking for permission to do st.)              insult) [n] 9ajamiy 9ujum (9jm)
 [n] isti'zaan ('zn)                                  Arab; the A. world [ax] al–9aalam al–9arabiy
apology\excuse\plea? [n] i9tizaar –aat (9zr)           (9rb)
appeal (legal) [n] isti'naaf –aat ('nf)               Arabic [a?] kalaam al–9arab (9rb)
appear (i.e. come/be made to come into                Arabic [n] kalaam al–9arab ? (klm)
 being) [vi] HaSal yaHSal (HSl)                       Arabic (language) [n] kalaam al–9arab (9rb)
appear (publication)\come out                         Arabic (language) [a] 9arabiy (9rb)
 (publication)\publish; be p.ed [vi] Sadar            Arabic (language) [n] kalaam al–9arab (klm)
 yaSdur (Sdr)                                         Arabic; broken A.\broken Arabic kalaam al–
appear (publication)\come out                          9ajam (klm)
 (publication)\publish; be p.ed [vi] Tala9            Arabic; Classical/Standard A. [nx?] 9arabiy
 yaTla9 (Tl9)                                          faSiyH (9rb)
appear\seem [vi] Zahar yaZhar (Zhr)                   Arabic; classical/standard A. [nx?] 9arabiy
appearance [n/] ∫akil a∫kaal (∫kl)                     faSiyH (9rb)
appearance [n] maZhar maZaahir (Zhr)                  Arabic; classical/standard A. [nx?] al–
appendix (to a book) [n] mulHaq –                      9arabiy al–faSiyH (9rb)
 aat\malaaHiq (lHg)                                   aragi; alcoholic drink made from dates or
appetite [n/] nafis nufuws\anfus(Standard,             millet [n] 9aragiy (9rg)
 surely) (nfs)                                        aragi; date aragi [9aragiy] [n] 9aragiy balaH
appetite [n] ∫ahiyya none (∫ha)                        (9rg)
application\use\employment\utilisation [n]            aragi; millet/durra/sorghum aragi [9aragiy]
 isti9maal (9ml)                                       [n] 9aragiy 9ay∫ (9rg)
apply (specifically) to\concern\regard [vt]           architecture [n] mi9maar none (9mr)
 xaSSa yaxuSS (xS;)                                   area; industrial a.\region; industrial r. [n]
apply for [nj?] gaddam Talab 9an yigaddim (Tlb)        manTiga Sinaa9iyya (nTg)
apply for [vj] gaddam lay yigaddim (gdm)              argue with (people) [vi] xa∫∫a ma9a (naas) fiy
apprehend\arrest [vj]/[vt] gabaD (9alay)               kalaam yaxu∫∫ (x∫;)
 yagbuD (gbD)                                         argue with (people) [n] xa∫∫a ma9a (naas) fiy
approach\get near\come near\near;                      kalaam yaxu∫∫ (klm)
 get/come n. [vjm] garrab min/lay yigarrib            argue; a.ing [n] jawTa none? (jwT)
 (grb)                                                argue; a.ing (always with violence) [nv]
approach\get near\come near\near;                      ∫akal coll (∫kl)
 get/come n. [vjm] garrab min/lay yigarrib            argument (normally, but not necessarily
 (grb)                                                 with violence)\quarrel (normally, but not
                                                       necessarily with violence)\dispute
                                                8
 (normally, but not necessarily with                 it')\conceited (literally: 'acting as though
 violence)\fight\disagreement (normally,             he created it')\pompous (literally: 'acting
 but not necessarily with violence) [nsv]            as though he created
 ∫akla –aat (∫kl)                                    it')\immodest?(literally: 'acting as though
argument (normally, but not necessarily              he created it') [a] 9aamil fiy-ha xaalíg-a (xlg)
 with violence)\quarrel (normally, but not          arrogant\haughty\proud [a] mitkabbir –iyn
 necessarily with violence)\dispute                  (kbr)
 (normally, but not necessarily with                art [n] fann funuwn (fn;)
 violence)\fight\disagreement (normally,            article (written) [n] maqaal –aat (gwl)
 but not necessarily with violence) [nsv]           article (written) [n] maqaala –aat (gwl)
 ∫akla –aat (∫kl)                                   artist (including singers, etc.) [n] fannaan –
argument (normally, but not necessarily              iyn (NOT *[–a]) (fn;)
 with violence)\quarrel (normally, but not          as (in its (etc.) capacity as) [j ] ka-(+ NOUN)
 necessarily with violence)\dispute                  (ka)
 (normally, but not necessarily with                as long as\long; as long as [vi] maa daam
 violence)\fight\disagreement (normally,             (dwm)
 but not necessarily with violence) [nsv]           as long as\long; as long as [o] maa daam
 ∫akla –aat (∫kl)                                    (ma)
argument\dispute\discussion\debate [n]              as soon as\soon; as s. as [c] saa9at (sw9)
 niqaa∫\*nigaa∫ –aat (ng∫)                          as soon as\soon; as s. as [n] saa9at maa
arise\come about\happen\occur\place; take            (sw9)
 p. [vi] HaSal yaHSal (HSl)                         as soon as\soon; as s. as [c] saa9at (sw9)
arm [vt] sallaH yisalliH (slH)                      as soon as\soon; as s. as [o] saa9at maa (ma)
arm (upper a.)\forearm? [nf?] Duraa9                as soon as\soon; as s. as [o] wakit maa (ma)
 Duru9\*aDri9a\*Dir9aan (Dr9)                       as soon as\soon; as s. as [n/] wakit maa
arm (upper a.)\forearm? [nb] Duraa9                  (wkt)
 Duru9\*aDri9a\*Dir9aan (Dr9)                       as soon as\soon; as s. as [c/] wakit (wkt)
arm and hand [nf?] iyd ? ('yd)                      as\capacity; in …'s capacity as\in …'s
arm and hand [nf?] yadd yaddayn (yd;)                capacity as [j] bay Sifat … (by)
arm and hand? [nf] iyd ayaadiy \yaddayn (for        as\capacity; in …'s capacity as\in …'s
 both dual and plural) ('yd)                         capacity as [j] ka (k)
arm/armament\weapon [n] silaaH asliHa (slH)         as\capacity; in …'s capacity as\in …'s
army [n] jay∫ jiyuw∫ (jy∫)                           capacity as [n] bay Sifat … (wSf)
aroma\scent\smell (pleasant)\fragrance [n]          as\just as? [j] zayy maa (zy;)
 nakha –aat (nkh)                                   as\just as? [c] zayy (zy;)
around (physical)\round (physical)                  ascertain\certain; make c. of [vj] it'akkad min
 Hawaalayn (Hwl)                                     yit'akkad ('kd)
around\about\circa (normally with time?)            ascertain\certain; make c. of [vj] itHaggag
 [j] Hawaalay (Hwl)                                  min yitHaggag (Hg;)
arrange\align?\stack up?\pile up? [vt] raSSa        ash coloured\grey [a] ramaadiy (rmd)
 yaruSS (rS;)                                       ashame; a.d\bashful?\shy?\diffident? [a]
arrest (esp. for political                           mistiHiy –iyn (sHa)
 reasons)\apprehend (esp. for political             ashame; a.d\embarass; e.ed\shy
 reasons)\detain (esp. for political                 (inappopriately)\timid
 reasons) [vt] i9taqal ya9taqil (9gl)                (inappropriately)\diffident
arrive at?\reach [vtm?] liHig yalHag (lHg)           (inappropriately) [a] muxta∫iy –iyn (x∫a)
arrive at\get to (a place)\reach\come to [vt]       ashtray [n] Taffaaya –aat (Tfa)
 HaSSal yiHaSSil (HSl)                              aside (on one's own)\side; to one s. (on
arrive at\reach\come to\get to [vtm] waSal           one's own) [j] baraa +PRONOUN SUFFIXES
 yawSil (wSl)                                        (bra)
arrogant (literally: 'acting as though he           ask a favour of (ask (so.) for a favour) [vj]
 created it')\haughty (literally: 'acting as         Talab min (∫axs) ma9ruwf yaTlub (Tlb)
 though he created it')\proud (literally:           ask about (so. or st.)\inquire about (so. or
 'acting as though he created it')\vain              st.) [vtj+?] sa'al min/9an yas'al (sal)
 (literally: 'acting as though he created
                                                   9
ask about (so./st.?)\inquire about [vj+?] sa'al        attack\charge?\assault?\onslaught?\raid?
 9an yas'al (sal)                                       [ns] hajma –aat (hjm)
ask about (st. only)\inquire about (st. only)          attack\charge?\assault?\onslaught?\raid?
 [vtj+?] sa'al fiy yas'al (sal)                         [nv?] hujuwm none (hjm)
ask for (st.) from (so.) (ask so. for st.) [vj]        attention; not paying a.\pay; not p.ing
 Talab min yaTlub (Tlb)                                 attention [a] musaTTiH –iyn? (sTH)
ass; she–a.\donkey; female d.\female; f.               attention; not to pay a.\pay; not p.ing
 donkey [n] Humaara –aat (Hmr)                          attention\(*?)disregard\unaware; to be u.
ass\donkey [n] Humaar Hamiyr/Hammaar                    of what's going on\out; to be out of
 (Hmr)                                                  it\involve; not to be i. in things [vi] saTTaH
assemble\amass?\accumulate?\rally?\roun                 yisaTTiH (sTH)
 d up? [vt] jama9 (passive: [it–], [in–]) yajma9       attention; pay a.\look out\mind; bear in m.
 (jm9)                                                  [n] xalliy baalak min (bwl)
assent\acceptance\approval\consent [nm]                attention; pay a.\look out\mind; bear in m.
 ruDa (rDa)                                             [vt] xalliy baalak (xla)
association (formal)\group [n] majmuw9a –              aubergine [ng] aswad coll (swd)
 aat (jm9)                                             audience (e.g. in cinema)\spectator; s.s (at
association\society\organisation [n]                    sports event) [n] jamhuwr none? (jmhr)
 jam9iyya —aat (jm9)                                   aunt (father's sister)\paternal aunt [n]
assume\suppose [vi+] faraD yafruD (frD)                 9amma –aat (9m;)
astonish; be a.ed (by/at)\amaze; be a.d\(by)           aunt; maternal a.\maternal a. [n] xaala –aat
 surprise; be s.d (by/at) [vj] indaha∫ (min)            (xwl)
 yandahi∫ (dh∫)                                        authority\standing\status [nm] mustawa –yaat
astonish; be a.ed by?\amaze; be a.d by?                 (swa)
 [vt+?] ista#rab yasta#rib (#rb)                       autumn\rainy season\season; rainy s. [n]
astonish; be a.ed by?\amaze; be a.d                     xariyf –aat\xaraayif (xrf)
 by?\strange; find s.\odd; find o.\surprise;           avaricious?\greedy? [a] baxiyl –iyn\buxala
 be s.d at?\unusual; find u. [vj] ista#rab              (bxl)
 lay/min ? (#rb)                                       avaricious?\greedy? [a/] fasil –iyn (fsl)
astonish;a.ing\amaze;a.ing\remarkable\ridi             avaricious\greedy\miser\skinflint [a] baxiyl –
 culous [a] 9ajiyb –iyn (9jb)                           iyn\buxala (bxl)
astonishing\amazing\surprising [a] mudhi∫ ?            avoid\away; keep a. from\clear; stay c. of
 (dh∫)                                                  [vt] itjannab yitjannab (jnb)
astonishment\amazement\surprise?\wonde                 awake; stay a. at night chattingADD MORE
 r? [nsv] dah∫a (dh∫)                                   [vi] sahar yashar (shr)
astray\stray/s.ing\wander; w.ing\lost [a]              awake; stay a. at night chattingADD MORE
 taayih –iyn (tyh)                                      [v] saahar (shr)
astray\stray/s.ing\wander; w.ing\lost [a]              awake? [a] misaahir –iyn (shr)
 raayiH –iyn (rwH)                                     awake? [a] sahraan –iyn (shr)
at all [o] wa-laa (la)                                 awake\wakeful?\conscious?\sober? [a]
at all [c] wa-laa (w)                                   SaaHiy –iyn (SHa)
at all (in negative contexts) [d] tabb (=              awful\bad\rubbish\lousy\rotten [n] zayy az–
 [Tabb], [Dumma]) (tb;)                                 zift (zft)
at all (in negative contexts) [d] Tabb (=              awful\bad\rubbish\lousy\rotten [a] zift (zft)
 [tabb], [Dumma]) (Tb;)                                awful\bad\rubbish\lousy\rotten [a/] zifit (zft)
at night\by night [j] bil–layl (by)                    awkward (in movement)\gawky\clumsy (in
atmosphere\state (of place/person) [n] jaww             movement)\ungainly (in
 (jw;)                                                  movement)\uncoordinated (in movement)
attack\aggress against [vj] it9adda 9alay               [a] 9awiyr –iyn\9uwara (9wr)
 yit9adda (9da)                                        awkward; bc. a. (in movement)\gawky; bc.
attack\assail?\charge?\raid?\storm?\assaul              g.\clumsy; bc. c. (in movement)\ungainly;
 t? [vj] hajam 9ala yahjim (hjm)                        bc. u. (in movement)\uncoordinated; bc.
attack\assail\charge?\pounce                            u. (in movement) [vi] 9iwir ya9war (9wr)
 on?\raid?\assault? [vt] haajam yihaajim               axe (European type)\hatchet [ne] faas
 (hjm)                                                  fawasa\faysaan (fas)
                                                  10
axe\hatchet?\hoe? [ne] faas fawasa\faysaan             bad\wicked [a/] ka9ab –iyn (k9b)
 (fas)                                                 baffle; b.d (i.e. not knowing that to do
baby (of animal)\young (of animal) [n] jana             about a problem)\perplex; p.ed (i.e. not
 jinyaat\jinyaan (jna)                                  knowing that to do about a problem)\non-
baby\infant\child\son [n] jana jinyaan (jna)            plussed (i.e. not knowing that to do about
baby\infant\child\son [n] jana jinyaat (jna)            a problem)\stump; s.ed) i.e. not knowing
bachelor\unmarried man\single man [n]                   that to do about a problem) [a] maHnaan –
 9azzaabiy –a\(*?)–iyya (9zb)                           iyn? (mHn)
bachelorhood [n] 9izuwbiyya (9zb)                      baffle; bc. b.d (i.e. not to know that to do
back [d] wara (wra)                                     about a problem)\perplex; bc. p.ed (i.e.
back [d] lay wara (wra)                                 not to know that to do about a
back; bring/give/send b. [vtm?] rajja9 yirajji9         problem)\non-plussed; bc. n. (i.e. not to
 (rj9)                                                  know that to do about a problem)\stump;
back\rear (part/side)? [n/] Dahar Duhuwr                bc. s.ed) i.e. not to know that to do about
 (Dhr)                                                  a problem) [vjs] miHin bay yamHan (mHn)
back-to-front?\wrong; the w. way                       baffle; be b.d? over\perplex; be p.ed
 round\round; the wrong way r. [j] bi-l-9aks            over\confuse; be c.d over [vi] iHtaar fiy
 (by)                                                   yaHtaar (Hyr)
back-to-front?\wrong; the w. way                       baffle; be b.d?\perplex; be p.ed?\confuse;
 round\round; the wrong way r. [j] bi-l-9akis           be c.d? [vi] itHayyar yitHayyar (Hyr)
 (by)                                                  baffle?\perplex?\confuse [vt] Hayyar
back-to-front?\wrong; the w. way                        yiHayyir (Hyr)
 round\round; the wrong way r. [n] bi-l-9aks           baffle\bewilder\perplex\confuse [vts]
 (9ks)                                                  maHHan yimaHHin (mHn)
back-to-front?\wrong; the w. way                       bag (made of paper,plastic +?) [n] kiys
 round\round; the wrong way r. [n/] bi-l-               akyaas (kys)
 9akis (9ks)                                           bag\suitcase\satchel?\handbag? [n] ∫anTa
backward/s [j] lay wara (ly)                            ∫inaT (∫nT)
backward/s [d] lay wara (wra)                          bake (bread only?) [vt] xabaz yaxbiz (xbz)
backward/s [d] wara (wra)                              balance\scales\weigh; w.ing machine [n]
backward\undeveloped\underdeveloped [a]                 mayzaan mawaaziyn (wzn)
 mitxallif –iyn (xlf)                                  balance\scales\weigh; w.ing machine [n]
bad (e.g. of pain, headache)\terrible (e.g. of          mayzaan mayaaziyn (wzn)
 pain, headache) [a] ∫adiyd –iyn (∫d;)                 balanites aegyptiaca; tree, and fruit of the
bad (of food) [a] baTTaal –iyn (bTl)                    b.a.tree [ng] laalawb coll (lalb)
bad (of food) [a] ∫ayn –iyn (∫yn)                      balanites aegyptiaca; tree, and fruit of the
bad (of food) [a/] ka9ab –iyn (k9b)                     b.a.tree [ns] laalawba –aat (lalb)
bad (of food) [a/] ka9ab (k9b)                         ball [n] kuwra kuwar (kwr)
bad (of taste) (= [maasix]; opp. of                    balloon [ns] ambuwba anaabiyb (nb;)
 [Taa9im])\spoilt (of taste) ((= [maasix];             banana (fruit)/banana tree [ns] mawza –aat
 opp. of [Taa9im])\unpleasant (of taste) ((=            (mwz)
 [maasix]; opp. of [Taa9im]) [a] masiyx ?              banana/b.s [ng] mawz coll (mwz)
 (msx)                                                 banana; a single b. [ng] giT9at mawz ? (mwz)
bad (of taste) (= [masiyx]; opp. of                    banana; a single b. [ng] Habbat mawz ? (mwz)
 [Taa9im])\spoilt (of taste) ((= [masiyx];             bandage [n] Dammaada –aat (Dmd)
 opp. of [Taa9im])\unpleasant (of taste) ((=           bandage (e.g. to support sprained
 [masiyx]; opp. of [Taa9im]) [a] maasix ?               ankle)\dressing (e.g. to support sprained
 (msx)                                                  ankle) [n] rubaaT –aat\arbiTa (rbT)
bad (of work) [a] baTTaal (bTl)                        bandage; outer layer of (medical) b. [n]
bad (opp. of [Taaza])\stale (opp. of                    ∫ariyT ? (∫rT)
 [Taaza])\off; (opp. of [Taaza]) [a] gadiym            bang (on)\strike [vt] nagar yangur (ngr)
 (gdm)                                                 bang on [vj] nagar fiy yangur (ngr)
bad food\stale food?\off;food which is o.?             bang; I banged my head [vtj]
 [a] akil baTTaal (bTl)                                 dakamta/Taggayt/daggayt raas–íy (dg;)
bad\wicked [a] baTTaal –iyn (bTl)
                                                 11
bang; I banged my head [vtj]                          bastard (female)?\illegitimate
 dakamta/Taggaiy/daggaiyt raas–íy (dkm)                daughter?\daughter; illegitimate c.? [n?]
bang; I banged my head [vtj]                           bitt al-Haraam (Hrm)
 dakamta/Taggayt/daggayt raas–íy (Tg;)                bastard\illegitimate child\child; illegitimate
bank (commercial) [n] bank\bankiy                      c. [n?] wadd al-Haraam (Hrm)
 bunuwk\bunuwka (bnk)                                 bastard\illegitimate child\child; illegitimate
bank of river\coast (sea)\shore? [n] gayf              c. [n] wadd al-Haraam (wld)
 giyfaan (gyf)                                        bath; take a b.\bathe [vi] istaHamma
bankrupt; go b.\insolvent; become i. [vi]              yistaHamma (Hm;)
 fallas yifallis (fls)                                bath\bathroom [n] Hammaam –aat (Hm;)
baobab tree [ns] tabaldiyya –aat (tbld)               bathroom with shower\shower [n]
baobab tree/t.s [ng] tabaldiy coll (tbld)              Hammaam du∫∫ –aat du∫∫ (Hm;)
baobab; fruit of the b. tree [ng] gungulayS           bathroom with shower\shower [n]
 coll (gngl)                                           Hammaam du∫∫ –aat du∫∫ (d∫;)
baobab; fruit of the b. tree [ns] gungulaySa –        battery (for motor vehicles only?) [n]
 aat (gngl)                                            baTTaariyya baTaaTiyr (bTr)
bar (for alcoholic drinks) [n] baar –aat (bar)        battery (for torch/radio, etc.) [n] Hajar
barber\hairdresser (men's only?) [n] Hallaag           baTTaariyya Hujaa baTTaariyya\Hijaaraat
 –iyn\Halaaliyg (NOT *[–a]) (Hlg)                      baTTaariyya (Hjr)
barefoot/b.ed [n] Hafyaan iyn\Hafaaya (Hfa)           battery (for torch/radio, etc.) [n] Hajar
baseless claim?\claim; empty/false/untrue              baTTaariyya Hujaa baTTaariyya\Hijaaraat
 c.?\rumour\hearsay [n] di9aaya –aat (d9a)             baTTaariyya (Hjr)
bashful (by temperament)\diffident (by                battle?\fight\struggle?\combat\strife [n]
 temperament)\timid (by                                kitaal –aat (ktl)
 temperament)\shy (by temperament) [a]                battlefield?\battle [n] ma9raka ma9aarik (9rk)
 xajuwl (xjl)                                         be\exist?\happen\occur\place; take p. [vt+]
bashful (suggesting previous bad                       kaan yakuwn (kwn)
 behaviour on part of person referred to,             bear in mind\consider [vt] Hira yaHra (Hra)
 causing them to feel bashful)\diffident              beard [n/] digin duguwn (dgn)
 (suggesting previous bad behaviour on                beard; a man with a b. [n/] abuw digin (naas)
 part of person referred to, causing them              9inda–hum diguwn (dgn)
 to feel diffident)\timid (suggesting                 beard; have o.s b. cut [vt] Halag yaHlig (Hlg)
 previous bad behaviour on part of person             beard; man with a b. [n/] abuw digin (naas)
 referred to, causing them to feel                     9inda–hum diguwn (dgn)
 timid)\shy (suggesting previous bad                  beat (hard)\strike (hard)\knock on
 behaviour on part of person referred to,              (hard)\rap on (hard)\bang on (hard) [vt]
 causing them to feel shy)\ashamed                     xabat yaxbut\yaxbit (xbT)
 (suggesting previous bad behaviour on                beat (of the heart) [vt] dagga yadugg (dg;)
 part of person referred to)\embarrassed              beat on?\strike on?\knock on\rap on\bang
 (suggesting previous bad behaviour on                 on [vj] xabbat fiy yixabbit (xbT)
 part of person referred to) [a] xajlaan –iyn         beat/beating of the heart)\hearbeat [nv]
 (xjl)                                                 dagga (dg;)
bashful\shy\diffident\embarrassed\too shy             beat; single b. of the heart)\hearbeat;
 (to do st.) [a] mistaHiy –iyn (Hya)                   single h. [ns] dagga (dg;)
basin\sink\trough\water–trough [n] HawD               beat\defeat\triumph over\overcome [vjz+]
 HayDaan\aHwaaT? (HwD)                                 gidir 9ala yagdar (gdr)
basin\washbasin/washbowl\bowl;                        beat\defeat\triumph\win\victorious; be v.
 washbowl [n/] Ta∫it Tu∫uwt\Tu∫aata (T∫t)              (over) [vt] #alab ya#lib (#lb)
basket (type?) [n] guffa gufaaf\gufaf (gf;)           beat\strike\hit [vt] Darab yaDrab (Drb)
basket (what type?) [n] sabat sabaata (sbt)           beautiful\graceful\lovely\pretty\handsome?
bastard (female)?\illegitimate                         \nice [a] jamiyl –iyn (jml)
 daughter?\daughter; illegitimate c.? [n]             beauty [n] jamaal (jml)
 bitt al-Haraam (bnt)                                 beauty\prettiness [n] samaaHa (smH)
                                                      because [c] li'ann- ('n;)
                                                      because [c] li'ann-uw ('n;)
                                                   12
because [c] li'inn-uw ('n;)                             before\prior to (the time when) [j/] gubbaal
because [c] li'inn- ('n;)                                maa (= [gabbaal maa]) (gbl)
because of [j] bay sabab (by)                           before\prior to (the time when) [c] gubbaal
because of [n] bay sabab (sb;)                           (gbl)
because of?\acccording to? [j] fiy (fy)                 before\prior to (the time when) [o] gubbaal
because of\account; on a. of\due                         maa (ma)
 to\cause"\make" [j] min (mn)                           beg (from)\alms; ask for a. (from)\charity;
because of\due to\account; on a. of [n] 9ala             ask for c. (from) [vt] ∫aHad ya∫Had (∫Hd)
 ∫aan (∫an)                                             beggar [n] ∫aHHaad –iyn (∫Hd)
because of\due to\account; on a. of [n] fiy             beggar [n] miskiyn masaakiyn? (mskn)
 ∫aan (∫an)                                             begin\start [vi+?] bada fiy/bay yabda (bda)
because of\for\sake; for the s. of\due to? [j]          begin\start [vt+?] bada yabda (bda)
 lay (ly)                                               beginning; at the b. of the day\start; at the
because\since [n] 9ala ∫aan (∫an)                        s. of the day [a] fiy awwal an–nahaar ('wl)
because\since [n] fiy ∫aan (∫an)                        beginning; at the b. of the day\start; at the
because\since\for\as [c] 9a∫aan (∫an)                    s. of the day [a] awwal an–nahaar ('wl)
because\since\for\as [c] 9a∫aan (9la)                   beginning; at the baginning of May [a ?] fiy
because\since\for\as [c] 9ala ∫aan (9la)                 awwal ∫ahri xamsa ('wl)
become vt+] biga yabga (bga)                            beginning; in the b. [a] fil–awwal ('wl)
bed (European–type only?) [n] sariyr saraayir           beginning\start [n] bidaaya –aat (bda)
 (sr;)                                                  behave yourself! [n] xalliy 9ind-ak adab ('db)
bed; traditional wooden–framed rope                     behave yourself! [vd]? xalliy 9ind-ak adab (xla)
 bed\bier [n] 9angarayb 9anaagriyb (9ngr)               behave yourself! [j] xalliy 9ind-ak adab (9nd)
bedding (article of b.?)(put on floor only?)            behave\act [vi] itSarraf yitSarraf (Srf)
 [n/] fari∫ *furuw∫\fir∫aat (fr∫)                       behaviour (esp. in school)\conduct (esp. in
bedding; item of b. (= any article used to               school) [n] suluwk (slk)
 make up b.; e.g. mattress ([martaba]),                 behaviour; feature/kind/type of b.\conduct;
 sheet ([milaaya]), pillow ([maxadda]) [n]               aspect of c.\act\action [n] taSarruf –aat (Srf)
 furaa∫ –aat\fir∫aat\*afri∫a (fr∫)                      behind; from b.\behind; from b.\past; from
bedding; put b. on a bed\make (a bed)\put                p. [j] min wara (wra)
 bedding on a bed [vt] fara∫ yafru∫\yafri∫ (fr∫)        behind; from b.\rear; from the r. of [j] min
bedroom\room; bedroom [n] awDat nawm                     wara (wra)
 uwaD nawm ('wD)                                        behind\rear; at the r. of\back; at the b. of [j]
bedroom\room; bedroom [n] awDat nawm                     wara (wra)
 uwaD nawm (nwm)                                        behind\rear; at the r. of\back; at the b. of [j]
bedstead (iron only?)\iron bedstead? [n]                 bay wara lay (wra)
 sariyr saraayir (sr;)                                  beige (colour) [a] bayj (byj)
bee (insect) [ns] naHala –aat (nHl)                     beige (colour) [a] bayjiy (byj)
bee/b.s (insect) [ng/] naHal coll (nHl)                 belief? [n] fikra afkaar\*fikar (fkr)
beer [n] biyra none (byr)                               believe (in) [vj] aaman bay yi'aamin ('mn)
beer; millet b.\millet beer\sorghum beer [n]            believe (in) [vj] aaman bay ya'min\yu'min ('mn)
 mariysa (mrs)                                          believe (so.) about (st.) [vtj] Saddag fiy
before [j/] gabli maa (gbl)                              yiSaddig (Sdg)
before [o] gabli maa (ma)                               believe (that) [vj] i9tagad (ann–uw) ya9tagid
before; b. you get to"\way; on your way                  (9gd)
 to"? [a] bay jaay (jy)                                 believe (that) [vj+]? i9taqad ya9taqid (9qd)
before; before you get to/arrive at"? [j] bay           believe"; b. in [aj] mu'min bay –iyn ('mn)
 jaay (by)                                              believe\think\consider\regard as [vd] ∫aaf
before\prior to [j] gubbaal (gbl)                        ya∫uwf (∫wf)
before\prior to [j/] gabul (gbl)                        believe\think\deem\regard\consider\hold?
before\prior to (the time when) [n/] gabul ma            [vt+] ∫aaf ya∫uwf (∫wf)
 (gbl)                                                  believe\trust? [vt?] Saddag yiSaddig (Sdg)
before\prior to (the time when) [n/]? gabli ma          believer (in God, ideology)\faithful
 (gbl)                                                   (Muslim) [n] mu'min –iyn ('mn)
                                                   13
bell (also bit of metal, etc. used as bell) [n]         better; get b.\improve [vi] itHassan yitHassan
 jaras ajraas (jrs)                                      (Hsn)
belly?\stomach\abdomen? [nf/] baTun                     better; get better\improve\ameliorate [vi]
 buTuwn (bTn)                                            itHassan yitHassan (Hsn)
belong; b.ing to\own; o.ed by [o] bitaa9 (bt9)          better; it is b. for … [a] aHsan + IMPERFECT
belong; b.ing to\own; o.ed by [o?] Hagg                  (Hsn)
 +GEN (Hg;)                                             better; make better\improve\ameliorate [vt]
belonging; b.s?\stuff? [n] Haaja Hawaayij                Hassan yiHassin (Hsn)
 (Hwj)                                                  between you and me\private;
beloved (used affectionately of children: =              p.ly\confidential; c.ly [j] bayniy uw–baynak
 [(al–)Habiyb] [n] Hannaan –iyn? (Hn;)                   (byn)
beloved\loved one\friend (dear/close)\lover             between\among/a.st\amid/a.st [j] bayn (byn)
 [n] Habiyb Habaayib\aHibba (Hb;)                       bewilder; be b.d?\baffle; be b.d? [vjs]
beloved\sweetheart\lover\darling\friend [a]              maHHan min/fiy yimaHHin (mHn)
 Habiyb aHibba\Hibbaan (Hb;)                            bewitch\charm?\enchant? [vt] saHar yasHar
below\beneath\underneath [d/] tiHit (tHt)                (sHr)
below\under\beneath\underneath [j/] tiHit               beyond [j ?] bay–fawg (fwg)
 (tHt)                                                  beyond the orchard\other; on the o. side of
belt [n] Hizaam (normaly form [gaa∫]) –                  ... [d?] bi–#aadiy aj–jinayna (#da)
 aat\aHzima (Hzm)                                       beyond?\past? [j] wara (wra)
belt (esp. for trousers ) [n] gaa∫ –aat (ga∫)           bicycle\bike\cycle [n] 9ajala –aat (9jl)
bench [n] ban∫ –aat (bn∫)                               bier [n] 9angarayb 9anaagriyb (9ngr)
bench (e.g. in school, hospital) [n] kanaba –           big; make a b. thing out of\lot; make a l.
 aat? (knb)                                              of\to; make too much of\exaggerate [vt]
bend (e.g. a bent cucumber might be                      kabbar yikabbir (kbr)
 called [malfuwfa]) [vim] laffa yaliff (lf;)            big\large\huge? [a] waasi9 ? (ws9)
bend (e.g. a bent cucumber might be                     bilharzia (disease) [n] bilharsiya (blhr)
 called [mulawlawa]) [vim] laffa yaliff (lwa)           bilharzia (disease) [n] bawl ad–damm (bwl)
bend (e.g. a piece of wood)\curve (e.g. a               bilharzia (disease) [n] bawl ad–damm (dm;)
 piece of wood) [vt] 9awaj ya9wij (9wj)                 bill\invoice?\account (eg. bank) [n] Hisaab –
bend (e.g. wire, iron)\flex (e.g. wire, iron)            aat (Hsb)
 [vt] tana yatniy (tna)                                 bird [ns] Tayra –aat (Tyr)
bend the body\bow (esp. in prayer)\kneel?               bird/b.s [ng] Tayr Tuyuwr ([Tiyuwr] = 1. lots of;
 [vim] raka9 yarka9 (rk9)                                2. types of) (Tyr)
bend; b.ing of torso and prostration in                 birth [n] maylaad –aat (wld)
 prayer [nsv] rak9a –aat (rk9)                          birth; she gave b. to a boy\bear; she bore a
bend; bc. bent\twist; bc. t.ed [vi] laffa yaliff         son [vt] jaabat walad (jyb)
 (lf;)                                                  birthmark; (large) b. (believed to appear if
bend?\curve?\twist? [vt] 9awaj (passive: [in–],          mother doesn't get things she craves
 [it–] ? (9wj)                                           during pregnancy)\mark; (large)
benefit\good; do g. to\do good to [vt] nafa9             birthmark (believed to appear if mother
 yanfa9 (nf9)                                            doesn't get things she craves during
beside\next to\side; by the s. of\near? [j]              pregnancy) [ns]? waHama –aat? (wHm)
 jamb (jnb)                                             biscuit [ns] baskawiyta –aat (bskw)
beside\next to\side; by the s. of\near? [n]             biscuit [ns] baskawiyta –aat (bskw)
 bay–jamb (jnb)                                         biscuit (normally made at home) [ns] kayka
betrayal\treason?\deception [n] xiyaana                  –aat (kyk)
 (xwn)                                                  biscuit (there are numerous types of
better (for)\best (for) [aj] aHsan (lay) (Hsn)           [ka9ak]) [ns] ka9ka –aat (k9k)
better (for)\best (for) [aj] axayr (lay) (xyr)          biscuit (there are numerous types of
better (for)\best (for) [aj] adDal (lay) (fDl)           [ka9ak]) [ns] ka9kaaya –aat (k9k)
better for you (used as a threat)\best for              biscuit/b.s [ng] baskawiyt coll (bskw)
 you (used as a threat)\threat; phrase                  biscuit/b.s (there are numerous types of
 used as a threat (literally '(it is/would be)           [ka9ak]) [ng/] ka9ak coll (k9k)
 better for you) [aj] aHsan lay-k (Hsn)
                                                    14
biscuit; b.s (normally made at home) [ng]                blindness [n] 9ama (9ma)
 kayk none (kyk)                                         block of flats?\flat; block of f.s? [n] 9amaara
bit\piece [n] juzuw ajzaa' (jza)                          –aat (9mr)
bitch\dog; female d. (animal) [n] kalba –aat             block of flats?\flat; block of f.s? [n] 9imaara
 (klb)                                                    –aat (9mr)
bite [vt] kajam yakjim (kjm)                             block; (big) b. (of ice) [n] lawH ? (lwH)
bite (into) [vt?] 9aDDa (passive: [it–] (normal),        blood [n] damm dumuwm (dm;)
 [in–]) ya9aDDiy (9Da)                                   bloom\flower\blossom [vi] nawwar yinawwir
bite; take a b. out of (with a crunching                  (nwr)
 sound)\nibble a bit of (with a crunching                bloom\flower\blossom [vi] nawwar yinawwir
 sound) [vt] kajam yakjim (kjm)                           (nwr)
bite; take a small b. out of\nibble a bit of             blossom(s)\flowers [ng] zahar zuhuwr (zhr)
 [vt][vj] garam/garam min yagrim (grm)                   blouse [n] buluwza –aat (blwz)
bitter (taste) [a] muRR (mr;)                            blow (single)\hit (single) [ns] Darba –aat (Drb)
bitter\severe?\sharp?\painful? [a] muRR                  blow (wind)\rage (storm)? [vim?] habba
 (mr;)                                                    yahibb (hb;)
black [a] azrag zarga zurug (zrg)                        blow up\inflate [vt] nafax yanfux (nfx)
black [a] aswad sawda suwd (swd)                         blue [a] azrag zarga zurug (zrg)
black tea\milk; tea without m. [n] ∫aay saada            blue; light/pale b.\light blue\pale blue [a]
 (sad)                                                    labaniy (lbn)
black tea\without; tea w. milk [am] ∫aay saada           blue; light/pale b.\light blue\pale blue [a]
 (sad)                                                    labaniy (lbn)
black–brown (camel)\dark; very d. brown                  board (for putting bread/dough on in
 (camel) [a] azrag zarga zurug (zrg)                      bakery\baking–board [n] Taawla –aat (Tawl)
blame?\censure?\rebuke?\chide?\scold?\r                  board\council?\commission?\committee?
 eproach? [vt] laam yaluwm (lwm)                          [n] lajna –aat\lijaan (ljn)
blame\censure\rebuke\chide\scold\reproac                 boat [nf] murkab maraakib (rkb)
 h [vtj+] laam 9ala/lay/9a∫aan yaluwm (lwm)              boat; small b.\row; r.ing boat [nf] murkab
blameworthy (person only) [a] mitlawwim –                 maraakib (rkb)
 iyn (lwm)                                               body\substance?\matter?\mass?\form?\sh
blameworthy (person only) [a] mitlawwim –                 ape? [n/] jisim ajsaam\*jusuwm (jsm)
 iyn (lwm)                                               boil (make b.) [vt] fawwar yifawwir (fwr)
bleed [vi] nazaf yanzif (nzf)                            boil (with pus in; often caused by an insect
bless [vj] baaRak fiy yibaarik (brk)                      bite) [n] 9uwwaara –aat\9awaawiyr (9wr)
bless [vt] baaRak yibaarik (brk)                         boil/boil over?\simmer?\bubble? [vi] faar
bless; God b. you (reply to greeting, etc.)               yafuwr (fwr)
 [vj] aLLaa yibaarik fiyk (brk)                          boil; b.ed [a] ma#liy (#la)
bless; God b. you\God bless you [nx] aLLa                boil; b.ed [a] mufawwar (fwr)
 yibaarik fawgak ('lh)                                   boil; b.ed\ferment; f.ed? [a] ma#liy ? (#la)
bless; God b. you\God bless you [nx] aLLa                boil; b.ed\ferment; f.ing\f.ed? [a] #alyaan
 yibaarik fiyk ('lh)                                      (#la)
bless; God b. you\God bless you [nx]                     boil; b.ing/(still) virtually b.ing [a] faayir (fwr)
 baaRak aLLa fiyk ('lh)                                  boil\bubble up?\ferment? [vi] #ila
bless; God b. you\God bless you [vj] aLLa                 ya#la\ya#liy (#la)
 yibaarik fawgak (brk)                                   boil\ferment? [vt] #ala ya#liy (#la)
bless; God b. you\God bless you [vj] aLLa                bolt [n] bawltiy –aat (bwlt)
 yibaarik fiyk (brk)                                     bolt [n] bawlTiy –aat (bwlT)
bless; God b. you\God bless you [vj]                     bolti\tilapia nilotica (an edible Nile fish) [ng]
 baaRak aLLa fiyk (brk)                                   bulTiy coll (blT)
blind [vt] 9ama ya9miy (9ma)                             bolti\tilapia nilotica (an edible Nile fish) [ns]
blind [a] 9amyaan –iyn\9amaaya (9ma)                      bulTiyya –aat (blT)
blind [a] 9amyaan –iyn\9amaaya (9ma)                     bond of love/affection (esp. between
blind in one eye\one–eyed\eye; one–e.d [a]                relatives; of type implying that one helps
 a9war 9aWra° 9uwr (9wr)                                  them)\love; bond of l. (esp. between
blind; go b. [vi] 9ima ya9ma (9ma)                        relatives; of type implying that one helps
                                                      15
 them)\affection; (esp. between relatives;                  has become an adult (lit: 'the boy's smelt
 of type implying that one helps them) [n]                  the smell of his armpit')
 maHanna –aat (Hn;)                                         (ironical/mocking) [n] al–walad ∫amma riyHat
bone [ns?] 9aDma 9uDaam\–aat (9Dm)                          abaaTuw (wld)
bone/b.s [ng?] 9aDum coll? (9Dm)                           boy?\youth\lad\adolescent? [n] Sabiy
bone; fishb.\fishbone [ns] ∫awka –aat\*∫uwak                Sibyaan\Sibya (Ali says [Sibya] is a bit Standard
 (∫wk)                                                      Arabic) (Sba)
bone; fishb.s\fishbone; f.s [ns] ∫awka –                   boy\son [n] wadd\walad awlaad (wd;)
 aat\*∫uwak (∫wk)                                          boy\son [n] wadd\walad awlaad (wld)
book [n] kitaab kutub (ktb)                                boy\son? [n] binay ? (bnt)
book (e.g. a seat) [vt] Hajaz (passive: [it–], [in–        boy\son? [n] ∫aafi9 ∫uffa9 (∫f9)
 ]) yaHjiz (Hjz)                                           brain [n] muxx amxaax (mx;)
book/exercise book\notebook [n] kaRRaas –                  brake/put on the b. [vi] farmal yifarmil (frml)
 aar\kaRaaRiys (krs)                                       branch out\spread out (in all directions)
book; exercise–book/notebook [n] kaRRaas                    [vi] itfarra9 yitfarra9 (fr9)
 –aar\kaRaaRiys (krs)                                      branch\bough? [n/] fari9 furuw9 (fr9)
booklet\pamphlet [n] kutayyib –aat (ktb)                   brave\manly [a] raajil rijaal?\rujaal? (rjl)
booklet\pamphlet [n] kuRRaasa ? (krs)                      bread [ng] 9ay∫ coll (9y∫)
boot (worn by men, e.g. police, also                       bread; small piece of b.\piece; small piece
 women and girls) [n] buwt abwaat (bwt)                     of b. CHECK THAT THIS MEANING IS
boot?\kick [vt] rakal yarkul (rkl)                          ACCEPTABLE FOR [9ay∫a] AND NOT
bore; get b.d with? [vj] gini9 min yagna9 (gn9)             JUST FOR [9ay∫aaya] [ns] 9ay∫a –aat (9y∫)
boring (person, thing such as film)\tedious                bread; thin unleavened b. [n] kisra (ksr)
 (person, thing such as film)\unfunny                      break (down)\ruin\wrong; make st. go
 (joke)\nonsense\uninteresting [a] baayix –                 w.\spoil [vt] bawwaZ yibawwiZ (bwZ)
 iyn (byx)                                                 break (into pieces?)\smash?\shatter? [vt]
boring\tedious\dull [a] mumill –iyn (ml;)                   kassar yikassir (ksr)
born; be b. [vi] itwalad ? (wld)                           break a bone\fracture a bone [vi] itkasar
born; when were you b. [a] inta maWluwd                     yatkasir (ksr)
 mitayn (wld)                                              break down (repairably; of machine) [vi]
borrow [vt] istalaf yastalif (slf)                          xisir yaxsar (xsr)
both of them [n?] al–itnayn (tna)                          break down unrepairably (of machine) [vi]
both\all [n] kull (kl;)                                     baaZ yabuwZ (bwZ)
bottle [ns] gazaaza –aat (gz;)                             break down unrepairably (of machine) [vi]
bottle [ns] gizaaza –aat (gz;)                              xirib yaxrab (xrb)
bottles [ng] gazaaz gazaayiz(?) (gz;)                      break down unrepairably (of machine) [vi]
bottles [ng] gizaaz gazaayiz(?) (gz;)                       xirib yaxrab (xrb)
bottom; the b. floor/storey [d/] ad–dawr at–               break down unrepairably (of machine) [vi]
 tiHit (tHt)                                                xirib yaxrab (xrb)
boundary\border [n] Hadd? Huduwd (Hd;)                     break down\wrong; go w.\worse; get
bowl (for eating out of) [n] kawriyya –aat                  w.\collapse [vi] baaZ yabuwZ (bwZ)
 (kwr)                                                     break o.'s word to/break a promise to [vj]
bowl (for eating out of) [n] kawra kuwar (kwr)              kazzab 9ala/*lay yikazzib (kzb)
bowl; big wooden b. [n] gadaH gudaaHa (gdH)                break o.s word to/break a promise to [vj]
bowl\dish\plate [n/?] SaHan SuHuwn\SuHaana                  kazab 9ala/lay yakzib (kzb)
 (SHn)                                                     break wind (noisily)\wind; break w.
bowl\dish\plate\meal?\food? [n/] SaHan                      (noisily) [vi] DaraT ? (DrT)
 SuHuwn\SaHaana (SHn)                                      break wind (noisily)\wind; break w.
box; post–box [n] Sanduwg al–buwsTa/buwsta                  (noisily) [vi] ZaraT/zaraT ? (ZrT)
 Sanaadiyg (Sndg)                                          break wind (silently)\wind; break w.
boxing [n] mulaakma (lkm)                                   (silently) [vi] fasa yafsiy (fsa)
boy; small boy\small boy\little boy\child [n]              break/be/get broken/fracture; get f.d (bone)
 jaahil juhhaal\juhhal (jhl)                                [vi] itkasar (= [itkasar]) yatkasir (ksr)
boy; the boy's smelt the smell of his                      break; broken (down)\order; out of o. [a]
 armpit (ironical/mocking)\adult; the boy                   xarbaan –iyn? (xrb)
                                                  16
break; broken down (but                                bring in\let in\put in\insert [vdm] xa∫∫a∫
 repairable)\order;out of o. (but repairable)           fiy/OBJ. yixa∫∫i∫ (x∫;)
 [a] xasraan –iyn (xsr)                                bring in\let in\put in\insert [vtjm] xa∫∫a∫
break; broken down (but                                 fiy/OBJ. yixa∫∫i∫ (x∫;)
 repairable)\order;out of o. (but repairable)          bring me/us\give me/us\get me/us [vx?] haat
 [a] ma9aTTal –iyn (9Tl)                                (m.sg.), haatiy (f.sg.) haatuw (m./com.pl.)/haat–
break; broken down (but                                 kum (m./com.pl.), haat–kan (f.pl.)CHECK THIS
 repairable)\order;out of o. (but repairable)           (hat)
 [a] 9aTlaan –iyn (9Tl)                                bring out? [vtm?] marag yamrug (mrg)
break; broken down\good; no g. [a] baayiZ –            bring to\take to\lead to [vtjm]vdm] waSSal
 iyn (bwZ)                                              yiwaSSil (wSl)
break; broken\fracture; f.d\shatter; s.ed [a]          bring to\take to\lead to [vtjm][vdm] wadda
 maksuwr –iyn (ksr)                                     yiwaddiy (wda)
break\shatter? [vi] itkassar yitkassar (ksr)           bring up (unwanted, embarassing, etc.
break\shatter?\fracture [vt] kasar yaksir (ksr)         information from the past) [vt] naba∫ yanbu∫
breakfast [n] faTuwr (fTr)                              (nb∫)
breakfast; eat/have b.\eat breakfast [vi]              bring\fetch [vt] jaab yajiyb (jyb)
 faTar yafTur (fTr)                                    broad bean/b.s\horse bean/b.s?\bean;
breast (of girl)\bosom (of girl) [nf?] nahad            broad b./bs [ng] fuwl maSriy coll (fwl)
 nuhuwd (nhd)                                          broad bean/b.s\horse bean/b.s?\bean;
breast (of woman)\bosom (of woman) [nm/]                broad b./bs [ng] fuwl maSriy coll (mSr)
 ∫aTur ∫uTuwr (∫Tr)                                    broad\wide\extensive?\vast? [a] 9ariyD –
breath; take a b.\breathe (take a                       iyn\9uraaD (9rD)
 breath)\take a breath [n] ∫aal nafas anfaas           broadcast\news (on radio/television)? [ns?]
 (nfs)                                                  na∫ra –aat\na∫araat (n∫r)
breath; take a b.\breathe (take a                      broadcast\news (on radio/television)? [ns?]
 breath)\take a breath [n] axad nafas anfaas            na∫ra –aat\na∫araat (n∫r)
 (nfs)                                                 broke (with connotations of lack of
breath\whiff\puff (from cigarette etc)? [n]             sympathy on part of speaker)\penniless
 nafas anfaas (nfs)                                     (with connotations of lack of sympathy
breathe [vi] itnaffas yitnaffas (nfs)                   on part of speaker) [a] fagraan –iyn (fgr)
brick [ns] Tuwba –aat (Twb)                            broke; become b. (person) [vi] fallas yifallis
brick/b.s [ng] Tuwb coll (Twb)                          (fls)
brick–layer [n] banna (bannaa)–yiyn (/bannaay–         broke; go b. (firm) [vi] fallas yifallis (fls)
 iyn) (bna)                                            broke\penniless [a] mufallis –iyn (fls)
brick–layer; good b.\mason; good                       broken (n.b. NOT [munkasir]) [a] maksuwr –
 m.\builder; good b. [n] bannaay –iyn (bna)             iyn (ksr)
brick–layer\mason\builder [n] bannaay –iyn             broken (not in working order)\order; out of
 (bna)                                                  o.? (broken)\out of order? (broken) [a]
bride [nf] 9aruws –aat (9rs)                            maksuwr –iyn (ksr)
bride [n] 9aruwsa –aat? (9rs)                          broken (unrepairably; of
bride and bridegroom\newlyweds\married;                 machine)\unrepairable (of machine) [vi]
 newly married couple\couple; newly                     baayiZ ? (bwZ)
 married couple [np] 9irsaan (9rs)                     broken (unrepairably; of
bride and bridegroom\newlyweds\married;                 machine)\unrepairable (of machine) [a]
 newly married couple\couple; newly                     xarbaan ? (xrb)
 married couple [np] 9araayis (9rs)                    broken into pieces [a] mukassar –iyn (ksr)
bridegroom [n] 9ariys 9irsaan (9rs)                    broom (for sweeping house; made out of
bridge [n] kubriy kabaariy (kbry)                       stiff grasses) [n] maga∫∫a –aat (g∫;)
bright; b.ly coloured\colour; (brightly) c.ed          broom (for sweeping house; made out of
 [a] mulawwan (lwn)                                     stiff grasses) [n] mug∫aa∫a mugaa∫iy∫ (g∫;)
bring back [vt] jaab yajiyb (jyb)                      broom (for sweeping house; made out of
bring back\give back\send back\return                   stiff grasses) [n] mug∫aa∫a magaa∫iy∫ (g∫;)
 [vdm?] rajja9 yirajji9 (rj9)                          broom (for sweeping house; made out of
                                                        stiff grasses) [n] mug∫aa∫a magaa∫iy∫ (g∫;)
                                                    17
broom (Western-style broom) [n] maknasa –                building\construction?\erection? [nm?v]
 aat\makaanis (kns)                                       bina none (bna)
broth (fatty liquid after meat has been                  building\construction?\erection? [nm?v]
 cooked in it) [n] maraga none (mrg)                      buna none (bna)
broth\bouillon\gravy? [n] maraga none (mrg)              burial? [n] jinaaza –aat (jnz)
brothel [n] bayt da9aara biyuwt da9aara? (byt)           burn/be burnt (passive, or simply
brothel [n] bayt a∫-∫aka∫ biyuwt a∫-∫aka∫ (byt)           intransitive?) [vi] Hirig yaHrag (Hrg)
brothel [n] bayt da9aara biyuwt da9aara? (d9r)           burn\sting?\hurt? [vt] Harag yaHrig (Hrg)
brothel [np] bayt a∫-∫aka∫ biyuwt a∫-∫aka∫ (∫k∫)         bury [vt] dafan yadfin (dfn)
brother [n] axuw axwaan ('x)                             bus [n] baSS –aat (bS;)
brother\full brother? [n] ∫agiyg a∫igga (∫g;)            bus\coach? [n] baSS –aat (bS)
brown [a] aHmar Hamra Humur (Hmr)                        business\concern [n/] ∫u#ul a∫#aal? (∫#l)
brown (mud–coloured)\grey? [a] axDar                     busy\occupy; o.ied [a] ma∫#uwl –iyn (∫#l)
 xaDra° xuDur (xDr)                                      but\however\although?\though? [c] bass
brown; mid–brown [a] a#ba∫ #ab∫a #ubu∫ (#b∫)              (bs;)
brown; very dark b. (camel) [a] azrag zarga              but\however\yet\nevertheless? [c] laakin
 zurug (zrg)                                              (lkn)
brown; yellow–b./golden b. (camel) [a] aSfar             but\however\yet\nevertheless? [c] wa-laakin
 Safra Sufur (Sfr)                                        (lkn)
brown\coffee; light coffee–coloured [a]                  but\however\yet\nevertheless? [c] laakiyn
 bunniy –iyn (bn;)                                        (lkn)
bruise [vt] radax yardax (rdx)                           but\however\yet\nevertheless? [c] wa-laakin
brush [n] fur∫a fura∫ (fr∫)                               (wa)
brush (hair only) [vt] sarraH a∫–∫a9ar bil–fur∫a         butter (not normally made or eaten in
 yisarriH (srH)                                           Sudan) [n] zibda (zbd)
brush (hair only) [vt] sarraH b-il–fur∫a yisarriH        butterfly faraa∫a –aat? (fr∫)
 (fr∫)                                                   butterfly (a type?)(insect) [b] ab/abuw/abun
brush; toothbrush\tootbrush [n] fur∫at asnaan             dagiyg none (dg;)
 fura∫ asnaan? (fr∫)                                     buttocks\backside\rump\posterior [n] ja9ba
bucket; well–bucket\well–bucket (made of                  –aat (j9b)
 what?) [nf?] daluw dalaawiy\dilyaat (dla)               button (on a garment only?) [n] ziraara –
bucket\pail [n] jarr (= [jardal]) (jaraadil)              aat\zaraayir (zr;)
 suppletive plural (jr;)                                 button (on clothes) [n] ziraara –aat\zaraayir
bucket\pail [n] jardal jaraadil (jrdl)                    (zr;)
buffalo [n] jaamuws jawaamiys (jams)                     buy [vt] axad yaaxud ('xd)
buffalo [n] jaamuws jawaamiys (jms)                      buy; b.ing and selling\sell; buying and
buffet\sandwich-bar [n] bawfay° –haat (bwfa)              s.ing [nv?] bay9 uw–∫ira (by9)
build\erect\construct\set up [vt] bana                   buy\purchase [vt] jaab yajiyb (jyb)
 (passive: [it–], [in–]) yabniy (bna)                    buy\purchase [vt] i∫tara ya∫tariy (∫ra)
builder\mason [n] banna (bannaa)–yiyn                    by (in oaths) [j] wa (w)
 (/bannaay–iyn) (bna)                                    by (using the route of) [j] bay (by)
building (big only?) [n] 9amaara –aat (9mr)              by God (counter reply to [bi–llaahi]) [j] wa–
building (big only?) [n] 9imaara –aat (9mr)               LLaahi (by)
building (official, e.g. governmental,                   by God (expresses astonishment at st.
 building) [nm] mabna mabaaniy (bna)                      said) [j] bi–llaahi (by)
building, with flat root; made of thatch                 by God (when thinking of what to say) [j]
 over wooden frame (protects from sun)                    wa–LLa (by)
 [n] raakuwba –aat\rawaakiyb (rkb)                       by God (when thinking of what to say) [j]
building; any relgious building without                   wa–LLaahi (by)
 minaret? [n] zaawya zawaaya\*ziwiy (zwa)                by God\God; by God [nx] wa–LLaahi ('lh)
building; rectangular mud b. with thatched               by God\God; by God [c] wa–LLaahi (w)
 sloping roof; walls may be made of                      by itself/itself; by i.\themselves; by t. [j] bay
 [Tiyn], or [∫arganiy], or [Tuwb aHmar] (=                nafs–/nafis–+PRONOUN SUFFIX (by)
 [jaaluwS] [n] kurnuk karaanik (krnk)                    by itself/itself; by i.\themselves; by t. [nf]
                                                          bay nafs–/nafis–+PRONOUN SUFFIX (nfs)
                                                    18
by; pass/go by\go past/through/by\past;                  capable (normally used of children)\good
 go/come p. [vjm] maRRa bay yamuRR (mr;)                  (in o.'s work) (normally used of children)
cake (e.g. birthday cake) [n] tawrta (twrt)               [a] faaliH –iyn (flH)
calculate\count [vt] Hasab yaHsib (Hsb)                  capital (city)\metropolis [n] 9aaSma 9awaaSim
caliph\successor; political leader who is s.              (9Sm)
 to the Prophet Muhammad; also to the                    captain (of a large boat/ship)\skipper (of a
 Mahdi [nm] xaliyfa xulafa (xlf)                          large boat/ship) [n] qibTaan qabaaTna (gbTn)
call [vtj] gaal lay/9alay yaguwl (gwl)                   captain (of a large boat/ship)\skipper (of a
call (of a nickname) [vtj] gaal lay yaguwl (gwl)          large boat/ship) [n] kabtin kabaatin (kbtn)
call (of given name or nickname)\name [vd]               captain (of a small boat ([murkab])\skipper
 samma yisammiy (sma)                                     (of a small boat ([murkab]) [n] rayyis –iyn
call to prayer\prayer; call to p. [n] azaan ('zn)         (ras)
call\summon [vt+?] naada yinaadiy (nda)                  captain (of a small boat ([murkab])\skipper
calm                                                      (of a small boat ([murkab]) [n] rayyis –iyn
 (down)\quiet\passivise?\tranquilise?\app                 (ras)
 ease? [vt] hadda yihaddiy (hda)                         car [n] sayyaara –aat (syr)
calm (person) [a] miskiyn masaakiyn (mskn)               car\vehicle; motor v.?\bus?\lorry? [n]
calm (person)\easy-going\relaxed (person)                 9arabiyya –aat\9arabaat (9rb)
 [a] raayig –iyn (rwg)                                   card (postcard)\postcard [n] kart kiruwt (krt)
calm?\self–possessed? [a] raasiy –iyn (rsa)              card (postcard)\postcard [n/] karit kiruwt (krt)
calm\quiet\peaceful\tranquil [a] raasiy –iyn             card (types?)\post–card [n/] karit kuruwt (krt)
 (rsa)                                                   card; (playing) c.s [np] ka∫aatiyn (k∫tn)
calm\quiet\peaceful\tranquil [a] 9aagil ? (9gl)          card; (playing) c.s\pack of cards [n] kut∫ayna
calm\quiet\peaceful\tranquil\still [a] haadiy –           (kt∫n)
 iyn (hda)                                               card; (playing) c.s\pack of cards [n] ki∫tayna
calm\quiet\peaceful\tranquil\still [a] haadiy –           (k∫tn)
 iyn (hda)                                               card; (playing) c.s\pack of cards [n] ku∫tayna
camel (male, or indeterminate for sex) [n]                (k∫tn)
 jamal jimaal\jumaal (jml)                               card; do you play cards [n] tal9ab ku∫tayna
camel; c.s [ng] ibil coll ('bl)                           (k∫tn)
camel; c.s [np] ibil ('bl)                               card; playing c. (form often used in card
camel; she–camel (animal) [n] naaga –                     games)\playing card (form often used in
 aat\niyaag\nuwg (nwg)                                    card games) [n] kart kiruwt (krt)
camera [n] kamiRa –aat (kmr)                             cardboard–box\box; cardboard–b.\carton?
camp (military and other) [n] mu9askar –aat               [n] kartawna karaatiyn (krtn)
 (9skr)                                                  cardoman (herb)(used esp. as flavouring in
can\tin\packet\box (small)\case\jar? [n]                  tea) [ng] Habbaahaan coll (Hbhn)
 9ilba 9ilab (9lb)                                       care about\bother; be bothered about [aj]
canal; small c. [n] jadwal jadaawil (jdwl)                ∫a##aal bay –iyn (∫#l)
cancel (e.g. a sports match) [vt] la#a                   care for\look after [n] xalla l–baal 9alay yixalliy
 (passive: [it–], [in–]/[–il]: – [il–] = [in–] +          (bal)
 assimmalation) yal#iy (l#a)                             care for\look after [vtj?] xalla l–baal 9alay
cancel\abolish\annul\cease\stop [vt] balla∫               yixalliy (xl;)
 yiballi∫ (bl∫)                                          care for\look after [j] xalla l–baal 9alay yixalliy
cancer (disease) [n] saraTaan none (srTn)                 (9la)
cane/c.s\reed/r.s\sugar cane/c.s\stalk; s.s              care for\look after [vtj?] xatta l–baal 9alay
 (e.g. of [zura]) [ng] gaSab coll (gSb)                   yaxutt (xT;)
canopy (made of wooden framework and                     care for\look after [j] xatta l–baal 9alay yaxutt
 straw thatching, with flat roof; protects                (9la)
 from sun) [n] raakuwba –aat\rawaakiyb (rkb)             care"\bother; be b.ed about" [vt] hamma (no
cantaloupe melon\melon; cantaloupe m.                     passive) yahimm (hm;)
 (vegetable) [ng] ∫ammaam coll (∫m;)                     care; take c. with those people [n] a9mal
capability?\aptitude?\omnipotence (God)?                  Hisaabak min an–naas dayl (Hsb)
 [n] gudra gudar (gdr)                                   care; take care of\look after\maintain [vj]
                                                          HaafaZ 9ala yiHaafiZ (HfZ)
                                                     19
carefree\unconcerned (about anything) [a]                 cave/cavern [n] #aar #iyraan\–aat (#yr)
 faayig –iyn (fwg)                                        cease\abandon\give up\stop [vt] xalla
careful; be c. [n] a9mal Hisaabak (Hsb)                    yixalliy (xla)
careful; be c. [vt] a9mal Hisaabak (9ml)                  cease\stop doing [vt] baTTal yibaTTil (bTl)
careful; c.ly [n] baRRaaHa (rwH)                          celibate\unmarried (man)\bachelor\single
caretaker (where)\cleaner (in a school +?)                 (man) [nn?] 9azzaabiy –a\(*?)–iyya (9zb)
 [n] farraa∫ –iyn (fr∫)                                   cell?\prison–cell?\police-cell? [n] HaraaSa
caretaker (where)\cleaner (in a school +?)                 none (HrS)
 (woman) [n] farraa∫a –aat (fr∫)                          cement\concrete [ng] asmant ('smn)
car–park [n] maWgif 9arabiyyaat mawaagif ...              cement\concrete [ng] asmantiy ('smn)
 (wgf)                                                    censure?\rebuke?\reproach\blame\reproof
carpenter\cabinet–maker\joiner [n] najjaar –               ? [n] lawm (lwm)
 iyn (njr)                                                centimetre (unit of length) [n] santiy ? (snt)
   carpet (general word)\rug? [n] sijjaada –              centimetre (unit of length) [n/] santimitir –aat
     aat\sajaajiyd (sjd)                                   (snt)
carpet (made of plastic)\mat (made of                     centimetre (unit of length) [n/] santimitir –aat
 plastic) [n] busaaT –aat (bsT)                            (mtr)
carpet\mat? [ns?] sijjaada –aat\sajaajiyd (sjd)           cereals (i.e [zura], [duxun]; grains which
carrot [ns] jazara –aat (jzr)                              have [ganduwl])\grain (i.e [zura], [duxun];
carrot/c.s [ng] jazar coll (jzr)                           grains which have [ganduwl]) [ng] 9ay∫
carry [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)                               9uyuw∫ (9y∫)
carry?\bear\lift?\pick up?\support [vt]                   ceremony; Sufi [Suwfiy] c. involving
 Hamal yaHmil (Hml)                                        chanting [n/] zikir (zkr)
carry\convey\transport [vtm?] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)           ceremony; Sufi religious c. with chanting +
case; glasses c. [n] bayt naDDaara (byt)                   [n/] zikir (zkr)
cash [n] kaa∫ (ka∫)                                       certain; c.ly\doubt; without d.\without
cash; in c.\in cash [d] kaa∫ (ka∫)                         doubt [d+] akiyd ('kd)
castle (not found in Sudan) [n] gal9a ? (gl9)             certain\definite\sure [a] mut'akkid –iyn ('kd)
castle?\palace [n/] gaSur guSuwr (gSr)                    certificate\testimony?\witness?\evidence?\
cat (female only)\she–cat (animal) [n]                     diploma [n] ∫ihaada (∫hd)
 kadiysa –aat (kds)                                       Chad [nx] ta∫aad (t∫d)
cat (male/non–specific)\tomcat [n] kadiys                 Chad [nx] caad (cad)
 kadaayis (kds)                                           Chadic/Chadian [ax] ta∫adiy –iyn (t∫d)
catalogue (e.g. in a library) [n] katalawj –aat           Chadic/Chadian [ax] caadiy –iyn (cad)
 (ktlj)                                                   chair\seat [n] kursiy karaasiy (krsy)
cataract?\rapids?\waterfall [n] ∫allaal –aat (∫l;)        change (money)/give change for\give
cataract\waterfall?\rapids? [n] ∫allaal –aat (∫l;)         change for [vt] fakka yafikk (fk;)
catch (e.g. of cat catching mouse) [vt]                   change (money)\exchange (money) [vt]
 masak yamsik (msk)                                        #ayyar yi#ayyir (#yr)
catch (e.g. train)\make (e.g. train) [vt] liHig           change (of clothes, bandage) [n] #iyaar ?
 yalHag (lHg)                                              (#yr)
catch (fish)?\hunt\catch (in a trap?)? [vt?]              change (small c. only?)\coin;c.s? [n] fakka
 Saad yaSiyd (Syd)                                         none (fk;)
catch (in a trap)?\trap (game)?\hunt [vt]                 change (st. into st. else)\turn (st. into st.
 Saad yaSiyd (Syd)                                         else) [vd] galab yaglib (glb)
catch hold of [vt] masak yamsik (msk)                     change\alter [vi] galab yaglib (glb)
catch up with\overtake? [vt] liHig yalHag                 change\alter\modifiy; be m.ied? [vi] it#ayyar
 (lHg)                                                     yit#ayyar (#yr)
catch\arrest [vt] masak yamsik (msk)                      channel (television) [n] qana –waat (gna)
caterpillar (or possibly caterpillar-type of              channel; water–c. (dug)\water–channel
 insect) [n] Sirfa (= [Surfa]?) Siraf (Srf)                (dug) [n] jadwal jadaawil (jdwl)
caterpillar (or possibly caterpillar-type of              chant; Sufi religious ceremony with c.ing +
 insect) [n] Surfa (= [Sirfa]?) Suraf (Srf)                [n/] zikir (zkr)
cause\lead to\give rise to [vt] sabbab yisabbib           chaos?\confusion?\muddle? [n] daW∫a (dw∫)
 (sb;)                                                    chapter [n] baab abwaab (bwb)
                                                  20
chapter (of book)\act (of play) [n/] faSil             chemist; c.'s\pharmacy [n] ajzaaxaana –aat
 fuSuwl (fSl)                                           (xan)
chapter (of book, which does not contain               chemist\pharmacist [n] Saydaliy –iyya (Sydl)
 [faSil]s)\part (of a book which contains              cheque [n] ∫ayk –aat (∫yk)
 chapters ([faSil]s))\section (of a book               chest\breast\bosom [n/] sadur suduwr (sdr)
 which contains chapters ([faSil]s)) [n]               chew tobacco/snuff [vt] saffa S–Sa9uwT (sf;)
 baab abwaab (bwb)                                     chew/chew up [vt] maDa# yamDa# (mD#)
characeristic\feature [n/] waSif aWsaaf (wSf)          chewing gum\gum/chewing gum [ng?]
characterize?\describe\depict?\portray?\po              lubaan coll? (lbn)
 int out [vt?] waSSaf yiwaSSif (wSf)                   chick; chick–peas? (eaten boiled in water;
charcoal [ng] faHam coll (fHm)                          not crushed)\pea; chick–peas (eaten
charcoal burning stove\stove; charcoal–                 boiled in water; not crushed)? turmus coll?
 stove [n] kaanuwn kawaaniyn (kan;)                     (trms)
charity (given to beggar)\alms (given to               chicken (cooked only?) [ng] farax coll (frx)
 beggar)\money given to beggar\gift to                 chicken (female only?)\hen; young h.? [n]
 beggar [n] Hasana –aat (Hsn)                           farxa –aat (frx)
charity (tax)\tax; alms–t./charity–t. (Islamic)        chicken (nearly fully grown)\hen ; young
 [n] zaka° –aat\*zakaawiy (zka)                         hen [n] farxa firaax\furuwx (frx)
charity gift (esp. of food)\gift; charity g.           chicken/c.s\hen/h.s\fowl (generic) [ng]
 (esp. of food) [n] karaama –aat (krm)                  jadaad coll (jd;)
charity gift\alms\alms–giving [n] 9aTiyya              chief, of N. or S. (not W.) Sudanese tribe [n]
 9aTaaya\9iTyaat (9Ta)                                  makk mukuwk (mlk)
charm\amulet (= [Hijaab]?) [ns?] waraga –aat           chief, of W. (not N. or S.) Sudanese tribe [n]
 (wrg)                                                  sulTaan salaaTiyn (slTn)
charm\amulet (leather pouch in which                   chief, village c.\mayor?\headman (of
 Quran, etc.) ... [n] Hijaab –aat\Hijbaat (Hjb)         village) [n] 9umda 9umad (9md)
charm\amulet (leather pouch in which                   chief; paramount tribal c. (= [∫ayx
 Quran, etc.) ... [n/] Hiriz ? (Hrz)                    ma∫aayix]) [n] 9umda 9umad (9md)
charming\pleasant\nice (in manners, etc.)              chief; tribal c. (among Masalit) [n/] malik
 [a] Zariyf *Zurraaf (Zrf)                              miluwk (mlk)
charming\pleasant\nice (in manners, etc.)              chief; tribal c. (among some Arab tribes)
 [a] Zariyf –iyn\Zurafa (Zrf)                           [n] naaZir ? (nZr)
chat about?\discuss?\talk about? [vj?]                 chief; tribal c. (of Ja'aliyyiyn) [n] makk
 darda∫ fiy yidardi∫ (drd∫)                             mukuwk (mk;)
chat over (coffee, etc.)\discuss over\talk             chief; tribal c. (of some Arab tribes) [n]
 over [vj?] itwannas bay yitwannas (wns)                9umda 9umad (9md)
chat\talk\discuss [vi] itwannas yitwannas (wns)        chief; tribal c. (typically used of non-Arab
cheap\inexpensive [a] raxiyS –iyn (rxS)                 tribes; e.g. Dinka) [n] sulTaan salaaTiyn
cheat; c.ing?\trickery? [n] #a∫∫ none? (#∫;)            (slTn)
cheat\deceive\fool\mislead?\dupe [vt] #a∫∫a            child (when used of older children
 ya#u∫∫ (#∫;)                                           connotes affection)\baby?\infant? [n]
check (again)\verify (i.e. go back to to                wilayd –aat (wld)
 consult again) [vt] raaja9 yiraaji9 (rj9)             child; children [np] 9iyaal (9wl)
cheek [n] xadd xuduwd (xd;)                            child\boy? [n] jaahil ? (jhl)
cheerful (person, colour, place)\lively [a]            child\boy? [n] ∫aafi9 ∫uffa9 (∫f9)
 faraayHiy –iyya (frH)                                 children [np] 9ayaal (9yl)
cheerful\please; p.d\happy\feel; f.ing                 children (female as well as male c.) [np]
 cheerful/pleased/happy [a] mabsuwT –                   aWlaad (wld)
 iyn\mabaasiyT (bsT)                                   chin [n/] digin duguwn (dgn)
cheese [n] jibna –aat\jiban (jbn)                      China (country) [nx] aS–Siyn (Syn)
chemist (dispensing)\pharmacist [n]                    China; People’s [Republic of] C.\people;
 Saydaliy –iyya (Sydl)                                  P.’s republic of China [nx] aS–Siyn a∫–
chemist; c.'s\pharmacy [n] SaYdaliyya –aat              ∫a9biyya (Syn)
 (Sydl)                                                Chinese [ax] Siyniy –iyn (Syn)
                                                       chocolate [n] ∫ukawlaata (∫klt)
                                                  21
choke?\strangle\throttle? [vt] xanag yaxnig            clay\mud (wet, clayish mud) [ng] Tiyn coll
  (xng)                                                  (Tyn)
choke\suffocate?\smother?\strangle?\throt              clean (e.g. teeth)\do (= clean) (e.g.
  tle? [vt] xanag yaxnig (xng)                           teeth)\brush (e.g. teeth) [vt] naDDaf bil–
choose\select\elect?\pick [vt] ixtaar yaxtaar            fur∫a yinaDDif (fr∫)
  (xyr)                                                clean (e.g. teeth)\do (= clean) (e.g.
choose\select\pick?\prefer? [vt] 9azal                   teeth)\brush (e.g. teeth) [vt] naDDaf bil–
  (passive: [it–], [in–]) ya9zil (9zl)                   fur∫a yinaDDif (nDf)
Christ; the C. (also used of Jesus by                  clean (with a cloth; e.g. of washing up)\dry
  Muslims) [nx] al–masiyH (msH)                          (with a cloth; e.g. of washing up)\rub
Christian [a] masiyHiy –iyn (msH)                        clean/dry (with a cloth; e.g. of
Christianity [n] masiyHiyya (msH)                        washing)\dry and polish (crockery) with a
church [n] kaniysa kanaayis (kns)                        tea-towel\polish; dry and p. (crockery)
cigarette [n] sijaara sajaayir (sjr)                     with a tea-towel [vt] tammar yitammir (tmr)
cigarette; c.s [ng] sajaayir (sjr)                     clean o.'s teeth\do (= clean) o.'s
cinema [n] silama ? (slm)                                teeth\teeth; clean o.'s t.\brush o.'s teeth
cinema [n] sinama ? (snm)                                [vi] itsawwag yitsawwag (swg)
cinematic\cinema; pertaining to the c. [a]             clean up\order; put in good order\organize
  sinamaa'iyy ? (snm)                                    [vt] naZZam yinaZZim (nZm)
cinnamon [n] girfa (grf)                               clean/cleanse\polish?\wash? [vt] naDDaf
circle\ring?\sphere? [n] daayra dawaayir (dwr)           yinaDDif (nDf)
cistern\tank\reservoir? [n] HawD                       clean\neat (e.g. house)\tidy? [a] naDiyf
  HayDaan\aHwaaD (HwD)                                   nuDaaf (nDf)
civil servant\servant; civil s.\functionary [n]        clear away (remove) [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)
  muwaZZaf –iyn (wZf)                                  clear; is that c.\understand; do you u. [a]
claim?\demand\request\application [n]                    mafhuwm (fhm)
  Talab –aat (Tlb)                                     clear\limpid?\pure (e.g.
claim?\deserve\merit\entitled,be e.d to [vt]             water)\sheer?\undiluted?\straight? [a]
  istaHagga yastaHigg (Hg;)                              Saafiy –iyn (Sfa)
claim\demand\require?\want?\wish? [vt]                 clear\lucid\plain\distinct\obvious\lucid\self-
  Talab yaTlub (Tlb)                                     evident [a] waaDiH –iyn (wDH)
clan\tribe; sub–t.\sub–tribe [n/] xa∫um bayt           clear\plain\obvious\patent [a] baayin –iyn
  xu∫uwm buyuwt (x∫m)                                    (byn)
clan\tribe; sub–t.\sub–tribe [n] xa∫im bayt            clear\pure (of air, water) [a] raayig (rwg)
  xu∫uwm buyuwt (byt)                                  clear\understood [a] mafhuwm (fhm)
clarity\clearness\plainness\distinctness [n]           clerk [n] kaatib *kuttaab\kataba (ktb)
  wuDuwH (wDH)                                         clever\smart\bright\adroit?\skillful? [a]
clasp?\grasp?\handful?\seizure?\grip?\hol                ∫aaTir –iyn\∫uTTaar (∫Tr)
  d? [nsv] gabDa –aat (gbD)                            clever\smart\naughty [a] ∫ayTaan
class (in school)\form (in school) [n/] faSil            ∫awaaTiyn\∫ayaaTiyn (∫yTn)
  fuSuwl (fSl)                                         clinic [n] 9iyaada –aat? (9wd)
class (in train, etc.) [n] daraja –aat (drj)           clip (e.g. wool, hair, tree)\shear (e.g. wool,
class (school)\period (school)\lesson [n]                hair)\shear off (e.g. wool, hair, tree) [vt]
  HiSSa HiSaS (HS;)                                      jazza yajizz (jz;)
class (social)\social class [n] Tabaqa –aat            clip\lop? [vt] gaSSa yaguSS (gS;)
  (Tbg)                                                close; get close\near/draw n.\approach
Classical Arabic\Standard Arabic [ax] al–                [vtm] garrab yigarrib (grb)
  9arabiy al–faSiyH (fSH)                              close; get/come c. [vjm] garrab min/lay
Classical Arabic\Standard Arabic [ax]                    yigarrib (grb)
  9arabiy faSiyH (fSH)                                 closet\locker?\cabinet?\cupboard [n]
Classical Arabic\Standard Arabic [ax]                    dawlaab dawaaliyb (dwlb)
  9arabiy faSiyH (fSH)                                 clothes\garment; g.s [np] malaabis (lbs)
classroom [n/] faSil fuSuwl (fSl)                      clove; c.s [ng] gurunful coll (grnf)
clay [ng] Tiyn coll (Tyn)                              club/clubhouse?\association\circle [n]
clay/clayey? [a] Tiyniy (Tyn)                            naadiy nawaadiy\andiya (nda)
                                                    22
coat (what type exactly?)\overcoat [n]                   cold; it's/the weather's c.\chilly; it's c. [a]
 baalTuw –aat\–haat (balT)                                aj–jaww baarid (brd)
cockroach (a variety?)(insect) [n] SurSaar (=            cold; it's/the weather's c.\chilly; it's c. [a]
 [SarSuwr]) SaraaSiyr (Sr;;)                              aj–jaww baarid (brd)
cockroach (a variety?)(insect) [n] SarSuwr (=            cold; I've got a c. (in the head) [a] ana
 [SurSaar]) SaraaSiyr (Sr;;)                              mazkuwm –iyn (zkm)
cockroach (insect) [n] jindiy same? (jnd)                cold; I've got a c. (in the head) [a] ana
cockroach (insect) [b] ab/abuw/abun jindib                zakmaan (zkm)
 none (jndb)                                             cold; the weather's c. [a] aj–jaww Saagit (Sgt)
coffee [n] gahwa none (gha)                              cold; the weather's c.\it; it's/the weather's
coffee bean\bean; coffee b. [ns] bunna –aat               cold\weather; the w.s cold [n] aj–jaww
 (bn;)                                                    Sagat (Sgt)
coffee beans\bean; coffee b./b.s [ng] bunn               collar [n] liyaaga –aat (lyg)
 coll (bn;)                                              collar (esp. on girls' clothes) [n] kawla ?
coffee made in a [tanaka] (open tin c. pot)               (kwl)
 [n] tanaka (tnk)                                        collar (of [jallaabiyya]) [n] gabba –aat (gb;)
coffee made in a [tanaka] (open tin c. pot)              colleague\fellow–worker\worker; fellow–w.
 [n] tanaka (tnk)                                         [n] zamiyl zumala (zml)
coffee pot (in which c. is brewed and                    collection of books (personal library) [n]
 served) [n] jabana –aat (jbn)                            maktaba –aat (ktb)
coffee pot (type)\pot; coffee p. (type) [n]              colloquial (Arabic)\vernacular (Arabic) [a]
 jabana –aat (jbn)                                        daarjiy (drj)
coffee; open tin coffee pot [n] tanaka –aat              colloquial language?\language; non–
 (tnk)                                                    written l. [n] lahja –aat (lhj)
coffee; type of c. made in a [jabana] pot [n]            colour/c.ing?\tint?\tinge?\hue?\shade? [n]
 jabana (jbn)                                             lawn alwaan (lwn)
coffee–house\tea–house\cafe? [n] gahwa                   colourful\multi–coloured [a] mulawwan (lwn)
 gahaawiy (gha)                                          column (in a newspaper) [n] 9amuwd ? (9md)
cold (in the head; connected with runny                  column (in building) [n] rakiyza (= [amiyna]) –
 nose)\catarrh [n] zukaam none (zkm)                      aat\rakaayiz (rkz)
cold (in the head; connected with runny                  column\pillar [n] 9amuwd *a9mida\9umdaan
 nose)\catarrh? [n] zikma *zikam (zkm)                    (9md)
cold (in the head; connected with sore                   column\pillar\flagpole?\shaft?\post?\prop?
 throat and cough)\catarrh? (disease) [n]                 [n] 9amuwd *a9mida (9md)
 nazla –aat (nzl)                                        column\pillar\flagpole?\shaft?\post?\prop?
cold (of object)\cool?\chilly? [a] baarid ?               [n] 9amuwd 9imdaan\9amada (9md)
 (brd)                                                   comb [vt] ma∫aT yam∫uT (m∫T)
cold (of person)\cool?\chilly? [a] bardaan –             comb [n/] mu∫uT am∫aaT (m∫T)
 iyn (brd)                                               comb (hair) [vt] ma∫∫aT yima∫∫iT (m∫T)
cold (of weather, water, etc.) [a] saagiT (sgT)          comb (hair)\brush (hair) [vt] sarraH yisarriH
cold (person)\unfriendly [a] baarid –iyn (brd)            (srH)
cold (weather) [n] Sagat (Sgt)                           comb (hair; of women; now also of men)
cold man\unsympathetic man\unpleasant                     [vt] sarraH (bi-l-mu∫uT]) yisarriH (srH)
 man? [a] zawl jaaff naas jaaffiyn (jf;)                 comb (hair; of women; now also of men)
cold; get a c. in the head\catarrh; get c.?               [vt] sarraH (bi-l-mu∫uT]) yisarriH (srH)
 [vi] zikim yazkam (zkm)                                 comb; type of c. with handle and large
cold; I'm c.\chilly; I'm c.\cool; I'm c.? [a] ana         teeth [n] xulaal –aat (xl;)
 bardaan (brd)                                           combat\battle\fight (in war only?) [vt] kaatal
cold; it's/the weather's c. [a] aj–jaww baarid            yikaatil (ktl)
 (brd)                                                   come (from) (of abstract notion)\issue; be
cold; it's/the weather's c. [n/?] aj–jaww Saagit          i.ed (by)\emanate (from) [vi] Sadar yaSdur
 (Sgt)                                                    (Sdr)
cold; it's/the weather's c. [a] ad–dunya Saagta          come after\after; come
 (Sgt)                                                    a.\follow\succeed\ensue [vt] 9aagab
                                                          (passive: [it–]) yi9aagib (9gb)
                                                 23
come back (home)\go back home; back;                  comparison; in c. with\relation; in r. to [n]
 go/come b. (home)\return (home) [vi]?                 bay nisba lay (nsb)
 galab yaglib (glb)                                   compel\force [vt+] jabaR *yajbuR\yajbiR (jbr)
come back\return\back; come b. [at] jaa               compel\force [vt+] jabar *yajbur\yajbir (jbr)
 taaniy yajiy (tna)                                   complain about [vt] ∫aka ya∫kiy (∫ka)
come back\return\back; come b. [vtm] jaa              complain about (raise a complaint about)
 taaniy yajiy (jy)                                     [vj] i∫taka min ya∫takiy (∫ka)
come here\here; come h. [vx] ta9aal ta9aaliy          complain of\suffer from? [vtj] ∫aka min ya∫kiy
 ta9aaluw (jy)                                         (∫ka)
come here\here; come h. [vx] ta9aal ta9aaliy          complainant (person who registers
 ta9aaluw (9la)                                        complaint with police) [n] ∫aakiy –iyn (∫ka)
come into being\appear [vi] Zahar yaZhar              complaint\accusation?\suffering?\grievanc
 (Zhr)                                                 e [n] ∫akiyya ∫akaaya (∫ka)
come into view\appear\visible; bc. v.\see;            complaint\accusation?\suffering?\grievanc
 allow to s.\show os.\allow to see\let see             e? [n] ∫ikaaya –aat (∫ka)
 [vi] Zahar yaZhar (Zhr)                              complaint\grievance [n] ∫akwa ∫akaawiy (∫ka)
come off (from) [vj] Tala9 min yaTla9 (Tl9)           complete; be c.d\finish\end [vi] tamma
come out of\go out of\emerge                           yatimm (tm;)
 from\leave\exit from [vjm] Tala9 min yaTla9          complete; c.ly\perfect; p.ly\absolute; a.ly
 (Tl9)                                                 [d] tabb (= [Tabb], [Dumma]) (tb;)
come past/through/by [vjm] maRRa bay                  complete; c.ly\perfect; p.ly\absolute; a.ly
 yamuRR\yamiRR (mr;)                                   [d] cat° (/catt°?) (ct;)
come to (have, etc.) [vi+] biga yabga (bga)           complete; c.ly\perfect; p.ly\absolute; a.ly
come\reach\arrive (at) [vtm] jaa yajiy (jy)            [d] Tabb (= [tabb]) (Tb;)
comfort (e.g. an adult) [vt] hadda yihaddiy           complete; c.ly\perfect; p.ly\absolute; a.ly
 (hda)                                                 [d] Tabb (= [tabb], [Dumma]) (Tb;)
comfortable (person) [a] murtaaH –iyn (rwH)           complex (psychological) [n] 9ugda nafsiyya
comfortable (person)\relax; r.ed?\calm? [a]            (9gd)
 mustariyH –iyn (rwH)                                 complex (psychological) [n] 9ugda (9gd)
commander (military or                                complexion? [n] lawn alwaan (lwn)
 police)\general?\leader (military or                 complicate; c.d\intricate\knotty (problem)
 police)\head? (military or police)\chief?             [a] mu9aggad (9gd)
 (military or police) [n] qaayid quwwaad (gwd)        comprehensible? [a] mafhuwm (fhm)
commerce\trade [nv?] bay9 uw–∫ira (by9)               compress; application of a hot compress?
commission to?\charge                                  [n] takmiyd (kmd)
 with?\entrust?\assign to? [vtj] kallaf bay           compress; apply a hot compress to (a
 yikallif (klf)                                        wound?) [vt] kammad yikammid (kmd)
commission to?\charge                                 compress? [vt] 9aSar (passive: [in–], [it–])
 with?\entrust?\assign to? [vtj] kallaf bay            ya9Sir (9Sr)
 yikallif (klf)                                       compulsion\coercion [n] ijbaar (jbr)
commit os.to\promise to. [vj+] it9ahhad bay           compulsion\coercion?\duress?\power?\mi
 yit9ahhad (9hd)                                       ght? [nv/] jabuR (jbr)
commit; commit an error/mistake [vi?] #ilit           compute\reckon\calculate [vis+] Hasab
 ya#lat (#lT)                                          yaHsib (Hsb)
common\share; s.d [a] mu∫tarak –iyn (∫rk)             computer [n] kumbuytar –aat? (kmby)
communism [a] ∫uyuw9iyya (∫y9)                        conceal; conceal os.\hide/hide os. [vi]
communist [a] ∫uyuw9iy –iyn (∫y9)                      itlabbad yitlabbad (lbd)
companion\associate\comrade\crony? [n]                conceal\hide [vt] xabba yixabbiy (xba)
 zamiyl zumala\zumlaan (zml)                          conceive?\imagine [vds] itSawwar yitSawwar
companion\comrade (in communism)? [n]                  (Swr)
 rafiyg rafaga\rafaaga (rfg)                          concentrate on [vj], OR [vtj]? rakkaz yirakkiz
company (commercial) [n] ∫arika –aat (∫rk)             (rkz)
company; in the c. of?\about?\concerning?             concept\notion [n] mafhuwm mafaahiym (fhm)
 [j] fiy (fy)
                                                    24
concern; be c.ed about\worry; be w.d                      bought a new item of clothing, a radio,
 about\bother; be b.ed about [vj] i∫ta#al bay             etc.) [a] mabruwk (replied by aLLa yibaarik
 ya∫ta#il (∫#l)                                           fiy–k) (brk)
concern; be c.ed about\worry; be w.d                     connect\join\unite\combine? [vt] waSSal
 about\bother; be b.ed about [vj] ihtamma                 yiwaSSil (wSl)
 lay yahtamm(a)? (hm;)                                   conquest (of Muhammad and early
concern\interest [n] ihtimaam –aat (hm;)                  Muslims only?) [n/] fatiH futuwHaat (ftH)
concerning?\compare; c.d with [n] bay nisba              conscious [a] waa9iy –iyn (w9a)
 lay (nsb)                                               consequent; c.ly [d] izan ('zn)
conclude; be c.d\terminate; be t.d\finish;               consisting of\tantamoun to\equivalent
 be f.ed [vi] intaha yantahiy (nha)                       to\meaning … [n] 9ibaara 9an (9br)
conclusion; expresses a c. regarding a                   consisting of\tantamoun to\equivalent
 person or thing [d] xalaaS (xlS)                         to\meaning … [n] 9ibaara 9an (9n)
condition?\heart?\mind\notice\attention [n]              constant [a] daayim –iyn (dwm)
 baal ? (bwl)                                            constipation [nv] imsaak (msk)
condition\state\situation?\circumstance\ca               consultation [n] mu9aayana –aat (9yn)
 se [n] Haal aHwaal (Hwl)                                consultation [n] mugaabala –aat (gbl)
condition\state\situation\case                           content with\accept; a.ing [aj] raaDiy bay –
 (poss./actual) [n] Haala –aat (Hwl)                      iyn (rDa)
confectionery (sweet cake(s))\cake; sweet                content\satisfy\convince [vt]? aqna9 yaqni9
 c. [n] Halaawa Halawiyyaat (Hla)                         (gn9)
conference [n] mu'tamar –aat ('mr)                       context (linguistic; technical usage) [n]
confess\admit\acknowledge\recognise\con                   siyaaq (swg)
 cede [vj] i9taraf bay ya9tarif (9rf)                    continual; c.ly\time; all the t.\all the time [d]
conflagration?\fire (intended only?) [nf]                 Tawwaaliy (Twl)
 naar nayraan (nwr)                                      continue [vi+] istamaRRa yastamiRR (mr;)
conflagration\fire (unintended only?) [n]                contract [n/] 9agid 9uguwd (9gd)
 Hariyga (either same as [Hariyg] or smaller than        contraction\abridgement\summary\abbrevi
 [Hariyg]) Haraayig (Hrg)                                 ation?\short form? [n] ixtiSaar ? (xSr)
confound?\mistake? [vtj] xalaT bay ... uw–...            contradict [vt] 9aaraD yi9aariD (9rD)
 yaxliT (xlT)                                            contradict (tell so. they are wrong) [vt]
confuse; c.d (used to drunks, as an                       #allat yi#allit (#lT)
 insult)\perplex; p.ed (used to drunks, as               contradict? [vt] #aalaT yi#aaliT (#lT)
 an insult)baffle; b.d (used to drunks, as               contradict\accuse of lying\claim to be a lier
 an insult) [a] Hayraan –iyn (Hyr)                        [vt] kaDDab yikaDDib (kDb)
confuse; c.d?\perplex; p.ed?\baffle; b.d?                contrary; on the contrary [n] bil–9aks (9ks)
 [a] Hayraan –iyn\Hayaara (Hyr)                          contrary; on the contrary [n] bil–9aksiy (9ks)
confuse; c.d\muddle; m.d up\mess; in a m.                contrary; the c. of this/that (is true) [n/]
 [a] mulaxbaT (lxbT)                                      9aksi kida (9ks)
confuse; c.d\perplex; p.ed\baffle; b.d? [a]              control; self–controlled [a] raasiy –iyn (rsa)
 muHtaar –iyn (Hyr)                                      convenience\ease\easiness\facility? [n]
confuse?\mingle?\mix?\confound? [vt]                      suhuwla none (shl)
 xalbaT (= [laxbaT]) yixalbiT (xlbT)                     conversation\discussion\chat\talk [n]
confuse?\mingle?\mix?\confound? [vt]                      wanasa –aat (wns)
 laxbaT Haaja ma9a Haaja/bayn Haaja uw–Haaja             conversation\talk [n] kalaam (klm)
 yilaxbiT (lxbT)                                         convert away from (a religion) [vj] xaraj
congratulate (i.e. say [baxiyt 9alay–k] or                9an/min yaxruj (xrj)
 [baxiyt uw–sa9iyd]) [vj] baaxat lee yibaaxit            convert to Islam\Muslim; bc. a M. [vt] xa∫∫a l-
 (bxt)                                                    islaam yaxu∫∫ al-islaam (x∫;)
congratulate (i.e. say [mabruwk]) [vj]                   convert to Islam\Muslim; bc. a M. [n] xa∫∫a l-
 baaRak lay yibaarik (brk)                                islaam yaxu∫∫ al-islaam (slm)
congratulations [a] mabruwk (invariable for              convert to Islam\Muslim; make a M.
 masc., fem. and plural) (brk)                            [vd]/[vtj] xa∫∫a∫ al-islaam/fil-islaam yixa∫∫i∫ (x∫;)
congratulations (used more commonly                      convert to Islam\Muslim; make a M. [n]
 than in English (e.g. when someone has                   xa∫∫a∫ al-islaam/fil-islaam yixa∫∫i∫ (slm)
                                                  25
convince; bc. c.d of\sure; bc. s. of\certain;          corruption (political terminology) [n] fasaad
 bc. c. about\feel; (come to) f.                        NONE (fsd)
 sure/certain/convinced about [vj] i'takkad            cost [vt] kallaf yikallif (klf)
 min yit'akkad ('kd)                                   cost\expensive; be e.\dear; be d. [vd?] kallaf
convince; c.d [a] mut'akkid –iyn ('kd)                  yikallif (klf)
convince; c.d of\sure of\certain about [a]             cost\expensive; be e.\dear; be d. [vd?] kallaf
 mut'akkid –iyn ('kd)                                   yikallif (klf)
convince; d.c.d [a] muqtani9 –iyn (gn9)                cotton (material) [ng/] guTun coll (gTn)
cook [vt] sawwa yisawwiy (swa)                         cotton; piece of c.\cotton plant? [ns] guTna
cook [vt] Tabax yaTbux\yaTbax (Tbx)                     –aat (gTn)
cook [vi] nijiD yanjaD (njD)                           cough [vi] gaHHa yaguHH (gH;)
cook (food) [vt] istawa yistawiy\yastawiy (swa)        cough [nvs] gaHHa –aat? (gH;)
cook; c.ed\do; done (food) [a] maTbuwx                 cough [ng] guHHa none (gH;)
 (Tbx)                                                 council; town/village c. [n] majlis maHalliy
cook; c.ed\done (food) [a] mustawiy (swa)               majaalis ... (jls)
cook; c.ed\ripe\do; done (food) [a] najiyD !           council\assembly\board? [n] majlis majaalis
 (njD)                                                  (jls)
cook; good c. [n] Tabbaax –iyn (Tbx)                   count [vt] 9adda ya9idd (9d;)
cook\chef? [n] Tabbaax –iyn (Tbx)                      count\number\reckon\enumerate\compute\
cool; it's/the weather's c.? [a] aj–jaww baarid         calculate [vt?] 9adda ya9idd (9d;)
 (brd)                                                 country area (not city, but inhabited)\land;
cool; it's/the weather's c.? [a] aj–jaww baarid         cultivated l. (not city)\cultivated area (not
 (brd)                                                  city) [n] riyf aryaaf (ryf)
copper (metal) [ng] niHaas coll (nHs)                  country?\kingdom\empire\state? [n]
Copt/Coptic [a] gibTiy agbaaT (gbT)                     mamlaka mamaalik (mlk)
copy (by photocopier)\photocopy [vt]                   country\town\city\place\community\village
 Sawwar yiSawwar (Swr)                                  [ne] balad buluwd\bilaad (bld)
copy (by photocopier, or by                            couple [n] jawz jayzaan (jwz)
 hand)\photocopy [vt] nasax yansax (nsx)               courage\brave\valiant\bold?\audacious? [a]
copy (e.g. of a book)\photocopy [n] nusxa               ∫adiy9 ∫ud9aan (∫d9)
 nusax (nsx)                                           courageous\brave\valiant\bold\audacious?
copy (st. reproduced from original; e.g.                [a] ∫ujaa9 –iyn? (∫j9)
 photocopy)\photocopy [n] Suwra Suwar                  courageous\brave\valiant\bold\audacious?
 (Swr)                                                  [a] ∫udaa9 –iyn? (∫d9)
copy (st. reproduced from original; e.g.               courgette (vegetable)\zucchini (vegetable)
 photocopy)\photocopy [n] Suwra Suwar                   [nb] kawsa (kws)
 (Swr)                                                 course; of c.?\natural; n.ly? [d] Tab9an (Tb9)
coriander [ng?] kazbara coll? (kzbr)                   court\tribunual? [n] maHkama maHaakim
coriander [n] kasbara none (ksbr)                       (Hkm)
corner (in football) [n] rukniyya –aat? (rkn)          courtyard (with mud or brick walls) [n] Haw∫
corner (in football) [n] kawrna ? (krn)                 Hay∫aan\aHwaa∫ (Hw∫)
corner (in football) [n] kawrnar ? (krnr)              courtyard\enclosure (round house
corner (in house, inside or outside; also of            only?)\yard [n] Haw∫ Hay∫aan\aHwaa∫ (Hw∫)
 street) [n] kawrna ? (krn)                            cousin; my c. (maternal,female) [nf] bitt
corner\nook? [n/] rukun arkaan (rkn)                    xaaliy (bt;)
corpse [n] mayyit –iyn? (mwt)                          cousin; my c. (maternal,female) [nf] bitt
correspond;                                             xaaltiy (bt;)
 c.ing\commensurate\analogous [a]                      cousin; my c. (maternal,female) [n] bitt
 munaasib (nsb)                                         xaaliy (xwl)
corrupt (political terminology) [a] faasid –iyn        cousin; my c. (maternal,female) [n] bitt
 (fsd)                                                  xaaltiy (xwl)
corrupt; be c.ed?\break down (car, etc.) [vi]          cousin; my c. (paternal, female) [n] bitt
 xisir yaxsar (xsr)                                     9ammiy (9m;)
corrupt; be c.ed?\break down (car, etc.) [vi]          cousin; my c. (paternal, female) [n] bitt
 xisir yaxsar (xsr)                                     9ammatiy (9m;)
                                                  26
cousin; my c. (paternal,female) [nf] bitt              cripple; he's c.d (unable to walk, has to
 9ammatiy (bt;)                                         crawl) [n] 9ind-uw kusaaH (ksH)
cousin; my c. (paternal,female) [nf] bitt              crocodile [n] timsaaH tamaasiyH (tmsH)
 9ammiy (bt;)                                          crops? [n/] zari9 ? (zr9)
cover (of a book)\jacket (of a book)? [n]              crowd [n] lamma –aat? (lm;)
 #ilaaf ? (#lf)                                        crowd; c.ing/lack of space [n] zaHma –aat
cover up (for so.)\conceal (st. bad, which              (zHm)
 one has done) [vt] satar yastur (str)                 crowdedness\crowd\crush (of people) [n]
cover/c.ing (e.g. to wrap os. up                        zaHma –aat (zHm)
 in)\lid\wrapper? [n] #aTa a#Tiya? (#Ta)               crown [n] taaj tayjaan (twj)
cover/c.ing (e.g. to wrap os. up                       cruel\brutal? [a] gaasiy –iyn (gsa)
 in)\lid\wrapper? [n] #uTa a#Tiya? (#Ta)               cruel\inexorable?\relentless?\merciless?
cover; take cover behind (st. fairly small;             [a] gaasiy –iyn (gsa)
 not out of fear, etc.)\hide behind (st. fairly        crush\jam\crowd\throng? [n] zaHma –aat
 small; not out of fear, etc.) [vim] iddaarag           (zHm)
 bay yiddaarag (drg)                                   cry (at/because of)\weep (at/because of)
cover\blanket\quilt? [n] baTTaaniyya –                  [vj] baka min yabkiy (bka)
 aat\baTaaTiyn (bTn)                                   cry/crying (out)?\call; calling out? [nv]
cover\blanket\quilt? [n] baTTaaniyya                    kawraak kawaariyk (kwrk)
 baTaaTiyn (bTn)                                       cry; c.ing\weep; w.ing [nm] buka (bka)
covet\desire (st. which belongs to so.                 cry\weep [vi] dama9 yadma9 (dm9)
 else)\want (st. which belongs to so.                  cry\yell?\outcry?\clamour\noise\din\row\hu
 else)\crave (st. which belongs to so. else)            bbub [n] jawTa –aat (jwT)
 [vj] Timi9 fiy yaTma9 (Tm9)                           cry\yell?\scream\shriek?\shout [vi+?] Sarax
cow [ns] bagara –aat (bgr)                              yaSrax (Srx)
cow/c.s\cattle [ng] bagar coll (bgr)                   cucumber (grooved type; big, light green,
coward(ly) [a] jabaan –iyn\jubana (jbn)                 bent) [ns] 9ajjuwra –aat (9jr)
crack (e.g. of knuckles) (repeatedly) [vi]             cucumber (smooth–skinned) (vegetable)
 TagTag yiTagTig (Tg;;)                                 [ng/] tibi∫ coll (tb∫)
crash (sound of metal object falling and               cucumber (smooth–skinned) (vegetable)
 hitting ground)\sound of metal object                  [n] tib∫a –aat? (tb∫)
 falling and hitting ground [nv]? Targa9a ?            cucumber/c.s? (grooved type; big, light
 (Trg9)                                                 green, bent) [ng] 9ajjuwr coll (9jr)
crate\box\chest\trunk\case? [n] Sanduwg                cultivate; c.d land (rainland) [nf] bilaad
 Sanaadiyg (Sndg)                                       bildaat (bld)
create\make (= create) [vt] xalag yaxlig (xlg)         cultivation/c.ed land\field\farm; small
creator (esp. of God) [n] xaalig (xlg)                  traditional f. [n/] zari9 zuruw9 (zr9)
creche [n] HiDaana –aat (HDn)                          cultivation\grow; g.ing (crops) [n] ziraa9a *–
cricket [b] ab/abuw/abun jindiy none (jnd)              aat (zr9)
cricket [n] jindiy same? (jnd)                         cup (made out of a small gourd [gara9];
cricket [b] ab/abuw/abun jindib none (jndb)             esp. for drinking [mariysa]) [ne] kaas –
cricket [n] jindib janaadib (jndb)                      aat\ku'uws (kas)
crime [n] jariyma jaraayim (jrm)                       cup?\tumbler?\glass; drinking g. [n]
crime [n] jinaaya –aat (jna)                            kubbaaya –aat\kabaabiy (kb;)
crime\offense\sin? [n] jariyma jaraayim (jrm)          cure (patient) of? [vtj] 9aalaj min (passive: [it–
criminal [n] mujrim –iyn (jrm)                          ]) yi9aalij (9lj)
criminal [a] jinaa'iy (jna)                            cure of (i.e remove an illness) [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl
criminal?\delinquent? [a] jaaniy –iyn (NOT              (∫yl)
 *[juna] described by Ali as Standard Arabic)          cure; good c.r\treat; good t.er [a] 9aalaaj –
 (jna)                                                  iyn? (9lj)
cripple; c.d (unable to walk, has to crawl)            cure; may God cure you [vt] aLLaa ya∫fiyk
 [a] mukarsaH –iyn (krsH)                               (∫fa)
cripple; c.d (unable to walk, has to crawl)            cure; try to cure by reading Quran over so.
 [a] kasiyH –iyn\kusaHa (ksH)                           [vj] 9azam lay/9alay ya9zim (9zm)
                                                  27
cure; try to cure by reading Quran over                daily [d] yawmiy (ywm)
 so.\read (the Quran) over so. (in order to            dam?\dike? [n] sadd suduwd/siduwd (sd;)
 cure them off an illness) [vj] gara lay/9alay         dam\reservoir [n] xazzaan –aat (xzn)
 yagriy\yagra (gra)                                    damage?\destroy?\wreck?\demolish? [vt]
cure\healing’\restoration (of                           xarab yaxrib (xrb)
 health)\recovery\convalescence [n] ∫ifa               damage?\hurt?\injure?\harm\impair?\preju
 (∫fa)                                                  dice? [vt] Darra yaDurr (Dr;)
currency; hard c. [n] 9umla Sa9ba (9ml)                damage\harm\detriment [n] Durr none (Dr;)
currency\money (currency) [n] 9umla –                  damage\harm\detriment [n] Darar none (Dr;)
 aat\9umal (9ml)                                       damp [a] layyin –iyn (lyn)
curse [vj] da99a 9alay yida99iy (d9a)                  damp (having a d. surface)\moist (having a
curse [vt] da99a yida99iy (d9a)                         m. surface)\wet (having a wet surface) [a]
curse [nsv]? la9na –aat (l9n)                           nadyaan ? (nda)
curse; c.d\accursed\damn; d.ed [a] la9iyn –            damp (having a d. surface)\moist (having a
 iyn (l9n)                                              m. surface)\wet (having a wet
curse; c.d\accursed\damn; d.ed [a] man9uwl              surface)\fresh (i.e. moist; air) [a] minaddiy
 –iyn (n9l)                                             ? (nda)
curse; c.d\accursed\damn; d.ed [a] na9iyl –            damp; bc. d. (on the surface)\moist; bc. m.
 iyn (n9l)                                              (on the surface) [vi] nadda yinaddiy (nda)
curse; c.d\damn; d.ed [a] mal9uwn ? (l9n)              dance [vt] li9ib yal9ab (l9b)
curse; c.d\damn; d.ed [a] man9uwl ? (n9l)              dance [n/] li9ib ? (l9b)
curse\damn\execrate [vt] la9an (passive: [it–],        dance/d.ing [n] ragiyS none (rgS)
 [in–]/[–il]: – [il–] = [in–] + assimmalation)         dance; Sufi religious ceremony with d.ing
 yal9an (l9n)                                           + [n/] zikir (zkr)
curse\damn\execrate [vt] na9al yan9al (n9l)            dance\prance? [vim?] ragaS yarguS (rgS)
cushion [n] masnad masaanid (snd)                      danger\peril\menace?\risk?\hazard [n] xatar
cushion\pillow [n] maxadda –aat (xd;)                   axtaar\maxaatir (xTr)
custard [n/] al-Hiluw none (Hla)                       dangerous (illness)\serious (illness) [a]
custard [n] kastar none (kstr)                          xatiyr –iyn (xTr)
customer\client\buyer\guest (in hotel)? [n]            dangerous\perilous\risky\hazardous [a]
 zabuwn zabaayin (zbn)                                  xatiyr –iyn (xTr)
customer\client\buyer\guest (in hotel)?                dangerous\risky\perilous\hazardous [a]
 [nf]? zabuwna –aat (zbn)                               xatar –iyn (xTr)
cut (hair) [vt] Halag (aR-Raas) yaHlig (Hlg)           dark (of colour; as opposed to 'light') [a]
cut (hair)\have o.s hair cut\hair; have o.s h.          #aamig ? (#mg)
 cut [vt] Halag yaHlig (Hlg)                           dark/deep blue\blue; dark/deep
cut (up) (meat, for sale to                             b.\deep/dark blue [a] kuHliy ? (kHl)
 customers)\dress (meat)? [vt] jazar yajzir            dark; bc. d. (of night) [vi] Dallam yiDallim
 (jzr)                                                  (Dlm)
cut (with scissors only?)\trim?\shear? [vt]            dark; bc. d. (of night) [vi] 9attam yi9attim
 gaSSa yaguSS (gS;)                                     (9tm)
cut (wound in skin) [ns] jarHa –aat (jrH)              dark; it's d. [n] ad–dunya Dulumma (dna)
cut (wound in skin) [ns] gaT9a –aat (gT9)              dark; it's d. [n] ad–dunya Dulumma (Dlm)
cut grass [vt] Ha∫∫a yaHi∫∫ (H∫;)                      dark; it's d. [n] ad–dunya Dalaam (Dlm)
cut hair in pudding–bowl style [vt] Haffa              dark; it's d. [n] ad–dunya Dalaam (Dlm)
 (passive: [it–], [in–]) yaHiff (Hf;)                  dark; very d. red (used esp. in songs)\red;
cut into two\two; cut into t.\half; cut into            very dark r. (used esp. in songs) [a]
 halves [vt] gasám-a n-nuSS (gsm)                       xamriy none (xmr)
cut into two\two; cut into t.\half; cut into           dark–coloured [a] azrag zarga zurug (zrg)
 halves [n] gasám-a n-nuSS (nS;)                       darkness/dark?\duskiness?\gloom?\murki
cut off; be cut off (e.g. water, electricity)           ness? [n] Dulumma (= [Dalaam]?) (Dlm)
 [vi] gaTa9 yagTa9 (gT9)                               darkness\duskiness?\gloom?\murkiness?
cut off\chop off?\lop off?\amputate? [vt]               [n] Dalaam (= [Dulumma]?) (Dlm)
 gaTa9 yagTa9 (gT9)                                    dark–skinned (very) (used of Southerners
daily [a] yawmiy (ywm)                                  only?) [a] azrag zarga zurug (zrg)
                                                 28
dark–skinned\brown–skinned (colour of                 deem\regard\consider\think of (as) [vd]
 e.g. most Northern Sudanese) [a] axDar                i9tabar ya9tabir (9br)
 xaDra xuDur (xDr)                                    deep [a] Tawiyl Tuwaal (Twl)
dash so.'s hopes\disappoint [n] xayyab                deep [a] #ariyg ? (#rg)
 amal-uw ('ml)                                        deep (well, water? +?) [a] #ariyg ? (#rg)
dash so.'s hopes\disappoint [vt] xayyab               deep (well; also water?) [a] Tawiyl Tuwaal
 amal-uw yixayyib (xyb)                                (Twl)
dash; be d.ed (of hopes;                              defeat (be too difficult for)\difficult; be too
 poetic)\disappoint; be d.ed (of hopes;                d. for so. (to do)\hard; be too h. for so. (to
 poetic) [vi] xaab yaxiyb (xyb)                        do)\unable"; be u. to do (more literally:
data\findings [np] ma9luwmaat (9Ta)                    defeat) [vt] #alab ya#lib (#lb)
data\findings [np] ma9luwmaat (9lm)                   defeat (e.g. in sport)\beat (e.g. in sport) [vt]
date [n] tamra –aat (tmr)                              hazam yahzim (hzm)
date (fruit) [ns] balaHa –aat (blH)                   defeat; d.ed ma#luwb (#lb)
date aragi [9aragiy] [n] 9aragiy balaH (blH)          defeat; d.ed (e.g. in sport)\beat; beaten
date palm (tree)\palm; date palm (tree) [ns]           (e.g. in sport) [a] mahzuwm –iyn (hzm)
 naxala –aat (nxl)                                    defeat\vanquish\rout? [vt] hazam yahzim
date palm/p.s (tree)\palm; date palm/p.s               (hzm)
 (tree) [ng] naxal coll (nxl)                         defecate\shit? [vi] xira yaxra (xra)
date/d.s [ng] tamur coll (tmr)                        defect\fault (causing st. not to work
date/d.s (fruit) [ng] balaH coll (blH)                 properly) [n?] xalal none (xl;)
date\history [n] taariyx tawaariyx ('rx)              define\demarcate\delimit\dtermine\fix\agre
daughter\girl [nf] bitt banaat (bt;)                   e on [vt] Haddad yiHaddid (Hd;)
daughter\girl [n] bitt banaat (bnt)                   definite; d.ly\doubt,without d.\undoubted;
day [n] yawm ayyaam\ayyaamaat (ywm)                    u.ly [j] biduwn ∫akk (dwn)
day (as opposed to night) [n] nahaar –                definite; d.ly\doubt,without d.\undoubted;
 aat\nihraat (nhr)                                     u.ly [n] gaT9 a∫–∫akk (∫k;)
day/daytime [n] nahaar –aat\nihraat (nhr)             definite; d.ly\doubt,without d.\undoubted;
day; the d. after tomorrow\after; the d. after         u.ly [n] bi-duwn ∫akk (∫k;)
 t. [d] ba9di bukra (bkr)                             definite; d.ly\doubt,without d.\undoubted;
deaf [a] aTra∫ Tar∫a Turu∫ (Tr∫)                       u.ly [n/] gaT9 a∫–∫akk (gT9)
deaf [a] aTra∫ Tar∫a Turu∫ (Tr∫)                      definition [n] ta9riyf ? (9rf)
deafness [n] Tara∫ none (Tr∫)                         definition [nm] ma9na ma9aaniy (9na)
death\decease?\demise? [ng] mawt coll                 degree\grade\order\rank [n] daraja –aat (drj)
 (mwt)                                                delay?\pospone?\put off?\delay?\adjourn
debt [n] dayn duyuwn (dyn)                             [vt] ajjal yi'ajjil ('jl)
decease\death(of human beings)\demise                 deliberate; d.ly\intentional; i.ly\purpose; on
 [nm] wafa° wifyaat (wfa)                              p. [d] mit9ammid (9md)
decent (in accordance with socially                   deliberate; d.ly\intentional; i.ly\purpose; on
 acceptable norms of decorum)\modest                   p. [d] gaSid (gSd)
 (in accordance with socially acceptable              deliberate; d.ly\intentional; i.ly\purpose; on
 norms of decorum) [a] muHta∫im –iyn (H∫m)             p. [d] gaSud (gSd)
deception\cheat; c.ing\swindle? [n] xid9a             deliberate; not d.ly?\purpose; not on p.?
 xida9 (xd9)                                           [d] sahuw (sha)
decide [vts+] qarrar yiqarrir (gr;)                   delicate (i.e. breaks easily) [a] ha∫∫ ? (h∫;)
decide [vts+] gaal yaguwl (gwl)                       delicate (i.e. not durable; e.g. of cloth) [v]
decide not to?\desist from? [vt+?] aba yaaba           maa bistaHmal ? (Hml)
 ('ba)                                                delicious (well-salted, etc.)\tasty (well-
decide not to?\desist from? [vi+] aba maa              salted, etc.)\salt; well-s.ed (and therefore
 +imperfect yaaba ('ba)                                tasty) [a] Taa9im (T9m)
decrease\less; bc. less\diminsh\reduce; be            delicious\delightful (of things and
 r.d [vi] nagaS yanguS (ngS)                           people)\pleasant (of things and
deem\regard\consider\think of (as) [vd] ∫aaf           people)\tasty [a] laziyz –iyn? (lz;)
 ya∫uwf (∫wf)                                         delight; d.ed [a] farHaan –iyn (frH)
                                                      delinquent\criminal [n] mujrim –iyn (jrm)
                                                     29
delinquent\criminal [n] jaaniy –iyn (NOT                  describe\depict?\portray?\picture?\charact
 *[juna] described by Ali as Standard Arabic)              erize?\point out [vt+] waSaf yawSif (wSf)
 (jna)                                                    description?\quality\attribute\way?\charact
deliver (a baby) [vt] wallad yiwallid (wld)                eristic\feature [n] Sifa –aat (wSf)
deliver\pass on [vtjm]vdm] waSSal yiwaSSil                deserve\merit\entitle; be e.\should (with
 (wSl)                                                     moral implications)? [vt] istaHagga
deluge\flood\flooding\inundation [n]                       yastaHigg (Hg;)
 fayaDaan –aat (fyD)                                      desire?\hope? [n] 9a∫am (9∫m)
democracy [n] dimuwqraaTiyya (dmwq)                       desire\wish\hope [vi+]? itmanna
democrat/d.ic [a] dimuwqraaTiy –iyn (dmwq)                 yatmanna\yitmanna (mna)
demolish (building)\tear down                             desire\wish\want\hope [nm] muna *minyaat
 (building)\pull down (building)\knock                     (mna)
 down (building) [vt] kassar yikassir (ksr)               desk (in house) [n] Tarabayza –aat (Trbz)
demolish; be d.ed [vi] xirib yaxrab (xrb)                 desk (in office) [n] maktab makaatib (ktb)
demolish; d.ed?\damage; d.d?\destroy;                     despite\spite; in s. of [dj] #aSban 9an (#Sb)
 d.ed [a] xarbaan –iyn? (xrb)                             destine (of God)\ordain (of God) [vt] gasam
dentist [n] diktawr asnaan dakaatrat asnaan (dktr)         yagsim (gsm)
dentist [np] diktawr asnaan dakaatrat asnaan (sn;)        detest; d.ed\loathesome\abhor;
dentist [np] Tabiyb asnaan aTibba asnaan (sn;)             a.ed\hateful\hate; h.d\dislike; d.d?\odious
dentist [n] Tabiyb asnaan aTibba asnaan (Tb;)              [a] makruwh ? (krh)
deny (that one knows so.) [vt] #abba yi#abbiy             detest\loathe\abhor\hate\dislike? [vt] kirih
 (#ba)                                                     yakrah (krh)
deny?\disbelieve\liar; call so. a liar [vt]               development (economic)\growth
 kazzab yikazzib (kzb)                                     (economic) [n] tanmiya (nma)
deny?\disbelieve\liar; call so. a liar [vt]               devil [n] ibliys abaaliys ('bls)
 kaDDab yikaDDib (kDb)                                    Devil; the D.\Satan [nx] ibliys ('bls)
department (in school, university, etc.) [n]              devil; the D.\Satan [nx] a∫–∫ayTaan (∫yTn)
 ∫u9ba ∫u9ab? (∫9b)                                       devil\fiend [n] ∫ayTaan ∫ayaaTiyn (∫yTn)
depend; it d.s" (literally: 'depending on the             diarrhoea [n] ishaal none (shl)
 circumstances) [j] Hasab aZ-Ziruwf (Hsb)                 diarrhoea [n] ishaal (shl)
depend; it d.s" (literally: 'depending on the             diary [n] daftar yawmiyyaat dafaatir yawmiyyaat
 circumstances) [n/] Hasab aZ-Ziruwf (Zrf)                 (dftr)
depend; it d.s" (literally: 'thus and thus') [d]          diary [n] mufakkira –aat (fkr)
 kida uw-kida (kda)                                       diary [np] daftar yawmiyyaat dafaatir yawmiyyaat
depend; it d.s" (literally: 'thus and thus') [o]           (ywm)
 kida uw-kida (w)                                         diary (written daily)\journal [n] yawmiyya –
depend; that d.s [w] da bitwaggaf (da)                     aat (ywm)
depend; that d.s [vi] da bitwaggaf (wgf)                  dice [n] Zahara ? (Zhr)
depending on\depend; it d.s on" [j] 9ala                  dictionary\lexicon [n] qaamuws qawaamiys
 Hasab (Hsb)                                               (gwms)
depending on\depend; it d.s on" [j] 9ala                  die\pass away [vi] itwaffa yitwaffa (wfa)
 Hasab (9la)                                              die\perish [vi] maat yamuwt (mwt)
depending on\leaning on [a] mutakkil 9ala –               difference; it doesn't make any d. [vi?] maa
 iyn (tkl)                                                 bifrig (frg)
deprive of\prevent from [vd] Hama yaHmiy                  difference; it doesn't make any d. [vi?] maa
 (Hma)                                                     bitafrig (frg)
depth [n] Tuwl none (Twl)                                 difference; make a d.\make a
deputy\act; a.ing (in compounds) [n] naayib                difference\matter [vi?] farag yafrig (frg)
 nuwwaab (nwb)                                            difference\disparity\dissimilarity [n] ixtilaaf
dervish (more exactly?) [n] darwiy∫ daraawiy∫              –aat (xlf)
 (drw∫)                                                   difference\dissimilarity\distinction [n/] farig
descendant of the Prophet (title for d.s                   furuwg (frg)
 [a∫raaf]) [n] sayyid asyaad (swd)                        different from\unlike [j?] #ayr (#yr)
describe\depict?\portray?\picture?\charact
 erize? [vt+] waSSaf yiwaSSif (wSf)
                                                      30
different; be d.\divergent; be. d.\varied; be.             disaster\calamity\misfortune [n] muSiyba
 v.\various; be v.\diverse; be d. [vr] ixtalaf              maSaayib (Swb)
 yaxtalif/yixtalif (xlf)                                   disaster\calamity\misfortune [n] naSiyba
different\divergent\varied\various\diverse                  naSaayib (nSb)
 [a] muxtalif –iyn (xlf)                                   disbelieve [vt] kazzab yikazzib (kzb)
difficult for\hard for [aj/] Sa9ab 9ala (S9b)              disbelieve [vt] kaDDab yikaDDib (kDb)
difficulty [n] Su9uwba –aat (S9b)                          discernment\insight\rationality\mind\intelle
dig (a hole only?) [vt] Hafar (passive: [it–], [in–         ct [n/] 9agul\*9agil 9uguwl (9gl)
 ]) yaHfir (Hfr)                                           disconnect [vt] faSal yafSil (fSl)
dig\excavate (archeology) [vt] Hafar (passive:             discredit (claim, etc.) [vt] kazzab yikazzib
 [it–], [in–]) yaHfir (Hfr)                                 (kzb)
diminish?\lessen?\decrease?\reduce? [vt]                   discredit (claim, etc.) [vt] kaDDab yikaDDib
 gallal yigallil (gl;)                                      (kDb)
dim-witted (medical condition)\idiot(ic)                   discriminate?\distinguish\set
 (medical condition)\cretin(ous) (medical                   aside?\differentiate [vt?][vj] mayyaz (bayn
 condition)\moron (medical condition) [a]                   Haaja uw–Haaja) yimayyiz (myz)
 ahbal hablaº hubul (hbl)                                  discussion\chat\talk [ns] darda∫a –aat (drd∫)
dine\dinner; have/eat d.\supper; have/eat s.               disease\malady\ailment\illness\sickness [n]
 [vi] it9a∫∫a yit9a∫∫a (9∫a)                                maraD amraaD (mrD)
dine\dinner; have/eat d.\supper; have/eat s.               disguise?\hide\conceal\shelter? [vt] labbad
 [vt] it9a∫∫a yit9a∫∫a (9∫a)                                yilabbid (lbd)
dining room (in boarding school)\eating                    dish made of straw?\straw dish? [n] Tabag
 hall? (in boarding school) [n] Sufra Sufar                 Tubaaga (Tbg)
 (Sfr)                                                     diskette [n] diskat –aat? (dskt)
direction [n] jiha –aat (wjh)                              dislike\distaste\loathing?\aversion?\antipat
direction; in the d. of\towards [j?] jihat                  hy? [n] kaRaahiyya (krh)
 +GEN (wjh)                                                dismiss (from a job)\sack [vt] rafad yarfud
direction; in the d. of\towards [n] lay jihat               (rfd)
 +GEN (wjh)                                                dismount [vim] nazal yanzil (nzl)
direction\management\administration [n]                    dismount\alight\descend\go down\come
 idaara –aat (dwr)                                          down [vim] nazal yanzil (nzl)
direction\management\administration [n]                    disobedient; he's d. [vt] maa bisma9 al-kalaam
 idaara –aat (dwr)                                          yasma9 (sm9)
directly [d] mubaa∫aratan (b∫r)                            disobey [vt] kassar kalaam + GEN yikassir (ksr)
dirt\filth\squalor [n/] wasax (= [wasaaxa](?))             disobey [n] kassar kalaam + GEN yikassir (klm)
 awsaax (wsx)                                              disorder?\confusion?\muddle?\jumble? [n]
dirty (colour)\non-descript (colour) [a]                    karkaba –aat (krkb)
 mu#abbi∫ –iyn (#b∫)                                       disorganize; d.d\chaotic\scatter-
dirty (of people only)\bad\wicked? [a/] wisix               brained\undisciplined (in work) [a]
 –iyn (wsx)                                                 mubahdal –iyn (bhdl)
dirty; get dirty [vi] wisix yawsax (wsx)                   disorganize\chaotic; make c. [vt] bahdal
dirty; get dirty? [vi] itwassax yitwassax (wsx)             yibahdil (bhdl)
dirty\soil\sully\stain [vt] wassax yiwassix (wsx)          disperse\scatter\break up (crowd) [vi] farra
dirty\unclean?\soil; s.ed?\sully; s.ied? [a]                yafirr (fr;)
 wasxaan –iyn (wsx)                                        disperse\scatter\break up (crowd, etc.?)
disagreement\controversy\difference of                      [vt] ∫attat yi∫attit (∫t;)
 opinion [n] xilaaf –aat (xlf)                             dissolve\melt [vi] daab yaduwb (dwb)
disappear behind (whether intentionally or                 dissolve\melt/melt away\liquify\disappear?
 otherwise)\go behind\behind; go b. [vim]                   [vi] daab yaduwb (dwb)
 iddaarag yiddaarag (drg)                                  distance; a long d.\journey; a long j.? (NB
disappear?\vanish? [vi?] raaH yaruwH (rwH)                  in taxi = any distance) [n] mu∫waar\mi∫waar
disappointment [n] xaybat amal ('ml)                        ma∫aawiyr (∫wr)
disappointment [n] xaybat amal ('ml)                       distance; a long distance [n] mu∫waar
disappointment [n] xaybat amal (xyb)                        ma∫aawiyr (∫wr)
                                                     31
distance; any d. (in taxi).\journey; any j. (in           disturb (so.; e.g. when
 taxi) [n] mu∫waar\mi∫waar ma∫aawiyr (∫wr)                 working)\distract\annoy\bother\trouble\irr
distance\interval (i.e. space?)? [n] masaafa –             itate?\pester?\harass?\disquiet? [vt]
 aat (swf)                                                 laxam yalxam (lxm)
distant\far (away)\remote\outlying?\long; a               disturb\annoy?\bother\trouble\irritate? [vt]
 long way (away) [a] ba9iyd –iyn\bu9ada (b9d)              laxam yalxam (lxm)
distinguish\differentiate [vt?][vj] mayyaz                disturb\trouble [vt] 9aakas yi9aakis (9ks)
 yimayyiz (myz)                                           disturb\trouble\inconvenience?\molest?\pe
distract (e.g. to allow so. else to do                     ster? [vt] az9aj yaz9ij (z9j)
 st.)\divert (so.'s attention) [vt] ∫a#al min             disturb\trouble\tease [vt] 9aakas yi9aakis (9ks)
 ya∫#il (∫#l)                                             diverse\different\varying\various [a] muxtalif
distract (in order to remove st. from                      –iyn (xlf)
 so.)\take unawares (in order to take st. off             divide (into many parts; more than
 so.)\unawares; take u. (in order to take st.              [gasam])\part (more than [gasam])\split
 off so.) [vt] #aafal yi#aafil (#fl)                       (into many parts; more than [gasam]) [vt]
distract; d.ed (by different things which he               gassam yigassim (gsm)
 needs to do) [a] malxuwm –iyn? (lxm)                     divide\part\split [vt] gasam yagsim (gsm)
distract\disturb?\occupy?\busy; keep b.?                  division?\compartment\section [n/] gisim
 [vt] ∫a#al (passive: [it–], [in–]) ya∫#al (∫#l)           agsaam (gsm)
distract\disturb?\occupy?\busy; keep b.?                  divorce (normally of man (as subject)
 [vt]?? ∫a#al min ya∫#al (∫#l)                             initiating divorce, but also of woman (as
distress?\sadden\sad; make s. [vtj] Hazzan                 subject) initiating divorce) [vt] Tallag
 yiHazzin (Hzn)                                            yiTallig (Tlg)
distribute [vt] farrag yifarrig (frg)                     divorce; be/get d.d (normally of woman (as
district [n] mu9tamadiyya –aat (9md)                       subject) being the person whom divorce
district (of a town; standard term)\quarter                is brought against, but also of man (as
 (of a town; standard term)\area (of a                     subject) being the person whom divorce
 town; standard term)\part (of a town;                     is brought against [vi] iTTallag(at) yiTTallag
 standard term) [n] Hayy aHya (Hya)                        (yiTTallag) (Tlg)
district (of a town; used of some areas in                divorcé\ex-husband\husband; ex-h. [n]?
 Khartoum)\quarter (of a town; used of                     Taliyg ? (Tlg)
 some areas in Khartoum)\area (of a town;                 divorced (of a man only) [a] muTallig –iyn
 used of some areas in Khartoum)\part (of                  (Tlg)
 a town; used of some areas in Khartoum)                  divorcee\divorced (woman) [a] muTallaga –
 [n] Haara –aat (Hwr)                                      aat (Tlg)
district (of a town; used of some areas in                divorcée\ex-wife\husband; ex-w. [n]?
 Khartoum)\quarter (of a town; used of                     Taliyga ? (Tlg)
 some areas in Khartoum)\area (of a town;                 do (st. which requires effort)\undertake
 used of some areas in Khartoum)\part (of                  [vim] gaam bay yaguwm (gwm)
 a town; used of some areas in Khartoum)                  do again\repeat\reiterate?\again; do a. [vt]
 [n] daym diyuwm (dym)                                     karrar yikarrir (kr;)
district (old term: = [mu9tamadiyya]) [n]                 do; be done with\settle; be s.d?\decide; be
 muHaafaZa –aat (HfZ)                                      d.d? [vi] intaha yantahiy (nha)
district (old term: = [mu9tamadiyya]) [n]                 do\act?\operate?\work?\make? [vt?] 9amal
 muHaafaZa –aat (HfZ)                                      ya9mal (9ml)
district (old term: =                                     doctor (medical and academic) [n] diktawr
 [mu9tamadiyya])\province                                  dakaatra (dktr)
 (administrative; (old term: =                            doctor (who treats people; i.e. non-vet
 [mu9tamadiyya])) [n] mudiyriyya –aat (dwr)                doctor) [a] Tabiyb ba∫ariy [CHECK THIS] ?
disturb (so.)\distract [vt] laxam (passive: [it–],         (b∫r)
 [il–], [in–]) yalxam (lxm)                               doctor (who treats people; i.e. non-vet
disturb (so., esp. when working)\distract                  doctor) [n] Tabiyb ba∫ariy [CHECK THIS] ?
 (so., esp. when working) [vt] laxam                       (Tb;)
 (passive: [it–], [in–]/[–il]: – [il–] = [in–] +          doctor; woman d. (medical and academic)
 assimmalation) yalxam (lxm)                               [n] diktawra –aat (dktr)
                                                  32
doctor\physician [n] Tabiyb aTibba (Tb;)               dream; sweet d.s\sweet dreams [n/] Hilim
document\deed\paper?\security\bond [n]                  aHlaam (Hlm)
 sanad –aat (snd)                                      dream? [vt?] ra'a (= [ri’a]) yar'a (r'a)
dog [n/] kalib kilaab\kulaab (klb)                     dream? [vt?] ra'a (= [ri’a]) yar'a (r'a)
domestic servant [n] xaddaam –iyn (xdm)                dress [n] zayy NONE (zy;)
donkey [n] Himaar Hamiyr (Hmr)                         dress in mourning clothes, and observe
donkey (used as insult, to indicate                     other customs, e.g. not wearing perfume
 stupidity)\stupid\idiot\idiotic [n] Himaar             (women) [vi?] Haddat taHidd (Hd;)
 Hamiyr (Hmr)                                          dress in\clothe in\attire in [vd] labbas yilabbis
donkey\ass [n] Humaar Hamiyr (Hmr)                      (lbs)
door\gate [n] baab abwaab\biybaan (bwb)                dress; Islamic dress (specifically, type of
dossier?\file\folder?\portfolio? [n] faayil –           clothing worn by Islamist women) [n] zayy
 aat\fawaayil (fyl)                                     islaamiy NONE (zy;)
dossier?\file\folder?\portfolio? [n] malaff –          dress\frock? [n] fustaan fasaatiyn (fstn)
 aat (lf;)                                             drink (passive: [it–]/[i∫–], [in–]) [vt] ∫irib
dot (in writing)\full-stop [n] nugTa nugaT              ya∫rab (∫rb)
 (ngT)                                                 drink (alcoholic) [n] ∫araab ? (∫rb)
doubt\uncertainty\suspicion?\misgiving?                drink (commercially made and bought) [a]
 [n] ∫akk ∫ukuwk (∫k;)                                  ma∫ruwb –aat (∫rb)
dough\batter?\paste? [n] 9ajiyn (9jn)                  drink; a cold d. [n] Haaja suxna (Hwj)
doughnut; d.–like sweetmeat fried and                  drink; alcoholic drink\liquor [n] xamra
 soaked in syrupCHECK [n] zalaabya ? (zlb)              xumuwr (xmr)
doughnut; d.–like sweetmeats fried and                 drink; d.ing [n] ∫araab none (∫rb)
 soaked in syrupCHECK [np] ligaymaat (lgm)             drink; drunk [a] ma∫ruwb (∫rb)
down; go d. (sun, moon, tars) [vi] #aab                drink; give to d. [vt] zaga yazgiy (zga)
 ya#iyb (#yb)                                          drink; would you like a cold d. [n] ta∫rab
down; let/put/bring/set d. [vtm] nazzal                 Haaja baarda (Hwj)
 yinazzil (nzl)                                        drive\urge on\herd [vjm][vtm] saag yasuwg
doze off\doze\nap; take a nap [vi] #afa ya#fa           (swg)
 (#fa)                                                 driver\chauffeur\engineer (railway)? [n]
dozen [n] dasta –aat\disat (dst)                        sawwaag –iyn (swg)
draft (of st. written) [n] musawadda –aat (swd)        drizzle [n] razaaz (rz;)
draft (of st. written) [n] miswadda –aat (swd)         drop (of leaves, from tree)\fall (of leaves,
drape\curtain [n] sitaara –aat\sataayir (str)           from tree) [vi] Hatta yaHitt (Ht;)
draw\trace?\sketch?\paint? [vt] Rasam                  drop (of liquid)\drip? [n] nugTa nugaT (ngT)
 yarsum (rsm)                                          drop\let go [vt] fakka yafikk (fk;)
drawing\sketch; ing? [ngv/] rasim NONE                 drop\throw away\discard\dispose of? [vt]
 (rsm)                                                  rama yarmiy (rma)
drawing\sketch\picture [n/] rasim rusuwm               dropping\dung–pellet/piece of d.\pellet;
 (rsm)                                                  dung–p. [ns/] ba9ra –aat (b9r)
drawing\sketch\picture (painting or                    droppings (camel droppings?)\dung [ng/]
 drawing)\painting [n] Rasma –aat (rsm)                 ba9ar coll (b9r)
dread for\afraid; be a. for/about [vj+] xaaf           droppings\dung [ng/] ba9ar coll (b9r)
 9alay yaxaaf (xwf)                                    drought [ng/?] 9aTa∫ ? (9T∫)
dread for\afraid; be a. for/about [vj+] xaaf           drug; d. (also, more specifically,
 lay yaxaaf (xwf)                                       depressants)\depressant drugs [np]
dream [ns?] Halma –aat (Hlm)                            muxaddiraat (xdr)
dream [n/] Hilim aHlaam (Hlm)                          drug; stimulant d.s\stimulant; s.s/stimulant
dream (of meaningful or significant nature)             drugs [np] munabbihaat (nbh)
 [n] ruwya –aat (r'a)                                  drum (type?) [n] nuggaara –aat (ngr)
dream (of meaningful or significant nature)            drum; big d. (type?) [n] nawba –aat (nwb)
 [n] ruwya –aat (r'a)                                  drum; big drum (used by Sufi "sects") [n]
dream (see in a dream)\see, in a dream                  nawba –aat (nwb)
 [vt?] ri’a (= [ra’a]) yar'a (r'a)                     drum; small d. (musical instrument) [n]
dream of [vjs+] Hilim bay yaHlam (Hlm)                  dalluwka dalaaliyk? (dlk)
                                                      33
drunk; get d.\intoxicate; bc. i.d [vi] sikir               ear of corn (i.e. a cereal like wheat)\corn;
 yaskar (skr)                                               ear of corn [ns] sunbula –aat (snbl)
drunk; get drunk [vi] Ta∫am yaT∫um (T∫m)                   ear; e.s of corn (i.e. a cereal like
drunk; get drunk [vi] Ti∫im yaT∫am (T∫m)                    wheat)\corn; ears of corn [ng] sunbul
drunk; get drunk on [vj] sikir bay yaskar (skr)             sanaabil (snbl)
drunk\intoxicated (with alcohol only?) [a]                 early\ago; a while/long time a.\while; a w.
 sakraan –iyn\*sakaara (skr)                                ago [d] badriy (bdr)
drunkard; d.s\drinker; heavy d.s [ap] sakaara              earn (money) [vt] liga yalga (lga)
 (skr)                                                     earnest; e.ly/in e.\serious; s.ly [d] jadd (jd;)
drunkard\drinker; heavy d. [a] sukuwrjiy –                 earnest\serious (of things, not people?) [a]
 iyya (skr)                                                 jadd (jd;)
drunkard\drinker; heavy d. [n] sukuwrjiy –                 earnest\serious (of things,and people) [a]
 iyya (skr)                                                 jiddiy (jd;)
drunkard\drinker; heavy d. [a] sikkiyr –iyn                earnestness\seriousness (of a person?) [n]
 (skr)                                                      jadd none (jd;)
dry [a] jaaff –iyn (jf;)                                   earth,fertile black earth?\fertile,black
dry [a] jaaff –iyn (jf;)                                    earth? [ng] Tiyn coll (Tyn)
dry (out) [vt] na∫∫af yina∫∫if (n∫f)                       earth?\ground [ngf] waaTaº coll (wTa)
dry (out) [vt] yabbas yiyabbis (ybs)                       earth\land\country?\region?\area? [nf/] ariD
dry (out)/become dry [vi] yibis yaybas (ybs)                araaDiy ('rD)
dry (out)/become dry [vi] ni∫if yan∫af (n∫f)               ease (of pain) [vi] xaffa yaxiff (xf;)
dry (up, out)\dessicate? [vi] jaffa yajiff (jf;)           ease (pain) [vt] xaffaf yixaffif (xf;)
dry (up, out)\dessicate? [vt] jaffaf yijaffif (jf;)        ease (pain) [vt] hadda yihaddiy (hda)
dry and hard [a] yaabis (ybs)                              east [n/] ∫arig (∫rg)
dry/dried (out)\dessicate; d.d?\arid? [a]                  Easter (Christian, religious) [n] 9iyd al–
 yaabis none (ybs)                                          qiyaama (9wd)
dry/dried up?\stiff?\hard?\tough? [a] naa∫if ?             easy for\convenient for?\simple for\plain
 (n∫f)                                                      for? [aj] saahil –iyn (shl)
dry\wipe dry?\rub dry? [vt] na∫∫af yina∫∫if (n∫f)          easy; easily [j] bi-shuwla none (by)
duck/d.s (how common in Sudan?) [ng]                       easy; easily [n] bi-shuwla none (shl)
 baTT coll (bT;)                                           eat [vt] akal (passive: [in–], [it–]) yaakul ('kl)
duck; female d. [n] baTTa –aat (bT;)                       eat [vt] akal (passive: [in–], [it–]) yaakul ('kl)
dumb [a] abkam bakma bukum (bkm)                           eat (imperative of [akal]) [vx] ukul ukliy
dung\excrement (of animals ) [ng/] ba9ar                    ukluw ('kl)
 (b9r)                                                     eat; having eaten [a] maakil –iyn? ('kl)
durable [a] gawiy ? (gwa)                                  ebony [ng] baabanuws (baabaanuws?) coll (babn)
durable [a] gawiy ? (gwa)                                  ebony; piece of ebony [ns] baabanuwsa –aat
during\time; in the t. of\period; in the p. of              (babn)
 [n] fiy zaman (zmn)                                       economical\careful (with money)\prudent
during\time; in the t. of\period; in the p. of              (with money) [a] mudabbir –iyn (dbr)
 [j] zaman (zmn)                                           editor [n] muHarrir –iyn (Hr;)
durra beer [n] mariysa (mrs)                               educate; e.d (person) [a] mut9allim –iyn (9lm)
durra porridge\sorghum porridge\millet                     education [n] ta9liym (9lm)
 porridge [n] 9aSiyda (9Sd)                                education\pedagogy?\upbringing? [n]
durra\millet\sorghum [ng] 9ay∫ 9uyuw∫ (9y∫)                 tarbiya –aat (rba)
dust\earth; dry e.\dry                                     egg [ng] bayD none (byD)
 earth\dirt?\ground?\soil? [n] turaab none                 egg (hen's e. only?) [n] jana jdaada –aat (jd;)
 (trb)                                                     egg (hen's e. only?) [n] jana jdaada –aat? (jna)
dust–storm\storm; dust–s.\wind; dusty w.                   egg/e.s (hen's e. only?) [ng] jana jdaad coll
 [nf] habuwb habaayib (hb;)                                 (jd;)
duty (as required by social                                egg/e.s (hen's e. only?) [ng?] jana jdaad coll
 norms)\obligation (as required by social                   (jna)
 norms)\requirement (as required by                        egg\testicle [ns] bayDa –aat (byD)
 social norms) [n?] waajib (waajib)–aat (wjb)              Egypt [nxf] maSr (mSr)
ear [nf] aDaan iDnayn ('Dn)                                Egypt [nxf/] maSir (mSr)
                                                       34
Egypt [nxf/] maSur (mSr)                                    empty talk\meaningless talk [a] kalaam faari#
Egyptian [ax] maSriy –iyn (mSr)                              (fr#)
eight [n] tamaanya (tmn)                                    empty\vacant\unoccupied [a] faaDiy –iyn
eight hundred [n] tumnu miya (tmn)                           (fDa)
eight hundred [n] tumnu miya (my’)                          empty\void?\vacant?\hollow [a] faari# –iyn?
eighth (fraction) [n/] tumun atmaan (tmn)                    (fr#)
eighth (ordinal number) [a] taamin (tmn)                    enclosure (around house; made of [ga∫∫])
eighth (ordinal) [a] taamin (tmn)                            [n] Haw∫ Hay∫aan\aHwaa∫ (Hw∫)
either .. or\or; either .. or [c] imma ... wa–              enclosure (around house?) (made of mud
  imma ('m;)                                                 or bricks) [n] Haw∫ Hay∫aan\aHwaa∫ (Hw∫)
either ... or\or; either ... or [c] yaa ... yaa (ya)        encounter?\meeting?\conversation?\talk?
either ..... or [c] yaa ..... yaa (ya)                       [n] mugaabala –aat (gbl)
either one of them [o] ayyi waaHid min al–                  encounter\come\across\find [vt] liga yalga
  itnayn ('y;)                                               (lga)
either one of them [n] ayyi waaHid min al–                  encourage (so.) to do (st.)\hearten? [vt+]
  itnayn (tna)                                               ∫ajja9 (zawl) 9ala (Haaja) yi∫ajji9 (∫j9)
either one of them [a] ayyi waaHid min al–                  end [n] nihaaya (nha)
  itnayn (wHd)                                              end; at the end of May [a] fiy aaxir maayuw
elder\old man\man; old m.\chief [n] ∫ayx                     ('xr)
  ∫uyuwx\ma∫aayix\ma∫aayxa (∫yx)                            end; at the end of the day [a] aaxir an–nahaar
elect (in elections only) [vt] naxab yanxab                  ('xr)
  (nxb)                                                     end; in the end\finally [n] fi n–nihaaya (nha)
elect (in elections only) [vt] intaxab yantaxib             end\conclusion\outcome?\result?\upshot?
  (nxb)                                                      [n] nihaaya –aat? (nha)
election/e.s? [np] intixaabaat (nxb)                        end\finish\terminate\conclude\wind up?
electricity [n] kahraba (khrb)                               [vj] intaha min yantahiy (nha)
elephant [n] fiyl afyaal\fayala (fyl)                       end\goal\object\aim [n/] gaSid guSuwd\agSaad
elevate; e.d\high–ranking\rank; of high r.                   (gSd)
  [a] 9aaliy –iyn (9la)                                     end\goal\object\aim [n/] gaSud guSuwd\agSaad
eleven [n?] Hidaa∫ar ('Hd)                                   (gSd)
eleven [n] Hidaa∫ar (9∫r)                                   enemy [n] xaSiym *–iyn\*xuSuwm (xSm)
eleventh (ordinal number) [a] Hidaa∫araawiy                 enemy [n] xaSiym xuSama (xSm)
  ('Hd)                                                     enemy [n] 9aduw a9da (9da)
eleventh (ordinal number) [a] Hidaa∫araawiy                 enemy [n] 9aduw 9udwaan\a9da (9da)
  (9∫r)                                                     energy [n] Taaqa –aat (Twg)
else [j?] #ayr (#yr)                                        energy? [n] gudra gudar (gdr)
else\other [a] taaniy –iyn ([taaniyn], or                   engage (a girl) [vtj] xaTab yaxTib\yaxTub
  [taaniyiyn]) (tna)                                         (xTb)
embarass; e.ed? [a] mistiHiy –iyn (Hya)                     engage; e.d (woman)\fiancee [a] maxTuwba
embarrassing [a] muHrij (Hrj)                                –aat?\–iyn? (xTb)
embarrassing [a] miHayyir (Hyr)                             engage; get e.d to (of man or woman) [vt]
embassy (diplomatic) [n] safaara –aat (sfr)                  xaTab yaxTib\yaxTub (xTb)
embellishment?\adornment?\ornament\dec                      engaged (to be married – of a man)\fiancé
  oration? [n] ziyna *–aat\*ziyan (zyn)                      [a] xaaTib xuTTaab (xTb)
embellishment\adornment\ornament\decor                      engaged (to be married – of a
  ation [n] ziyna *–aat\*ziyan (zyn)                         woman)\fiancée [a] maxTuwba –aat (xTb)
emergency?\crisis [n] azma –aat\azamaat ('zm)               engine\motor [n] makana –aat (mkn)
emphasis [nv] ta'kiyd ('kd)                                 engineer\technician? [n] muhandis –iyn (hnds)
employ\work; find/get w. for/put to w.\job;                 engineering/mechanical e.?\architecture?
  find/get a j. for [vt] ∫a##al yi∫a##il (∫#l)               [n] handasa (hnds)
employ\work?\use (a machine +?)\operate                     England [nx] injiltara ('ngl)
  (a machine) [vt] ∫a##al yi∫a##il (∫#l)                    English [ax] injiliyziy –iyn\injiliyz ('njl)
empty claim?\false claim?\untrue claim?                     enjoy [vj] itkayyaf lay yitkayyaf (kyf)
  [n] di9aaya –aat (d9a)                                    enjoy [vj] itmatta9 bay/fiy yitmatta9 (mt9)
                                                   35
enjoy\like (st./so.) [vj] itkayyaf lay yitkayyaf        Eritrean [ax] iritriy –iyn ('rtr)
 (kyf)                                                  error\mistake\blunder? [n] xaTa axTa (xTa)
enjoy\pleasure; get p. from/take p. in [vj]             error\mistake\blunder? [ns?] #alTa –
 irtaaH lay yartaaH (rtH)                                aat?\#alaaTaat? (#lT)
enjoy\savour?\relish? [vj] istamta9 bay/*fiy            error\mistake\blunder? [ng?] #alaT coll? (#lT)
 yastamti9 (mt9)                                        especial; e.ly\particular; p.ly\special; s.ly
enough [d] bass (bs;)                                    [d] xaaSSatan (xS;)
enough; be e. (sometimes with action                    Ethiopia [nx] iysiyawbiya? ('ysy)
 involved)\sufficient; be s. (sometimes                 Ethiopian [ax] iysiyawbiy –iyn ('ysy)
 with action involved) [vt?] kaffa yikaffiy             Ethiopian\Abyssinian [ax] Haba∫iy aHbaa∫
 (kfa)                                                   (Hb∫)
enough\sufficient [a] kifaaya (kfa)                     Ethiopian\Abyssinian [ax] Haba∫iy –iyn\Haba∫
enough\sufficient [d] kifaaya (kfa)                      (Hb∫)
enrage; e.d\furious\angry; very a. [a]                  Europe [nx] uwrubba ('wrb)
 Hargaan –iyn (Hrg)                                     European [ax] uwrubbiy –iyn ('wrb)
ensemble of clothes (e.g. trousers and                  even/even if?\if; even if? [o] Hatta (Ht;)
 shirt which go together)\clothes;                      even; not e. [c] wa-laa (w)
 matching c. (e.g. trousers and shirt which             even\flat\level [a] musaTTaH (sTH)
 go together)\matching clothes (e.g.                    evening [nm] misa misaayaat (msa)
 trousers and shirt which go                            evening [nm] misa misyaat (msa)
 together)\costume (e.g. trousers and                   evening (between when and when
 shirt which go together) [ns?] labsa –aat               exactly?) [nm] misa misaayaat (msa)
 (lbs)                                                  evening (between when and when
enter\come in\go in [vim?][vtm] daxa fiy/OBJ             exactly?) [nm] misa misyaat (msa)
 yadxul (dxl)                                           evening; in the e. [n] fil–misa (msa)
enter\come in\go in [vjm?] daxal fiy yadxul             evening; in the e. [n]? al–misa (msa)
 (dxl)                                                  evening; in the e. [n]? misa (msa)
enter\come in\go in\get in\walk in\step in              evening; in the e. [nm] bil–misa (msa)
 [vjm] xa∫∫a fiy yaxu∫∫ (x∫;)                           evident\apparent\ostensible? [a] waaDiH –
enter\come in\go in\get in\walk in\step in               iyn (wDH)
 [vtm] xa∫∫a yaxu∫∫ (x∫;)                               evil [n] ∫arr (∫r;)
enthusiastic [a] mitHammis –iyn (Hms)                   evil [n] ∫arr (∫r;)
entirely [d] tamaam (tm;)                               evil eye ; he has the evil eye [nf] 9aynuw
entrance-hall (in house)\lobby [n] hawl ?                Haarra (9yn)
 (hwl)                                                  evil eye; he has the evil eye [a] 9aynuw
envelop?\cover?\swathe?\swaddle? [vt]                    Haarra (Hr;)
 laffa yaliff (lf;)                                     evil?\wicked?\malicious? [a] ∫arraaniy –iyn
envelope (for letter) [n/] Zarif Zuruwf (Zrf)            (∫r;)
envious [a] Hasuwd –iyn\Husada (Hsd)                    evil?\wicked?\malicious? [a] ∫irriyr –iyn (∫r;)
envious (by temperament)\jealous (by                    exact; e.ly (of time)\precisely (of time)\dot;
 temperament)\grudge; g.ing? (by                         on the d. (of time)\sharp (of time) [d] ∫awka
 temperament) [a] Hasuwd –iyn\Husada (Hsd)               (∫wk)
envious\jealous [a] Haasid –iyn\Husaad (Hsd)            exact; e.ly\accurate; a.ly?\precise; e.ly? [j]
epidemic [nm] waba *awbiya\*wibyaat (wba)                biD–DabT (by)
epidemic; there’s an e. on [nm?] ad–dunya               exact; e.ly\precise; p.ly [n/] biD–DabTi (DbT)
 waba (wba)                                             exagerrate\overdo [vi] baala# yibaali# (bl#)
equipment [n] 9idda none (9d;)                          exagerrate\too; do t. much\much; do too
equipment\apparatus [n] jihaaz ajhiza (jhz)              m. [vt]/[[vj] zawwad yizawwid (zwd)
era [n] zaman azmaan (zmn)                              exagerrate\too; do t. much\much; do too
Eritrea [nx] aritiyrya ('rtr)                            m. [vt]/[[vj] zaad yaziyd (zyd)
Eritrea [nx] iritiyrya ('rtr)                           exagerrate\too; do t. much\much; do too
Eritrea [nx] aritriyya ('rtr)                            m. [vt]/[[vj] zayyad yizayyid (zyd)
Eritrean [ax] aritiyriy –iyn ('rtr)                     exagerration [n] mubaala#a –aat (bl#)
Eritrean [ax] aritriy –iyn ('rtr)                       examination (academic) [n] imtiHaan –aat
Eritrean [ax] iritiyriy –iyn ('rtr)                      (mHn)
                                                    36
examination (medical) [n/] faHaS fiHuwSaat               exercise–book\notebook\sketch-book [n]
 (fHS)                                                    kaRRaas –aar\kaRaaRiys (krs)
examine (medically) [vj] ka∫af 9alay yak∫if (k∫f)        exercise–book\notebook\sketch-book [n]
examine (more than [jassa])\feel (more                    kuRRaas –aat\kaRaaRiys (krs)
 than [jassa])?\handle (more than                        exercise–book\notebook\sketch-book [n]
 [jassa])?\test (esp. of animals) (more than              karraasa ? (krs)
 [jassa])\sound (more than [jassa])?\probe               exercise–book\notebook\sketch-book [n]
 (more than [jassa])? [vt] jassas yijassis (js;)          kuRRaasa ? (krs)
examine; (academically) (for)\give an                    expect [vt+] itwaqqa9 yitwaqqa9 (wg9)
 examination (for)examination; make                      expect?\hope [vts+] Hira yaHra (Hra)
 take/sit an e. (for) [vd]? imtaHan yamtaHin             expect?\hope [vts] Hira yaHra (Hra)
 (/yimtaHin?) (mHn)                                      expect\hope [vjs] ammal fiy yi'ammil ('ml)
examine; be e.d (academically) (for)\take                expectation?\hope [n] amal aamaal ('ml)
 an examination (for)\sit an examination;                expedition; military e.\foray\raid\incursion
 for\examination; take/sit an e. (for)\exam;              [ns?] #azwa –aat (#za)
 take/sit an e. (for) [vt] imtaHan yamtaHin              expel\eject [vd] Talla9 yiTalli9 (Tl9)
 (/yimtaHin?) (mHn)                                      expensive\dear\costly\high (price) [a] #aaliy
example [vt] masal amsaal (Drb)                           (#la)
example [n] masal amsaal (msl)                           experience (knowledge) (of)\knowledge
example; for e.\instance; for i. [n] masalan              (through experience) (of) [n] xibra (bay)
 (msl)                                                    none? (xbr)
excavate (in archeology)\dig [vt] Hafar                  experience\undergo\suffer?\taste\sample\t
 (passive: [it–], [in–]) yaHfir (Hfr)                     est? [vt] ∫aaf ya∫uwf (∫wf)
excavation [n] Hufra Hufar (Hfr)                         experience\undergo\suffer?\taste\sample\t
except\save\but\other than [o?] #ayr (#yr)                est? [vt] ∫aaf ya∫uwf (∫wf)
exceptional\excellent\outstanding\superior               experience\undergo\suffer\endure [vt] Daag
 \wonderful\excellent\marvellous [a]                      yaDuwg (Dwg)
 mumtaaz –iyn (myz)                                      experiment\test\trial\experience\tryout [n]
exceptional\excellent\outstanding\superior                tajRuba –aat\tajaaRub (jrb)
 \wonderful\excellent\marvellous [n] nimra               experiment\test\trial\experience\tryout [n]
 waaHid (nmr)                                             tajRuba –aat\tajaaRub (jrb)
exceptional\excellent\outstanding\superior               expert\specialist [n] xabiyr xubara (xbr)
 \wonderful\excellent\marvellous [a] nimra               explain to\interpret?\comment on,to? [vtj]
 waaHid (wHd)                                             ∫araH ya∫raH (∫rH)
exchange\change (= exchange)\replace [vt]                explain\explicate\clear up\clairify\expound
 #ayyar yi#ayyir (#yr)                                    [vd+?] waDDaH yiwaDDiH (wDH)
excite?\instigate?\agitate?\excite\stimulate             export [vtm] Saddar yiSaddir (Sdr)
 ? [vtm] Harrak yiHarrik (Hrk)                           express (opinion) [vj] 9abbar 9an yi9abbir
excite\attract?\engross? [vt] ∫adda ya∫idd (∫d;)          (9br)
excite\stimulate?\excite?\instigate?\agitate             extent\scope\quantity\amount [n/] gadur
 ? [vtm] Harrak yiHarrik (Hrk)                            none (gdr)
excrement\faeces\shit [n] xara xiryaat (xra)             extract?\take out\remove\get out?\out;
excuse [n/] 9uzur a9zaar (9zr)                            get/take o. [vd] Talla9 yiTalli9 (Tl9)
excuse os. for\apologise for [vj] i9tazar lay            extraordinary?\remarkable?\peculiar\ridicu
 ya9tazir (9zr)                                           lous [a] #ariyb –iyn (#rb)
execrate\curse\damn [vt] la9an (passive: [it–],          eye [nf] 9ayn 9uyuwn (9yn)
 [in–]/[–il]: – [il–] = [in–] + assimmalation)           eye (for a shoe-lace) [n/] xurum
 yal9an (l9n)                                             xuruwm\axraam (xrm)
execrate\curse\damn [vt] na9al yan9al (n9l)              eye (for a shoe-lace) [n] gadd guduwd (gd;)
exempt?\forgive\excuse\free?\relieve? [vtj]              eye; he has the evil eye [a] 9aynuw Haarra
 9afa 9an ya9fiy (9fa)                                    (Hr;)
exercise (e.g. in maths, at school) [n]                  eye; he has the evil eye [nf] 9aynuw Haarra
 tamriyn –aat\tamaariyn (mrn)                             (9yn)
exercise\practice\train; t.ing (military                 eye; he hasn’t got the evil eye [nf] 9aynuw
 only?) [n] tamriyn –aat\tamaariyn (mrn)                  baarda (9yn)
                                                  37
eye; I haven't got the evil eye [a] 9ayn-iy°           far; from f. away\long; from a long
  baarda (brd)                                           off/away\from a long way off/away/from
eye; I haven't got the evil eye [nf] 9ayn-iy°            afar [a] min ba9iyd (b9d)
  baarda (9yn)                                         far; from f. away\long; from a long
fable\myth (unbelievable)\legend                         off/away\from a long way off/away/from
  (unbelievable) [n] usTuwra ? ('sTr)                    afar [j] min ba9iyd (mn)
face (part of body) [n] wa∫∫ wu∫uw∫ (w∫;)              farm; fairly large modern commercial f. [n]
facility; f.ies (e.g. health facilities) [np]            mazra9a mazaari9 (zr9)
  maraafiq (rfg)                                       farm; fairly large modern commercial f. [n]
facing\opposite [j] mugaabil (gbl)                       mazra9a mazaari9 (zr9)
fact; in f.\truth; to tell you the t. [n] fi-l–        farm; very large modern commercial f. [n]
  Hagiyga (Hg;)                                          ma∫ruw9 –aat?\ma∫aariy9? (∫r9)
fact; in f.\truth; to tell you the t. [n] bi-l–        farm?\field? [n] ziraa9a *–aat (zr9)
  Hagiyga (Hg;)                                        farmed land?\cultivation\farm; small
factory\plant\mill?\works [n] maSna9                     traditional f. [n/] zari9 zuruw9 (zr9)
  maSaani9 (Sn9)                                       farmer, who works on small plots\peasant
fail (in an exam) [vi] sagaT yazguT (sgT)                farmer? [n] Ha∫∫aa∫ –iyn (H∫;)
fail (in an exam) [vi?] sagaT yazguT (sgT)             farmer\peasant?\cultivator [a] muzaari9 –
fail (in an exam) [vt] sagaT yazguT (sgT)                iyn\–iyya (zr9)
fail (in an exam) [vt] saggaT yisaggiT (sgT)           fashion\style [n] mawDa –aat (mwD)
fail (to reach?/achieve?)\miss\short,fall s.?          fashionable\style; in style\trendy [a]?
  [vt?] gaSSar yigaSSir (gSr)                            mawDa ?? (mwD)
fail to do o.'s duty\neglect of one's duty [vi]        fast (/fasting?) [n] Siyaam none (Swm)
  gaSSar yigaSSir (gSr)                                fast/fasting [ng] Sawm coll (Swm)
failure [n] fa∫al (f∫l)                                fast/fasting [n] Siyaam none (Swm)
fainthearted?\fearful?\timid\timorous?\cow             fast; f.ing?\abstinence? [ngv] Sawm (Swm)
  ard [a] xawwaaf –iyn (xwf)                           fast; f.ing\abstain; a.ing (from
fair; f.ly"?\reasonable;                                 food/drink/sex) [a] Saayim –iyn (Swm)
  r.ly"?\quite"?\somewhat" [n] #aayt-uw                fast; go\quick; go q.ly\rapid; go
  (#wa)                                                  r.ly\speedy; go. s.ly\swift; go s.ly\\move
fair–haired\blond [a] a∫gar ∫agra ∫ugur (∫gr)            quickly/fast\go quickly/fast\come
faith\belief (religious/ideological only?) [n]           quickly/fast [vi] asra9 yasri9 (sr9)
  iymaan ('mn)                                         fast; go\quick; go q.ly\rapid; go
faithful\devoted?\sincere?\frank?\candid?\l              r.ly\speedy; go. s.ly\swift; go s.ly\fast;
  oyal [a] muxliS –iyn (xlS)                             go\move quickly/fast\go
fall [vim][vtm] TaaH yaTuwH (TwH)                        quickly/fast\come quickly/fast [vt] asra9
fall (down)\drop\tumble? [vim] waga9                     yasri9 (sr9)
  yaga9\yawga9 (wg9)                                   fast; the watch/clock is fast [a] as–saa9a
fall (price)\drop (price)\go down                        migaddima (gdm)
  (prices)\down; go d. (price) [vim] nagaS             fast\quick\prompt?\rapid\speedy\swift\nim
  yanguS (ngS)                                           ble? [a] sariy9 –iyn (sr9)
familiar\know; k.n (for)\well–known (for)              fasting [a] Saayim –iyn (Swm)
  [aj] ma9ruwf (bay) –iyn (9rf)                        fat (on meat only?); piece of f.\grease?; bit
family [n] 9aayla –aat (9yl)                             of g. [ns] ∫aHama –aat (∫Hm)
family (i.e. children) [np] naas –aat (nas)            fat (on meat only?)\grease? [ng/] ∫aHam coll
family (i.e. children) [np] aWlaad –aat (wld)            (∫Hm)
family; so. from a respected f. [a] Hurr –iyn          fat (used negatively, of people)\corpulent
  (Hr;)                                                  (used negatively, of people)\plump (used
family\relative; r.s?\clan?\kin/kinsfolk? [n]            negatively, of people)\fleshy (used
  usra usar ('sr)                                        negatively, of people)\stout (used
famine? [n] juw9 none (jw9)                              negatively, of people)\obese (used
famous [a] ma∫huwr –iyn\*ma∫aahiyr (∫hr)                 negatively, of people) [a] ∫aHmaan –iyn
fan\electric fan\ventilator? [n] marwaHa                 (∫Hm)
  maraawiH (rwH)                                       fat; he's f. [n] 9ind-uw SaHHa (SH;)
                                                       fat; he's f. [j] 9ind-uw SaHHa (9nd)
                                                    38
fat?\full\filled?\replete?\plump? [a] mamluw             feed?\live; make live?\alive; keep alive?
  (= [malaan]/[malyaan] – roughly?) –iyn? (mla)            [vt] 9ayya∫ yi9ayyi∫ (9y∫)
fat?\full\filled?\replete?\plump? [a] malaan             feel (the pulse of)\take (the pulse of) [vt]
  (more common than [malyaan]) –iyn? (NOT                  jassa yajiss (js;)
  *[malaaya]) (mla)                                      feel; what do you f. [a] ∫aa9ir bay ∫nuw (∫9r)
fat?\full\filled?\replete?\plump? [a] malyaan            feel; what do you f. [q] ∫aa9ir bay ∫nuw (∫n)
  (less common than [malaan]) –iyn? (NOT                 feel\sense [vjs+][vts+] Hassa bay yaHiss (Hs;)
  *[malaaya]) (mla)                                      feeling (intuition)\intuition\sense (intuition)
fat\corpulent\plump\fleshy\stout\obese [a]                 [a] iHsaas none? (Hs;)
  taxiyn tuxaan (txn)                                    feeling\sensation\sentiment [n] ∫i9uwr (∫9r)
fat\corpulent\plump\fleshy\stout\obese [a]               feign\affect\pretend\simulate?\act as if [vd]
  samiyn sumaan (smn)                                      9amal nafs-uw …+ ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
father [n] abuw abbahaat\abawaat ('b)                      (9ml)
father [n] ab abbahaat\abawaat ('b)                      feign\affect\pretend\simulate?\act as if [nf/]
father [n] waalid –iyn (wld)                               9amal nafs-uw …+ ACTIVE PARTICIPLE (nfs)
fatwa [fatwa]\law; formal legal opinion (in              feign\affect\pretend\simulate?\act as if [vt]?
  Islam) [nm?] fatwa fataawiy (fta)                        9amal nafs– ya9mal (9ml)
fault; it's got a f.\defect; it's got a d. [n]           feign\affect\pretend\simulate?\act as if [nf/]
  fiyuw xalal (xl;)                                        9amal nafs– ya9mal (nfs)
fault? [n] zanb zunuwb (znb)                             feign\affect\pretend\simulate\act as if [vi]?
fault\failing\shame\disgrace [n] 9ayb 9uyuwb               massal yimassil (msl)
  (9yb)                                                  feign\affect\pretend\simulate\act as if [vi]?
favour (from God)\bounty (from God)\grace                  massal yimassil (msl)
  (st. favourable which happens to one; in               feign\affect\pretend\simulate\act as if [vt]
  Islam considered to be a result of God's                 massal yimassil (msl)
  favour) [n] ni9ma ? (n9m)                              female\bitch?\feminine? [n] intaaya anaatiy\–
favour?\support\back\promote?\further?                     aat ('nt)
  [vt] ∫ajja9 yi∫ajji9 (∫j9)                             feminine?\female [n] intaaya anaatiy\–aat ('nt)
favourite\preferable? [a] mufaDDal –iyn (fDl)            ferry (type?) [n] banTawn –aat\banaaTiyn
fear\dread [ngv?] xawf (xwf)                               (bnTn)
fearful\cowardly\timid [a] xawwaaf –iyn (xwf)            fertile (black–earth), of soil only? [a] Tiyniy
feast/f. day\festival\holiday [n] 9iyd a9yaad              (Tyn)
  (9yd)                                                  festival, to mark the birth or special day of
feast; marriage/wedding feast [n] faraH                    an Islamic religiious figure (especially the
  firHaat (frH)                                            ∫ayx of a Sufi Tariyga) [n] muwlid ? (wld)
fed up with?\despair; d.ing of? [aj] gan9aan             festival; religious f. for birthday of Islamic
  min –iyn? (gn9)                                          saint [waliy?] [n] muwlid mawaalid (wld)
fed up; get f. up with\enough; have e.                   fever heat?\fever [n] Humma (Hma)
  of\sick; get s. (and tired) of\tire; get (sick         fever; in a f./feverish [a] maHmuwm –iyn
  and) t.d of [vj] gini9 min yagna9 (gn9)                  (Hm;)
fed up\weary?\tire; t.d\sick and tired? [a]              fever\heat of fever? [n] Humma none (Hm;)
  gan9aan –iyn? (\[ganaa9a] regarded as                  few [a] basiyT –iyn\busaTa (bsT)
  marginally acceptable by Mustafa, rejected by          few/(very) few people\people; (very) few p.
  Jameel [LA78.4] (gn9)                                    [a] galiyliyn (gl;)
fed; bc. f. up with\sick; bc. s. (and tired) of          few; (very?) f. people [a] basiyTiyn (bsT)
  [vj] girif min yagraf (grf)                            few; a few\little/a l. bit of\bit; a little b. of [d]
fed; be f. up with\bore; be b.d with (implies              ∫uwayya (∫y)
  also annoyance/anger) [vj] zihij yazhaj (zhj)          few; bc. f./f.er\less; bc. l.\lessen [vi] xaffa
fed; get f. up with\stop (doing, because                   yaxiff (xf;)
  one is fed up with) [vj] ti9ib min yat9ab (t9b)        few\little/a l. [d] ∫uwayya (∫y)
fed; make f. up with\bore with [vtj] zahhaj              fibre; palm fibre\palm fibre [ng/] za9af coll
  min yizahhij (zhj)                                       (z9f)
feed (people, small animals) [vd] akkal                  fiddle; single–stringed? native instrument?
  yi’akkil ('kl)                                           [n] Rabaaba –aat (rb;)
                                                    39
fiddle; single–stringed? native instrument?              fine; everything's f.\okay; everything's
  [n] Rabaaba –aat (rb;)                                   okay [n] kull-uw tamaam (kl;)
field (sport)\playground?\square\ground;                 fine; that's a f. thing\good; that's very g.
  open g. [n] maydaan mayaadiyn (mydn)                     [a?] diy Haaja tamaam (tm;)
field; cottonfield?\plot of land (10                     fine; that's a f. thing\good; that's very g. [n]
  feddans?)? [n] Hawwaa∫a –aat? (Hw∫)                      diy Haaja tamaam (Hwj)
fifteen [n] xamsTaa∫ar (xms)                             fine; that's f.\okay (i.e. st.'s been
fifteen [n] xamasTaa∫ar (9∫r)                              completed) [d?] tamaam kuwayyis (tm;)
fifth (fraction) [n/] xumus axmaas (xms)                 fine; that's f.\okay (i.e. st.'s been
fifth (ordinal) [a] xaamis none? (xms)                     completed) [a] tamaam kuwayyis (kys)
fight (private) [n] 9arka –aat (9rk)                     fine; that's f.\okay (i.e. st.'s been
fight (private) [n] 9arka –aat (9rk)                       completed)\all right [d?] tamaam (tm;)
fighT with (i.e. wrestle with, esp. in school,           fine\okay\good\wonderful [d?] tamaam at-
  where wrestling is the normal form of                    tamaam (tm;)
  (non-sport) fighting between                           finger\toe [n] uSba9 aSaabi9 (Sb9)
  boys)\wrestle with [vt] Saara9 yiSaari9 (Sr9)          finger\toe [n] uSba9 aSaabi9ayn (Sb9)
fight with (using blows; implies                         finish; bc. f.ed (of person; i.e. no longer
  participation of both parties))\brawl with               any good) [vi] intaha yantahiy (nha)
  (implies participation of both                         finish; be f.ed up\use; be u.d up [vI] xallaS
  parties)\strike (implies participation of                (= [xiliS]?) yixalliS (xlS)
  both parties) [vt] Daarab yiDaarib (Drb)               finish; be f.ed up\use; be u.d up [vi] xiliS (=
fight with (violently)\quarrel with (violently)            [xallaS] (intr.)?) yaxlaS (xlS)
  [vt] 9arak ya9rik (9rk)                                finish; be f.ed\over; be o.\use; be u.d up
fight/f.ing (personal or war) [n] duwaas ?                 [vi] kammal yikammil (kml)
  (dws)                                                  finish; be f.ed\over; be o.\use; be u.d
fight; f.ing\battle\combat [n] kitaal –aat (ktl)           up\run out\left; to be none l.\run out
fight; f.ing\quarrel; q.ing (always with                   of"\sell out of" [vi] xilis yaxlas (xlS)
  violence) [nv] ∫akal coll (∫kl)                        finish; be f.ed\over; be o.\use; be u.d
fight?\quarrel with\argue with [vt] ∫aakal                 up\run out\left; to be none l.\run out
  yi∫aakil (∫kl)                                           of"\sell out of" [vi] xallas yixallis (xlS)
fight\combat\battle [vt] kaatal yikaatil (ktl)           finish; be f.ed\over; be o.\use; be u.d
fighting (i.e. wrestling, esp. in school,                  up\run out\left; to be none l.\run out
  where wrestling is the normal form of                    of"\sell out of" [vi] kimil yakmal (kml)
  (non-sport) fighting between                           finish; be f.ed\over; be o.\use; be u.d
  boys)\wrestling [n] muSaar9a (Sr9)                       up\run out\left; to be none l.\run out
fill (up)(with) [vd?] mala yamla (mla)                     of"\sell out of" [vi] kammal yikammil (kml)
fill up\full; become f. [vi] itmala yitmala (mla)        finish?\end? [vi] zaal yazuwl/*yazaal (zwl)
film\make into a film/movie\turn into a                  finish\complete [vt] ∫aTTab yi∫aTTib (∫Tb)
  film/movie [vd] Hawwal filim yiHawwil (Hwl)            finish\complete [vj] xiliS min yaxlaS (xlS)
film\make into a film/movie\turn into a                  finish\complete\conclude [vt] kammal
  film/movie [vd] 9amal filim ya9mal (9ml)                 yikammil (kml)
film\make into a film/movie\turn into a                  finish\complete\conclude\terminate\end\wi
  film/movie [n/] 9amal filim ya9mal (flm)                 nd up [vt] tamma yatimm (tm;)
film\make into a film/movie\turn into a                  finish\complete\end [vt] xallaS yixalliS (xlS)
  film/movie [n/] Hawwal filim ya9mal (flm)              fire (accidental only?)\conflagration [n]
film\movie [n/] filim aflaam (flm)                         Hariyg (either same as [Hariyga] or bigger than
filth\dirt/dirtiness [n] wasaaxa (= [wasax](?)) –          [Hariyg]) Haraayig (Hrg)
  aat (wsx)                                              fire (accidental only?)\conflagration [n]
filth\dirt/dirtiness [n] wisaaxa –aat (wsx)                Hariyga (either same as [Hariyg] or smaller than
find [vt] laaga yilaagiy (lga)                             [Hariyg]) Haraayig (Hrg)
find\encounter [vt] liga yalga (lga)                     fire\conflagration\fire; f.ing (of weapons)?
fine [vd] #arram yi#arrim (#rm)                            [nf] naar nayraan (nwr)
fine [n] #araama –aat (#rm)                              firewood\wood; firew. [ng] HaTab coll (HTb)
fine; everything's f.\okay; everything's                 firm (esp. rope)\strong (esp. rope) [a] matiyn
  okay [d?] kull-uw tamaam (tm;)                           –iyn (mtn)
                                                 40
firm; make f?\solid; make s.?\robust; make            floor (of a building)\storey [n] Taabig
  r.?\hardy; make h.?\sturdy; make                      Tawaabig (Tbg)
  s.?\harden\strong; make s.\strengthen               floor tiles\tile; floor t. [ns] bulaaTa –aat (blT)
  [vi] gawwa yigawwiy (gwa)                           floor tiles\tile; t.d floor [ng] bulaaT coll (blT)
firm?\solid?\robust?\hardy?\sturdy? [a]               flour\meal? [n] dagiyg (dg;)
  gawiy –iyn (gwa)                                    flour–mill\mill; flour–m.\grinder (flour
first [a] awwal uwla –iyn\awaayil ('wl)                 only?) [n] TaaHuwna TawaaHiyn (THn)
first (ordinal number) [a] awwalaaniy ('wl)           flower [ns] zahra –aat (zhr)
first\when first\time; the f. time (when) [a]         fluid\liquid [n?] saayil –aat (syl)
  awwal maa ('wl)                                     fly (birds only)\flight; take f.?\take
first\when first\time; the f. time (when)\as            wing?\fly away\away; fly a. [vtm?] Taar
  soon as? [c] awwal ('wl)                              yaTiyr (Tyr)
first\when first\time; the first t.                   follow\trail?\track?\behind; walk
  (when)\immediately (when) [c] awwal ('wl)             b.?\pursue? [vim][vtm] taba9 yatba9 (tb9)
first–rate [a] mumtaaz –iyn (myz)                     follower (of a Sufi sheikh) [n] Huwaar
fish [vt] Saad (as-samak) yaSiyd (Syd)                  Hayraan (Hwr)
fish [ng] samak coll (smk)                            food cover (woven from reeds?)\cover;
fish [ng] samak coll (smk)                              food c. [n] Tabag Tubaaga\aTbaag (Tbg)
fish [ns] samaka –aat (smk)                           food; cooked food [ng] mulaaH coll? (mlH)
fish [ns] samaka –aat (smk)                           food; f. cooked with sauce ([SalSa]) [n]
fish; f.ing\angling? [n] Sayd as–samak (smk)            Tabiyx (Tbx)
fish; f.ing\angling? [nv?] Sayd as–samak (Syd)        food\dish [ns] akla –aat ('kl)
fit [vi]? lafag yalfig (lfg)                          food\meal\repast [ng/] akil ('kl)
fit?\mount?\set?\assemble?\install\fix [vt]           food-tray\tray of food [n] Sufra Sufar (Sfr)
  rakkab yirakkib (rkb)                               fool/f.ish\idiot/i.ic\stupid [a] #abiy –iyn\a#biya
five [n] xamsa –aat (xms)                               (#ba)
five hundred [n] xumsu miya (xms)                     fool/f.ish\idiot/i.ic\stupidCHECK THIS
five hundred [n] xumsu miya (my?)                       MEANING [a] #abyaan –iyn (#ba)
flag\banner [n] 9alam a9laam (9lm)                    foot (also measure?) [n] gadam agdaam (gdm)
flash of lightning\lightning flash [n] barraag        foot (sole of f.; camel, only)\hoof (camel,
  –aat (brg)                                            only) [n] xuff axfaaf (xf;)
flat\apartment [n] ∫agga (= [∫agga]) ? (∫g;)          foot\leg and foot [nf/] rijil rujuwl\rijlayn (rjl)
flat\apartment [n] ∫igga (= [∫agga]) ? (∫g;)          foot\leg and foot [nf/] rijil rujuwl\rijlayn (rjl)
flat\even?\level? [a] musaTTaH (sTH)                  foot\leg and foot [nf/] rijil rujuwl\rijlayn (rjl)
flee\escape\run away\away; run                        football (game, sport) [n] kuwra kuwar (kwr)
  away\desert? [vim] harab (\HaRab)                   for (= in exchange for)\in exchange
  yahrub\yahrib (hrb)                                   for\exchange; in e. for [j] lay (ly)
fleece (sheep)\wool; shorn wool [ng] Suwf             for (food, as in ‘for lunch’) [j] fiy (fy)
  coll? (Swf)                                         for (in order to buy/get) [j] fiy (fy)
fleet\squandron?\navy? [n] usTuwl ? ('sTl)            for (the sake of) [j] 9a∫aan (∫an)
flesh; piece of f.\meat; piece of m. [ns?]            for (the sake of) [j] 9a∫aan (9la)
  laHma –aat (lHm)                                    for example/instance [n] masalan (msl)
flesh; piece of f.\meat; piece of m. [ns?]            for?\sake; for the s. of?\behalf; on b. of? [j]
  laHma –aat (lHm)                                      fiy (fy)
flesh; piece of f.\meat; piece of m. [ns?]            for\behalf; on b. of\favour; in f. of?\to [j] lay
  laHama –aat (lHm)                                     (ly)
flexible\pliable\pliant\malleable\supple?\so          for\to\until [d] lay (ly)
  ft [a] layyin –iyn? (lyn)                           forbid; f. for (according to Islamic Law
flood (from river                                       [∫ariy9a]) [aj?] Haraam 9ala (Hrm)
  only?)\innundation\deluge? [n] fayDaan ?            forbid; f.den (according to Islamic Law
  (fyD)                                                 [∫ariy9a]) [a?] Haraam (Hrm)
flood (from river only?)\inundation\deluge?           forbid; f.den; ... is forbidden\no ... (on
  [n] fayaDaan –aat (fyD)                               public notices) [a] mamnuw9 al– (mn9)
floor (of a building)\storey [n] dawr adwaar          forbid; f.den\prohibit; p.ed\ban; b.ed [a]
  (dwr)                                                 mamnuw9 –iyn (mn9)
                                                 41
forbid\prohibit [vtj]/[vd] Hama (zawl) min            fraud?\cheat\swindler?\imposter?\deceptiv
  ∫iy/OBJ yaHmiy (Hma)                                  e? [n] #i∫∫iy∫ (= [#a∫∫aa∫]) –iyn (#∫;)
force; f.d/forcible\compulsory\obligatory             fraud?\cheat\swindler?\imposter?\deceptiv
  [a] ijbaaRiy (jbr)                                    e\deceitful [n] #a∫∫aa∫ –iyn (#∫;)
forceful?\intense?\violent? [a] gawiy –iyn            fraud\cheat\swindler\deceitful?\deceptive?
  (gwa)                                                 [a?] naSSaab –iyn (nSb)
ford (river)?\cross\traverse\pass through             freckle [ns] ∫aama –aat (∫ym)
  [vtm] gaTa9 yagTa9 (gT9)                            freckle; f.s [n] nami∫ none? (nm∫)
forearm [n] saa9id ? (s9d)                            free [a] Hurr –iyn (Hr;)
foreigner\alien [n] ajnabiy –iyn\ajaanib (jnb)        free of charge\nothing; for nothing\gratis
foreigner\European (or other non–                       [d] balaa∫ (bl∫)
  Muslim?) [n] xawaaja –aat (xwj)                     free of charge\nothing; for nothing\gratis
foreigner\European woman (or other non–                 [d] majjaan (mjn)
  Muslim?) [n] xawaajiyya –aat (xwj)                  free; set free\liberate\emancipate\release
forest\wood/w.land\copse\thicket?\jungle                [vt] Harrar yiHarrir (Hr;)
  [n] #aaba –aat (#yb)                                free\charge; without c.\gratis [d] majjaan
forever\always [d] Tawwaaliy (Twl)                      (mjn)
forget [vt] nisa yansa (nsa)                          free\charge; without c.\gratis [d] majjaanan
forget about (not bother with) [vt] xalla               (mjn)
  yixalliy (xla)                                      free\liberty; at l.? [n] Hurr –iyn (Hr;)
forgetful\oblivious? [a] nassaay –iyn (nsa)           freedom\liberty\independence?\unrestraint
forgive [vtj][vd] saamaH yisaamiH (smH)                 ? [n] Hurriyya –aat (Hr;)
forgive (so. who repents of their sins; of            freeze [vt] jammad yijammid (jmd)
  God)\repent; forgive so. who r.s of their           freeze [vt] jamad yajmud\yajmid (jmd)
  sins (of God)\penitent; forgive so. who is          freeze; frozen [a] jaamid ! (jmd)
  penitent of their sins (of God) [vj] taab           French (language and people) [ax] faransiy –
  9alay yatuwb (twb)                                    iyn (frns)
forgive for\excuse for [vtj] 9afa 9an ya9fiy          French (language and people) [ax]
  (9fa)                                                 faRansaawiy –iyn (frns)
forgive; I f. you [a] 9aafiy minn–ak (9fa)            frequent; f.ly\often; very o. [d] Tawwaaliy
fork [n] ∫awka ∫uwak (∫wk)                              (Twl)
former; f.ly? [d] gibayl (gbl)                        fresh [a] jadiyd –iyn\judaad (jd;)
forward/s [d] lay giddaam (gdm)                       fresh [a] Taazij (Tzj)
forward/s [d] giddaam (gdm)                           fresh (water) [a/] Hiluw (Hla)
forward/s [j] lay giddaam (ly)                        fresh milk [n] laban Haliyb (Hlb)
found\exist; s.ing\existence; in                      fresh milk [a] laban nayy (ny;)
  e.\present\there [a] maWjuwd –iyn (wjd)             fresh\moist [a] layyin (lyn)
foundation\insttiution\organisation [n]               fresh\tender?\new? [ab] Taaza same (Taz)
  mu'assasa —aat ('s;)                                Friday [nx] yawm aj–jum9a (jm9)
four [n] aRba9a –aat (rb9)                            Friday [nx] aj–jum9a (jm9)
four hundred [n] rubu9 miya (rb9)                     Friday [nx] yawm aj–jum9a ayyaam–aj–juma9
four hundred [n] rubu9 miya (my?)                       (ywm)
fourth (ordinal) [a] Raabi9 –iyn (rb9)                friend [n] SaaHib SuHbaan (SHb)
fragment; f.ed\shatter; s.ed\smash;                   friend [n] SaaHib aSHaab\SuHbaan (SHb)
  s.ed\broken [a] mukassar (ksr)                      friend [n] SaaHib *SiHaab\*SaHaaba (SHb)
frame (for painting, glasses, bicycle, etc.)          friend [n] SaaHib asHaab\SuHbaan (SHb)
  [n] firaym –aat (frm)                               friend (close friend?) [n] Sadiyg aSdiga (Sdg)
France [nx] faRansa (frns)                            friend (woman) [n] SaaHba –aat (SHb)
France [nx] faransa (frns)                            friend; close/very good f. [n] ax (mainly in
frankincense tree [ns] gafaLa –aat (gfl)                borrowings from Standard Arabic) axwaan ('x)
frankincense tree?\tree....?\olibanum tree?           friend; close/very good f. [n] axuw axwaan
  [ns] gafaLa –aat (gfl)                                ('x)
fraud (person)\cheat\swindler [a?] naSSaab –          friendship [n] SuHba (SHb)
  iyn (nSb)                                           friendship [n] Sadaaga none (Sdg)
                                                    42
frighten; be f.ed for\scare; be s.d for\fear              canister\canister; gas-c.\oven (fuelled by
  for [vj+] xaaf 9alay yaxaaf (xwf)                       gas-canister) [n] butajaaz –aat (btjz)
frighten; be f.ed for\scare; be s.d for\fear             gate (of publice building) [n] madxal madaaxil
  for [vj+] xaaf lay yaxaaf (xwf)                         (dxl)
frighten; be f.ed of\scare; be s.d                       gate of [Haw∫]\door to [Haw∫] [n] baab al-
  of\fear\dread? [vj+] xaaf min yaxaaf (xwf)              Haw∫ (bwb)
frighten\scare\alarm? [vt] xawwaf yixawwif               gate of [Haw∫]\door to [Haw∫] [n] baab al-
  (xwf)                                                   Haw∫ (bwb)
frog (animal) [ns] ga9awnja –aat (g9nj)                  gate; house g. (onto road)\outside gate [d]
frog/f.s (animal) [ng] ga9awnj coll (g9nj)                baab baRRa ([al-baab al-baRRa]) (br;)
from\since\one of\among [j] min (mn)                     gate; house g. (onto road)\outside gate [n]
front (political) [n] jabha –aat\jibah? (jbh)             baab a∫-∫aari9 (bwb)
front; in f. of [j] giddaam (gdm)                        gate; house g. (onto road)\outside gate [n]
front; in f. of (metaphorical)\eye; in the e.s            baab baRRa ([al-baab al-baRRa]) (bwb)
  of (metaphorical) [j] giddaam (gdm)                    gate; house g. (onto road)\outside gate [n]
front; in f.? [d] giddaam (gdm)                           baab a∫-∫aari9 (∫r9)
front?\facade?\outside?\surface? [n] wa∫∫                gather (fruit, flowers)\pick (fruit, flowers)
  wu∫uw∫ (w∫;)                                            [vt] gaTaf ? (gTf)
front\anterior a] giddaamiy (gdm)                        gather (lots of things)\collect (lots of
fruit (of type sold by fruit-seller) [np]                 things)\unite? (lots of things)\combine?
  fawaakih (fkh)                                          (lots of things)\join (lots of things)\add
frying–pan\pan; frying–p. [n] Tawwa –                     (lots of things) [vt] jamma9 yijammi9 (jm9)
  aat\Tiywaw (Twa)                                       gather (more than [lamma])\collect (more
full/filled?\replete?\fat? [a] malyaan –iyn (mla)         than [lamma])\assemble (more than
full/filled?\replete?\fat? [a] malaan –iyn (mla)          [lamma])\furl (sails)? (more than [lamma])
fun (easy to get on                                       [vt] lamlam yilamlim (lm;;)
  with)\sociable\affable\amiable\easy to get             gather (together)\collect\assemble [vt]
  on with [a] ijtimaa9iy –iyn (jm9)                       lamma yalimm (lm;)
funeral [n] ma'tam ma'aatim ('tm)                        gather (together)\rally?\assemble\collect
funeral [n] jinaaza –aat (jnz)                            [vr] itlammuw yitlammuw (lm;)
funeral; time and place of f. ceremony [n]               gather\collect\unite?\combine?\join\add
  maytam mayaatim (ytm)                                   [vt] jama9 (passive: [it–], [in–]) yajma9 (jm9)
funeral; time and place of f. ceremony (in               gear? [n] 9idda none (9d;)
  house)\ceremony; time and place of                     gear–stick\stick; gear–s. (in motor vehicle)
  funeral c. [n] furaa∫ (fr∫)                             [n] ta9∫iyga –aat\ta9aa∫iyg (9∫g)
furious; easily roused to fury\forgiving not             gear–stick\stick; gear–s. (in motor vehicle)
  f.? [a] Hargaan (= [maHruwg]) –iyn (Hrg)                [n] ta9∫iyga –aat\ta9aa∫iyg (9∫g)
furnish; f.ed [a] mafruw∫ (fr∫)                          gecko?\wall; wall–gecko? [n] Dabb Dababa
furniture/item of furniture [n] asaas –aat ('s;)          (Db;)
furniture\household effects (furniture, also             general; g.ly?\usual; u.ly\ordinary; o.ly [d]
  kitchen utensils, etc.) [ng?] 9afa∫ coll? NO            9aadatan (9wd)
  PLURAL (9f∫)                                           generation [n] jiyl ajyaal (jyl)
future [n?] mustaqbal (gbl)                              generosity [n] kaRam (krm)
future; the future [a] aj–jaay (jy)                      generosity (in responding immediately to a
gain\profit [vt]? it9a∫∫a yit9a∫∫a (9∫a)                  request)\responsiveness (in doing what
gain\profit\benefit\interest? [n/] ribiH arbaaH           other people ask one to do) [n] saxaawa
  (rbH)                                                   (sxa)
galabia [jallaabiyya] [n] jallaabiyya jalaaliyb          generous\hospitable\kind [a] kariym –
  (jlb)                                                   iyn\kurama (krm)
game\trick? [ns?] la9ba –aat (l9b)                       gentle?\decent?\good–hearted? [a] Tayyib –
garage (for parking car?) [n] garraa∫ –aat (gr∫)          iyn (Tyb)
garage (for parking car?) [n] garaa∫ –aat (gr∫)          gentle?\soft?\flabby?\tender? [a] layyin –iyn
gas [n] #aaz –aat? (#az)                                  (lyn)
gas-stove (fuelled by gas-canister)\stove;               gentleman"; honorific title [n] sayyid asyaad
  gas-s. (fuelled by gas-canister)\gas-                   (swd)
                                                       43
geographical [n] jiyaw#rafiy (jy#r)                         give birth\bear (child) [vt] wildat talid\tawlad
geography [n] jiyaw#rafiya (jy#r)                            (wld)
German [a] almaaniy –iyn\almaan ('lmn)                      give up [vt] xalla yixalliy (xla)
Germany [nx] almaanya ('lmn)                                give up [vt] baTTal yibaTTil (bTl)
get (disease, etc.)\fall ill with\ill; fall i. with         give up [vt] balla∫ yiballi∫ (bl∫)
 [vt] masak yamsik (lhb)                                    give up hope\despair [vj]\[vt] aayas min
get (hold of)?\obtain? [vt] jaab yajiyb (jyb)                yi'aayis ('ys)
get along/on well with [vt] 9aaya∫ ya9aayi∫                 give up (doing st.)? [vt] baTTal yibaTTil (bTl)
 (9y∫)                                                      give up (esp. in official context; e.g. on
get down\down; go/get/come d.\climb                          doctor's orders)\refrain from (esp. in
 down? [vim] nazal yanzil (nzl)                              official context; e.g. on doctor's
get off/out?\off; get off\disembark [vim]                    orders)\abstain from (esp. in official
 nazal yanzil (nzl)                                          context; e.g. on doctor's orders) [vj]
get out [vtm] Tala9 yaTla9 (Tl9)                             imtana9 min yamtani9 (mn9)
get to (of a price)\touch (of a price)\reach                give up (st. forbidden in Islam)\stop (doing
 (of a price) [vj] biga bay yabga (bga)                      st. forbidden in Islam) [vi] taab yatuwb (twb)
get up\stand up\rise [vim] gaam yaguwm                      give up?\enough; have e.of\despair of? [vj]
 (gwm)                                                       gini9 min yagna9 (gn9)
get\obtain\attain\acquire\receive? [vt] liga                given that\since\as\seeing as [vi] maa daam
 yalga (lga)                                                 (dwm)
get\take\lead\move\bring\conduct\conve                      given that\since\as\seeing as [o] maa daam
 [vtjm][vdm] wadda yiwaddiy (wda)                            (ma)
get\take\lead\move\bring\conduct\convey                     glad; be g.\happy; be h.\rejoice\delight; be
 [vtjm]vdm] waSSal yiwaSSil (wSl)                            d.ed [vi+] firiH yafraH (frH)
Gezira; the G. (region between White Nile                   glass [n] kubbaayat gazaaz ? (gz;)
 and Blue Nile, south of Khartoum) [n] aj-                  glass [n] kubbaayat gazaaz ? (kb;)
 jaziyra (jzr)                                              glass (substance) [ng] gazaaz gazaayiz (gz;)
ghee\butter; clarified b. [n/] samin (smn)                  glass (substance) [ng] gizaaz gazaayiz (gz;)
ghee\butter; clarified b. [n] samna none?                   glasses case [n] bayt naDDaara (nDr)
 (smn)                                                      glasses/eye–glasses\spectacles [n]
gift\present\donation?\offering?\sacrifice?                  naDDaara –aat (nDr)
 [n] hadiyya hadaaya (hda)                                  gloomy; it's gloomy\dark; it's dark [n] ad–
ginger [ng] janzabiyl coll (jnzb)                            dunya Dalaam (Dlm)
ginger (herb?) [ng] janzabiyl coll (jnzb)                   gloomy; it's gloomy\dark; it's dark [n] ad–
giraffe (animal) [ns] zaRaafa\zaraafa –aat (zrf)             dunya Dalaam (dna)
giraffe (animal) [ns] Zaraafa\zaraafa –aat (zrf)            glove; pair of gloves?/glove [n] jiwaytiy –aat
giraffe (male) [n] zaRaaf\zaraaf ? (zrf)                     (jwt)
giraffe/g.s (animal) [ng] zaRaaf\zaraaf coll (zrf)          glue (for wood +?) [nm] #ira (#ra)
girl; little/small girl [n] binayya –aat (bnt)              glue (for wood: +?) [nm] #ira none (#ra)
girl; small/little girl [n] ∫aaf9a –aat\∫uffa9 (∫f9)        go [vtm] ma∫a yam∫iy (m∫a)
girl; unmarried/single g.\woman; single                     go (away)\leave [vtm?] raaH yaruwH (rwH)
 young w. [n] bitt banaat (bnt)                             go (out) to [vtm?] marag yamrug (mrg)
girl; unmarried/single g.\woman; single                     go and see (i.e. meet unofficially)\see; go
 young w. [n] fata° fatawaat\*fityaat (fta)                  and see (i.e. meet unofficially) [vt] ∫aaf
give [vd] adda yaddiy (d;a)                                  ya∫uwf (∫wf)
give (money) [vtj] dafa9 yadfa9 (df9)                       go away\away; go a. [vim] fartag yifartig (frtg)
give (water) to drink\drink; give to d. [vt]                go away\away; go a. [vjm] ma∫a yam∫iy (m∫a)
 rawa yarwiy (rwa)                                          go away\move (away) [vim] ziHH minniy
give as a present\gift; make a g. to\present                 (zH;)
 (as a present) [vd] adda hadiyya yaddiy (d;a)              go down (with a disease)"\suffer; come to
give as a present\gift; make a g. to\present                 suffer"\catch (a disease)" [vt] jaa yajiy (jy)
 (as a present) [vd] adda hadiyya yaddiy (had)              go off (e.g. fruit, vegetables, meat)\rot (e.g.
give birth\bear (child) [vt] jaabat tajiyb (jyb)             fruit, vegetables, meat)\rotten; go r. (e.g.
give birth\bear (child) [vt] wildat taldiy (wld)             fruit, vegetables, meat) [vi] xirib yaxrab
                                                             (xrb)
                                                  44
go out\depart?\leave? [vim] Tala9 yaTla9                journey, also after a near–accident) [nx]
 (Tl9)                                                  Hamd illa 9ala s–salaama ('lh)
go out\depart?\leave? [vtm?] marag yamrug              God; praise be to G.(reply to [kayf al–Haal],
 (mrg)                                                  etc.) [nx] al–Hamdu lli–llaa ('lh)
go out\out; go o.\exit [vim]\[vtm] xaraj yaxruj        God-fearing\godly\devout\pious [a] taqiy ?
 (xrj)                                                  (tqa)
go over?\come over? [vtm] Tala9 yaTla9 (Tl9)           gold [ng] dahab coll (dhb)
go up (price)\up; go u. (price)\increase               gold [ng] dahab (dhb)
 (price)\rise (price) [vi] zaad yaziyd (zyd)           golden (colour) [a] dahabiy coll (dhb)
go with (e.g. of two items of clothing) [aj]           good [a] jayyid ? (jwd)
 maa∫iy ma9a (m∫a)                                     good [a ?] maa baTTaal –iyn (bTl)
go with (e.g. of two items of clothing)? [vj]          good [n] xayr (xyr)
 rikib ma9a yarkab (rkb)                               good [o ?] maa baTTaal –iyn (ma)
goal\intention\aim\purpose [n] #araD ? (#rD)           good (as opposed to evil) [n] xayr (xyr)
God (as interjection, expressing surprise)             good evening\evening; good e. (reply to
 [nx] aLLaa ('lh)                                       [masaa–k bil–xayr]) [n] masa l–xayr (msa)
God give you well–being (reply to al–Hamd              good\fine\nice\pleasant? [a] kuwayyis –iyn
 illa 9ala s–salaama) [nx] aLLaa yisallim–ak            (kys)
 ('lh)                                                 good\okay\fine\alright (reply to suggestion
God preserve? you (replyto [aLLaa                       +?) [a] maa baTTaal (bTl)
 yibaarik fiyk]) [nx] aLLaa yisallimak ('lh)           good\okay\fine\alright (reply to suggestion
God preserveyou (reply to [al–Hamd illa                 +?) [o] maa baTTaal (ma)
 9ala s–salaama]) [nx] aLLaa yisallimak ('lh)          goodbye (replied by [aLLa yisallim–ak] [n]
God willing\if God wills\will; God w.ing [nx]           ma9a salaama (slm)
 in ∫aa'aLLaah ('lh)                                   goodbye (replied by [aLLa yisallim–ak] [j]
God willing\if God wills\will; God w.ing [nx]           ma9a salaama (m9a)
 in∫aLLa ('lh)                                         good-natured\kind/kindly\good-hearted [a]
God willing\if God wills\will; God w.ing [c]            Tayyib –iyn (Tyb)
 in∫aLLa ('n)                                          goods\merchandise\wares\commodities [n]
God willing\if God wills\will; God w.ing [c]            buDaa9a baDaayi9 (bD9)
 in ∫aa'aLLaah ('n)                                    gossip (= [gaawal]) (always
God willing\if God wills\will; God w.ing                maliciously)\scandalmonger (=
 [vis+] in ∫aa' aLLaah (∫y')                            [gaawal])\backbite (= [gaawal]) [vt]?
God willing\if God wills\will; God w.ing                gawwal yigawwil (gwl)
 [vis+] in∫aLLa (∫y')                                  gossip (= [gawwal]) (always
God; by G. (counter reply to [bi–llaahi]) [nx]          maliciously)\scandalmonger (=
 wa–LLaahi ('lh)                                        [gawwal])\backbite (= [gawwal]) [vt]?
God; by G. (expresses astonishment at st.               gaawal yigaawil (gwl)
 said) [nx] bi–llaahi ('lh)                            gossip (about other people)?\]talk about
God; by G. (used to emphasise negation)                 other people? [vi] itkallam fi-n-naas (klm)
 [nx] wa-Llaahi ('lh)                                  gourd/g.s\pumpkin; p.s\calabash/c.es? [ng]
God; by G. (used to emphasise negation)                 gara9 coll (gr9)
 [o] wa-Llaahi (w)                                     gourd\pumpkin\calabash [ns] gar9a –aat?
God; by G. (when thinking of what to say)               (gr9)
 [nx] wa–LLa ('lh)                                     govern\control? [vi] Hakam yaHkum (Hkm)
God; by G. (when thinking of what to say)              government [n] Hakuwma –aat (Hkm)
 [nx] wa–LLaahi ('lh)                                  government (properly speaking 'state', but
God; G. give you well–being (reply to [al–              the government is often identified with
 Hamd illa 9ala s–salaama]) [vt] aLLaa                  the state) [n] daWla duwal (dwl)
 yisallim–ak (slm)                                     governor; district g./district governor [n]
God; praise be to G. (often used in reply to            muHaafiZ –iyn (HfZ)
 question like kaif al–Haal) [nx] al–Hamdu             governor; district g./district governor [n]
 li–llaa ('lh)                                          mu9tamad –iyn (9md)
God; praise be to G. for your well–being               governor; provincial g./provincial governor
 (said after someone returns from a                     [n] waaliy wula°? (wla)
                                                   45
grab\grasp\clutch\clasp\seize\hold; take h.             greedy for (st. which belongs to so.
 of [vt] masak yamsik (msk)                              else)\desirous of (st. which belongs to
grain\granule\pill\tablet [ns] Habba –aat (Hb;)          so. else)\covetous of [aj] Tam9aan fiy –iyn?
grain\granule\pill\tablet [ns] Habbaaya –aat             (Tm9)
 (Hb;)                                                  greedy\desirous\avaricious [a] Tammaa9 –
grammar of Arabic\Arabic grammar [n/]                    iyn (Tm9)
 naHuw (nHw)                                            Greek [a] igriygiy igriyg ('grg)
grammar\rule; r.s of grammar [np] qawaa9id              Greek [a] yuwnaaniy –iyn\yuwnaan (yn;;)
 (g9d)                                                  green (= naive)\gullible\naive\credulous
grandaughter; my g. [nf] bitt bittiy (bt;)               [a?] #a∫iym –iyn\#u∫ama (#∫m)
grandaughter; my g.s (daughter's                        green (colour of young crops) [a] axDar
 daughters) [nf] banaat bittiy (bt;)                     zar9iy ? (zr9)
granddaughter [nf] bitt al–bitt (bt;)                   green (shade of green) [a] zar9iy ? (zr9)
granddaughter [nf] bitt al–walad (bnt)                  green bean (vegetable)\bean; green
granddaughter [n] bitt al–walad/wadd (wld)               b.(vegetable) [ng?] faaSuwlya coll? (faSl)
granddaughter; my g. [nf] bitt-iy° banaat-iy°?          greet [vjj?] sallam 9ala yisallim (slm)
 (bt;)                                                  greeting [n] salaam –aat (slm)
granddaughter; my granddaughter [n] wadd                greeting; traditional Arab, Islamic greeting
 bitt–iy awlaad bitt–iy (bt;)                            [j] salaamu 9alaykum (9la)
granddaughter; my granddaughter [n] wadd                grey [a] axDar xaDra xuDur (xDr)
 bitt–iy awlaad bitt–iy (wd;)                           grey (esp. for speakers who don't use form
grandfather [n] jidd juduwd\*ajdaad (jd;)                [ramaadiy]\brown (esp. for speakers who
grandmother [n] Habbawba –aat (Hb;)                      don't usse form [bunniy]\non-descript
grandmother [n] Habbawba –aat (Hb;)                      coloured\dirty-coloured\neutral
grandson; my g. [nf] wadd bittiy (bt;)                   (colour)\green; non-descript light g. (esp.
grandson; my g. [n] wadd bittiy (wld)                    for speakers with undeveloped colour
grandson; my g.s (by daughter)\child; my                 system)\grey-brown (for speakers with
 g.ren? [n] awlaad bittiy (wld)                          developed colour system) [a] a#ba∫ #ab∫a
grandson; my g.s (by daughter)\child; my                 #ubu∫ (#b∫)
 grandchildren? [nf] awlaad bittiy (bt;)                grey\ashen\ash–coloured [a] rumaadiy (rmd)
grandson; my grandson [n] wadd walad–iy                 grey\ashen\ash–coloured? [a] ramaadiy
 awlaad walad–iy (wd;)                                   (rmd)
grandson; my grandson [n] walad–iy°                     grieve; g.ing\mourn; m.ing\mourning; in m.
 awlaad–iy°? (wld)                                       [a] Haznaan ? (Hzn)
grandson; my grandson [n] wadd walad–iy                 grind\mill (what?)\pulverize?\crush? [vt]
 awlaad walad–iy (wld)                                   TaHan yaTHan (THn)
grant (e.g. to student)\scholarship (e.g. to            grotesque (in natural appearance, clothing,
 student) [n] minHa minaH (mnH)                          etc.) [n] 9awlaag 9awaaliyg (9lg)
grapefruit (fruit) [ng] girayb coll (gryb)              ground (of a room)\floor (of a room) [n]
grapefruit (fruit) [ng] girayt coll (gryt)               arDiyya –aat ('rD)
grapefruit (fruit) [ng] girayn coll (gryn)              ground\earth [ngf] waaTaº coll (wTa)
grapefruit (fruit) [ng] giraynfiruwt none (gryn)        ground\earth\land [ngf] waTa° coll (wTa)
grapefruit (fruit); single g./piece of g.? [ns]         ground\earth\land [ns] waTaaya –aat (wTa)
 girayba –aat (gryb)                                    ground\mill; m.ed (what?)\pulverize;
grapefruit (fruit); single g./piece of g.? [ns]          p.d?\crush; c.ed? [a] maTHuwn ? (THn)
 girayta –aat (gryt)                                    ground–nut/n.s\peanut/p.s\nut; ground–
grapefruit (fruit); single g./piece of g.? [ns]          n./n.s [ng] fuwl coll (fwl)
 girayna –aat (gryn)                                    ground–nut\peanut\nut; peanut/ground–
grass\hay [ng] ga∫∫ gu∫uw∫ (= 1. different types         nut [ns] fuwla –aat (fwl)
 of grass; 2. many grasses(/much grass?) (g∫;)          group (e.g. year g. in school) [n] duf9a ?
grave\tomb? [n/] gabur gubuwr (gbr)                      (df9)
great\big\large\old (of people) [a] kabiyr              group (of people) [n] ∫ulla ∫ulal? (∫l;)
 kubaar (kbr)                                           group (of
great\powerful [a] 9aZiym —iyn\9uZaam                    people)\band?\gang?\party?\troop? [np]
 (9Zm)                                                   jamaa9a none (jm9)
                                                   46
group of [zaar] spirits (in phrase [9inda–              gulf; the Persian Gulf [ax] al–xaliyj al–9arabiy
 jamaa9a])\zar; group of [zaar] spirits (in              (9rb)
 phrase [9inda– jamaa9a]) [n] jamaa9a (jm9)             gulf; the Persian Gulf\Persian; the P. Gulf
group of people\crowd [n] majmuw9a min an–               [nx] al–xaliyj (xlj)
 naas (jm9)                                             gulf; the Persian Gulf\Persian; the P. Gulf
group\number\series [n] majmuw9a –aat (jm9)              [nx] al–xaliyj al–9arabiy (xlj)
grow (of plants only) [vi] gaam yaguwm                  gum [n/] samu# sumuw# (NB. this plural is rural
 (gwm)                                                   only) (Sm#)
grow (of plants, from ground) [vi] nabat                gum\glue; paper g.\resin? [n/] Samu# (Sm#)
 yanbut\*yanbit (nbt)                                   gun\shot–gun\rifle [n] bundugiyya banaadig
grow (plants) [vt] zara9 yazra9 (zr9)                    (bndg)
grow up [n] biga raajil yabga (rjl)                     habit\custom\usage\practise [n] 9aada –
grow up [vi] biga raajil yabga (rjl)                     aat\9awaayid (9wd)
grow up/grow old/older\old; grow old/older              hadji (one who has done the hajj [Hajj]) [n]
 [vi] kibir yakbar (kbr)                                 Haajj Hujjaaj (Hj;)
grow\sprout\come up (plants) [vi] gaam                  hair\bristle; b.s?\fur?\pelt? [ng/] ∫a9ar coll
 yaguwm (gwm)                                            (∫9r)
grudge; g.ing?\envious (by                              hair\bristle? [ns] ∫a9ra –aat (∫9r)
 temperament)\jealous (by temperament)                  hairdresser (woman) [n] kawfayra ? (kwfr)
 [a] Hasuwd –iyn\Husada (Hsd)                           hairdresser (woman) [n] kawaafayra ? (kwfr)
grudge; g.ing?\envious\jealous? [a] Haasid              hairdressers (hairdressing salon)\salon;
 –iyn\Husaad (Hsd)                                       hairdressing s. [n] kawaafiyr (kwfr)
grudge; g.ing?\jealous (by                              half (fraction) [n] nuSS anSaaS (nS;)
 temperament)\covetous? [a] Hasuwd –                    half and half (e.g. in reply to [kayf al–Haal])
 iyn\Husada (Hsd)                                        [j] bayn bayn (byn)
grudger?\envious\envier? [a] Haasid –                   half and half (e.g. in reply to [kayf al–Haal])
 iyn\Husaad (Hsd)                                        [j] bayn bayn (byn)
guarantee [vtj] Daman lay yaDman (Dmn)                  half\middle [n] nuSS anSaaS (nS;)
guard [n] Haraasa none? (Hrs)                           half\middle [n] nuSS anSaaS (nS;)
guard (e.g. national guard) [n] HaraS (HrS)             half–and–half\fairly\quite\reasonable; r.ly
guard (esp. in school)\watchman (esp. in                 [n] nuSS nuSS (nS;)
 school) [ne] #afiyr #afar\#ufara (#fr)                 hammer [n] ∫aakuw∫ ∫awaakiy∫ (∫ak∫)
guard (esp. in school)\watchman (esp. in                hammer [n] ∫aakuw∫ ∫awaakiy∫ (∫ak∫)
 school) [ne] #afiyr #afar\#ufara (#fr)                 hand [vj] madda lay yamidd (md;)
guard (on train)\conductor (on bus,train)               hand [nf] iyd ayaadiy \yaddayn (for both dual and
 [n] kumsaariy –iyya\kamaasra (kmsr)                     plural) ('yd)
guard? [n] HaraaSa none (HrS)                           hand [nf] yadd yaddayn (yd;)
guardian (appointed following so.'s death)              hand (of watch or clock) [n] ∫awka –aat\∫uwak
 [n] waSiy aWSiya (wSa)                                  (∫wk)
guardian (of a child) [n/] waliy al-amur ? ('mr)        hand over\deliver [vd] sallam yisallim (slm)
guardian (of a child) [n] waliy al-amur ? (wla)         hand\handle [nf] yadd iydayn\ayaadi (yd;)
guardian (of orphan) [n] waSiy awSiya (wSa)             hand\handle [nf] iyd ayaadiy\yaddayn (for both
guava (fruit/tree) [n] jawaafa –aat (jwf)                dual and plural)CHECK THIS IN THIS SENSE
guava (piece of fruit (as well as tree)) [n]             ('yd)
 jawaafa –aat (jwf)                                     handkerchief [n] mandiyl manaadiyl (mndl)
guava/g.s (fruit,tree) [n] jawaafa –aat (jwf)           handle [nf] iyd ayaadiy ('yd)
guess [vt]? nagar yangur (ngr)                          handle (= pick up) [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)
guess [vts] xamman yixammin (xmn)                       handle (= pick up) [vt] gabaD yagbuD (gbD)
guess\conjecture\surmise [vi+] xamman                   handle (of door only?)\door–handle [n] ukra
 yixammin (xmn)                                          (= [9ukra]) –aat\ukar ('kr)
guest (female)\visitor (female) [n] Dayfa –aat          handle (of door only?)\door–handle [n]
 (Dyf)                                                   9ukra (= [ukra]) –aat?\9ukar? (9kr)
guest\visitor [n] Dayf Duyuwf\Dayfaan (Dyf)             handle (of door:round type only?) [n] ukra
guility (person)\delinquent [n] muznib –iyn              (= [9ukra]) –aat\ukar ('kr)
 (znb)
                                                    47
handle (of door:round type only?) [n] 9ukra               official/official-sounding than
 (= [ukra]) –aat?\9ukar? (9kr)                            [Raas])\boss?\director?\president [n]
hang\suspend\attach?\fasten?\affix?\fix?\ti               Ra'iys (/[ra'iys]) *–iyn\ru'asa (ras)
 e? [vtj] 9allag yi9allig (9lg)                          headache [n] waja9 Raas (ras)
happiness\bliss?\contentment? [n] sa9aada                headache [n] Sudaa9 (Sd9)
 (s9d)                                                   headache [n] waja9 Raas (wj9)
happiness\merriment?\exhilaration? [n]                   headache; having a h. [a] muSaddi9 –iyn
 faraH (frH)                                              (Sd9)
hard (e.g. of bed) [a] gawiy (gwa)                       headache; I've got a h. [a] ana muSaddi9 (Sd9)
hard (e.g. of boss)\difficult (e.g. of boss)             headache; I've got a h. [n] 9indiy Sudaa9
 [a/] Sa9ab –iyn (S9b)                                    (Sd9)
hard (substance) [a] gawiy (gwa)                         headline (in a newspaper) [n] 9unwaan
hard and dry (substance) [a] gawiy (gwa)                  9anaawiyn (9nwn)
hard currency [a/] 9umla Sa9ba (S9b)                     heal; b/b h.ed [vj?] bira yabra (bra)
hard\harsh\grim\stern\severe\austere?\rou                heal; b/b h.ed\better; get b. [vj?] bira yabra
 gh? [a] gaasiy –iyn (gsa)                                (bra)
hard–hearted [a] gaasiy –iyn (gsa)                       heal\cure [vt] daawa yidaawiy (dwa)
hardship?\tiredness?\weariness\fatigue                   heal\cure [vt] 9aalaj yi9aalij (9lj)
 [n/] ta9ab none (t9b)                                   health; in good h.\well [n] bay SaHHa jaiyda
harm?\hurt?\damage?\injury?\trouble? [n]                  (SH;)
 maDarra –aat (Dr;)                                      health; in good h.\well [n] bay SaHHa
harm\hurt [vt] aza (passive: [in–], [it–]) ya'ziy         kiwaiysa (SH;)
 ('za)                                                   health; in good h.\well (in good health) [a]
harmless?\innocent\guiltless\guileless? [a]               naSiyH ? (nSH)
 bariy' abriya (bra)                                     health\good health\well–
hassle\pressurize (to do st., without good                being\vigour?\vitality? [n] 9aafya (9fa)
 reason)\hurry along [vt] galgal yigalgil (gl;;)         health\hygiene?\soundness?\correctness?
hat (European type only?) [n] birniyTa                    \truth? [n] SaHHa (SH;)
 baraaniyT (brnT)                                        healthy\sanitary [a] SiHHiy (SH;)
hat (European–style h.) [n] birniyTa baraaniyT           heap\pile\hill? [n] kawm akwaam (kwm)
 (brnT)                                                  hear [vt] simi9 yasma9 (sm9)
hatefulness?\odiousness?\obnoxiousness                   hear of/about [vt] simi9 bay yasma9 (sm9)
 ?\loathsomeness [n] kaRaahiyya (krh)                    hear; cause/allow to h. [vd] samma9 yisammi9
hatred?\hate? [n] kaRaahiyya (krh)                        (sm9)
have (= eat) [vt] akal yaakul ('kl)                      hear; h.ing/able to h. [at] saami9 –iyn (sm9)
have for lunch\eat for lunch [vj] it#adda bay            hear; I can't hear [vt] maa saami9 (sm9)
 yit#adda (#da)                                          heart [n/] gaLib guLuwb (glb)
have for lunch\eat for lunch [vt] it#adda                heart?\mind?\condition? [n] baal none? (bwl)
 yit#adda (#da)                                          heartland (of a tribe)\area (of a tribe) [nf]
have"\get; (have) got" [j] 9inda (9nd)                    daar diyaar (dwr)
have; a man who has a beard\with; so. w. a               heat (up)\hot; bc. hot [vi] sixin yasxan (sxn)
 beard [n] abuw digin ('b)                               heat (up)\hot; bc. hot [vi] saxxan yisaxxin
have; having\possess; p.ing\own; o.ing [n                 (sxn)
 ?] abuw +NOUN ('b)                                      heat\hotness\warmth? [n] HaRaaRa (Hr;)
hawk (general word for bird of                           heat\warmth [n] saxaana (sxn)
 prey?)\falcon? [n/] Sagur Suguwr (Sgr)                  heat\warmth? [n] HaRaaRa (Hr;)
hay; single bit of h. [ns] ga∫∫a –aat (g∫;)              heat\warmth? [n] Harr (Hr;)
he\it (masc. sing) [w] huw (hw)                          heaven [n] sama° –waat (sma)
he\it (masc. sing) [w] huwwa (hw)                        heaven\paradise [nx?] aj–janna (jn;)
head [n] Raas (also: [raas])                             heavy (of clothing)\thick (of clothing) [a]
 ruwsayn\ru'uws\raysaan? (ras)                            taxiyn tuxaan (txn)
head- (in compounds)\chief (in                           heavy (of clothing)\thick (of clothing) [a]
 compounds) [o] baa∫ (ba∫)                                samiyn sumaan (smn)
head (more official/official-sounding than               heavy\weighty?\momentous?\grave?\serio
 [Raas])\chief?\leader (more                              us? [a] tagiyl tugaal (tgl)
                                                  48
heavy\weighty?\momentous?\grave?\serio                 here\over here [d] hina (hna)
 us? [a] tagiyl –iyn\tugala (tgl)                      hereafter; the h.\afterlife; the a. [nx] al–aaxra
hedge; enclosure round house, etc. made                 ('xr)
 of grass and trees\enclosure (of grass                hide [vi] itlabbad yatlabbad (lbd)
 and trees, round house etc.) [n] Sariyf               hide (as part of plan; e.g. to attack so.) [vi]
 Saraayif (Srf)                                         labad yalbid (lbd)
heel [n/] ka9ab ku9uwb (k9b)                           hide (esp. out of fear or fright) [vi] iDDaara
hell [nf] jahannab (jhnb)                               yiDDaara (Dra)
hell [nf] jahannab (jhnb)                              hide (esp. out of fear or fright)\cover; take
hell [nf] jahannam (jhnm)                               cover (esp. out of fear or fright) [vi] iddaara
hell/hellfire [nf?] an–naar (nwr)                       yiddaara (dra)
hello (as greeting on phone) [o] aalaw ('lw)           hide (os.)\conceal (os.) [vi] itxabba yitxabba
hello (etc.); reply to [as–salaamu                      (xba)
 9alaykum] [n] wa–9alaykum as–salaam (slm)             hide (st. behind st.)\conceal (st. behind st.)
hello (lit: ‘peaces’)\greetings (lit: ‘peaces’)         [vt] daarag yidaarig (drg)
 [np] salaamaat (slm)                                  hide; be h.en\conceal; be c.ed\secret; be
hello (to house guest, not in                           kept s.? [vi] itxafa yatxafiy (xfa)
 street?)\welcome [o?] marHab (rHb)                    hide; be hidden\conceal; be c.ed [vi] itxabba
help\assist\aid\support?\back?\contribute?              (Passive of [xabba]) yitxabba (xba)
 [vt+] saa9ad yisaa9id (s9d)                           hide?\disappear\vanish [vi] ixtafa yaxtafiy
helper\aide?\assistant [n?] musaa9id –iyn               (xfa)
 (s9d)                                                 hide\conceal [vt] xabba yixabbiy (xba)
helpful [a] saxiy –aat\asxiya (sxa)                    hide\conceal [vt] dassa yadiss (ds;)
helpful (esp. of child; does what you ask              hide\conceal os.? [vim] itdassa yatdass(a)?
 him to do, e.g. runs errands)\obedient                 (ds;)
 (esp. of child; does what you ask him to              hide\cover? [vt] Daara yiDaara (Dra)
 do, e.g. runs errands) [a] saxiy –aat\asxiya          high [a] 9aaliy –iyn (9la)
 (sxa)                                                 high (temperature) [a] 9aaliy (9la)
hen house (large)\chicken coop\coop;                   high/higher (not elementary)\tall\elevated
 chicken c. (large) [n] bayt jadaad (byt)               [a] 9aaliy –iyn (9la)
hen house (large)\chicken coop\coop;                   hill; sand–hill\sand–hill\dune,large? sand–
 chicken c. (large) [ng] bayt jadaad (jd;)              hill [n] gawz gayzaan (gwz)
hen\chicken\fowl? [ns] jadaada –aat (jd;)              hill; sandy h. [n] gawz gayzaan (gwz)
henna [n] Hinna (hn;)                                  hill\mountain [n] jabal jibaal (jbl)
henna (used on skin – only?) [ng?] Hinna               hinder\prevent\stop\restrain [vt+] mana9
 coll? (Hna)                                            yamna9 (mn9)
herd (mainly of cattle, also camels; of 50 or          hindrance\obstacle\obstruction\impedimen
 100 animals)\flock (e.g. of sheep, goats;              t [n] maani9 mawaani9 (mn9)
 of 50 or 100 animals) [n] muraaH                      hipopotamus/h.es (animal) [ng] girintiy coll
 mirHaat\murHaat (rwH)                                  (grnt)
herd (of cattle, being herded) [n] ra9iyya ?           hippopatamus [n ?] girintiyya –aat (grnt)
 (r9a)                                                 hippopotamus (animal) [n] girintiy ? (grnt)
herdsman\shepherd [n] raa9iy rawaa9iyya                hippopotamus (animal) [ns] girintiyya –aat
 (r9a)                                                  (grnt)
herdsman\shepherd [n] raa9iy                           hit\beat\strike [vt] dagga yadugg (dg;)
 *ri9yaan\ru9yaan (r9a)                                hold onto (st. abstract)\retain [vj] itmassak
herdsman\shepherd [n] raa9iy ra9aawiyya                 bay yitmassak (msk)
 (r9a)                                                 hold up?\slow down?\delay\late; make l.
here (= present)\there (= present)\present              [vt] axxar yi'axxir ('xr)
 [a] gaa9id –iyn (g9d)                                 hold\contain [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)
here; not h. [o] maa fiy (fy)                          hold\deem\think\consider [vds+] Zanna
here; she's not h.\present; she's not p. [o]            yaZunn\yaZinn (Zn;)
 maa fiy∫a (fy)                                        hold\grab\seize hold of [vt?] it9anka∫ yit9anka∫
here; they're not h.\present; they're not p.            (9nk∫)
 [o] maa fiy∫iyn (fy)
                                                     49
hole (in clothing, [ziyr] +?) [n] gadd guduwd             hope [vis] it9a∫∫am yit9a∫∫am (9∫m)
 (gd;)                                                    hope [vis] it9a∫∫am yit9a∫∫am (9∫m)
hole (in ground only?)\pit?\hollow?\cavity?               hope for?\desire\covet\crave [vj] Timi9 fiy
 [n] Hufra Hufar (Hfr)                                     yaTma9 (Tm9)
hole (in shoe, etc.) [n/] xurum xuruwm\axraam             hope; I (etc) h. (of any future wish) [c] in
 (xrm)                                                     ∫aa'aLLaah ('n)
holiday (off school/university/work?) [n]                 hope; I (etc.) h. (of any future wish) [nx] in
 ijaaza –aat (jwz)                                         ∫aa' aLLaah ('lh)
holiday; give a h. [vt] ajjaz yi'ajjiz ('jz)              hope; I (etc.) h. (of any future wish) [nx]
holiday; give a h.\vacation; give a v. [vtj]               in∫aLLa ('lh)
 ajjaz lay yi’ajjiz ('jz)                                 hope; I (etc.) h. (of any future wish) [c]
holiday; go on/take a h. [vi] ajjaz yi'ajjiz ('jz)         in∫aLLa ('n)
holiday; have a h.\vacation; have a v. [vi]               hope; I (etc.) h. (of any future wish) [vis+] in
 ajjaz yi’ajjiz ('jz)                                      ∫aa' aLLaah (∫y')
holy man\saint (Islamic) [n] waliy aWliya                 hope; I (etc.) h. (of any future wish) [vis+]
 (wla)                                                     in∫aLLa (∫y')
holy woman\saint (Islamic, female) [n]                    hope; I hope you'll get better soon (said to
 waliyya ? (wla)                                           someone who is ill) [n] kaffaara (kfr)
homeland\native country\country; native c.                hope; place h. in\place o.'s hope(s) in\put
 [n] waTan awTaan (wTn)                                    o.'s hope(s) in [vt] rija yaRja (rja)
homosexual [a] baaTil –iyn (bTl)                          hope\expectation? [n] amal aamaal ('ml)
homosexual [a] layyin –iyn (lyn)                          hope\expectation? [n] amal aamaal ('ml)
homosexual (active                                        hopeful\expectant\optimistic? [a] mu'ammil
 partner)\sodomite\pederast [n] xawal –aat                 –iyn ('m;)
 (xwl)                                                    horse (fully grown, male)\stallion [n] HuSaan
homosexual (passive                                        HaSiyn (HSn)
 partner)\sodomite\pederast [a] baayiZ –iyn               horse (fully grown, male)\stallion [n] HiSaan
 (byZ)                                                     HaSiyn (HSn)
homosexual (passive                                       horse (fully grown, male, or unspecified
 partner)\sodomite\pederast [n] luwTiy                     sex: = [HiSaan]) [n] faras None (frs)
 lawaayTa (lwT)                                           hose–pipe\pipe; hose–p. [n] xarTuw∫
homosexual\effeminate [a] nayy (also [naYY]                xaraaTiy∫ (xrT∫)
 cf [LA56.1]) –iyn (ny;)                                  hospital [n] isbitaalya –aat ('sbt)
honest [a] amiyn –iyn\umana ('mn)                         hospital [n] istibaalya –aat ('stb)
honest [a] Saadig ? (Sdg)                                 hospital [n] musta∫fa –yaat (∫fa)
honest\honourable?\respectable? [a] ∫ariyf                hot [a] Haarr (Hr;)
 –iyn\∫urafa (∫rf)                                        hot (of food = causing a burning sensation
honest\upright\straightforward [a] du#riy –                on the tongue) [a] Haarr (Hr;)
 iyn (d#r)                                                hot; bc. h. (person, weather, food, etc.) [vi]
honey [ng] 9asal coll (9sl)                                sixin yasxan (sxn)
honour\glory [n] ∫aRaf (∫rf)                              hot; bc. h. (person, weather, food, etc.) [vi]
honourable (respects social norms; with                    saxxan yisaxxin (sxn)
 connotations of belonging to                             hot; feeling h. (person) [vi] misaxxin –iyn
 community)\respectable (respects social                   (sxn)
 norms; with connotations of belonging to                 hot; having bc. h. (person, weather, food,
 community)\respect; well-r.ed (respects                   etc.)\warm; bc. w. (person, weather, food,
 social norms; with connotations of                        etc.) [vi] misaxxin –iyn (sxn)
 belonging to community)\upright (with                    hot?\warm? [n] Harr (Hr;)
 connotations of belonging to                             hot\warm? [a/] suxun ? (sxn)
 community)\honest (with connotations of                  hotel [n] lakawnda –aat (lknd)
 belonging to community) [a] aSiyl –iyn ('Sl)             hour\timepiece\clock\watch [n] saa9a –aat
honourable/honoured\revere; r.d\venerate;                  (sw9)
 v.d?\esteem; e.ed\respect;                               house; round house made of mud ([Tiyn])
 r.ed\respectable? [a] muHtaRam –iyn (Hrm)                 or burnt bricks ([Tuwb aHmar]) with
hook [n] ∫ankal ∫anaakil (∫nkl)                            thatched roof [n] durdur daraadir (dr;;)
                                                50
house; round house made of mud ([Tiyn])              hurt\harm; h.ed\damage; d.d?\injure; i.d [a]
 or burnt bricks ([Tuwb aHmar]) with                    mu9awwag –iyn (9wg)
 thatched roof [n] durdur daraadir (dr;;)            hurt\harm\damage?\injure? [vt] 9awwag
house; round house made of mud ([Tiyn])                 (passive: [it–]) yi9awwig (9wg)
 or burnt bricks ([Tuwb aHmar]) with                 hurt\pain\ache [vt] waja9 yawja9 (wj9)
 thatched roof [n] durdur daraadir (dr;;)            hurt\pain\painful; be p. [vt] waja9 yawja9
house; to/at the h. of\place; to/at the p. of           (wj9)
 [j] 9inda (9nd)                                     husband [n] raajil rijaal\rujaal (rjl)
house\building?\tent? [n] bayt buyuwt (byt)          husband [n] zaWj (also [zawj]) azwaaj (zwj)
house–owner [n] siyd bayt siyaad buyuwt (byt)        hut; straw h. with thatched roof\thatch;
house–owner [n] SaaHb al–bayt aSHaab al-                t.ed straw hut [n] guTTiyya gaTaaTiy (gT;)
 biyuwt? (byt)                                       hygiene?\health/good health [n] SaHHa ?
how [q] kayf (kyf)                                      (SH;)
how are you [w] kayf inta ('nt)                      hypodermic?\injection [n] ibra ibar ('br)
how are you [w] kayf-ak (k)                          hypodermic?\injection [n] Hugna Hugan
how are you [q] kayf (kyf)                              (Hgn)
how are you [q] kayf inta (kyf)                      I\me (as emphatic) [w] ana ('na)
how are you [q] kayf-ak (kyf)                        ice; piece/block of i. (artificially
how are you [q] kayf inta (kyf)                         made)\block; b.(s) of ice\piece of ice [ns]
how are you [q] kayf-ak (kyf)                           talja –aat (tlj)
how are you (greeting) [q?] iz–zayyak (zy;)          ice-cream [n] iskriym ('skr)
how much (money) [j] bay kam (by)                    ice-cream [n] aayskriym ('skr)
how much (money) [q] bay kam (km)                    if [c] in ('n)
how much/many [q] kam (+sing.) (km)                  if [c] kaan (kwn)
how much/many [q] gadri kam (km)                     if [c?] law (lw)
how much/many\many; how many\much;                   if only I did (in reply to something like
 how much [q] kam +SING (km;)                           [inta, maa 9ind–ak 9arabiyya?]) [o] yaa rayt
how much\much; how much [q] kam (km;)                   (ryt)
how much\much; how much [q] bay kam                  if only I did (in reply to something like
 (km;)                                                  [inta, maa 9ind–ak 9arabiyya?]) [o] yaa rayt
humble [a] miskiyn masaakiyn (mskn)                     (ya)
humble\modest [a] mitwaaDi9 –iyn (wD9)               ignominy\shame\disgrace\dishonour [n]
hundred [n] miya ? (my?)                                9aar none (9yr)
hundred; four h.\four hundred [n]                    ignorant\know; not knowing how to? [a]
 Rubu9miyya (rb9)                                       jaahil juhhaal (jhl)
hundred; four h.\four hundred [n]                    ignore\disregard\refuse to have anything
 Rubu9miyya (rb9)                                       to do with\pretend to know nothing about
hundred; one h. thousand\thousand; a                    [vt] itjaahal yitjaahal (jhl)
 hundred t. [n?] miyyat alf ('lf)                    ill [a] ta9baan –iyn\ta9aaba (t9b)
hundred; one h. thousand\thousand; a                 ill; fall illfall ill/sick\sick; become s. [vi] 9iya
 hundred t. [n?] miyyat alf (my)                        ya9ya (9ya)
hunger\starvation? [n] juw9 none (jw9)               ill\sick [a] marDaan –iyn (mrD)
hungry [a] jiy9aan –iyn (jw9)                        illegal [a] #ayr qaanuwniy (gn;)
hunt/h.ing\fish; f.ing?\angling? [ngv] Sayd          illegal [a] maa qaanuwniy (gn;)
 (Syd)                                               illegal [o] maa qaanuwniy (ma)
hunter\fisherman? [n] Sayyaad –iyn (Syd)             illiterate [a] ummiy –iyn ('m;)
hurry; in a h.\rush; r.ed (person) [a]               imagine\fancy [vt+] itxayyal yitxayyal (xyl)
 musta9jil –iyn (9jl)                                imagine\seem’ [vts+] itxayyal yitxayyal (xyl)
hurt; get h.\injure; get i.d\wound; get w.ed?        imam\prayer leader\leader; prayer l. [n]
 [vi] it9awwag yit9awwag (9wg)                          imaam a'imma ('m;)
hurt; my foot's h.ing me\ache; my foot's             immediately; go i.\straight; go s.
 a.ing me [vt] rijliy waaj9aaniy (wj9)                  away\now; go n.? [d] am∫iy Tawwaaliy (Twl)
hurt?\injure?\harm\impair?\prejudice?\dam            immoral woman (in general sense, e.g.
 age? [vt] Darra yaDurr (Dr;)                           gossips) [n] ∫ak∫uwka –aat\∫aka∫ (∫k;;)
                                                     impartial\just\fair [a] 9aadil —iyn (9dl)
                                                  51
impartiality\justice [n/] 9adil (= [9adaala]?)         inattentive?\slovenly? [a] muhmil –iyn (hml)
  (9dl)                                                incapable of\unable to\weak; too w. to [aj]
impartiality\justice [n/] 9adal (= [9adaala]?)           9aajiz –iyn (9jz)
  (9dl)                                                incense\frankincense? [n] baxuwr (bxr)
impartiality\justice\fairness [n] 9adaala (=           inch [n] buwSa –aat? (bwS)
  [9adil]?) (9dl)                                      incomplete\miss; m.ing [a] naagiS –iyn (ngS)
impatient [a] maa Sabuwr –iyn (Sbr)                    increase\augment\compound?\grow; make
impatient (when wanting st.)\hassle; h.ing               grow? [vt] zaad yaziyd (zyd)
  (when wanting st.) [a] ∫afgaan –iyn (∫fg)            increase\more\extra [n] ziyaada –aat (zyd)
impious (esp. so. who insults religion                 increase\more\extra [a]? ziyaada (zyd)
  ([bisibb ad-diyn], by using phrases such             indeed\fact; in f.\true,it'st.that/truly [d] fi9lan
  as [yan9al diyn-                                       (f9l)
  ak])\blasphemous/blasphemor (esp. so.                indeed\fact; in f.\true,it'st.that/truly\[n/] bil–
  who insults religion ([bisibb ad-diyn], by             fi9il (f9l)
  using phrases such as [yan9al diyn-ak])              indeed\true; it is t. [d] fi9lan (f9l)
  [n] kaafir –iyn\kuffaar (kfr)                        independence [n] istiqlaal (gl;)
implement\appliance?\machine? [n] aala –               individual\person\figure\character (in a
  aat ('wl)                                              play) [n/] ∫axi∫ ? (∫x∫)
impolite\rude [a] maa mu'addab –iyn ('db)              individual\person\figure\character (in a
impolite\rude [a] maa murabba –iyn (rba)                 play) [n] ∫axS a∫xaaS (∫xS)
import [vt] istawrad                                   individual\person\figure\character (in a
  yastawrid/yistawrid/yastawrad/yistawrad (wrd)          play) [n] ∫axS a∫xaaS (∫xS)
important\significant\momentous\weighty\               industrial\artisan?\craft–(in compounds)?
  serious [a] muhimm –iyn (hm;)                          [a] Sinaa9iy (Sn9)
impression [n] inTibaa9 –aat (Tb9)                     industry\manufacture? [n] Sinaa9a –aat (Sn9)
imprisonment (/prison) [n/] sijin sujuwn (sjn)         inevitable?\must"?\need"? [az] Daruwriy !
improve\better; make b.\ameliorate [vt]                  (Dr;)
  Hassan (better than [Hasan] – but JD CHECK           infant?\baby?\child [n/] Tifil aTfaal (Tfl)
  THIS) yiHassin (Hsn)                                 inflammation [n] iltihaab (lhb)
impudent?\daring\bold\forward?\insolent?\              influenza\flu [n] inflawnza ('nfl)
  brave [ae] jaasir –iyn (jsr)                         inhabit; i.ed\populate; p.d [a] maskuwn (skn)
in general\generally (speaking) [j] bay Sifa           inject/give an injection\injection; give an i.
  9aamma (by)                                            [vi] Hagan yaHgin (Hgn)
in general\generally (speaking) [j] bay ∫akil          inject; injecting [nv/] Hagin (Hgn)
  9aamm (by)                                           injure; be injured\hurt; be hurt [vi] it9awwag
in general\generally (speaking) [n] bay ∫akil            yit9awwag (9wg)
  9aamm (∫kl)                                          injure?\damage\harm?\impair?\hurt? [vt]
in general\generally (speaking) [a] bay Sifa             Darra yaDurr (Dr;)
  9aamma (9m;)                                         injure”\hurt” [vi] it9awwag yit9awwag (9wg)
in general\generally (speaking) [a] bay ∫akil          injury [nvs] ta9wiyga ? (9wg)
  9aamm (9m;)                                          injury?\trouble?\harm?\hurt?\damage? [n]
in general\generally (speaking) [n] bay Sifa             aziyya (= [aza] none ('za)
  9aamma (wSf)                                         ink [n/] Hibir none (Hbr)
in respect of\regard; in r. of/with r.                 ink [n/] Hibir none (Hbr)
  to\regarding\over [j] fiy (#∫;)                      inn?\hotel [n] lawkunda –aat (lwkn)
in\at\on\near?\by?\within?\during?\among               inner room (in middle of house; with other
  ?\with? [j] fiy (fy)                                   rooms on outside, e.g.
in\within [n/] fiy wasaT .. (wsT)                        [daywaan]/[Saalawn] and [hawl])\living-
in\within [j] fiy wasaT .. (fy)                          room (in middle of house; with other
inanimate?\dead\lifeless [a/?] mayyit –iyn               rooms on outside, e.g.
  (mwt)                                                  [daywaan]/[Saalawn] and [hawl]) [n] Saala
inattention\dereliction of duty? [n] ihmaal              –aat (Sal)
  (hml)                                                inner\interior\inside\inmost\internal [a]
inattention\dereliction of duty? [n] ihmaal              daaxliy (dxl)
  (hml)
                                                   52
inquest?\investigation\inquiry (official,               intelligent\clever\bright [a] zakiy azkiya (zka)
  etc.) [n] taHgiyg –aat\*taHaagiyg (Hg;)               intend?\mind; have in m.\mean [vt+] gaSad
insane\mad\maniac\lunatic\crazy [a]                       yagSud (gSd)
  majnuwn –iyn\majaaniyn (jn;)                          intent/intention?\design?\purpose?\object
inside [d] juwwa (jw;)                                    ?\aim?\mean; what so. means [n/] gaSid
inside [j] juwwa (jw;)                                    guSuwd\agSaad (gSd)
inside the house?\in the house? [dj] juwwa              intentional; i.ly\purpose; I did it on p. [d]
  fil–bayt (jw;)                                          gaaSid (gSd)
inside the house\in the house [j] juwwa l–              interior\inner\inside [a] juwwaaniy (jw;)
  bayt (jw;)                                            international [a] duwaliy –iyn (dwl)
inside\middle; in the m. of?\midst; in the              international\multinational\world–(in
  midst of? [n/] fiy wasaT .. (wsT)                       compounds)\global [a] 9aalamiy –iyn (9lm)
insignificant\unimportant\slight [a] xafiyf –           intervene?\meddle\interfere\interpose? [vi]
  iyn\xufaaf (xf;)                                        iddaxxal yaddaxal? (dxl)
insolence?\daring\boldness\recklessness                 interview [n] mu9aayana –aat (9yn)
  [n] jasaara (jsr)                                     intoxicating liquor\alcoholic beverage [n]
inspector [n] mufatti∫ –iyn (ft∫)                         xamra xumuwr (xmr)
inspector\supervisor? [n] mufatti∫ –iyn (ft∫)           introduce to\present to [vtj] gaabal bay
instead of\place; in p. of\lieu; in l. of [j]             yigaabil (gbl)
  badal (bdl)                                           introduce to\present to [vd] 9arraf bay yi9arrif
instead of\place; in place of\lieu; in lieu of            (9rf)
  [j] badal (bdl)                                       introduction to a book (written by
instead of\rather than [d] badal maa (bdl)                someone other than the author of the
instead of\rather than [c] badal (bdl)                    book)\preface (written by someon other
instead of\rather than [o] wa-laa (la)                    than the author of the book) [n] taqdiym ?
instead of\rather than [o] badal maa (ma)                 (gdm)
instead of\rather than [c] wa-laa (w)                   introduction to a book (written by the
instead of\rather than?\place,in place of?                author of the book)\preface (written by
  [j] bidaal (bdl)                                        the author of the book) [n] muqaddima ?
instead of\rather than\and not [o] mu∫∫ (m∫;)             (gdm)
institute [n] ma9had ma9aahid (9hd)                     invasion\attack\aggression\conquest [ns?]
institute [n] ma9had ma9aahid (9hd)                       #azwa –aat (#za)
instrument\utensil\tool?\apparatus?\device              invitation [n] da9wa –aat\*da9aawiy (d9a)
  [n] aala –aat ('wl)                                   invitation?\banquet [n] 9azuwma –aat? (9zm)
insult (esp. by referring to religion) [vt]             invite to eat [vt] 9azam ya9zim (9zm)
  sabba yasibb (sb;)                                    invocation of God (chanting God's names;
insult (repeatdly)\abuse (repeatedly) [vt]                Sufism) [n/] zikir (zkr)
  ∫attam yi∫attim (∫tm)                                 involve; i.d (problem, etc.)\difficult
insult (violently)\abuse (violently) [vt] ∫attam          (problem) [a] mu9aggad (9gd)
  yi∫attim (∫tm)                                        Iran [nx] iyraan ('yrn)
insult\abuse [vt] ∫atam ya∫tim (∫tm)                    Iranian [ax] iyraaniy –iyn ('yrn)
insult\abuse [vt] nabbaz yinabbiz (nbz)                 Iraq [n] al–9iraaq (9rg)
insult\abuse [ngv] nabaz (more common than              Iraq [n] al–9iraag (9rg)
  [nabiz]) coll (nbz)                                   Iraqi [ax] 9iraaqiy –iyn (9rg)
insult\abuse; term of a.? [nsv] nabza –aat              Iraqi [ax] 9iraagiy –iyn (9rg)
  (nbz)                                                 iron (for clothes) [n] makwa makaawiy (kwa)
insurance [n] taamiyn –aat ('mn)                        iron (substance) [ng] Hadiyd coll (Hd;)
intelligence [n/] 9agul\*9agil 9uguwl (9gl)             iron\press (clothes) [vt] kawa yakwiy (kwa)
intelligence services [np] muxaabaraat (xbr)            irrigate; be irrigated [vi] riwa yarwa (rwa)
intelligent (normally used of                           irritate\annoy\anger [vi] #aaZ ya#iyZ (#yZ)
  children)\clever (normally used of                    Islamic dress (specifically, type of clothing
  children)\bright (normally used of                      worn by Islamist women) [ap] zayy islaamiy
  children) [a] faaliH –iyn (flH)                         NONE (slm)
intelligent?\discerning?\perceptive? [a]                Islamic\Muslim (as adjective with non-
  faahim –iyn (fhm)                                       animate nouns) [ap] islaamiy (slm)
                                                   53
island [n] jaziyra juzur\jazaayir (jzr)                 jumpy\nervy\nervous\tense; t.ly over-
island [n] jaziyra juzur\jazaayir (jzr)                   enthusiastic\enthusiastic; tensely over-e.
Israel [nx] israa'iyl ('srl)                              [a] mika∫ki∫ –iyn (k∫;;)
Israeli [ax] israa'iyliy –iyn ('srl)                    just (previously) [o] yaa dawb (dwb)
issue (of magazine, etc.) [n] 9adad a9daad              just (previously) [o] yaa dawb (ya)
  (9d;)                                                 just about to [az?] daayir –iyn (dwr)
issue\matter/subject m. [n] maWDuw9                     just now\now; just n. [d] gibayl (gbl)
  mawaaDiy9 (wD9)                                       just now\now\immediately [d] hassa9 (hs9)
it; it's dark [n] ad–dunya Dalaam (dna)                 just\simple; s.ly\own; on o.'s o. \only\mere;
it; it's dark [n] ad–dunya Dalaam (dna)                   m.ly [d] saay (say)
Italian [a] iyTaaliy ('yTl)                             just\simple; s.ly\own; on o.'s o. \only\mere;
jacket [n] jaakitta –aat (jkt)                            m.ly [d] saakit (skt)
jail\prison [n/] sijin sujuwn (sjn)                     keen; be k. on [vj] irtaaH lay yartaaH (rtH)
jam [n] muRabba –yaat (rba)                             keep\preserve [vt] xatta yaxutt (xt;)
jam [n] maRabba –yaat (rba)                             keep\preserve [vt] xalla yixalliy (xla)
jar? [n] ibriyg abaariyg ('brg)                         Kenyan [nx] kiynya (kyny)
jar? [n] ibriyk abaariyk ('brk)                         kernel/k.s?\stone/s.s(of
jeans/pair of j. [n] banTalawn jiynz (bnTl)               fruit)?\pit/p.s(date)? [ng?] HaSa coll? (HSa)
jeans/pair of j. [n] banTalawn jiynz (jynz)             kernel/k.s\stone/s.s (of fruitTHIS MEANING
jelabiya [jallaabiyya]; thin cotton like j.? [n]          REJECTED BY ALI)\pit/p.s (dateTHIS
  9arraagiy 9araariyg (9rg)                               MEANING ACCEPTED BY ALI) [nb] nawa
Jew; J.'s mallow (= [muluxiyya])\mallow;                  (= [jana]) SAME (nwa)
  Jew's m. [n] xuDra –aat (xDr)                         kernel/k.s\stone/s.s (of fruitTHIS MEANING
Jew; Jew's mallow (vegetable)\mallow;                     REJECTED BY ALI)\pit/p.s (dateTHIS
  Jew's m. [n] muluxiyya (mlx)                            MEANING ACCEPTED BY ALI) [ng] nawa
Jew\Jewish [ax] yahuwdiy *–iyn\yahuwd (hwd)               (cf. [nawaº] individuative) none (nwa)
jeweller\goldsmith [n] saayi# siyaa# (Sw#)              kernel?\stone (of fruit)?\pit (of date)? [ns?]
jeweller\goldsmith [n] saayi# saa#a (Sw#)                 HaSaaya –aat (HSa)
Jewish [ax] yahuwdiy yahuwd (yhd)                       kernel\stone (of fruitTHIS MEANING
jihad\war; holy w. (in Islam)\holy war (in                REJECTED BY ALI))\pit (of dateTHIS
  Islam) [n] jihaad (jhd)                                 MEANING ACCEPTED BY ALI)) [ns]
jinn ([jinn]) [n] jinn ? (jn;)                            nawaaya –aat (nwa)
job (as civil servant)\civil; job as c. servant         kernel\stone (of fruitTHIS MEANING
  [n] waZiyfa waZaayif (wZf)                              REJECTED BY ALI)\pit (dateTHIS
joke\witticism\anecdote?\pun? [n] nukta                   MEANING ACCEPTED BY ALI) [ng] nawaº
  nukat (nkt)                                             (cf. [nawa] collective) –aat (nwa)
Jordan [nx] al–urdun ('rdn)                             kettle [n] kafatayra –aat (kftr)
Jordan [nx] al–urdunn ('rdn)                            kettle [n] kafatayra kafaatiyr (kftr)
Jordanian [ax] urdunniy –iyn ('rdn)                     key\switch\lever?\pedal?\knob? [n] muftaaH
Jordanian [ax] urduniy –iyn ('rdn)                        mafaatiyH (ftH)
journey\travel\trip\tour? [n] safar none (sfr)          khaki [a] kaakiy ? (kak?)
joy\gladness\glee\gaiety\hilarity?\mirth? [n]           Khartoum [nx] al–xarTuwm (xrT)
  faraH (frH)                                           Khartoum [nx] al–xurTuwm (xrTm)
judge\magistrate\cadi (Islamic judge) [n]               kick [vt] rakal yarkul (rkl)
  gaaDiy guDa° (gDa)                                    kid (young female goat) [n] saxala –aat (sxl)
judgement; formal legal judgement (in                   kid (young female goat) [n/?] sixayla –aat?
  Islam) [nm?] fatwa fataawiy (fta)                       (sxl)
jug (for what?) [n] jagg juguwg\juguwga (jg;)           kid (young male goat) [n/?] sixayl –aat? (sxl)
jug (for what?) [n] jakk? jukuwk\jukuwka (jk;)          kid (young male goat) [n/?] saxal suxlaan (sxl)
juice\extract (fruit, etc.) [n] 9aSiyr (9Sr)            kidney (as part of body) [n] kilwa
jumble up\mix up\muddle (up) [vt] laxbaT                  kalaawiy\kilaw (kla)
  yilaxbiT (lxbT)                                       kidney (as part of body) [n] kilwa
jumble?\disorder\confusion\muddle? [n]                    kalaawiy\kilaw (JD 2002: [kilaW]?) (kla)
  karkaba –aat (krkb)                                   kidney (as part of body) [n] kilya ? (kla)
                                                        kidney; k.s (as food) [np] kalaawiy ? (kla)
                                                   54
kill (animal Islamically by slitting throat)              society; kissing in Sudan is not
  [vt] DabaH yaDbaH (DbH)                                 traditional) [vt] Habba yaHibb (∫m;)
kill\slay\murder\assassinate? [vt] katal yaktil         kitchen [n] maTbax maTaabix (Tbx)
  (ktl)                                                 kitchen (small outhouse made of mud?) [n]
killer\murderer\assassin? [n] kaatil                      tukul takala\takkaal\tukuwl (tkl)
  kuttaal\katala (ktl)                                  knee [n] rukba *–aat\rukab (rkb)
killer\murderer\assassin? [n] kaatil                    knife [nf] sikkiyn sakaakiyn (skn)
  kuttaal\katala (ktl)                                  knife [n] sikkiyna sakaakiyn (skn)
killing\manslaughter?\homicide\murder                   knife; big kitchen k.\kitchen-knife (big) [n]
  [nv/] katil (ktl)                                       kazlak kazaalik (kzlk)
kilogram (unit of weight) [n] kiyluw –haat              knock into (hard)\bang into (hard)\hit (e.g.
  (kylw)                                                  of car hitting one) [vt] xabat yaxbut\yaxbit
kilometre (unit of length) [n] kiyluw –haat               (xbT)
  (kylw)                                                knock on\bang on\rap on [vt] xabbat yixabbit
kind; the same kind as"? [n/] jinis ajnaas (jns)          (xbT)
kind?\friendly?\generous\liberal?\hospitabl             know (passive: [in–], [it–]) [vt+] 9irif ya9raf
  e [a] kariym –iyn\kurama (krm)                          (9rf)
kind\good\pleasant\friendly [a] Tayyib –iyn             know how to [vt+] 9irif + IMPERFECT ya9raf
  (Tyb)                                                   (9rf)
kind\sort\type\species [n] naw9 anwaa9 (nw9)            know well/thoroughly\acquaint; be fully
kindle; bc. k.d?\light; bc. lit [vi] walla9               a.ed with [vts] xibir yaxbar (xbr)
  yiwalli9 (wl9)                                        knowledge (fact of knowing) [n] 9irfa ? (9rf)
kindle\light [vt] walla9 yiwalli9 (wl9)                 knowledge (of)\idea (about) [nj] fikra (bay)
king [n] malik muluwk (mlk)                               (fkr)
king (used when, where) [n] makk mukuwk                 Kuwait [nx] al–kuwayt (kwt)
  (mlk)                                                 Kuwaiti [ax] kuwaytiy –iyn (kwt)
king; chief of N. or S.( not W.?) Sudanese              labour [nv?] xidma *–aat\xadamaat (xdm)
  tribe [n] makk mukuwk (mlk)                           lack (total)\want (total lack)\non-existence
king; chief of W. (not N. or S.?) Sudanese                [n] 9adam (9dm)
  tribe, such as Fur ([fawr]) [n] sulTaan               lack\want\insufficiency\scarcity\deficiency
  salaaTiyn (slTn)                                        [n] gilla (gl;)
king\sovereign\monarch [n] malik muluwk                 ladder\flight of stairs\stair; flight of s.s [n]
  (mk;)                                                   sullam salaalim (slm)
kingship?\royalty?\monarchy?\sovereignty                ladder\flight of stairs\stair?\step? [n] sillim
  ? [n] mulk/muluk (mlk)                                  salaalim (slm)
kirkady (plant) [ng] karkaday° coll (krkd)              ladder\stairs,flight of s.?\flight of stairs?
kiss [vt] qabbal yiqabbil (gbl)                           [n] sillim salaalim (slm)
kiss [vt] qabbal yiqabbil (gbl)                         lake [n] buHayra –aat (bHr)
kiss [n] qubla qubal (gbl)                              Lake Nuba\Nuba, Lake Nuba [nx] buHayrat
kiss (repeatedly) [vt] maSmaS yimaSmiS                    an–nuwba (bHr)
  (mS;;)                                                lake Nuba\Nuba; lake Nuba [nx] buHayrat an–
kiss"; i.e. cup hands and smell small                     nuwba (nwb)
  chld's face (traditional Sudanese                     lake, i.e. very big lake only [n] buHayra –aat
  equivalent to kissing child in Western                  (bHr)
  society; kissing in Sudan is not                      lake, natural lake (swimmable in) [n/?] rahad
  traditional) [vt] Habba yaHubb (Hb;)                    ruhuwd (rhd)
kiss"; i.e. cup hands and smell small                   lake; dug out area in which rainwater
  chld's face (traditional Sudanese                       collects [n] Hafiyr Hafaayir\–aat (Hfr)
  equivalent to kissing child in Western                lake; dug out area in which rainwater
  society; kissing in Sudan is not                        collects\pond; dug out area in which
  traditional) [vt] ∫amma ya∫umm? (∫m;)                   rainwater collects\pool; dug out area in
kiss"; i.e. cup hands and smell small                     which rainwater collects\water–hole
  chld's face (traditional Sudanese                       (man–made only)\hole; water–hole (man-
  equivalent to kissing child in Western                  made only) [n] Hafiyra Hafaayir\–aat (Hfr)
                                                    55
lake; natural seasonal l. (swimmable in) [n]             last; the l. time\final; the f. time [a] aaxir
  rahad ruhuwd (rhd)                                       marra ('xr)
lamb [n] Hamal ? (Hml)                                   last?\endure?\continue\go
lame; bc. l\limp; walk with a l.\walk with a               on\remain?\stay? [vi+] istamaRRa
  limp [vim] xattal yixattil (xtl)                         yastamiRR (mr;)
lame; bc. slightly l.\limp; walk with a slight           last\continue (to be/function) [vi] ga9ad
  l.\walk with a slight limp [vim] xatal yaxtil            yag9ud (g9d)
  (xtl)                                                  last\continue\go on [vi+] istamaRRa
lame; be lame (permanent state)\limp                       yastamiRR (mr;)
  (permanent state)\hobble (permanent                    last\end of\final [a] aaxir ('xr)
  state) [vi] 9araj ya9rij (9rj)                         last\previous?\latest? [a] axiyr ('xr)
lame; make l\limp; make walk with a                      late [a] mut'axxir –iyn ('xr)
  l.\walk; make w. with a limp [vtm] xattal              late; be/come l. for [vj] it’axxar min/9an
  yixattil (xtl)                                           yit’axxar ('xr)
lame\limping? [a] a9raj 9arja 9uruj (9rj)                late; make l. for [vtj] axxar min/9an yi’axxir
lameness [n] 9araj (= [9araja](?)) (9rj)                   ('xr)
lameness [n] 9araja (= [9araj](?)) (9rj)                 later\while; in a w. [d] ba9dayn (b9d)
lameness (specific type, or occasion of                  laugh [nsv?] DaHka –aat (DHk)
  lameness) [n] 9arja (9rj)                              laugh at [vj] DiHik 9alay/min yaDHak (DHk)
lamp\light (object)\bulb\torch? [n] lamba –aat           laughter [n/] DiHik (DHk)
  (lmb)                                                  law: formal legal opinion (in Islam)\fatwa
land [ngf] waaTaº coll (wTa)                               [fatwa] [nm?] fatwa fataawiy (fta)
land (as opposed to sea) [n] barr (br;)                  law; Islamic Religious L.\Islamic Religious
land (of a tribe)\homeland (tribal) [nf] daar              Law [nx] ∫ariy9a (∫r9)
  diyaar (dwr)                                           lawn [n] najiyla –aat\najaayil (njl)
lane\alley [n] zugaag –aat (zg;)                         lawsuit\litigation\case (legal)\action (legal)
language [n] kalaam ? (klm)                                [n] gaDiyya gaDaaya (gDa)
language [n] kalaam ? (klm)                              lawyer\barrister\advocate [n] muHaamiy
language (style of speaking used by                        muHaam–iyn (Hma)
  particular social group)\jargon                        lay by (money)\put by (money)\save
  (specialised language used by particular                 (money) [vt] waffar yiwaffir (wfr)
  social group) [n] lu#a –aat (l#a)                      lay eggs\egg; lay eggs [vi?] bayyaD yibayyiD
language (written l. only) [n] lu#a –aat (l#a)             (byD)
larynx? (associated with speaking)\throat                lazy (now/typically)\sluggish?
  (associated with speaking)\windpipe [n]                  (now/typically)\slothful
  Hanjuwr (= [Hanjara]) Hanaajiyr (Hnjr)                   (now/typically)\indolent
larynx? (associated with speaking)\throat                  (now/typically)\idle\inactive?
  (associated with speaking)\windpipe [n]                  (now/typically) [a] kaslaan –iyn (‘now’
  Hanjara (= [Hanjuwr]) Hanaajir (Hnjr)                    [LA52.2])\kasaala (‘now/general’ [LA52.2])
last (for a long time)\continue\go                         (ksl)
  on\persevere?\persist? [vi?] daam yaduwm               lazy (now; temporary state)\sluggish?
  (dwm)                                                    (now; temporary state)\slothful (now;
last week [vi?] al–usbuw9 al–faat (fwt)                    temporary state)\indolent (now;
last year [d]? 9amanawwal ('wl)                            temporary state)\idle\inactive? (now;
last year [d]? 9amanawwal (9wm)                            temporary state) [a] mikassil –iyn? (ksl)
last year [vi?] as–sana l–faatat (fwt)                   lazy; be l.\idle; be i.\indolent; be i. [vi] kisil
last, a long time\take, a long time [vi] Taal              yaksal (ksl)
  yaTuwl (Twl)                                           lazy; be too l. to\too; be too l. to [vi] kisil
last, a long time\take, a long time [vi]                   min yaksal (ksl)
  Tawwal yiTawwil (Twl)                                  leader (less official/official-sounding than
last,a long time\take, a long time [vi] Taal               [Raas])\head (less official/official-
  yaTuwl (Twl)                                             sounding than [Raas])\chief (less
last; the l. day\final; the f. day [a] aaxir yawm          official/official-sounding than
  ('xr)                                                    [Raas])\chieftain (less official/official-
                                                    56
  sounding than [Raas]) [n] Raas (also: [raas])          least; at the (very) least [a] 9ala l–agall (gl;)
  ru'uws (ras)                                           least; at the (very) least [a] agalla ∫iy (gl;)
leader (less official/official-sounding than             least; at the (very) least [a] agalla Haaja (gl;)
  [Raas])\head (less official/official-                  leather sandal\sandal; leather s. (garment)
  sounding than [Raas])\chief (less                        [n] ni9aal –aat\ni9laat (n9l)
  official/official-sounding than                        leather sandal\sandal; leather s.\shoe;
  [Raas])\chieftain (less official/official-               leather s. [n] na9aal –aat\na9laat? (n9l)
  sounding than [Raas]) [n] Raas (also: [raas])          leave (a job)\quit (a job)\resign from (a job)
  ru'uws (ras)                                             [vt] xalla yixalliy (xla)
leader\chief\boss\director\manager? [n]                  leave (a job)\quit (a job)\resign from (a job)
  Ra'iys (/[ra'iys]) *–iyn\ru'asa (ras)                    [vt] saab yasiyb (syb)
leaf [ns] Safaga –aat (Sfg)                              leave (cause or allow to remain) [vt+] xalla
leaf [ns] Safaga –aat (Sfg)                                yixalliy (xla)
leaf [ns] Taraga –aat (Trg)                              leave (for)\depart (for) [vtm] ma∫a yam∫iy
leaf/leaves [ng] Safag coll (Sfg)                          (m∫a)
leaf/leaves [ng] Safag coll (Sfg)                        leave out (= forget) [vt] nisa yansa (nsa)
leaf/leaves [ng] Tarag coll (Trg)                        leave out (in reading or writing)\miss out
leaflet [n] maTwiyya –aat (Twa)                            (in reading or writing)\omit (in reading or
leaflet?\pamphlet?\handbill?\circular?\tract               writing) [vt] faTTa yafuTT (nsa)
  [n] man∫uwr –aat\manaa∫iyr (n∫r)                       leave\depart [vjm][vtm] saafar lay/OBJ. yisaafir
leaflet\handbill\circular\prospectus?\tract                (sfr)
  [n] man∫uwr –aat\manaa∫iyr (n∫r)                       leave\give up\stop?\cease?\abandon?
leak (liquids, gases) [vtm?] sarrab yisarrib               [vt+?] saab yasiyb (syb)
  (srb)                                                  leave\go away\depart? [vim] faat yafuwt (fwt)
leak (of porous vessel) [vt] nazza yanizz (nz;)          leave\let\allow\permit [vt+] xalla yixalliy (xla)
lean (e.g. supported by elbows or against                Lebanese [ax] lubnaaniy –iyn (lbn;)
  back of chair)\rest (e.g. supported by                 Lebanon [nx] lubnaan (lbn;)
  elbows or against back of chair) against               lecture [n] muHaaDara –aat (HDr)
  (e.g. a wall) [vi] ittaka yattakiy (tka)               left/left–hand/left side [nf?] ∫amaal (∫ml)
lean against (e.g. a wall)\rest (lean) against           left/left–hand/left side [nf?] ∫imaal (∫ml)
  (e.g. a wall) [vj] ittakal 9alay yattakil (tkl)        leg; two l.s\foot; two feet?\trotter; two t.s
lean against (e.g. a wall)\rest (lean) against             [nlf] kuraa9ayn (kr9)
  (e.g. a wall) [vtj] takal yatkil (tkl)                 leg\foot?\trotter (of animal)? [nf] kuraa9
lean on (with elbow, stick, etc.)\rest                     kir9ayn\kur9ayn (kr9)
  against? (with elbow, stick, etc.) [vj] itakka         legal [a] qaanwniy (gn;)
  9ala/fiy yitakka\yatakiy\yitakiy (tka)                 legist (Islamic)?\jurisprudent?\theologian?
lean on/against (with elbow, stick,                        [n] fakiy° fakaya (fka)
  etc.)\recline on [vj] itakka 9ala/fiy                  lend\loan\advance (money)? [vtj][vd] sallaf
  yitakka\yatakiy\yitakiy (tka)                            yisallif (slf)
lean on\rest on [vj] takka fiy/fawg/9alay                length\size?\height\tallness [n] Tuwl (Twl)
  yitakkiy? (tka)                                        length\size?\height\tallness [n] Tuwla (Twl)
learn (passive: [in–], [it–]) [vt+] 9irif ya9raf         lentils [ng] 9adas coll (9ds)
  (9rf)                                                  less; bc. l.\decrease [vi] galla yagill (gl;)
learn by heart/memorize [vt] HifiZ yaHfaZ                less\minus [a?] naagiS (ngS)
  (HfZ)                                                  lessen/make
learn by heart\memorize\heart; learn by h.                 less\decrease\diminish\reduce? [vt] gallal
  [vt] HifiZ yaHfaZ (HfZ)                                  yigallil (gl;)
learn; l.ing\study [n] diraasa –aat (drs)                lessen\lower\decrease\reduce [vi] xifiD
learn\study [vt] daras yadrus (drs)                        yaxfaD (xfD)
learn\study? [vt] it9allam yit9allam (9lm)               lessen\lower\decrease\reduce [vt] xaffaD
learned\expert\scholar\scientist [n] 9aalim                yixaffiD (xfD)
  9ulama (9lm)                                           lesson\chapter (of a textbook) [n/] daris
least, at the (very) least [n] agalla Haaja (Hwj)          duruws (drs)
least,at the (very) least [n] agalla ∫iy (∫y)            let down\put down\bring down\set down
least,at the (very) least [j] 9ala l–agall (9la)           [vdm?] nazzal yinazzil (nzl)
                                                       57
let; let's go/get off (m.sing) [nx] yaLLa ('lh)             lift\raise\heave up?\hoist up? [vtj]?[vd]
let\lease?\hire (out) [vtj] ajjar lay yi'ajjir ('jr)          Rafa9 yaRfa9 (rf9)
letter (of alphabet) [n/] Harif Huruwf (Hrf)                light (object)\lamp [n] nuwr anwaar (nwr)
letter\message?\note? [n] jawaab –aat (jwb)                 light (of weight)\slight\little\trivial [a] xafiyf –
level\standard [nm] mustawa –yaat (swa)                       iyn\xufaaf (xf;)
liar/lying\swindler?\untruthful\false\deceitf               light blue\blue; light b. [a] axDar labaniy ?
  ul [a] kaDDaab –iyn (kDb)                                   (lbn)
liar/lying\swindler?\untruthful\false\deceitf               light\brightness?\glow? [n] Daww none
  ul [a] kaDDaab –iyn (kDb)                                   ([aDwa] is a Standard Arabic form) (Dw;)
liar\lying\swindler?\untruthful\false\deceitf               light\ray of light?\beam of light? [n] nuwr
  ul [a] kazzaab –iyn (kzb)                                   anwaar (nwr)
library\bookshop [n] maktaba –aat (ktb)                     light\ray of light?\beam?\glow?\lamp [n]
Libya [nx] liybya (lyby)                                      nuwr anwaar (nwr)
Libyan [ax] liybiy –iyn (lyby)                              lightning\flash of lightning [n] barraag –
licence\permit\permission (official)\official                 aat\baraariyg (brg)
  permission [n] taSriyH –aat\taSaariyH (SrH)               light–skinned (e.g. of Europeans, Arabs,
licence\permit\permission (official)\official                 Nubians) [a] aHmar Hamra Humur (Hmr)
  permission [n] taSriyH –aat\taSaariyH (SrH)               like [vj] nafa9 ma9a yanfa9 (nf9)
license\franchise?\leave?\permit\concessi                   like pitch (i.e. no good/rotten/lousy) [j] zayy
  on? [n] ruxSa ruxaS (rxS)                                   az–zift (zy;)
licit\legitimate [a] Halaal none (Hl;)                      like this\this; like this\thus [d] kida (kda)
lick [vt] liHis yalHas (lHs)                                like this\thus\so [d] kaday° (kda)
lie [vi?] kazzab yikazzib (kzb)                             like to\love to [vt] Habba + IMPERFECT
lie [vi?] kaDDab yikaDDib (kDb)                               yaHibb (Hb;)
lie (down)\bed; go to b.?\go to bed? [vim]                  like to\love to [vt] raad + IMPERFECT yariyd
  ragad yargud (rgd)                                          (ryd)
lie (down)\bed; go to b.?\go to bed? [vim]                  like,I like what you're saying [a] 9aajibniy
  ragad yargud (rgd)                                          kalaamak (9jb)
lie to/tell a l. to [vj] kaDDab lay yikaDDib                like\as if [j] zayy (zy;)
  (kDb)                                                     like\love [vt] raad yariyd (ryd)
lie to\deceive\delude?\mislead [vj] kazab                   like\similar to [j] zayy (zy;)
  9ala/lay yakzib (kzb)                                     likelihood?\probability?\potentiality? [n]
lie to\deceive\delude?\mislead [vj] kazzab                    iHtimaal –aat (Hml)
  9ala/*lay yikazzib (kzb)                                  lime (fruit) [ns] laymuwna –aat (lymn)
lie to\deceive\delude\mislead [vj] kaDab                    lime tree [ns] laymuwna –aat (lymn)
  9ala? yakDib (kDb)                                        lime/l.s (fruit) [ng] laymuwn coll (lymn)
lie to\deceive\delude\mislead [vj] kaDDab                   limp; having a slight l.\lame; slightly l. [a]
  9ala? yikaDDib (kDb)                                        a9raj 9arja° 9uruj (9rj)
lie/lying?\falsehood\untruth\deceit [ng]                    limp; slight l.\lameness; slight l. [n] 9araj
  kazib coll (kzb)                                            (9rj)
lie/lying\deceit\falsehood\untruth [ng] kazib               limp; slight l.\lameness; slight l. [n] 9araja
  coll (kzb)                                                  (9rj)
lie/lying\deceit\falsehood\untruth [ng] kaDib               line [n] xayT xuyuwT (xyT)
  coll (kDb)                                                line (on a piece of paper, +?) [n/] saTur
lie\deceit\falsehood\untruth [ns] kazba –aat                  suTuwr (sTr)
  (kzb)                                                     line (organised)\file (e.g. of soldiers,
lie\deceit\falsehood\untruth [ns] kazba –aat                  school–pupils)\row (organised) [n]
  (kzb)                                                       Taabuwr Tawaabiyr (Tbr)
lie\deceit\falsehood\untruth [ns] kaDba –aat                line (what types?)\stripe (esp. long stripe)
  (kDb)                                                       [n] xaTT xuTuwT (xT;)
lie\deceit\falsehood\untruth [ns] kaDba –aat                line, in writing [n/] saTur suTuwr (sTr)
  (kDb)                                                     line?\wire\piece of wire [n/] silik
life [n] Hayá° (Hya)                                          suluwk\aslaak (slk)
life (as experienced) [n] dunya (dna)
lift (up) [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)
                                                      58
lineage\tribe; tribal affiliation\affiliation;             load, an animal with\put a load (on an
  tribal/ethnic a.\ethnicity\nationality [n]                 animal) [vtj /[vd] Hammal yiHammil (Hml)
  jinis ajnaas? (jns)                                      loaf of bread [ns] 9ay∫a –aat (9y∫)
link; l.ed to\associate; a.d with\connect;                 loaf of bread (type?)\bread; loaf of b.
  c.ed with [aj] murtabiT bay (rbT)                          (type?) [ns] ra#iyfa –aat (also [ru#uf] – but rare
lint (used medically in bandages) [ng] ∫aa∫                  and rural, according to Ali; perhaps plural of the
  coll (∫a∫)                                                 collective) (r#f)
lint; piece of (used medically in bandages)                loaf of bread\bread; loaf of
  [ns] ∫aa∫a –aat (∫a∫)                                      bread\roll?\bun?\bread [ns] ra#iyfa –aat
lip [n] ∫iffa ∫ifaf (∫f;)                                    (also [ru#uf] – but rare and rural, according to
liquid which comes out of [9u∫ar] plant [n]                  Ali; perhaps plural of the collective) (r#f)
  Haliyb (Hlb)                                             loaf/loaves of bread\bread; loaf/loaves of
list\roster?\register?\index?\table? [n] lista               b.\bread? [ng] ra#iyf *ra#aayif (but this does
  –aat\lisat (lst)                                           not mean ‘types of loaves [LA07.1]) (r#f)
listen to advice\heed advice\advice; heed                  loaf/loaves of bread\bread; loaf/loaves of
  a. [vt] simi9 kalaam +GEN yasma9 (sm9)                     b.\bread? [ng] ra#iyf *ra#aayif (but this does
listen to advice\heed advice\advice; heed                    not mean ‘types of loaves [LA07.1]) (r#f)
  a. [nt] simi9 kalaam +GEN yasma9 (klm)                   loaf; long kind of l. [n] 9ay∫ tawsta coll (twst)
listen to\attention; pay a. to\pay attention               loaf; long kind of l. [ng] 9ay∫ tawsta coll (9y∫)
  to [vj] simi9 lay yasma9 (sm9)                           loan (unofficial; from individual)\advance
listen to\attention; pay a. to\pay attention                 (cash)? [n] sulfa sulaf (slf)
  to [vt] simi9 yasma9 (sm9)                               loan (unofficial; from individual)\advance
literature\culture? [n] adab aadaab? ('db)                   (cash)? [n] salafiyya –aat? (slf)
little; a l. [d] Habba = ∫uwaiya (Hb;)                     local (of produce; not imported; with
little\few\insignificant?\trifling?\small? [a]               positive associations)\Sudanese (i.e.
  galiyl –iyn (gl;)                                          made in Sudan; not imported; with
live in\dwell in\inhabit [vt?] ga9ad yag9ud                  positive associations)\traditional (i.e.
  (g9d)                                                      produced by traditional, non-industrial
live\alive; be a. [vi?] 9aa∫ ya9iy∫ (9y∫)                    means) [a] baladiy (bld)
live\dwell\inhabit [vt?] sakan yaskun\yaskin               local\native\indigenous [a] maHalliy (Hl;)
  (skn)                                                    lock (also any locking device) [n/] gifil
lively (e.g. of party) [a] gaajjiy (gj;)                     gufuwl\agfaal (gfl)
lively\animated\cheerful\energetic? [a]                    lock/lock unit (on door, of type opened by
  HaYY –iyn (Hya)                                            key) [n] kaaluwn –aat\kawaaliyn (kaln)
liver (only of food) [n/] kabid (rarer than                lock/lock unit (on door, of type opened by
  [kabda]) akbaad (kbd)                                      key) [n] kayluwn –aat\kawaaliyn (kaln)
liver (only of food) [n] kabda (= [kibda]) –               lock; padlock\padlock [n] Tabla Tibal (Tbl)
  aat\kibad (kbd)                                          lock\latch?\bolt?\padlock? [n/] gifil
liver (only of food) [n] kibda (= [kabda]) kibad             gufuwl\agfaal (gfl)
  (kbd)                                                    lock\padlock?\bolt?\latch? [n/] gifil
liver (only of food) [n] kibda (= [kabda]) kibad             gufuwl\akfaal (gfl)
  (kbd)                                                    locust [n] jaraada –aat (jrd)
liver (only of food) [n] kibda (= [kabda]) kibad           locust/l.s [ng] jaraad coll (jrd)
  (kbd)                                                    lonely [a] waHdaaniy –iyn (wHd)
liver (part of body, not of meat) [n/] kabid               long for\yearn for [vj] Hanna lay yaHinn (Hn;)
  (rarer than [kabda]) akbaad (kbd)                        long for\yearn for\miss; come to m. [vj]
livestock [n] maa∫ya mawaa∫iy (m∫a)                          i∫taag lay ya∫taag (∫wg)
livestock\cattle\domestic animals [np]                     long; a l. time ago\time; a long t. ago [d]
  bahaayim (bhm)                                             badriy (bdr)
lizard (a type?)(animal) [n] Dabb Dababa (Db;)             long; a l. time ago\time; a long t. ago\used
lizard (a type?)(animal) [n] Dabb                            to"\past; in the p. [d] zamaan (zmn)
  Dubuwb\Dububba (Db;)                                     long; l.ing\yearn; y.ing\eager\desirous [a]
lizard? [n] Dabb Dababa (Db;)                                mu∫taag –iyn (∫wg)
load (an animal?with?)\put a load                          long; make l.\lengthen [vt] Tawwal yiTawwil
  onto\carry; get to c. [vd?] ∫ayyal yi∫ayyil (∫yl)          (Twl)
                                                    59
long\large?\big?\tall\high [a] Tawiyl Tuwaal             lose; cause/allow to l. [vd] xassar yixassir (xsr)
  (Twl)                                                  lose; cause/allow to l. in [vd] xassar yixassir
look at [vj] 9aayan lay yi9aayin (9yn)                     (xsr)
look at (a spectacle only?)\watch [vj]                   lose; I lost the book\mislay; I m.d the
  itfaRRaj 9ala yitfaRRaj (frj)                            book? [vj] raaH minniy al–kitaab (rwH)
look at (a spectacle only?)\watch [vj]                   lose; I lost the book\mislay; I mislaid the
  itfaRRaj 9ala/*fiy yitfaRRaj (frj)                       book [vj] Daa9 minniy al–kitaab (Dy9)
look at\have a look at\take a look at [vt] ∫aaf          lose\mislay [vt] Dayya9 yiDayyi9 (Dy9)
  ya∫uwf (∫wf)                                           loss (e.g. of money)\waste (e.g. of money)
look for/look around for\search for (a long                [n] xasaar ? (xsr)
  time?) [vt] kaas (passive: [it–], [in–]) yakuws        loss; bc. at a l. to know what to do\stump;
  (kws)                                                    bc. s.ed (not to know what to do) [vi]
look for\search for\seek [vj] fatta∫ 9an yifatti∫          itHayyar yitHayyar (Hyr)
  (ft∫)                                                  loss; put at a l. to know what to do\stump
look into\investigate\consider (in detail)                 (leave so. not knowing what to do) [vt]
  [vj] naZar fiy yanZur (nZr)                              Hayyar yiHayyir (Hyr)
look out for\attention; pay a. to?\beware                loss?\disadvantage?\harm\damage\detrim
  of? [n/] xutt baal–ak fiy/9alay (bal)                    ent? [n] maDarra –aat (Dr;)
look out for\attention; pay a. to?\beware                loss\damage [n] xasaara –aat\xasaayir (xsr)
  of? [n/] xalliy baal–ak fiy/9alay (bal)                lot; a lot of sugar (e.g. in tea)\much sugar
look out for\attention; pay a. to?\beware                  (e.g. in tea) [ng] sukkar katiyr (skr)
  of? [vj] xutt baal–ak fiy/9alay (xt;)                  lot; a lot of sugar (e.g. in tea)\much sugar
look out for\attention; pay a. to?\beware                  (e.g. in tea)\sugar; a lot of s. (e.g. in tea)
  of? [vj] xalliy baal–ak fiy/9alay (xla)                  [ng] sukkar katiyr (skr)
look; l.ing glass\mirror [n] miraaya –aat (r'a)          lot; not a lot of sugar (e.g. in tea)\much;
look; what does he l. like [n] ∫akl-uw kayf                not much sugar (e.g. in tea)\little; a little
  (∫kl)                                                    sugar (only) (e.g. in tea)\sugar; not much
loose woman\woman; loose w. [n] ∫ak∫uwka                   s. (e.g. in tea) [ng] sukkar xafiyf (skr)
  –aat\∫aka∫ (∫k;;)                                      lots of; having l. of\much; having m.\many;
lorry (large lorry)\truck (large truck) [n]                having m. [a] malyaan –iyn (mla)
  ∫aaHina –aat? (∫Hn)                                    loud/in a loud voice [a] bay Hiss 9aaliy (9la)
lorry (small lorry)\truck (small truck) [n]              loud/l.ly\voice; in a loud/high voice [n] bay
  lawriy lawaariy (lwry)                                   Sawt 9aaliy (Swt)
lose [vt] rawwaH yirawwiH (rwH)                          loud; in a l. voice\high; in a h. voice [a] bay
lose (a game, trade, etc.) [vj][vt] xisir yaxsar           Sawt 9aaliy (9la)
  (xsr)                                                  loud; speak loudly\speak loud/loudly [n]
lose (a part of o.'s body) [vt] fagad yafgid               itkallam bi–Sawt 9aaliy (Swt)
  (fgd)                                                  loud; speak loudly\speak loud/loudly [a]
lose (an opportunity)\waste (an                            itkallam bi–Sawt 9aaliy (9la)
  apportunity) [vt] Dayya9 yiDayyi9 (Dy9)                loud; speak loudly\speak loud/loudly [vt]
lose (e.g. money) [vt] xassar yixassir (xsr)               itkallam bi–Sawt 9aaliy (klm)
lose (leaves, of a tree)\drop (leaves, of a              loud\strong (voice)\high (=loud) [a] 9aaliy –
  tree) [vt] Hatta yaHitt (Ht;)                            iyn? (9la)
lose (st. significant; e.g. a lot of money) [vt]         love (sexual)\passion?\ardour? [n] 9u∫g (9∫g)
  fagad yafgid (fgd)                                     love; fall in l. with [vt] 9i∫ig ya9∫ag (9∫g)
lose in (a game, etc.)\defeat; be. d.ed in (a            love; he's (fallen) madly in love with
  game, etc.) [vi] ithazam fiy yathazim (hzm)              her\mad; he's (fallen) m.ly in love with
lose in (a game, trade, etc.) [vi] xisir fiy               her\deep; he's (fallen) d.ly in love with
  yaxsar (xsr)                                             her\fall; he's f.en deeply in love with her
lose way/get lost\wander about?\astray;go                  [vi] daab fiy-ha yaduwb (dwb)
  a. [vi] taah yatuwh (twh)                              love; in l. with/in love with [a] 9aa∫ig ? (9∫g)
lose weight (not necessarily much weight)                love; l.d\dear?\desirable?\popular [a]
  [vi] Di9if yaD9af (D9f)                                  maHbuwb –iyn (Hb;)
lose weight (not necessarily much weight)                love\affection [n] maHabba none (Hb;)
  [vi] nagaS yanguS (ngS)                                love\affection\attachment [n] Hubb (Hb;)
                                                      60
love\affection\attachment\like; l.ing [n] rayd             magician (with evil powers)\sorcerer (with
  (= [Hubb]?, [maHabba]?) none? (ryd)                       evil powers)\wizard (with evil
love\affection\attachment\like; l.ing [ns?]                 powers)\enchanter (with evil
  rayda –aat (ryd)                                          powers)\charmer (with evil powers) [n]
love\like [vt] Habba (passive: [it–], [in–]) yaHibb         saHHaar –iyn\saHaaHiyr (sHr)
  (Hb;)                                                    mahdi; Islamic messiah figure [nx] al–
loved one\friend (dear/close)\lover\beloved                 mahdiy (hda)
  [n] Habiyb Hubbaan\Hibbaan (Hb;)                         mahdi; the Mahdi (C.19 religious leader)
low (voice)\soft (voice) [a] xafiyD (xfD)                   [nx] al–imaam al–mahdiy ('m;)
lower (physical) [vd?] waTTa yiwaTTiy (wTa)                mahdi; the Mahdi (C.19 religious leader)
lower (voice)\turn down (volume) [vd?]                      [nx] al–imaam al–mahdiy (hda)
  waTTa yiwaTTiy (wTa)                                     mahdism/Mahdist movement/period [nx] al–
lower?\decrease?\diminish?\lessen?\reduc                    mahdiyya (hda)
  e? [vt] nazzal yinazzil (nzl)                            maize (crop) [n] 9ay∫ riyf coll (ryf)
lower?\reduce?\decrease? [vtm] nazzal                      maize (crop) [n] 9ay∫ ar-riyf coll (ryf)
  yinazzil (nzl)                                           maize (crop) [ng] 9ay∫ riyf coll (9y∫)
loyal?\honest?\reliable?\trustworthy?\upri                 maize (crop) [ng] 9ay∫ ar-riyf coll (9y∫)
  ght? [a] amiyn ! ('mn)                                   maize (crop); a single m. plant? [ns] 9ay∫at
luck\fortune; good f. [n] HaZZ (HZ;)                        riyf –aat (9y∫)
luck\good fortune?\fortune; good f.? [n]                   maize; single m. plant(?) [n] 9ay∫at riyf –aat
  baxt (bxt)                                                (ryf)
luck\good fortune?\fortune; good f.? [n/]                  maize; single m. plant(?) [n] 9ay∫at riyf –aat
  baxit (bxt)                                               (9y∫)
lucky\fortunate [a] baxiyt –iyn\buxata (bxt)               majority [a] a#labiyya (#lb)
lucky\fortunate [a] baxiyt –iyn\buxata (bxt)               mak [mak]; area ruled over by a mak ? [n]
lucky\fortunate [a] maHZuwZ –iyn (HZ;)                      mamlaka mamaalik (mlk)
lucky\fortunate [a] maHZuwZ –iyn (HZ;)                     make (causative former)\cause
luggage\baggage [ng?] 9afa∫ coll? NO                        to\force\allow? [vt+] 9amal ya9mal (9ml)
  PLURAL (9f∫)                                             make (using an industrial process)\build
lunch; have/eat l.\dinner; have/eat                         (using an industrial process)\produce
  d.(midday) [vi] it#adda yit#adda (#da)                    (using an industrial
lunch\midday meal\dinner (at midday) [nm]                   process)\manufacture\fabricate (using an
  #ada #idyaat (#da)                                        industrial process) [vt] Sana9 yaSna9 (Sn9)
lung; l.s (of animals only)\lights? [np?]                  make (using an industrial process)\build
  fa∫aafiy∫ none (f∫;;)                                     (using an industrial process)\produce
lung\lights (of animal) [ng] fa∫faa∫ fa∫aafiy∫              (using an industrial
  (f∫;;)                                                    process)\manufacture\fabricate (using an
lung\lungs (of animals only?)\lights? [ng]                  industrial process) [vt] Sanna9 yiSanni9
  fa∫faa∫ coll (f∫;;)                                       (Sn9)
machine [n] makana –aat (mkn)                              make into\turn into\change into [vd] sawwa
machine [n] maakina –aat (mkn)                              yisawwiy (swa)
mad; drive m.\crazy; drive c.\insane; send                 make into\turn into\convert to [vd] Hawwal
  i. [vt] jannan yijannin (jn;)                             yiHawwil (Hwl)
mad; go m.\insane; go i.\crazy; go c.\go                   make; made (by traditional process) into
  mad/crazy [vi] janna yajinn (jn;)                         [at] ma9muwl (9ml)
mad; he drove me absolutely mad [vt]                       make; made of (by industrial
  jannan-niy° jinn (jn;)                                    process)\construct; constructed of (by
madden?\enrage?\infuriate? [vt] jannan                      industrial process) [aj] maSnuw9 min (Sn9)
  yijannin (jn;)                                           make; made of (by traditional
magazine\periodical\review\journal [n]                      process)\construct; constructed of (by
  majalla –aat (jl;)                                        traditional process) [aj] ma9muwl min (9ml)
magic/magical [a] saaHir (sHr)                             make; made of (by traditional
magic/magical [a] siHriy NONE (sHr)                         process)\construct; constructed of (by
magic\sorcery?\witchcraft? [n/] siHir *asHaar               traditional process) [aj] ma9muwl min (9ml)
  (sHr)
                                               61
make; what is it made (by industrial                manufacture; m.d\make; made (by
 process) of [q] maSnuw9 min ∫inuw (∫n)              industrial process)\produce; p.d (by
make; what is it made (by industrial                 industrial process) [a] maSnuw9 (Sn9)
 process) of [a] maSnuw9 min ∫inuw (Sn9)            manufacture; m.d\make; made\produce;
make; what is it made (by traditional                p.d [a] muSanna9 (Sn9)
 process) of [q] ma9muwl min ∫inuw (∫n)             many; get m."\lot of; get a."\much; get m."
make; what is it made (by traditional                [vj] kitir 9ala yaktar (ktr)
 process) of [a] ma9muwl min ∫inuw (9ml)            map\chart [n] xaarTa xaraayiT\xuraT (xrT)
make; what is it made of (of                        marijuana\cannabis [n] baGaw none (bGw)
 building)\construct; what is is c.ed of (of        marijuana\hemp?\hashish\cannabis [n]
 building) [a] mabniy min ∫inuw (bna)                bangaw none (bngw)
make\cause to [vt+] xalla yixalliy (xla)            marijuana\hemp?\hashish\cannabis [n]
make\do\produce\create? [vt] sawwa                   baGaw none (bGa)
 yisawwiy (swa)                                     mark/m.er\sign?\badge?\token?\emblem?
make\take as [vd] 9amal ya9mal (9ml)                 [n] 9alaama –aat? (9lm)
malaria [n] maraarya NONE (mr;)                     market/market–place [n] suwk (/suwg?)
malaria [n] milaarya NONE (mlr)                      aswaak (swk)
malaria [n] malaarya NONE (mlr)                     market\bazaar? [n] suwk aswaak (swk)
male [n] Dakar Dukuwr\Dukuwra (Dkr)                 marriage\wedding?\matrimony\wedlock [n]
male; any older m. with status or authority          zawaaj –aat (zwj)
 [n] ∫ayx ∫uyuwx\ma∫aayix\ma∫aayxa (∫yx)            marry [vi?] 9arras yi9arris (9rs)
male\he– (in compounds)? [n] Dakar Dukuwr           marry [vt] 9arras yi9arris (9rs)
 (Dkr)                                              marry (off) [vd] jawwaz yijawwiz (jwz)
malicious; m.ly pleased\gloat; g.ing [a]            marry (off) [vd] 9arras yi9arris (9rs)
 ∫amtaan –iyn (NOT *[∫amaata]) (∫mt)                marry (off) to [vd] zawwaj yizawwij (zwj)
malicious\gloating\misfortune; enjoying             marry/get married [vi] itzawwaj/izzawwaj
 so.'s m. [a] ∫amtaan –iyn (∫mt)                     yitzawwaj (zwj)
man [n] zawl NONE (zwl)                             marry/get married [vt?] itzawwaj/izzawwaj
man [n] raajil rijaal\rujaal (rjl)                   yitzawwaj (zwj)
man (sometimes used of man with whom                marvellous; st.m.\good; st. g.\wonderful;
 one has a specific relationship, e.g.               st. w. [n] Haaja tamaam (Hwj)
 relative, friend, colleague, so. who one           master of a Sufi order\leader of a Sufi
 buys things from) [n] zawl NONE (zwl)               order [n] ∫ayx ∫uyuwx\ma∫aayix\ma∫aayxa (∫yx)
man\human being [nx] wad abn aadam awlaad           master?\gentleman?\lord? [n] sayyid asyaad
 ibn aadam ('dm)                                     (swd)
man\human being [nx] wad ibn aadam awlaad           mat (made of plastic)\plastic mat [n] HaSiyr
 ibn aadam ('dm)                                     HaSaayir (HSr)
man\human being [n] insaan naas ('ns)               mat (small, made of reeds only?) [n/] biri∫
man\human being [n/] wad abn aadam awlaad            buruw∫ (br∫)
 abn aadam (bn)                                     mat/matting (esp. in roof) [n] HaSiyra –
man\human being [n/] wad ibn aadam awlaad            aat\HaSaayir (HSr)
 ibn aadam (bn)                                     match; m.es [ng] kibriyt kabaariyt? (kbrt)
man\human being [n] wad abn aadam awlaad            material\fabric\cloth [n] gumaa∫ agmi∫a (gm∫)
 abn aadam (wld)                                    matter; it doesn't m. [vi?] maa bifrig (frg)
man\human being [n] wad ibn aadam awlaad            matter; it doesn't m. [vi?] maa bitafrig (frg)
 ibn aadam (wld)                                    matter; what's the m. with ...\wrong; what's
manager\boss\headmaster [n] mudiyr –iyn              w. with ... [j] maa l-... (ly)
 (dwr)                                              matter; what's the m. with ...\wrong; what's
mango [ns] mangaaya –aat (mng)                       w. with ... [q] maa l-... (ma)
mango; m.s [ng] manga coll (mng)                    matter; what's the m.\wrong; what's w.
manner; in any m. [n] bay ayyi Tariyga (Trg)         (fem) [j] maa l-ik° (ly)
manner\mode\means\way\method\procedu                matter; what's the m.\wrong; what's w.
 re\system? [n] Tariyga Turug (Trg)                  (masc) [j] maa l-ak° (ly)
                                                    matter; what's the m.\wrong; what's w.
                                                     (masc. sing.) [j] maa-lak° (ly)
                                                 62
matter; what's the m.\wrong; what's w.                mean (with money)\cautious (with
 (plural) [j] maa l-kum° (ly)                          money)\careful (with money) [a] jabbaaR –
matter; what's the m.\wrong; what's w.                 iyn (jbr)
 (plural) [j] maa l-kum° (less commonly:              mean with\miser; m.ly with\possessive of
 [maalakum]) (ly)                                      [ajj] baxlaan (9alay zawl) bay (Haaja) –iyn (bxl)
matter\affair?\business? [n] ∫a#ala –aat (∫#l)        mean; by any m.s\anyhow\way; in any way
matter\affair?\business? [n] ∫a#alaaniyya –aat         [o] bay ayyi Tariyga ('y;)
 (∫#l)                                                mean; by any m.s\anyhow\way; in any way
matter\affair?\business? [n] ∫a#alaana –aat            [n] bay ayyi Tariyga (Trg)
 (∫#l)                                                mean; that m.s/you m. to say [o] ya9niy (9na)
matter\affair\business\thing [n] 9amaliyya –          mean?\base?\vile?\contemptible? [a/] fasil –
 aat (9ml)                                             iyn (fsl)
matter\affair\concern\business [n/] amur              mean\base\low\vile\contemptible\despicabl
 umuwr ('mr)                                           e [a] xasiys –iyn (xs;)
matter\affair\question\problem\issue [n]              mean\mind; have in m. [vt] 9ana ya9niy (9na)
 gaDiyya gaDaaya (gDa)                                mean\miser/m.ly [a] baxiyl –iyn\buxala (bxl)
matter\affair\thing [n] giSSa giSaS (gS;)             meaning" (i.e. what is meant)\intent" (i.e.
matter\affair\thing? [n] Hikaaya –aat (Hka)            what is intended)\\purpose" (i.e. what is
mattress (large, with sown edges) [n]                  intended) [a] magSuwd –iyn\*magaaSid (gSd)
 martaba maraatib (rtb)                               meaning\sense\signification\import [nm]
mature; bc. m.\adult; bc. an a.?\adulthood;            ma9na ma9aaniy (9na)
 reach a.\man; bc. a m.\woman; bc. a w.?              meaning\sense\signification\import [nm]
 [vi] bala# yablu# (bl#)                               ma9na ma9aaniy (9na)
mature?\experienced [a] najiyD –iyn (njD)             meaningless\nonsensical [a] faari# (fr#)
mature\adult? [a] baali# –iyn (bl#)                   measure (out) (e.g. cereal, dates; normally
meal [n] wajba –aat (wjb)                              in a metal measuring vessel called a
meal [ns] akla –aat ('kl)                              [kayla]/[malwa])\weigh (out) \compare, by
meal?\food? [n/] SaHan *SuHuwna (SHn)                  measuring? [vt] kaal yakiyl (kyl)
meal\repast [ns] akla –aat ('kl)                      measure (out?)\weigh (out)?\compare, by
mean (malicious)\malicious (in behaviour)              measuring? [vt] kaal yakiyl (kyl)
 [a] xabiys –iyn? (xbs)                               meat\flesh [ng] laHam coll (lHm)
mean (malicious)\malicious (in behaviour)             meat\flesh [ng]? laHama coll? (lHm)
 [a] xasiys –iyn? (xs;)                               meat\flesh [ng]? laHma coll? (lHm)
mean (not prepared to help so. (e.g. to lend          media [n] i9laam (9lm)
 money) for fear of not getting due return            medical [a] Tibbiy –iyn (Tb;)
 (e.g. money back))\ungenerous (not                   medicinal\medicinal [a] Tibbiy none? (Tb;)
 prepared to help so. (e.g. to lend money)            medicine [n] Tibb none? (Tb;)
 for fear of not getting due return (e.g.             medicine/medication\drug [n] 9ilaaj –aat (9lj)
 money back))\stingy (not prepared to                 medicine\drug\remedy [nm] dawa adwiya
 help so. (e.g. to lend money) for fear of             (dwa)
 not getting due return (e.g. money                   medium; m. amount of sugar (e.g. in
 back))\niggardly (not prepared to help so.            tea)\sugar; medium amount of s. (e.g. in
 (e.g. to lend money) for fear of not                  tea) [ng] sukkar mutwassaT (skr)
 getting due return (e.g. money                       medium; m. amount of sugar (e.g. in
 back))\miserly (not prepared to help so.              tea)\sugar; medium amount of s. (e.g. in
 (e.g. to lend money) for fear of not                  tea) [ng] sukkar wasaT (skr)
 getting due return (e.g. money back)) [a]            meet (deliberately or by chance)\go to
 jabaan ? (jbn)                                        meet [vt] gaabal yigaabil (gbl)
mean (unwilling to share; esp. of                     meet (oa.) [vr] itlaaguw yitlaaguw (lga)
 children)?\selfish (unwilling to share;              meet (oa.)/meet up [vr] itgaabaluw yitgaabaluw
 esp. of children)? [a/] fasil –iyn (fsl)              (gbl)
mean (with money                                      meet by chance [vt] liga yalga (lga)
 only?)?\ungenerous?\selfish? [a] baxiyl –            meet/hold a m.ing\assemble\collect
 iyn\buxala (bxl)                                      (together) [vr] ijtama9 yajtami9 (jm9)
                                                  63
meet\come across\encounter [vt] laaga                  mere words\empty talk\nonsense\rubbish
 yilaagiy (lga)                                         [n] kalaam saakit (klm)
meet\encounter\come across\run across                  merry\drunk; slightly d.\tipsy [a] mabsuwT –
 [vt] gaabal yigaabil (gbl)                             iyn\mabaasiyT (bsT)
meeting (official, with so.) [n] mugaabala –aat        merry\funny\humourous [a] fukaahiy –iyn
 (gbl)                                                  (fkh)
meeting\gathering\assembly\rally?\conven               merry\gay\cheerful\joyful\glad\happy [a]
 tion [n] ijtimaa9 –aat (jm9)                           farHaan –iyn (frH)
melon (variety of green melon.vegetable)?              mess up\muck up [vt] bawwaZ yibawwiZ
 [ng] 9ajjuwr coll (9jr)                                (bwZ)
melon (variety of green melon.vegetable)?              message [n] kalaam ? (klm)
 [ns] 9ajjuwra –aat (9jr)                              message (oral)\oral message\verbal (oral)
melon; musk–melon?\musk–                                message [n] wiSaaya –aat (wSa)
 melon?\canteloupe [ns] ∫ammaama –aat (∫m;)            Messenger (from God, in the Islamic line:
melon; musk–melon?\musk–                                esp. the Prophet Muhammad)\Apostle
 melon?\canteloupe? [ng] ∫ammaam coll                   (from God, in the Islamic line: esp. the
 (∫m;)                                                  Prophet Muhammad) [n] rasuwl rusul (rsl)
melon; water–m./m.s (children's                        messiah; the m. (also used of Jesus by
 language)\water–melon/w.m.s (children's                Muslims) [nx] al–masiyH (msH)
 language) [ng] biTTayz coll (bTx)                     mid-blue\blue; mid-b.\sky-coloured [a]
melon; water–m./m.s\water–melon/w.m.s                   samaawiy (sma)
 [ng] baTTiyx coll (bTx)                               middle; in the m. of?\midst; in the midst
melon; water–m.\water–melon [ns] baTTiyxa               of?\inside [n/] fiy wasaT .. (wsT)
 –aat (bTx)                                            middle\centre [n/?] wasaT ? (wsT)
melon?\slice (of melon?+?)? [n] fig∫a figa∫            midnight [n] nuSS al–layl (lyl)
 (fg∫)                                                 midnight [n] nuSS al–layl (nS;)
member (of an organization) [n] 9uDuw                  mighty?\huge?\ruthless? [n] jabbaaR –iyn
 a9Daa (9Da)                                            (jbr)
memory (mental faculty) [n] zaakira/zaakra             migrate/emigrate/immigrate [vim] haajar
 (zkr)                                                  yihaajir (hjr)
memory (thing                                          military\army (in coumpounds) [a] 9askariy –
 remembered)\remembrance\recollection                   iyn? (9skr)
 [n] zikra (*?)zikar\–yaat (zkr)                       military\war
memory; faculty of memory? [n]                          (adj.)\warlike?\bellicose?\martial [a]
 zaakra/zaakira (zkr)                                   Harbiy (Hrb)
menace\danger\peril [n] xatar axtaar\maxaatir          milk [n] laban (lbn)
 (xTr)                                                 milk [vt] Halab yaHlib (hlb)
mend a pulled muscle? (traditionally cured             milk (an animal) [vt] Halab (passive: [it–], [in–])
 by [baSiyr])\fix a pulled muscle                       yaHlib (Hlb)
 (traditionally cured by [baSiyr]) [vt] Talla9         milk (in a drinking vessel only?) [n] laban
 al-gaTiy9a gaTaayi9 (Tl9)                              Haliyb (Hlb)
mend\improve?\fix\repair [vt] SallaH yiSalliH          milk (normally milk in a drinking vessel
 (SlH)                                                  only?) [n] Haliyb (Hlb)
mental [a] 9agliy (9gl)                                milk; and other things derived from milk
mental problem (slight)\problem; slight                 ([laban Haliyb]/[laban nayy], [laban
 mental p. [n] xalal none (xl;)                         mufawwar]/[laban ma#liy], [laban
menu [n] lista –aat\lisat (lst)                         raayib]/[zabaadiy]/[furSa], [rawb]) [n] laban
merchant\trader\businessman\dealer\trade                (lbn)
 sman? [n] taajir tijaar\tijjaar (tjr)                 milk; fresh m. [n] laban Haliyb (lbn)
merciful?\tenderhearted?\compassionate?                milk; fresh m. [n] laban nayy (lbn)
 [a] Hinayyin –iyn\Hunana (Hn;)                        milk; fresh m. [n] laban Taaza same (lbn)
mercy\compassion raHma (rHm)                           milk; powdered m./milk powder [n] laban
mere words\empty talk\nonsense\rubbish                  budra (lbn)
 [a] kalaam saakit (skt)                               milk; tea with m. [n] ∫aay laban (lbn)
                                                       milk; tea with m. [n] ∫aay bay laban (lbn)
                                                 64
milk; tea with milk [n] ∫aay bi-l-Haliyb (Hlb)        modesty (due m., in accordance with
milk; tea without m. [am] ∫aay saada (sad)             social norms)\restraint; self-r. in
milk; without m. (of tea)\without milk (of             accordance with norms of social
 tea) [am] saada (sad)                                 modesty\self-restraint, in accordance
million (followed by singular noun) [n]                with norms of social modesty [n] Haya
 milyawn malaayiyn (mlyn)                              (Hya)
minaret [n] mayzana mayaazin ('zn)                    moistness\dampness\humidity\wetness?
minaret [n] mayzana mayaazin ('zn)                     [n] raTuwba (rTb)
minaret [n] mayDana mayaaDin? ('Dn)                   moistness\dampness\humidity\wetness?
mind (in specific phrases)\intelligence (in            [n] ruTuwba (rTb)
 specific phrases) [n] muxx amxaax (mx;)              mole; m.s\birthmark; b.s?\mark;
mine\yours\his\hers\ours\theirs [o?] Hagg              birthmarks? [ng] ∫aam coll (∫ym)
 +GEN (Hg;)                                           mole\birthmark?\mark; birthmark [ns] ∫aama
minibus [n] Haafla –aat (Hfl)                          –aat (∫ym)
minister (in government) [n] waziyr wuzara            moment; (just) one m.\minute; (just) one
 (wzr)                                                 m. [n] dagiyga (dg;)
ministry (government) [n] wizaara –aat (wzr)          moment; a m.ago\just/just now\minute;
minor (illness)\slight (illness) [a] xafiyf –          just this m. [o?] yaa dawb (dwb)
 iyn\xufaaf (xf;)                                     moment; on the spur of the
mint (plant) [ng] na9naa9 coll (n9;;)                  m.\immediately\suddenly [n] fi-l-laHZa
mint (plant) [ns] na9naa9a –aat (n9;;)                 (lHZ)
minus\take away [at]? naagiS (ngS)                    moment\instant [n] laHZa –aat (lHZ)
minute [n] dagiyga dagaayig (dg;)                     Monday [nx] yawm al–itnayn (tna)
miss; come to m.\long for\yearn for [vj]              Monday [nx] al–itnayn (tna)
 girim lay yagram (grm)                               Monday [nx] yawm al–itnayn ayyaam al–itnayn?
miss; m.ing\lack; l.ing [at] naagiS –iyn (ngS)         (ywm)
miss; m.ing\long; l.ing for\yearn; y.ing for          monster; a grotesquely shaped mythical
 [aj] garmaan lay –iyn (grm)                           m.\creature; a grotesquely shaped
missing (e.g. person)\lost (e.g. person,               mythical c. [n] 9awlaag 9awaaliyg (9lg)
 whether alive or dead) [a] mafguwd –iyn              month [n/] ∫ahar ∫uhuwr (∫hr)
 (fgd)                                                month [n/] ∫ahar ∫uhuwr\a∫hur (∫hr)
missing; be m.?\hide\disappear?\vanish?               month; (in the m. of) April (cf [∫ahri kam])
 [vi] ixtafa yaxtafiy (xfa)                            [n/] ∫ahri arba9a (∫hr)
missus; Mrs. Thatcher [n] as–sayyida taat∫ar          month; (in) which m. of the year [n/] ∫ahri
 (swd)                                                 kam (∫hr)
mistaken\wrong\err; e.ing [a] #alTaan –iyn            month; (in) which m. of the year [n/] fiy ∫ahri
 (#lT)                                                 kam (∫hr)
mister; "mister John" [n] mistar jawn (mstr)          monthly [a] ∫ahriy (∫hr)
mister; before first names of English                 monthly [d] ∫ahriy (∫hr)
 speakers and other Westerners [n?] mistar            moon [n] gamra° (gmr)
 (mstr)                                               moon [n] gamar agmaar (gmr)
mister; Mr. Mohammed Babikir [n] as–sayyid            moonlight\light; moonl. [n] gamra° (gmr)
 muHammad baabikir (swd)                              morals [np] axlaag (xlg)
mister”? (title of respect for Islamic                more; be no more\no no; be no more [vi]
 leader?); Mr. Sadiq al–Mahdi [n] as–sayyid            xiliS yaxlaS (xlS)
 aS–Saadiq al–mahdiy (swd)                            more; be no more\no; be no more [vi]
mix (up)?\mingle?\blend?\confuse? [vtj]                tamma yatimm (tm;)
 xalaT bay yaxliT (xlT)                               more; become
mix\mingle\blend?\confuse?\confound?                   m.?\multiply?\exceed?\increase\grow?
 [vt] xalat yaxlit (xlT)                               [vi] zaad yaziyd (zyd)
mixture\blend [n] xalTa –aat? (xlT)                   more; give me some more (food, etc.) [n]
mixture\blend [n] xalTa –aat? (xlT)                    addiyniy ziyaada (zyd)
mixture\blend [n] xaliyT ? (xlT)                      more; the m. ... the m. [c] kullamaa (kl;)
modern (normally of things) [a] Hadiys !              more; the m. ... the m. [c] kullumaa (kl;)
 (Hds)                                                morning [n] SabaaH SibHaat (SbH)
                                                 65
morning (any time before noon?)\forenoon              mourn (so., of women; involves wearing
 [n] DaHa none (DHa)                                   special clothes, not using perfume, etc.)
morning (any time before noon?)\forenoon               [vj] Haddat 9ala taHidd (Hd;)
 [n] DuHa none (DHa)                                  mourn for/be in mourning for [vj] baka
morning (any time before noon?)\forenoon               9ala/lay yabkiy (bka)
 [n] DuHa none (DHa)                                  mourning [nv]? Hidaad (Hd;)
morning; in the m./m.s (once or every                 mourning (of women only?) [nv?] Hidd (Hd;)
 morning [n] fiS–SabaaH (SbH)                         mourning period [n/] Huzun (Hzn)
morning; in the m./m.s (once or every                 mourning; wear m. clothes, and observe
 morning) [n] aS–SabaaH (SbH)                          other mourning customs, e.g. not using
morning; in the m./m.s (once or every                  perfume (woman) [vi?] Haddat taHidd (Hd;)
 morning) [n] biS–SabaaH (SbH)                        mourning; woman in mourning period (and
morning; in the m./m.s (once or every                  wearing white clothes)\grieve; woman
 morning) [n] ma9a S–SabaaH (SbH)                      who is grieving for a death (wearing
morning; this m.\in the morning [n] aS-                white clothes) [a] Haznaana ? (Hzn)
 SabaaH (SbH)                                         mourning? [nvm]? bika (bka)
morning; this m.\in the morning [n] aS-               moustache [n] ∫anab a∫naab (∫nb)
 SabaaH (SbH)                                         moustache [n] ∫anab ∫unuwb\a∫naab (∫nb)
morning; this m.\in the morning [n] fi-S-             mouth\opening\outlet? [n/] xa∫um (more
 SabaaH (SbH)                                          rarely [xa∫im]) xu∫uwm (x∫m)
morning; this m.\in the morning [j] fi-S-             move (away/house)\emigrate? [vtm?] raHal
 SabaaH (fy)                                           yarHal (rHl)
morning; this m.\in the morning [j] ma9a S-           move away\push away\away; move/push a.
 SabaaH (m9a)                                          [vtm] zaHHa yaziHH (zH;)
morning's work\work, morning's work [n]               movement\motion\commotion [n] Haraka –
 DaHaawiyya –aat (DHa)                                 aat (Hrk)
Moroccan\Maghribi [ax] ma#ribiy ma#aarba              much; bc m.\numerous; bc n.\many; bc m.
 (#rb)                                                 [vi] kitir yaktar (ktr)
Morocco\Maghrib; the M. [nx] al–ma#rib (#rb)          much; make a.\abundant; make
mortar (for pestle) [n] fundug fanaadig (fndg)         a.\numerous; make n.\many; make m.
mortar (for pestle) [n] funduk fanaadig (fndg)         of\lot; make a lot of\plenty; make p. of [vt]
mosque [n] masjid masaajid (sjd)                       kattar yikattir (ktr)
mosque (difference between [masjid] and               much\abundant\numerous\many of\lot
 [jaami9]?) [n] jaami9 jawaami9 (jm9)                  of\plenty of\common (widely found/used)
mosquito/m.s\gnat/g.s [ng] ba9uwD coll                 [a] katiyr –iyn\kutaar (ktr)
 (b9D)                                                mud used in brick–making\brick; mud
mosquito; m.s\gnat; g.s [ng?] ba9uwDa (b9D)            used in mud b.s [n] jaaluwS none (jlS)
mosquito\gnat [ns] ba9uwDaaya –aat? (b9D)             mud used in brick–making\brick; mud
mosquito\gnat? [ns] ba9uwDa –aat (b9D)                 used in mud b.s [ng] Tiyn none (Tyn)
mosquito–net\net; mosquito–n. [n]                     mud; wet m.\clay; wet c.\wet mud/clay [n/]
 naamuwsiyya –aat\nawaamiys (nms)                      waHal none? (wHl)
most; m.ly\normal; n.ly\usual; u.ly\general;          mud\mire\slough?\morass? [n/?] waHal
 g.ly [a] aktar Haaja (ktr)                            none? (wHl)
most; the most [n] aktar Haaja (Hwj)                  mud\mire\slough\morass [n/] waHal none?
most; the most [n] aktar ∫iy (∫y)                      (wHl)
most; the most [a] aktar Haaja (ktr)                  muddle up\confuse [vt] xalbaT (= [laxbaT])
most; the most [a] aktar ∫iy (ktr)                     yixalbiT (xlbT)
mother [nf] amm ('m;)                                 muddle up\confuse [vt] laxbaT yilaxbiT (lxbT)
mother [nf] umm –aat\ummahaat ('m;)                   muddle\confuse [vt] laxbaT yilaxbiT (lxbT)
mother [n] waalda –aat (wld)                          muddle\confusion [nv] laxbaTa (lxbT)
motor\engine\machine? [n] mawtawr –aat                muezzin [n] mu'azzin –iyn ('zn)
 (mwtr)                                               muezzin [n] azzaan –iyn ('zn)
motor–cycle\cycle; motor–c.\bike;                     muezzin [n] azzaaniy –a\–iyya ('zn)
 motorbike [n] mawtar mawaatir (mwtr)                 mug (made of what?)\jug?\tankard? [n]
                                                       kawz kayzaan\akwaaz (kwz)
                                                   66
multitude?\crowd?\throng?\populace?\pub                 native\indigenous\home (i.e. not
 lic? [n] jamhuwr jamaahiyr (jmhr)                       foreign/alien) [a] baladiy (bld)
murder\kill; k.ing\slay; s.ing\assassinate;             natural [a] Tabiy9iy (Tb9)
 a.ing? [nv/] katil (ktl)                               natural; n.ly\course; of course [n/] biT–
murkiness?\darkness\duskiness?\gloom?                    Tabi9 (Tb9)
 [n] Dulumma (= [Dalaam]?) (Dlm)                        nature?\character?\quality?\grade? [n]
murkiness?\darkness\duskiness?\gloom?                    naw9 anwaa9 (nw9)
 [n] Dalaam (= [Dulumma]?) (Dlm)                        nature\character [n/] Tabi9 ? (Tb9)
museum [n] matHaf mataaHif (tHf)                        nature\character [n] Tabiy9a Tabaayi9 (Tb9)
musician [n] muTrib –iyn (Trb)                          nausea (feeling of n.)\sickness (feeling of
musician [n] 9aazif –iyn (9zf)                           s.) [nv?] Tumaam (Tm;)
musician [n] muwsiyqiy –iyn (mwsg)                      nausea (feeling of n.)\sickness (feeling of
Muslim (of people only) [a] muslim –iyn (slm)            s.) [nv?] Tumaam (= [Tamma](?)) (Tm;)
Muslim; bc. a M.\convert to Islam [vi] aslam            nausea?\vertigo?\dizziness [n] dawxa (dwx)
 yaslim (slm)                                           nauseate; be n.ed by?\disgust; be d.ed by
Muslim; make a M.\convert to Islam [vt]                  [vj?] girif min yagraf (grf)
 aslam yaslim (slm)                                     near/nearby\close (at hand) [a] gariyb –iyn
must; you musn't go [az] laazim maa tam∫iy               (grb)
 (lzm)                                                  near?\before (of place)?\front; in f. of? [a]
must; you must go [az] laazim tam∫iy (lzm)               duwn jaa'iy lay (jy)
my\your\his\her\its?\our\your\their [o?]                near?\close to?\front; in front of? [a] bay
 Hagg +GEN (Hg;)                                         jaa'iy (jy)
my\your\his\her\our\their\its [o] bitaa9 (bt9)          near?\close to?\front; in front of? [a] bay
nail\fingernail\toenail? [n] Dufur                       jaa'iy lay (jy)
 aDaafir\aDaafrayn (Dfr)                                neat (e.g. house)\tidy (e.g. house) [a]
nail\fingernail\toenail? [n/] Dufur                      murattab (rtb)
 Dufuwr\Dafaarayn (Dfr)                                 necessary\have to"\must"(stronger than
nail\fingernail\toenail?\claw\talon [n/?]                [laazim]?) [az+] mafruwD (frD)
 Dufur Dawaafir (Dfr)                                   necessary\imperative\requisite\indispensa
nail\fingernail\toenail?\claw\talon [n] uDfar            ble [a] Daruwriy ! (Dr;)
 aDaafir (Dfr)                                          neck; front of n. [n] ragaba –aat\argaab (rgb)
nail\peg?\pin?\tack?\rivet? [n] musmaar                 neck; front of n. [n] ragaba –aat (rgb)
 masaamiyr (smr)                                        need (of things n.ing to have st. done to
naked\nude\undressed\bare [a] 9aryaan –                  them)\require (of things r.ing to have st.
 iyn\9araaya (9ra)                                       done to them) [az] daayir –iyn (dwr)
naked\nude\undressed\bare [a] 9iryaan –                 need (of things n.ing to have st. done to
 iyn\9araaya (9ra)                                       them)\require (of things r.ing to have st.
name [n/] isim asaamiy\usuwm ('sm)                       done to them) [az] 9aayiz –iyn (9wz)
name (give a n. to)\call [vt] samma yisammiy            need\neediness\necessity [n] HaWja none
 (sma)                                                   (Hwj)
name; what is your name [n/] ism-ak min-uw°             need\neediness\necessity; n.s\belonging;
 ('sm)                                                   b.s?\stuff? [n] Haaja *Hawaayij (Hwj)
name\mention\cite?\quote?\say [vt] zakar                needle (of a syringe) [n] ibra ibar ('br)
 yazkur (zkr)                                           needle\pin? [n] ibra ibar ('br)
nap/take a n.\doze/have a d. [vi] dagas yadgus          needle\pin? [n] ibra ibar ('br)
 (dgs)                                                  neglect\disregard?\ignore?\heedless; be h.
nap; take a nap\slumber\doze [vi] #afa ya#fa             [vt] #afal (passive: [in–], [it–]) ya#fil (#fl)
 (#fa)                                                  neglect\omit?\leave
nap; take a nap\slumber\doze (off) [vi] #ifa             out?\disregard?\overlook? [vt] ahmal
 ya#fa (#fa)                                             yahmil (hml)
narrative\tale\story [n] giSSa giSaS (gS;)              negligence\neglect\carelessness\heedless
narrow\tight\cramped\small; (too) s. (e.g.               ness [n] ihmaal (hml)
 of house/room) [a] Dayyig –iyn (Dyg)                   negligence\neglect\carelessness\heedless
national [a] qawmiy –iym (gwm)                           ness [n] ihmaal (hml)
nationality\citizenship? [n] jinsiyya –aat (jns)        negligent?\neglectful? [a] haamil ? (hml)
                                                    67
negligent\neglectful\careless\heedless [a]               Nile; the Blue Nile\Blue; the Blue Nile [nx]
 #aafil –iyn (#fl)                                        an–niyl al–azrag (nyl)
negligent\neglectful\remiss\careless\heedl               Nile; the N. [nx] an–niyl (nyl)
 ess [a] muhmil –iyn (hml)                               Nile; the N. (or any large river) [nx/] al–baHar
neice; my n. (brother's daughter) [n] bitt                (bHr)
 axuwiy ('x)                                             Nile; the Nile [nx] an–niyl (nyl)
neice;my n. (sister's daughter) [nf/] bitt uxtiy         Nile; the two N.s\two; the t. Niles
 banaat uxtiy ('xt)                                       (Blue+White) [nlx] an–niylayn (nyl)
neighbour [n] jaar jayraan (jwr)                         Nile; the White N.\white; the White Nile [ax]
neighbour (female) [n] jaara –aat (jwr)                   an–niyl al–abyaD (byD)
neither\nor [o] wa-laa (la)                              Nile; the White N.\white; the White Nile [nx]
neither\nor [c] wa-laa (w)                                an–niyl al–abyaD (nyl)
nephew; my n. (daughter's son) [n/] ibin                 Nile; the White Nile\White; the White Nile
 uxtiy awlaad uxt–iyº (Ali says [abna uxt–iyº]            [ax] an–niyl al–abyaD (byD)
 also possible – but presumably ‘borrowing’ from         Nile; the White Nile\White; the White Nile
 Standard Arabic) ('bn)                                   [nx] an–niyl al–abyaD (nyl)
nephew; my n. (daughter's son) [nf/] ibin                nine [n] tis9a –aat (ts9)
 uxtiy awlaad uxtiy ('xt)                                nine hundred [n] tusu9 miya (ts9)
nerve/n.s\sinew/s.s [ng] 9aSab a9Saab (9Sb)              nine hundred [n] tusu9 miya (my’)
nerve\sinew [ns] 9aSaba –aat (9Sb)                       nine hundred\hundred; nine h. [n]
net (of goal, in football) [n] ∫abaaka ? (gwm)            tumnumiyya (tmn)
net; fishing-n.\fishing-net [n] ∫abaka –aat (∫bk)        nine hundred\hundred; nine h. [n?]
network [n] ∫abaka –aat (∫bk)                             tumnumiyya (my)
never\no\not at all/absolutely not\indeed                ninth (fraction) [n/] tusu9 atsaa9 (ts9)
 not [d] abadan ('bd)                                    ninth (ordinal) [a] taasi9 –iyn (ts9)
new\recent?\modern?\novel?\unprecedent                   no [o] laa (la)
 ed? [a] jadiyd –iyn\judaad (jd;)                        nobody [n] wa-laa zawl (zwl)
new–born baby\baby; new–born baby [n]?                   nobody [o] wa-laa zawl (la)
 maWluwd mawaaliyd (wld)                                 nobody [c] wa-laa zawl (w)
news\information\report?\message? [n]                    nobody at all (normally as reply to
 xabar axbaar (xbr)                                       question) [w] wa-laa Hadd (Hd;)
newspaper [n] jariyda jaraayid (jrd)                     nobody at all (normally as reply to
next week [a] al–usbuw9 aj–jaay (jy)                      question) [o] wa-laa Hadd (la)
next year [a] as–sana aj–jaaya (jy)                      nobody; there's n. in the house [n] maa fiy
next; the n. day\day; the next d. [d] bukra               zawl fil–bayt (zwl)
 (bkr)                                                   nod off (accidentally, e.g. in chair)\fall
next\coming [a] jaay ? (jy)                               asleep (accidentally, e.g. in chair)\asleep;
niceness\fineness [n] samaaHa (smH)                       fall a. (accidentally, e.g. in chair) [vi] dagas
niece; my n. (brother's daughter) [nf] bitt               yadgus (dgs)
 axuwiy (bt;)                                            noise\clamour [n] jawTa ? (jwT)
niece; my n. (sister's daughter) [nf] bitt uxtiy         nomad (Arab nomads only?)\Bedouin [n?]
 (bt;)                                                    badawiy baduw (bda)
night [n] layl ? (lyl)                                   nomad (Arabic–speaking nomad)\bedouin
night; at n. [n] bil–layl (lyl)                           (Arab) [a] 9arabiy 9arab (9rb)
night; at/by n. [n] bil–layl (lyl)                       nomad; n.s (any ethnic groups?)\bedouin?
night; spend/pass the night (in sleep)                    [np] ruHHal (rHl)
 [vi][vt] baat (= [bayyat]) yabiyt (byt)                 nomad; n.s\Bedouin [np] ruHHal (rHl)
night\evening? [ns?] layla layaaliy (lyl)                nondescript colour\neutral colour [a] a#ba∫
Nile; the Blue N.\blue; the B. Nile [ax] an–              #ab∫a #ubu∫ (#b∫)
 niyl al–azrag (zrg)                                     nonsense\empty talk [a] kalaam faaDiy (fDa)
Nile; the Blue N.\blue; the B. Nile [nx] an–             noon; period just after n.?\midday; time
 niyl al–azrag (nyl)                                      after m.? [n] gaayla –aat? (gyl)
Nile; the Blue Nile\Blue; the Blue Nile [ax]             noon\midday [n] gaayla (gyl)
 an–niyl al–azrag (zrg)                                  no–one at all (normally as reply to
                                                          question) [w] wa-laa Hadd (Hd;)
                                                   68
no–one at all (normally as reply to                     nothing (in reply to questions) [o] wa–laa ∫iy
 question) [o] wa-laa Hadd (la)                          (la)
normal; n.ly?\general; g.ly\most;                       nothing (in reply to questions) [c] wa–laa ∫iy
 m.ly\\usual; u.ly [n] fi-l-9aada (9wd)                  (w)
normal; n.ly?\general; g.ly\most;                       nothing at all (in reply to [[inta gulta lai–hu
 m.ly\\usual; u.ly [d] 9aadatan (9wd)                    ∫inu] "What did you say to him")\at all;
normal; n.ly?\general; g.ly\most;                        nothing at all (in reply to [inta gulta lai–
 m.ly\\usual; u.ly [j] fi-l-9aada (fy)                   hu ∫inu] "What did you say to him?") [n]
north [n] ∫amaal (∫ml)                                   wa–laa Haaja/∫iy (Hwj)
north [n] ∫imaal (∫ml)                                  nothing at all (in reply to [inta gulta lai–hu
northern [a] ∫imaaliy –iyn (∫ml)                         ∫inu] "What did you say to him")\at all;
northern Sudan (riverain areas north of                  nothing at all (in reply to [inta gulta lai–
 Khartoum)? [nx] a∫-∫imaaliyya (∫ml)                     hu ∫inu] "What did you say to him?") [o]
nose\nostril (part of body) [n] naxara nixrayn           wa–laa Haaja/∫iy (la)
 (nxr)                                                  nothing at all (in reply to [inta gulta lai–hu
nostril; n.s [nl] naxratayn dual (nxr)                   ∫inu] "What did you say to him")\at all;
not [o] maa (ma)                                         nothing at all (in reply to [inta gulta lai–
not [o] maa (ma)                                         hu ∫inu] "What did you say to him?") [c]
not [o] mu∫∫ (m∫;)                                       wa–laa Haaja/∫i (w)
not even [o] wa-laa (la)                                notice?\regard?\attention? [n] baal (bwl)
not here\present; not p.\absent\away [o]                notice\perceive\observe [vts+] laaHaZ
 maa fiy (ma)                                            yilaaHiZ (lHZ)
not here\present; not p.\absent\away [o]                noun [n/] isim asmaa? ('sm)
 maa fiy∫ (m.sg.), maa fiy∫a (f.sg.) maa fiy∫iyn        novel [n] riwaaya –aat (rwa)
 (m./com.pl.), maa fiy∫aat (f.pl.) (ma)                 now; up till now?\yet (not yet)\still (not) [n]
not one\one; not one\none [o] wa–laa waaHid              lay hassa9 (hs9)
 (la)                                                   now\just now [d] hassiy (hs;)
not one\one; not one\none [c] wa–laa waaHid             now\just now [d] hassa9 (hs9)
 (w)                                                    now\just now\immediately [d] Hassa9 (Hs9)
not one\one; not one\none [n] wa–laa waaHid             now\just now\immediately [d] hassa (hs;)
 (wHd)                                                  nowhere [n] wa-laa Hitta (Ht;)
not yet\yet; not yet (normally with negative            nowhere [n] wa-laa maHall (Hl;)
 verbs or in answer to a question) [d] lissa9           nowhere [n] wa-laa makaan (kwn)
 (ls;)                                                  nowhere [o] wa-laa Hitta (la)
not yet\yet; not yet (normally with negative            nowhere [o] wa-laa maHall (la)
 verbs or in answer to a question) [d] lissa9           nowhere [o] wa-laa makaan (la)
 (ls9?)                                                 nowhere [c] wa-laa Hitta (w)
not; she's not here/present [o] maa fiy∫a (ma)          nowhere [c] wa-laa maHall (w)
not; they're not here/present [o] maa fiy∫iyn           nowhere [c] wa-laa makaan (w)
 (fy)                                                   Nubian [a] nuwbiy ? (nwb)
not? [o] laa (la)                                       number\figure [n] nimra nimar (nmr)
notebook (bound)\book; notebook                         number\quantity\amount? [n] 9adad a9daad
 (bound)\exercise-book                                   (9d;)
 (bound)\sketchbook (bound) [n] daftar                  nurse (female) [n] mumarriDa –aat (mrD)
 dafaatir (dftr)                                        nurse (male) [o] baa∫–tamarjiy –iyya (ba∫)
notebook (small)\book; notebook (small)                 nurse (male) [n] tamarjiy –iyya (tmr)
 [n] nawta –aat\nuwat (nwt)                             nurse (male) [n] baa∫–tamarjiy –iyya (tmr)
notebook\book; notebook [n] mufakkira –aat              nurse (male) [n] tamarjiyya –aat (tmr)
 (fkr)                                                  nurse (male) [n] mumarriD –iyn (mrD)
nothing [n] wa–laa Haaja (Hwj)                          nursery school?\school;
nothing [o] wa–laa Haaja (la)                            nurserys.?\kindergarten? [n] rawDa –
nothing [c] wa–laa Haaja (w)                             aat\ruwaD (rwD)
nothing (in reply to questions) [n] wa–laa ∫iy          nursery school?\school;
 (∫y)                                                    nurserys.?\kindergarten? [n] raWDa riyaaD
                                                         (rwD)
                                                 69
nut (of a bolt)\rivet [n] Saamuwla –                  officer (police, military) [n] DaabiT DubbaaT
 aat\Sawaamiyl (Sml)                                   (DbT)
nut (of a bolt)\rivet? [n] Saamuwla –                 officer (police,military) [n] ZaabiT ZubbaaT
 aat\Sawaamiyl (Sml)                                   (ZbT)
nut; peanuts [a] fuwl suwdaaniy coll (swd)            official\formal\conventional? [a] Rasmiy
nut; peanuts [ng] fuwl suwdaaniy coll (fwl)            (rsm)
o\oh (vocative particle) [o] aa ('a)                  offspring (to perpetuate o.'s name after
oath [n] qasam *aqsaam (gsm)                           one dies) \descendants (to perpetuate
oath [n] yamiyn none (ymn)                             o.'s name after one dies)\child/children
oath [nv?] yamiyn none (ymn)                           (to perpetuate o.'s name after one dies)
oath; swear an o.\swear an oath\take an                [n/] 9ugub none (9gb)
 oath [n] Halaf yamiyn (ymn)                          oh [o] yaa (ya)
obedient (e.g. of child) [a] miskiyn masaakiyn        oil [n] zayt zuyuwt (zyt)
 (mskn)                                               okay (not good, not bad)\reasonable\bad;
obedient; he's o. [vt] bisma9 al-kalaam yasma9         not b. [j] bayn bayn (byn)
 (sm9)                                                okay (not good, not bad)\reasonable\bad;
obey [vj] simi9 lay kalaam +GEN yasma9 (sm9)           not b. [j] bayn bayn (byn)
obey [vt] simi9 kalaam +GEN yasma9 (sm9)              okay (not very good) (reply to [kayf al–
obey [vt] simi9 kalaam +GEN yasma9 (sm9)               Haal]) [o] ya9niy (9na)
obey; I'm not going to do what he says [vt]           okay (not very good)\not bad\reasonable
 maa basma9 kalaamuw (sm9)                             [o] ya9niy (9na)
obey; I'm not going to do what he says [n]            okay\acceptable\reasonable maa fiy maani9
 maa basma9 kalaamuw (klm)                             (min/*lay) mawaani9 (fy)
obey\comply with\yield to? [vt] simi9 kalaam          okay\acceptable\reasonable ? maa fiy maani9
 +GEN (sm9)                                            (min/*lay) mawaani9 (ma)
obey\comply with\yield to? [n] simi9 kalaam           okay\acceptable\reasonable [n] maa fiy
 +GEN (klm)                                            maani9 (min/*lay) mawaani9 (mn9)
object to\protest against?\resist?\oppose?            okay\bad; not b. (e.g. reply to [inta
 [vt] 9aaraD yi9aariD (9rD)                            kuwayyis])\reasonable [n] #aayt-uw (#wa)
object to\protest against?\resist?\oppose?            okay\fine; that's f. [d?] kuwayyis xalaaS (xlS)
 [vj] i9taraD 9ala ya9tariD (9rD)                     okay\fine; that's f. [a] kuwayyis xalaaS (kys)
object\theme\subject\topic\question\proble            okra; dried and crushed o. (vegetable) [nb?]
 m?\incident? [n] maWDuw9 mawaaDiy9                    wayka coll? (wyk)
 (wD9)                                                okra\lady; l.ies fingers (fresh)\finger; ladies
objection [n] maani9 mawaani9 (mn9)                    f.s (fresh) [n] baamya –aat (bamy)
oblivious?\forgetful [a] nassaay –iyn (nsa)           old (of people only?)? [a] 9ajuwz 9ajaayiz
obstacle (to)\impediment (to) [n] maani9               (9jz)
 (min/lay) mawaani9 (mn9)                             old (things only?)\ancient? [a] gadiym –
obtain?\profit? [vt] kisib yaksab (ksb)                iyn\gudaam (gdm)
obtain?\profit? [vt] kasab yaksib (ksb)               old man\man; old m. (honorific title?) [n]
obvious\clear\apparent\evident\plain [a+]              Haajj Hujjaaj (Hj;)
 Zaahir (+9ala) (Zhr)                                 old woman\woman; old w. (honorific?) [n]
occasion\event [n] munaasaba –aat (nsb)                Haajja –aat (Hj;)
occurrence (talked about)\incident (talked            old/o. man\man; old m. [a] 9ajuwz 9ajaayiz
 about)\event (talked about)\spisode                   (9jz)
 (talked about) [n] kalaam ? (klm)                    old/o. woman\woman; old w. [af] 9ajuwz –
of (= among)\among [j] fiy (fy)                        aat\9ajaayiz (9jz)
offer [n] 9arD (9rD)                                  old/o. woman\woman; old w. [a] 9ajuwza –
office; good                                           aat\9ajaayiz (9jz)
 o.s\recommendation?\intervention? [n]                old; I'm thirty–six (years old) [n] 9umriy sitta
 wasaaTa –aat (wsT)                                    uw–talaatiyn sana (sna)
office; post–o. [n] maktab al–buwsTa makaatib         old; I'm thirty–six (years old) [n/] 9umriy sitta
 ... (ktb)                                             uw–talaatiyn sana (9mr)
office\bureau\study? [n] maktab makaatib              olibanum (used in incense)\frankincense
 (ktb)                                                 [n] lubaan none (lbn)
                                                 70
olibanum tree(s)\incense tree(s) [ng] ∫ajar           operation (medical) [n] 9amaliyya (jiraaHiyya)
 lubaan coll (lbn)                                     –aat (jiraaaHiyya) (9ml)
olibanum tree?\frankincense tree?\tree....?           operation
 [ns] gafaLa –aat (gfl)                                (military,medical)\action?\activity? [n]
olibanum tree\incense tree [ns] ∫ajarat lubaan         9amaliyya –aat (9ml)
 –aat (lbn)                                           opinion\idea\assumption\view\belief\suppo
Omdurman [bx] umm durmaan (drmn)                       sition [n] Zann Zunuwn? (Zn;)
on [j] fiy (fy)                                       opinion\idea\assumption\view\belief\suppo
once [d] maRRa (mr;)                                   sition [nv?] Zann Zunuwn (Zn;)
once [n] maRRa waaHda (mr;)                           opinion\view\advice?\suggestion?\proposa
once [a] marra waaHda (wHd)                            l? [n] Ra'y (more Standard Arabic, accoreding to
once more\more; once m.\second; for a s.               Ali) *aRaa (r'a)
 time\again\subsequently [d] taaniy (tna)             opinion\view\advice?\suggestion?\proposa
once; at o.\quick; q.ly\immediate;                     l? [n] Raay *aRaa (JD 2002: [aaRaa]?) (r'a)
 i.ly\direct; d.ly [d] gawaam (gwm)                   opinion\view\advice?\suggestion?\proposa
once; at o.\quick; q.ly\immediate;                     l? [n] Raay *araa (r'a)
 i.ly\direct; d.ly [d] guwaam (gwm)                   opportunity\chance [n] furSa furaS (frS)
one; a single o. (of a pair)\single; a s. one         oppose (an idea, proposal, etc.) [j] wigif
 (of a pair) [n] farda ? (frd)                         Didd yagiyf (Dd;)
one; one–eyed\eye; one–eyed\blind in one              oppose (an idea, proposal, etc.) [vt] wigif
 eye [a] a9war 9aWra° 9uwr (9wr)                       Didd yagiyf (wgf)
onion [ns] baSala –aat (bSl)                          oppose (an idea, proposal, etc.)\resist (an
onion/o.s [ng] baSal coll (bSl)                        idea, proposal, etc.) [vt] 9aaraD yi9aariD
onion; spring o./o.s\spring onion/onions               (9rD)
 [a] baSal axDar coll (xDr)                           oppose" (an idea, proposal, etc.) [j] Didd
onion; spring o./o.s\spring onion/onions               (Dd;)
 [ng] baSal axDar coll (bSl)                          oppose\go against\against; go a.\disagree
onion; spring o.\spring onion [ns] baSala              with\contradict?\differ (in opinion) with
 xaDra –aat xaDra (bSl)                                [vt+] xaalaf yixaalif (xlf)
only [o] illa ('l;)                                   opposite; the o. of …\contrary; the c. of
only [d] bass (bs;)                                    …\reverse; the r. of … [n/] 9aksi … (9ks)
only: if only I did (in reply to something            opposite; the o. of this/that (is true) [n/]
 like [inta, maa 9ind–ak 9arabiyya?]) [o]              9aksi kida (9ks)
 yaa rayt (ryt)                                       opposite\contrast?\contrary\reverse [n/]
only: if only I did (in reply to something             9akis (9ks)
 like [inta, maa 9ind–ak 9arabiyya?]) [o]             oppress; oppressed? [a] maZluwm –iyn
 yaa rayt (ya)                                         (Zlm)
only; if only\if only [o] yaa rayt (ryt)              oppression?\suppression?\repression?\tyr
only; if only\if only [o] yaa rayt (ya)                anny? [n/] Zulum (Zlm)
only\except\if not\save [o] illa ('l;)                oppression?\suppression?\repression?\tyr
open [a] faatiH (ftH)                                  anny? [n/] Zulum (Zlm)
open (shops, etc) [vi] fataH yaftaH (ftH)             optimism?\hope\expectation? [n/?] 9a∫am
open (up) wide\turn on (what?)                         (9∫m)
 fully?\switch on flly? [vt] fattaH yifattiH          or/or else\else; or else [o] willaa (la)
 (ftH)                                                or/or else\else; or else [c] willaa (w)
open (wide) [vi] fattaH yifattiH (ftH)                or; either ..... or [c] yaa ..... yaa (ya)
open (wide) [vt] fattaH yifattiH (ftH)                or\else; or e.\otherwise? [c] aw ('w)
open up [vt] fataH yaftaH (ftH)                       orange [a] burtuqaaliy (brtq)
open up (an old wound again) [vt?] 9awwar             orange (fruit) [ns] burtukaana –aat? (brtk)
 yi9awwir (9wr)                                       orange (fruit) [ns] burtukaanaaya –aat? (brtk)
open/opened [a] mafTuwH (ftH)                         orange/oranges (fruit) [ng] burtukaan coll
open\turn on (what?)\switch on [vt] fataH              (brtk)
 yaftaH (ftH)                                         orange/oranges (fruit) [ng] burtukaan coll
operation (medical) [a] 9amaliyya (jiraaHiyya)         (brtk)
 –aat (jiraaaHiyya) (jrH)                             orange; o.s (fruit) [ng?] burtukaan coll? (brtk)
                                                 71
orchard [n] jinayna janaayin (jn;)                    oven\bake; b.ing oven (only in a bakery?)
order (e.g. in a restaurant) [vt] Talab yaTlub         [n/] furun afraan (frn)
 (Tlb)                                                over; be (become) o.\finish; be (become)
order (to)\command (to)\instruction                    f.ed [vi] raaH yaruwH (rwH)
 (to)\decree? [nj/] amur (bay) awaamir ('mr)          over; there's three piastres left o. [a] al–
order; receive/ get an a.\command;                     baagiy talaata guruw∫ (bga)
 receive/get a c.\instruction; receive/get            over-active/over-enthusiastic/over-
 an i. [n/] jaa– amur awaamir ('mr)                    interested in things\active; over-
order; well-o.ed\organize; (well-                      a.\enthusiastic; over-e.\interested; over-i.
 )o.ed\disciplined; self-d.d [a] munaZZam –            in things\hyper-active (because of
 iyn (nZm)                                             mentality) [a] lafiyf ? (lf;)
order\command\instruct [vts]? amar yaamur             over-active/over-enthusiastic/over-
 ('mr)                                                 interested in things\active; over-
order\give an order to\command\instruct                a.\enthusiastic; over-e.\over-
 [vd]? adda amur ('mr)                                 ambitious\interested; over-i. in
order\give an order to\command\instruct                things\ambitious; over-a. (tries to do
 [n/] adda amur ('mr)                                  difficult things without necessarily being
organisation\order\method\system [n]                   able to) [a] xafiyf –iyn\xufaaf (xf;)
 niZaam nuZum\anZima (nZm)                            overcome [vt] #alab ya#lib (#lb)
organise\order\arrange\sort out\tidy up [vt]          overnight; be kept o. (food) [vi] baat yabiyt
 rattab yirattib (rtb)                                 (byt)
organization?\order\method\system [n]                 overnight; be kept o. (food) [vi] bayyat
 niZaam anZima\nuZum (nZm)                             yibayyit (byt)
oriental (non–western)\eastern/easterly [a]           overnight; food which has stood
 ∫argiy –iyn (∫rg)                                     o.\yesterday; y.’s food [a] baayit (byt)
origin\source? [n/] aSil uSuwl ('Sl)                  overnight; stay o. (sleeping) [vi][vt] baat (=
origin\source? [n/] aSil uSuwl ('Sl)                   [bayyat]) yabiyt (byt)
original [a] aSliy –iyn ('Sl)                         overtake\pass\go by? [vtm] faat yafuwt (fwt)
original; o.ly [d] aSlan ('Sl)                        owing to? [j] lay (ly)
originally [d/] aSil/aSl– (+ PRONOUN                  owl [ns] buwma –aat (bwm)
 SUFFIXES) ('Sl)                                      owl/owls [ng] buwm coll (bwm)
originally [d] aSlan ('Sl)                            owner; house–owner\landlord [n] siyd al–
originally [d] aSl–uw ('Sl)                            bayt siyaad ...? (swd)
ostrich [ns] na9aama –aat (n9m)                       owner; house–owner\landlord [n] SaaHb al–
ostrich (bird) [ns] na9aama –aat (n9m)                 bayt aSHaab al-biyuwt? (SHb)
ostrich/ostriches [ng] na9aam coll (n9m)              owner\keeper; shopkeeper\possessor [n]
other; each o.\another; one a.\one                     siyd siyaad (swd)
 another\each o. [w/?] ba9aD (b9D)                    owner\proprietor?\master?\possessor?\hol
other; each o.\another; one a.\one                     der? [n] maalik *–iyn\mullaak (mlk)
 another\each o. [n/?] ma9a ba9aD (b9D)               pack (a bag) [vt] sattaf yisattif (stf)
other; each o.\another; one a.\one                    packet [n] Sanduwg Sanaadiyg (Sndg)
 another\each o. [j ?] ma9a ba9aD (m9a)               packet (of cigarettes) [n] baakaw ? (bka?)
other; the o. people (those not mentioned             packthread\string\twine\cord\rope?\thread
 before) [a] baagiy an–naas (bga)                      ? [ng] duwbaar coll (dwbr)
out (of sun)\shine; s.ing (of sun) [a] saaTi9         packthread\string\twine\cord\rope?\thread
 (sT9)                                                 ? [ns] duwbaara –aat (dwbr)
out (of sun)\shine; s.ing (of sun) [a] Taagg          padlock\lock (any kind?)? [n] Tabla Tibal
 (Tg;)                                                 (Tbl)
out of\outside [j] barra (br;)                        page\leaf (of paper)\sheet (of paper only?)
outside\exterior [a] baRRaaniy ? (br;)                 [n] SafHa –aat\SafaHaat (SfH)
outside\out [d] barra (br;)                           pain (psychological)\distress
oven; baker's o.\bakery? [n] Taabuwna                  (psychological)\upset (psychological) [n]
 Tawaabiyn (Tabn)                                      wajiy9a ? (wj9)
oven; baker's oven\bakery [n] Taabuwna                pain (psychological)\torment
 Tawaabiyn (Tbn)                                       (psychological)\suffering
                                                     72
 (psychological)\heartache (e.g. from                     paraffin\diesel oil\oil; diesel o. [n] jaaz (jaz)
 unrequited love)\grief (e.g. from                        paragraph [n] faqra –aat (fgr)
 unrequited love) [n] 9azaab (9zb)                        parcel\package [n/] Tarid Turuwd (Trd)
pain (psychological, e.g. over killed child;              pardon\forgiveness [n] simaaH (smH)
 involves also a degree of anger)\torment                 parent; p.s [nl]? waaldayn (wld)
 (psychological, e.g. over killed child;                  park (for a long period) [vt] garra∫ yigarri∫ (gr∫)
 involves also a degree of anger)\suffering               park (for a long period) [vi] garra∫ yigarri∫ (gr∫)
 (psychological, e.g. over killed child;                  park, a vehicle; i.e. leave (in a certain
 involves also a degree of                                 place) [vt] xalla yixalliy (xla)
 anger)\heartache (psychological, e.g.                    park; car–park [n] maWgif9arabaat mawaagif
 over killed child; involves also a degree                 9arabaat (9rb)
 of anger)\grief (psychological, e.g. over                park; car–park [n] maWgif 9arabiyyaat
 killed child; involves also a degree of                   mawaagif 9arabiyyaat (9rb)
 anger)\anger; pain and anger (e.g. from                  park\garden [n] Hadiyqa Hadaayiq (Hdg)
 killing of o.'s child) [n] Hurga (Hrg)                   part\portion [n] juzuw ajzaa' (jza)
pain\ache\ailment? [n] waja9 aWjaa9 (wj9)                 participate in? [vt] HaDar yaHDur (HDr)
pain\ache\ailment?\hurt [n] waja9 aWjaa9                  particular; p.ly?\especial; e.ly?\special;
 (wj9)                                                     s.ly? [d] xaaSS (xS;)
pain\ache\suffering\agony? [n] alam aalaam                particular; p.ly\special; s.ly\especial; e.ly
 ('lm)                                                     [d] xaaSSa (xS;)
paint [nt?] Darab buhya yaDrab (bha)                      particular; p.ly\specifically\special; s.ly [d]
paint [vt?] Darab buhya yaDrab (Drb)                       maxSuwS –iyn (xS;)
paint (artists' paint)\artist; a.s' paint [n] lawn        partition, made of bamboo canes ([gana])
 alwaan (lwn)                                              tied together [n] HaSiyra –aat\HaSaayir (HSr)
paint (not art) [vt] naga∫ yangu∫ (ng∫)                   partner\participant?\associate\companion?
paint?\draw\trace?\sketch?\describe? [vt]                  [n] ∫ariyk *–iyn\∫uraka (∫rk)
 Rasam yarsum (rsm)                                       partner\participant?\associate\companion?
pair of scissors/shears?\scissors [n]                      [n] ∫ariyk *–iyn\∫uraka (∫rk)
 magaSS –aat (gS;)                                        party (political) [n/] Hizib aHzaab (Hzb)
pair\couple\two [n] jawz jayzaan (jwz)                    party (used by school students, etc.) [n]
palace\castle? [n/] gaSur guSuwr (gSr)                     baartiy –haat (bart)
pale–skinned (very)\light–skinned (very) [a]              party\performance (e.g. in cinema)?\show?
 abyaD bayDa buyuD (byD)                                   [n] Hafla –aat\*Hafalaat (Hfl)
Palestine [nx] falasTiyn (flsT)                           party\performance (e.g. in cinema)?\show?
Palestinian [ax] falasTiyniy –iyn (flsT)                   [n] Hafla –aat\*Hafalaat (Hfl)
pamper; be p.ed (child)\spoil; be s.t (child)             pass (i.e. come to an end) [vi] intaha yantahiy
 [vi] biTir yabTar (bTr)                                   (nha)
pamper; over–p. (a child) [vt] 9ajjan yi9ajjin            pass (in football) [vtjm] maRRaR yimaRRiR
 (9jn)                                                     (mr;)
pamper\spoil (a child) [vt] dalla9 yidalli9 (dl9)         pass (of time) [vi] maRRa yamuRR (mr;)
pan; big deep frying pan (like wok)\fry; big              pass the night\spend the night\stay
 deep f.ing pan (like wok)\wok; wok–like                   overnight [vi][vt] baat (= [bayyat]) yabiyt (byt)
 big deep frying pan [n] Taajin Tawaajin (Tjn)            pass/p.ing (in an examination) [n] najaaH
pan; frying pan\fry; f.ing pan [n] Tawwa –                 (njH)
 aat\Tiywaw (Twa)                                         pass; he p.ed the exam [vi?] najaH fil–
panegyric (song)\praise song\song in                       imtiHaan yanjaH (njH)
 praise (of?) [n] madHa madaayiH (mdH)                    passenger\occupant (of a vehicle) [n] raakib
panegyric (song)\praise song\song in                       rukkaab (rkb)
 praise (of?) [n] madiyH *madaayiH (mdH)                  passport [n] jawaaz –aat (jwz)
papaya [ns] baabaaya –aat (b;a)                           passport [n] jawaaz as–safar(/safar?) –aat (jwz)
papaya/p.s [ng] baabaay coll (b;a)                        passport [n] jawaaz safar –aat (sfr)
paper [ng] warag aWraag (accepted by informant            past; in the p. [d] zamaan (zmn)
 [LA07.1]) (wrg)                                          paste (with glue)\stick (together)(with glue)
parade (e.g. soldiers, school pupils in                    [vt] laSSag yilaSSig (lSg)
 row(s)) [n] Taabuwr Tawaabiyr (Tbr)
                                                     73
paste together (a thing)?\stick together?                 peanut; p.s [ng] fuwl suwdaaniy coll (fwl)
 [vt] laSSag yilaSSig (lSg)                               pearl millet\millet; pearl m.\dukhn [n/]?
paste?\dough\batter? [ng] 9ajiyn coll (9jn)                duxun coll (dxn)
patent\manifest\visible?\conspicious? [a]                 pearl; piece of/single plant of p.
 waaDiH –iyn (wDH)                                         millet\millet; piece of/single plant of pearl
path; small p. (e.g. between flower beds, in               m.\dukhn; piece of/single plant of d. [n]?
 a public garden) [n] mam∫a mamaa∫iy (m∫a)                 duxna –aat (dxn)
path\trail?\track?\road?\alley\lane [n/] darib            peasant?\cultivator\farmer [n] muzaari9 –
 duruwb (drb)                                              iyn\–iyya (zr9)
patience\forebearance\steadfastness?\firm                 peel?\rind?\shell?\skin?\crust? [ns] gi∫ra –
 ness? [n/] Sabur (Sbr)                                    aat (g∫r)
patient [a] mariyD –iyn (mrD)                             peel\pare [vt] garraf yigarrif (grf)
patient (i.e. being patient at the                        peel\pare\shell\skin [vt] ga∫ar yag∫ir (g∫r)
 moment)\enduring (i.e. e. at the                         peel\pare\shell\skin [vt] ga∫∫ar yiga∫∫ir (g∫r)
 moment)\persevere; p.ing (i.e. p. at the                 pen [n] gaLam *gulumma\*gulaama (glm)
 moment)\steadfas (i.e. s. at the moment)                 pen [n] gaLam *guluwm\agLaam (glm)
 [a] Saabir –iyn (Sbr)                                    pen\pencil?\biro [n] gaLam
patient (very?)\enduring\persevere; p.ing                  *guLumma\guLaama (glm)
 [a] Saabir (Sbr)                                         pen\pencil?\biro [n] gaLam agLaam (glm)
patient (very?)\enduring\persevere; p.ing                 pen\pencil\biro? [n] gaLam *guLuwm\agLaam
 [a] Sabuwr –iyn (Sbr)                                     (glm)
patient\steadfast\persevere; p.ing [a]                    pencil [ng] gaLam raSaaS agLaam (etc.) raSaaS
 Sabuwr –iyn (Sbr)                                         (rS;)
patriotic\nationalist\nationalistic (does not             pencil [n] gaLam raSaaS ! (rS;)
 have negative connotations) [a] waTaniy –                pencil [ng] gaLam ruSaaS agLaam (etc.) ruSaaS
 iyn (wTn)                                                 (rS;)
pavement\platform (at station, etc.)? [n]                 pencil [n] gaLam ruSaaS (/raSaaS?) agLaam
 raSiyf arSifa (rSf)                                       ruSaaS? (rS;)
pay [vd?] dafa9 yadfa9 (df9)                              pencil [ng] gaLam raSSaaS agLaam (etc.)
pay [vtj] dafa9 yadfa9 (df9)                               raSSaaS (rS;)
pay attention to\attention; pay a. to\notice              pencil [ng] gaLam ruSSaaS agLaam (etc.)
 [vj] fakar lay yafkur (fkr)                               ruSSaaS (rS;)
pay attention to\attention; pay a. to\notice;             pencil [n] gaLam raSaaS agLaam raSaaS (glm)
 take n. [vtj?] xatta l–baal lay yaxutt (xT;)             pencil [n] gaLam raSaaS agLaam raSaaS (glm)
pay attention to\attention; pay a. to\notice;             peninsula? [n] jaziyra juzur\jazaayir (jzr)
 take n. [j] xatta l–baal lay yaxutt (ly)                 peninsula? [n] jaziyra juzur\jazaayir (jzr)
pay attention to\attention; pay a. to\notice;             penis [n] Dayl Duyuwl (Dyl)
 take n. of [vtj?] xalla l–baal lay yixalliy (xl;)        penis (impolite usage) [n] zibb
pay attention to\attention; pay a. to\notice;              *zubuwb\asbaab (zb;)
 take n. of [j] xalla l–baal lay yixalliy (ly)            penis (nonsexual usage, esp. of children,
pay attention\attention; pay a.\notice; take               slightly humorous) [n] ∫ambuwra ? (∫mbr)
 n. [vtj?] xatta l–baal min yaxutt (bwl)                  penis (polite usage) [n] Dakar Dukuwr (Dkr)
pay attention\attention; pay a.\notice; take              penitent; be penitent\repent [vi] taab yatuwb
 n. [vtj?] xatta l–baal yaxutt (xT;)                       (twb)
pay; p.ing attention\attention; paying                    pension [n] ma9iy∫a –aat (9y∫)
 a.\notice; taking n. [a] muntabih –iyn (nbh)             people [np] naas (nas)
pay; p.ing attention\attention; paying                    people\folk?\nation\race\tribe? [n/] ∫a9ab
 a.\notice; taking n. [a] waa9iy –iyn (w9a)                ∫u9uwb (∫9b)
peace/peacefulness [n] salaam (slm)                       people\friend; f.s\associate; a.s\family [np]
peaceable [a] misaalim –iyn (slm)                          naas (nas)
peanut butter\butter; peanut b. [a] fuwl                  people\human being(s)\mankind\man\men
 madguwg coll (dg;)                                        [nb] ba∫ar (b∫r)
peanut butter\butter; peanut b. [ng] fuwl                 pepper (ground, as condiment)\ground
 madguwg coll (fwl)                                        pepper (condiment) [ng] filfil coll (fl;;)
peanut; p.s [a] fuwl suwdaaniy coll (swd)                 pepper (plant) [n] filfiliyya –aat (fl;;)
                                                 74
pepper; hot red p. (vegetable) [n] ∫aTTa (∫T;)        person\human being [n/] baniy aadam baniy
per; 80 p. cent of people\cent; 80 per c. of           aadamiyn ('bn)
 people [n] tamaaniyn fil–miyya min an–naas           person\human being [nx] baniy aadam baniy
 (my)                                                  aadamiyn ('dm)
perceive\feel\sense\conscious; be                     person\human being\man [nb] ba∫ar (b∫r)
 c.\aware; be a. [vts] ∫a9ar ya∫9ur (∫9r)             person\human being\man [n/] wad ibn aadam
perceive\feel\sense\intuit\conscious; be               awlaad ibn aadam ('bn)
 c.\aware; be a. [vjs] ∫a9ar bay ya∫9ur (∫9r)         person\human being\man [nx] wad ibn aadam
perceive\feel\sense\intuit\conscious; be               awlaad ibn aadam ('dm)
 c.\aware; be a. [vjs] Hassa bay yaHiss (Hs;)         person\human being\man [n] wad ibn aadam
perhaps\maybe\possible; p.ly (non–                     awlaad ibn aadam (wld)
 commital) [o] ya9niy (9na)                           person\man\human being [nx] baniy aadam
period of validity\validity; period of v. [n]          baniy aadamiyn ('dm)
 mudda mudad (md;)                                    person\man\human being [nx] ibn aadam ibn
period\interval\time?\duration? [n] mudda              aadamiyn ('dm)
 mudad (md;)                                          person\people (in plural)\individual?\man?
permission [n] samaaH (smH)                            [n] nafar anfaar (nfr)
permission; with your p.\excuse                       personal; personally [n] ∫axSiyyan (∫xS)
 me\pardon me [n/] 9an iznak ('zn)                    personality; (strong) p. [n] ∫axSiyya (∫xs)
permission; with your p.\excuse                       personally"\self (as emphatic; e.g. I
 me\pardon me [j] 9an iznak (9n)                       myself") [o?] zaat (zwt)
permission\authorization [n/] izin (cf.               pester?\disturb\harass?\disquiet? [vt]
 [istizyzaan] – CHECK) ('zn)                           laxam (passive: [it–], [il–], [in–]) yalxam (lxm)
permission\authorization [n/] izin ('zn)              petrol [n] banziyn none (bnzn)
permit; p. ed by Islamic Law ([∫ariy9a]) [a]          phone; I phoned him [vtj] Darabta lay–hu
 Halaal none (Hl;)                                     (Drb)
perplexed?\confused?\bewildered?\baffled              photograph/photo [vt] Sawwar yiSawwir (Swr)
 ? [a] mimaHHin (= [maHnaan],                         photograph? [vt] Sawwar yiSawwar (Swr)
 [mumaHHan]/[mamaHHan]) –iyn? (mHn)                   phrase?\term?\expression [n] 9ibaara –aat
perplexed?\confused?\bewildered?\baffled               (9br)
 ? [a] mumaHHan/mamaHHan (= [maHnaan],                phrase\idiom\expression [n] 9ibaara –aat
 [mitmaHHin]) –iyn? (mHn)                              (9br)
Persian (language and people) [a] faarisiy –          piastre (unit of currency) [n/] giri∫ guruw∫
 iyn\furus (frs)                                       (gr∫)
person (with following genitive; gives                pick up (physical object) [vt] laggaT yilaggiT
 sense of belonging geographically to a                (lgT)
 certain ethnic group or area, or                     picture\photograph/photo [n] Suwra Suwar
 temporally to a certain period of                     (Swr)
 time)\people (in plural [aWlaad]; with               piece (of bread)\crumb? (of bread)? [n]
 following genitive; gives sense of                    kisra ? (ksr)
 belonging geographically to a certain                piece of cane/reed/sugar cane\stalk (e.g. of
 ethnic group or area, or temporally to a              [zura]) [ns] gaSaba –aat (gSb)
 certain period of time) [n] wadd aWlaad              piece\bit\part?\portion\place [n] Hitta Hitat
 (wld)                                                 (Ht;)
person (with following genitive; gives                piece\fragment?\lump?\chunk?\part?\porti
 sense of belonging geographically to a                on? [n] giT9a giTa9 (gT9)
 certain ethnic group or area, or                     pig [n] xinziyr xanaaziyr (xnzr)
 temporally to a certain period of                    pigeon/p.s\dove/d.s [ng] Hamaam coll (Hm;)
 time)\people (in plural [aWlaad]; with               pigeon\dove [ns] Hamaama –aat (Hm;)
 following genitive; gives sense of                   pile\heap [n] kawm akwaam\kaymaan (kwm)
 belonging geographically to a certain                pilgrim (female)(so.who has made p. to
 ethnic group or area, or temporally to a              Mecca [n] Haajja –aat (Hj;)
 certain period of time) [n] walad aWlaad             pilgrim (so. who has made p. to Mecca [n]
 (wld)                                                 Haajj Hujjaaj (Hj;)
                                                 75
pilgrim (who has made p.age to Mecca                  place\site?\spot?\location?\position? [n]
 [makka]) [n] Haajj Hujjaaj (Hj;)                      makaan –aat (kwn)
pilgrimage (to tomb of saint                          place\site\spot\location [n] makaan –aat (kwn)
 [∫ayx]?/[waliy]?) [n] ziyaara –aat (zyr)             plague; bubonic p.\bubonic plague [n]
pilgrimage; Islamic p. to Mecca\hajj [n] Hajj          Taa9uwn Tawaa9iyn (T9n)
 (Hj;)                                                plague; cattle p.?\cattle plague [a] Taa9uwn
pilgrimage; make the Islamic p. to                     bagariy (bgr)
 Mecca\hajj; make the h. [vi]? Hajja yaHijj           plague; cattle p.?\cattle plague [n] Taa9uwn
 (Hj;)                                                 bagariy (T9n)
pill; quinine p.s\tablet; quinine t.s [np]            plague?\pestilence? [nm] waba
 Hibuwb kiyna (Hb;)                                    *awbiya\*wibyaat (wba)
pill\tablet [ns] Habba Hibuwb (Hb;)                   plaintiff\claimant? [n] mudda9iy –iyn (d9a)
pillow\cushion [n] wisaada –aat\*wasaayid             plan [vi] xaTTaT yixaTTiT (xT;)
 (wsd)                                                plan (for) [vj] xaTTaT yixaTTiT (xT;)
pillow\cushion? [n] maxadda –aat (xd;)                plan (st. bad)\plot (st. bad) [vi] dabbar
pimple\acne\pustule [n] Habba Hubuwb (Hb;)             yidabbir (dbr)
pinch (a single cheek of)\squeeze (a single           plan\project\scheme\design?\enterprise?
 cheek of)\cheek; pinch a single c.                    [n] ma∫ruw9 –aat\ma∫aariy9 (∫r9)
 of/squeeze a single cheek of [vt] garaS              plan\project\scheme\design\enterprise [n]
 yagruS (grS)                                          ma∫ruw9 –aat\ma∫aariy9 (∫r9)
pinch (the two cheeks of)\squeeze (the two            planet? [n] kawkab kawaakib (kwkb)
 cheeks of) [vt] jaDDam yijaDDim (jDm)                plank (of wood)\board (of wood)?\pane (of
pink [a] bambiy (bmb)                                  glass) [n] lawH alwaaH\*layHaan (lwH)
pink; light p. (colour of red onion inside)           plant (seedlings only?)\transplant [vt] ∫atal
 [a] baSaliy (bSl)                                     ya∫til (∫tl)
pink\rose–coloured\light–coloured [a]                 plant (seedlings) [vt] zara9 yazra9 (zr9)
 bambiy (bmb)                                         plant (seeds) [vt]? tayrab yitayrib (tyrb)
pipe [n] ambuwba *–aat\anaabiyb (nb;)                 plant; similar to a palm [ns/] za9fa –aat (z9f)
pipe [n] ambuwba *–aat\anaabiyb (nb;)                 plaster; sticking p.\stick; sticking plaster
pipe (European–style smoker's pipe?) [n]               [n] laSga –aat\liSag (lSg)
 kadaws –aat (kds)                                    plaster; sticking p.\stick; sticking plaster
pipe (for smoking) [n] kadaws –aat (kds)               [n] laSga –aat\liSag (lZg)
pipe (for water etc.)\conduit\tube? [ns]              plastic sandal [n] sifinja (= [∫ib∫ib]) –aat (sfnj)
 ambuwba *–aat\anaabiyb (nb;)                         plate; flat ‘plate’ made of clay [Tiyn] for
pipe (musical instrument; what exactly?)               cooking [kisra] on [n] Saaj ? (Swj)
 [n] Zumbaara –aat (Znbr)                             plate; flat 'plate' made of clay [Tiyn] for
pipe; water-p. (for smoking)\water-pipe (for           cooking [kisra] on [n] dawka duwak\duwaak
 smoking) [n] ∫iy∫a ? (∫y∫)                            (dwk)
pipe; water–p.\water–pipe\tap"? [n]                   play [vt] li9ib yal9ab (l9b)
 maasuwra *–aat/mawaasiyr ('sr)                       play (a character; in a play, film)\portray (a
pistol [n] musaddas –aat (sds)                         character; in a play, film) [vi]? massal
pitch\asphalt?\tar [n] zift (zft)                      yimassil (msl)
pitch\asphalt?\tar [n/] zifit (zft)                   play (e.g. a song, to so.) [vd] samma9
pity/show p. to\sympathise with\sorry; feel            yisammi9 (sm9)
 s. for [vj] Hanna 9ala yaHinn (Hn;)                  play; p.ing card\card; playing c.d [ns]
pity/show p. to\sympathise with\take pity              waraga –aat (wrg)
 on [vj] a∫fag 9alay ya∫fig (∫fg)                     play; p.ing cards\card; playing c.s [ng]
pity; what a p.\bad; too b.\sad; how                   warag aWraag? (wrg)
 s.\shame; what a s. [n] yaa xasaara (xsr)            play\toy with? [vt] li9ib yal9ab (l9b)
pity; what a p.\bad; too b.\sad; how                  player\sportsman?\athlete?\gymnast? [n]
 s.\shame; what a s. [o] yaa xasaara (ya)              laa9ib –iyn (l9b)
placate?\assuage?\allay? [vt] hadda yihaddiy          pleasant (e.g. of weather)\nice (e.g. of
 (hda)                                                 weather)\good (e.g. of weather) [a] laTiyf –
place\location\spot\site [n] maHall –aat (Hl;)         iyn (lTf)
place\location\spot\site [n] maHall –aat (Hl;)
                                                  76
pleasant; he's p.\nature; he's good–n.d [n]             weight)\gain weight (not necessarily
 damm-uw xafiyf (xf;)                                   much weight) [vi] simin yasman (smn)
pleasant; he's p.\nature; he's good–n.d [n]            pocket [n] jayb juyuwb (jyb)
 damm-uw xafiyf (dm;)                                  poem [n] gaSiyda gaSaayid (gSd)
please (do st.) [vi] itfaDDal (fDl)                    poem (in praise of a religious figure ) [n]
please (do st.) [vi] itfaDDal (fDl)                     madHa madaayiH (mdH)
please (in making requests – when?) [j] 9an            poem (type; p. in praise of religious figure
 izn-ak (9n)                                            ) [n] madiyH *madaayiH (mdH)
please (literally 'by God'; expresses strong           poet [n] ∫aa9ir ∫u9ara (∫9r)
 wish for st.) [j] bi–llaahi (by)                      poetry\verse [n/] ∫i9ir (∫9r)
please\allow; if you would allow me [j] 9an            point\dot\speck\spot [n] nugTa nugaT (ngT)
 izn-ak (9n)                                           poison/put poison into [vt] sammam
please\allow; if you would allow me [n/] 9an            yisammim (sm;)
 izn-ak ('zn)                                          poison/put poison into [vt] sammam
please\delight [vt] basaT yabsuT (bsT)                  yisammim (sm;)
please\delight\appeal to\like"\enjoy"\excite           poison\toxic\venom [n] simm sumuwm (sm;)
 [vt] 9ajab ya9jib (9jb)                               poisonous [a] saamm (sm;)
please\delight\appeal to\like"\enjoy"\excite           poisonous [a] musimm (sm;)
 [vt] 9ajab ya9jib (9jb)                               police [n] bawliys bawaaliys (bwls)
pleasure; gain p. (e.g. through smoking,               police (as adjective) [a] bawliysiy (bwls)
 drugs) [vi] itkayyaf yitkayyaf (kyf)                  police (policemen) [np] bawliys (bwls)
pleasure;it's my p./not at all                         police; policeman\officer; polica o. [n]
 (replyto[∫ukran]) [d] 9afwan (9fa)                     DaabiT bawliys DubbaaT bawliys (bwls)
plenty of\lot; a lot of\many\number; a large           police; policeman\officer; police o. [n]
 n.of [o] kam (km)                                      DaabiT bawliys DubbaaT bawliys (DbT)
plenty; there are p. of merchants in the               police; policeman\officer; police officer?
 market [o?] fiy kam taajir fiy s–suwk (km)             [n] ∫urTiy rujaal ∫urTa (∫rT)
plot (of land) [nf] giT9at arD ? ('rD)                 police; policeman\officer; police officer?
plot (of land) [n] arDiyya –aat ('rD)                   [n] ∫urTiy rujaal ∫urTa (∫rT)
plot (of land) [n] giT9at arD ? ('rD)                  policeman [n] raajil bawliys rijaal bawliys (rjl)
plot (of land)\spot (of land) [n] bug9a buga9          policeman [n] 9askáriy ∫urTa 9asaakir ∫urTa?
 (bg9)                                                  (∫rT)
plot of land (10 feddans?)?\field [n]                  policeman [n] 9askáriy ∫urTa 9asaakir ∫urTa?
 Hawwaa∫a –aat? (Hw∫)                                   (9skr)
plot; small p. of land (e.g. for watercress,           policeman [n] raajil bawliys rijaal bawliys
 onions) [n] HawD HayDaan\aHwaaT? (HwD)                 (bwls)
plough [n] Harraata –aat? (Hrt)                        policeman [ne] bawliys bawaaliys\naas al-
plough [n] miHraat maHaariyt (Hrt)                      bawliys (bwls)
plough [n] muHraat maHaariyt (Hrt)                     policeman or soldier\soldier or policeman
plough [n] muHraat maHaariyt (Hrt)                      [n] 9askáriy 9asaakir (9skr)
plough; p.ing?\cultivate; c.ing?\till; t.ing?          policewoman [n] bawliysa (/[buwliysa]?) –aat?
 [nv/] Harit (Hrt)                                      (bwls)
plough; ploughing? [nv] Hiraata *–aat (Hrt)            polite [a] marabba –yiyn (rba)
plough\cultivate (land)?\till? [vt?] Harat             polite [a] murabba –yaat (rba)
 yaHrit (Hrt)                                          polite\cultured\civil?\manner; well–m.ed [a]
plough\cultivate?\till? [vt] Harat yaHrit (Hrt)         mu'addab –iyn ('db)
plug (electric) [n] balagg –aat (blg)                  politeness\manner; good m.s\good
plug (for bath, sink) [n] sidaada –aat\sadaayid         manners [n] adab ('db)
 (sd;)                                                 political [a] siyaasiy –iyn? (sws)
plug (for bath, sink) [nm] #uTa #uTyaat\a#Tiya         politician [n] raajil siyaasiy rijaal ...? (rjl)
 (#Ta)                                                 politician [n] zawl siyaasiy rijaal ...? (zwl)
plug\stopper\cork\lid (of pot) [n] sidaada –           politician [a] raajil siyaasiy rijaal –iyn (sws)
 aat\sadaayid (sd;)                                    politician [a] zawl siyaasiy rijaal –iyn (sws)
plump; bc. p./p.er\fat; bc. f./f.er\put on             politics\policy [n] siyaasa –aat (sws)
 weight (not necessarily much                          pollution [nv] talwiys (lws)
                                                    77
pollution [n] talawwus none (lws)                        post\mail [n] buwsTa none (bwsT)
pond; dug out area in which rainwater                    post\mail; put in the m. [vtj?] rama fil–buwsTa
 collects [n] Hafiyr –aat\Hafaayir (Hfr)                  yarmiy (bwsT)
pool (man–made only?)\pond?\lake? [n]                    post\mail; put in the m. [n] rama fi l–
 Hafiyr –aat\Hafaayir (Hfr)                               buwsTa\*rama l–buwsTa yarmiy (bwsT)
pool (natural or artificial; smaller than                post\mail; put in the m. [vtj][vd] rama fi l–
 [rahad])\pond (natural or artificial;                    buwsTa\*rama l–buwsTa yarmiy (rma)
 smaller than [rahad])\lake(natural or                   postage stamp\stamp; postage s. [n] Taab9a
 artificial; smaller than [rahad]) [n] birka              Tawaabi9 (Tb9)
 birak (brk)                                             post–box [n] Sanduwg al–buwsTa Sanaadiyg al–
pool (natural or artificial; smaller than                 buwsTa (bsT)
 [rahad])\pond (natural or artificial;                   poster?\bill?\placard?\sign [n] i9laan –aat
 smaller than [rahad])\lake(natural or                    (9ln)
 artificial; smaller than [rahad]) [n] birka             post–office [n] buwsTa none (bwsT)
 birak (brk)                                             post–office [n] maktab buwsTa/buwsta makaatib
pool; dug out area in which rainwater                     buwsTa (bwsT)
 collects [n] Hafiyr –aat\Hafaayir (Hfr)                 post–office\post?\mail? [n] buwsta none
poor [a] fagriy –iyn\*fagaariy\fagaara (fgr)              (bwst)
poor (in quality)\bad (in quality)\rotten (in            pot; coffee p. (in which c.is brewed and
 quality) [a] fagriy –iyn\*fagaariy\fagaara (fgr)         served) [n] jabana –aat (jbn)
poor (with connotations of lack of                       pot; cooking–pot\cook; cooking–pot [n/]
 sympathy on part of speaker) [a] fagraan –               gidir guduwr (gdr)
 iyn (fgr)                                               pot; cooking–pot\cook; cooking–pot [n]
poor/of p. quality (what?)?\quality; of poor              gidra guduwr (gdr)
 q.? [a] fagriy –iyn\*fagaariy\fagaara (fgr)             pot; teapot?\kettle?\teapot? [n] kafatayra –
poor\miserable\wretched [a] miskiyn                       aat\kafaatiyr (kftr)
 masaakiyn (mskn)                                        pot; tea–pot\tea–pot (i.e. teapot; but
popular\folk (in compounds)/folksy? [a]                   normally used like kettle for boiling tea)
 ∫a9biy (∫9b)                                             [n] barraad baraariyd (brd)
port\harbour\anchorage? [n] miyna mawaaniy               pot; teapot\teapot (i.e. teapot; but normally
 (mna)                                                    used like kettle for boiling tea) [n] barraad
portrayal\description\depiction [n/] waSif                baraariyd (brd)
 *aWSaaf (wSf)                                           pot; water–p. (for ablutions) [n] ibriyg
position in governemt service\post                        abaariyg ('brg)
 (official) [n] waZiyfa waZaayif (wZf)                   pot; water–p. (for ablutions) [n] ibriyk
position; get into a position where                       abaariyk ('brk)
 ...?\point; come to the point where\come                potato/p.es [ng] baTaaTis coll (bT;s)
 to the point where\get into the position                potato/potatoes [ng] baTaaTis coll (bT;s)
 where [vt+] biga yabga (bga)                            potato; a piece of potato [ns] baTaaTsa –aat
position?\situation? [n] maHall –aat (Hl;)                (bT;s)
possess" (a psychological                                pouch; ‘air–p.’ inside fishWHAT IS THIS?
 characteristic)\have" (a psychological                   [n] 9awwaama –aat (9wm)
 characteristic) [j] fiy (fy)                            pound (money) [n] jinay (/jinayh?) jinayhaat (–
possess?\owner; be the owner                              haat) (jnh)
 of?\have\own? [vt] malak yamlik (mlk)                   pour (liquids, powders)\put (liquid)
possess\own\have\gain?\win?\acquire? [vt]                 on/in\add (liquid) to [vt] kabba yukubb (kb;)
 imtalak yamtalik (mlk)                                  pour out [vi] iddaffag yiddaffag (dfg)
possession; spirit p. ceremony [n] zaar *–aat            pour out\spill; be spilt [vim] iddafag yaddafig
 (zar)                                                    (dfg)
possibility [n] iHtimaal –aat (Hml)                      poverty\need?\lack?\want? [n/] fagur (fgr)
possible; it is p.                                       powder [n] budra *budar (bdr)
 that\perhaps\maybe\might\may [vtz]                      powder (soap p. and other manufactured
 yimkin (mkn)                                             things?) [n] budra *budar (bdr)
possible\perhaps [az] mumkin ? (mkn)                     powdered milk [n] laban budra (bdr)
post a letter [vtm] rassal jawaab (rsl)
                                                    78
power? (of                                               PRESENT TENSE MARKER [a] gaa9id –iyn
 king)\rule?\reign?\dominion?\sway? [n]                   (g9d)
 mulk/muluk (mlk)                                        present; be p. at\attend\part; take p. in? [vt]
power\strength\potency\capacity\ability [n]               HaDar yaHDur (HDr)
 gudra gudar (gdr)                                       present; not p. [o] maa fiy (fy)
powerful\potent\able (having enough                      present\attend; a.ing/in a.ance [a] HaaDir –
 money, etc. to do st.) [a] gaadir –iyn? (gdr)            iyn (HDr)
praise (normally God)\laud (normally                     present\attendence; in a.\here (reply to
 God)\extol (normally God) [vt] Hamad                     call) [a] HaaDir –iyn (HDr)
 yaHmid (Hmd)                                            preserve; God p. you: [al–Hamd illa 9ala s–
praise be to God (reply to [kayf al–Haal],                salaama] [vt] aLLaa yisallimak (slm)
 etc.) [n/?] al–Hamdu li–llaa (Hmd)                      preserve; God p.? you (reply to [aLLaa
praise; p. be to God (often used in reply to              yibaarik fiyk] [vt] aLLaa yisallimak (slm)
 question like [kayf al–Haal]) [n/] al–Hamdu             press (out)\squeeze (out)\wring (clothes?)
 li–llaa (Hmd)                                            [vt] 9aSar (passive: [in–], [it–]) ya9Sir (9Sr)
praise; p.to God for your safe return(from               press out\squeeze\wring
 a journey) [n/?] Hamd illa 9ala s–salaama                (clothes)?\compress [vt] 9aSar ya9Sir (9Sr)
 (Hmd)                                                   press\squeeze\compress? [vt] Da#aT
praise\commend\laud\extol\eulogise [vt]                   yaD#uT\yaD#aT (D#T)
 madaH yamdaH (mdH)                                      pressure;exert pressure (fig. only?) [vt]
praise\laud?\extol? [vt]/[vj] ∫akkar OBJ/fiy              Da#aT yaD#uT\yaD#aT (D#T)
 (zawl) yi∫akkir (∫kr)                                   pretend; p.ing to be [aj] 9aamil fiy (9ml)
prance?\dance [vim?] ragaS yarguS (rgS)                  pretend; p.ing to be\act; a.ing as
pray (ritual prayer [Salaa] only?)\worship?               if\fake; f.ing\feign; f.ing [aj] 9aamil
 [vt?] Salla yiSalliy (Sla)                               fiy-ha … (9ml)
pray for [vj] da9a lay(passive: [id–], [in–])            pretend; p.ing to be\act; a.ing as
 (*?)yad9uw/yad9iy (d9a)                                  if\fake; f.ing\feign; f.ing [j] 9aamil
pray for (st.) [nx] sa'al aLLa ('lh)                      fiy-ha … (fy)
pray for (st.) [vt+] sa'al aLLa ya∫Had aLLa (sal)        pretend\feign?\simulate?\affect?\purport?
prayer (esp. ritual prayer in Islam) [n] Sala°            [vt+?] idda9a yaddi9iy (d9a)
 –waat (Sla)                                             pretend\simulate\feign [vt] itSanna9 yitSanna9
prayer; personal (non-[Salaat]) prayer (in                (Sn9)
 Islam)? [n] da9wa da9aawiy? (d9a)                       pretext\excuse (= pretext)\reason;
prayer–mat\mat; prayer–m. [n] Sallaaya –aat               baseless r. (= pretext) [n] Hijja Hijaj (Hj;)
 (Sla)                                                   prettiness\beauty? [n] Hala° none (Hla)
prayer–mat\mat; prayer–m. [n] muSlaaya –                 pretty (of a woman/girl)\beautiful (of a
 aat\*maSaaliy (Sla)                                      woman/girl)\fine(–looking)\good–
preach to\sermon; deliver a s. to\address                 looking\handsome (of a man/boy)\good
 (normally in a sermon) [vj] xaTab fiy yaxTib             [a/] samiH –iyn (smH)
 (xTb)                                                   price\cost\value? [n] taman atmaan (tmn)
preach; preacher [n] xaTiyb xutaba (xTb)                 price\rate?\exchange rate? [n/] si9ir as9aar
precede\antecede?\outstrip?\leave                         (s9r)
 behind? [vt] sabag yazbig\yazbug (sbg)                  priest (Christian
prefer to\like better than [vtj] faDDal 9ala              only?)\clergyman?\pastor? [n] gissiys
 yifaDDil (fDl)                                           gasaawsa (gs;)
pregnant [af] Haamil –aat\–iyn (Hml)                     priest (Christian
pregnant; get pregnant [vi] Himlat taHmal                 only?)\clergyman?\pastor? [n] gissiys (*?)–
 (Hml)                                                    iyn (gs;)
prepare (os.)/get p.d\ready; get ready [vi]              priest\clergyman\minister\vicar\pastor [n]
 ista9adda yasta9idd (9d;)                                gissiys (*?)–iyn\gasaawsa (gs;)
prescribe; p.d\require; r.d\lay; laid down               prince? [n] amiyr ? ('mr)
 (according to regulations) [az+] mafruwD                printer\printing worker\worker; printing w.
 (frD)                                                    [n] maTbá9jiy –iyya? (Tb9)
present (so.)\introduce (so.) [vd] 9arraf bay            printer\printing worker\worker; printing w.
 yi9arrif (9rf)                                           [n] 9aamil maTba9a ? (Tb9)
                                                 79
printer\printing worker\worker; printing w.           promote; be p.d (at work) [n] jaat– targiya
 [n] 9aamil maTba9a ? (9ml)                            (rga)
printing press\press; printing p. [n]                 promotion (in work?) [n] tiriggiy (rga)
 maTba9a ? (Tb9)                                      promotion (in work?) [n] taraggiy (rga)
prison guard\jailor\guard,prison g.\warder            promptness\hurry?\haste? [n] sur9a (sr9)
 [n] sajjaan –iyn (sjn)                               pronounce [vt] naTag yanTug (nTg)
prison\jail [n/] sijin sujuwn (sjn)                   pronunciation\articulation?\enunciation?
private to\exclusive to [aj] xaaSS bay/*lay            [n/] nuTug ? (nTg)
 (xS;)                                                proof\evidence [n] daliyl adilla (dl;)
private to\exclusive to\special?                      propaganda [n] di9aaya –aat (d9a)
 to\personal? to [a] xaaSS bay/*lay (xS;)             propaganda [n] di9aaya –aat (d9a)
prize\reward [n] jaayza jawaayiz (jwz)                proper; p.ly (in the right way) [d] tamaam
probable; probably\likely [d?] gariyb (grb)            (tm;)
problem, which is it difficult/impossible to          prophet [n] nabiy anbiya\*nabyaan (nba)
 get out of [n] wakra ? (wkr)                         prophet [n] nabiy anbiya\*nabyaan (nba)
problem; minor p.\difficulty; minor d. [n]            prospectus? [n] man∫uwr –aat\manaa∫iyr (n∫r)
 ∫ibka ∫ibak (∫bk)                                    prostitute (who openly uses her house of a
problem; terrible p.\difficulty; great                 brothel)\whore (who openly uses her
 d.\misfortune; terrible m. [n] wayl (wyl)             house as a brothel) [n] ∫armuwTa (∫rmT)
problem? [n] hamm humuwm (hm;)                        prostitute, who operates secretly\whore,
problem\difficulty\critical position [n]               who operates secretly [n] ∫ak∫uwka –
 maDabb –aat (Db;)                                     aat\∫aka∫ (∫k;;)
problem\difficulty\critical position [n]              protect (property, etc.) by reading the
 maTabb –aat (Tb;)                                     Qur'an\read; read the Qur'an in order to
problem\question\issue\difficulty [n] mu∫kila          protect (property, etc.) [vt] HawwaT
 ma∫aakil (∫kl)                                        yiHawwiT (HwT)
problem\question\issue\difficulty [n] i∫kaal –        protect\guard?\safeguard? [vt] Hama
 aat (∫kl)                                             yaHmiy (Hma)
profit?\gain [vi?] ribiH yarbaH (rbH)                 protection [n] Himaaya none? (Hma)
profit?\gain [vt] ribiH yarbaH (rbH)                  proud (in positive sense; not prepared to
profitable?\instructive? [a] mufiyd (fyd)              demean os.) [a] 9aziyz –iyn (9z;)
programme (television/radio) [n] barnaamaj            proud of (in positive sense) [aj] faxuwr bay –
 baraamij (brnm)                                       iyn (fxr)
programme\plan                                        proud of\boastful about\bragging of? [a]
 (activities)\schedule\organize\arrange [vt]           muftaxir bay –iyn (fxr)
 barmaj yibarmij (brmj)                               prove (show to be true) [vt] akkad yi'akkid
programme\plan (of activities)\schedule [n]            ('kd)
 barnaamaj baraamij (brnm)                            proverb\adage\saying\parable\metaphor?\s
programme\plan (of activities)\schedule [n]            imile? [n] masal amsaal (msl)
 barnaamaj baraamij (brnm)                            proverb\saying? [n] masal amsaal (msl)
programme\plan (of activities)\schedule [n]           provide?\offer?\present?\give (e.g. a
 barnaamaj baraamij (brnm)                             present) [vtj] gaddam yigaddim (gdm)
progress; to make p.\develop [d] ma∫a lay             province [n] wilaaya –aat (wla)
 giddaam (gdm)                                        provisions (for journey)\supplies (for
progress; to make p.\develop [d] ma∫a lay              journey) [n] zuwaada –aat (zwd)
 giddaam (ly)                                         public\universal?\general?\common?\state
progress; to make p.\develop [vm] ma∫a lay             ?\civil? [a] 9umuwmiy –iyn? (9m;)
 giddaam (m∫a)                                        public\universal?\general\common [a]
prohibit\forbid [vtj+] mana9 min yamna9 (mn9)          9umuwmiy (9m;)
promise [vt+] wa9ad yaW9id (w9d)                      publish (book, etc.) [vt] na∫ar yan∫ur (n∫r)
promise [n/?] wa9ad wu9uwd (w9d)                      publish (print and publish; book, etc.) [vt]
promise; he p.d to help (me) (legal usage)             Taba9 yaTba9 (Tb9)
 [vjj+] it9ahhad (lay–y°) bil–musaa9a da (9hd)        pull (e.g. fingers) [vt] jabad (passive: [it–], [in–
promote; be p.d (at work) [vt] jaat– targiya           ]) yajbid (jbd)
 (jy)
                                                     80
pull; mend/fix a p.ed muscle? (traditionally              push (aside)\move (aside) [vt] zaHHa yiziHH
 cured by [baSiyr])\muscle; mend/fix a                     (zH;)
 pulled m. (traditionally cured by [baSiyr])              push/push back? [vt] dafar yadfir\yadfur (dfr)
 [n] Talla9 al-gaTiy9a gaTaayi9 (gT9)                     push\shove\heave? [vt] lazza yalizz (lz;)
pull\draw\drag\tug\haul\trail\tow [vt] jaRRa              put back (clock/watch)\back; put
 yajuRR (jr;)                                              b.(watch/clock) [vt] axxar yi'axxir ('xr)
pullover\jersey\sweater [n] faniyla fanaayil              put back (clock/watch)\back; put
 (fnl)                                                     b.(watch/clock) [vt] rajja9 yirajji9 (rj9)
pulpit (in mosque; and church?) [n] mimbar                put in\bring in?\insert\let in?\enter; cause
 manaabir (nbr)                                            to e. [vtjm] daxxal yidaxxil (dxl)
pump (for bicycle, etc.)\petrol pump [n]                  put on weight (not necessarily much
 Turumba –aat (Trmb)                                       weight)\gain weight (not necessarily
pump (what type/types?) [n] Turumba –aat                   much weight) [vi] zaad yaziyd (zyd)
 (Trmb)                                                   put on; be p.\turn on; be t.\switch on; be
pump; spray p. (for insecticides)\spray                    s.\on; be put/switched/turned on\go on
 pump (for insecticides) [n] Turumba –aat                  (light) [vi] walla9 yiwalli9 (wl9)
 (Trmb)                                                   put on\turn on\switch on\on;
pumpkin/p.s\gourd; g.s (vegetable) [ng]                    put/switch/turn on [vt] walla9 yiwalli9 (wl9)
 gara9 coll (gr9)                                         put on\wear\dress in\clothe os. in [vt] libis
punch\thump\blow with the fist [n] bunya ?                 yalbas (lbs)
 (bna)                                                    put out (fire) (= [katal])\extinguish (=
punish [vt] 9aaqab (passive: [it–]) yi9aaqib (9gb)         [katal]) [vt] kattal yikattil (ktl)
punishment\penalty? [n] 9iqaab –aat (9gb)                 put out (fire)\extinguish [vt] Tafa yaTfiy (Tfa)
punishment\penalty? [n] 9uquwba –aat (9gb)                put out (fire)\extinguish [vt] katal yaktil (ktl)
pupil (in a Quran school ) [n] Huwaar                     put up for the night\night; put up for the n.
 Hayraan (Hwr)                                             [vt] bayyat yibayyit (byt)
pupil (of eye)?\lens (of eye)??? [nf] wadd al–            put/p. down\set down\place [vtj] xatta yaxutt
 9ayn ? (9yn)                                              (xT;)
pupil (of eye)?\lens (of eye)??? [nf] insaan              put; I p. henna on him [n] xattayt lay–huw
 al–9ayn ? (9yn)                                           Hinna (Hn;)
pupil (of eye)?\lens (of eye)??? [n] wadd al–             python (snake) [ns] aSala –aat ('Sl)
 9ayn ? (wd;)                                             python/p.s (snake) [ng] aSal ('Sl)
pupil (of eye)?\lens (of eye)??? [n] insaan al–           python? (type of snake) [ns] aSala –aat ('Sl)
 9ayn ? (wd;)                                             quarrel with\argue with\fight [vt] ∫aakal
pupil in a Quran school [xalwa]\Quran                      yi∫aakil (∫kl)
 student? [n] Huwaar Hayraan (Hwr)                        quarrel/q.ing (always with
pupil of the eye [ns?] Hadaga –aat (Hdg)                   violence)\fight/f.ing (always with
pupil/p.s? of the eye [ng] Hadag coll (Hdg)                violence) [ng] ∫akal coll (∫kl)
pure [a] baHt (bHt)                                       quarrel; cause a q.\argument; cause an
pure (e.g. water) [a] abyaD bayDa° buyuD                   a.\instigate/cause a problem [vt] ∫abak
 (byD)                                                     ya∫bik (∫bk)
pure (e.g. water) [a] naDiyf (nDf)                        quarrel?\argument?\fight?\dispute?\disagr
pure (e.g.                                                 eement?\problem? [n] ∫abka –aat (∫bk)
 water)\unmixed?\undiluted?\unadulterate                  quarter [n/] Rubu9 aRbaa9 (rb9)
 d?\sheer? [a] Saafiy NONE (not of people)                quarter (fraction)\fourth (fraction) [n/] Rubu9
 (Sfa)                                                     aRbaa9 (rb9)
pure (morally) [a] abyaD bayDa° buyuD (byD)               queen [n] malka –aat (mlk)
pure (morally) [a] Saafiy (Sfa)                           question\issue\problem\matter\affair\case
pure (water; i.e. not juice) [a] azrag zarga°              [n] mas'ala masaayil (sal)
 (zrg)                                                    question\issue\problem\matter\affair\case
pure?\genuine\original?\authentic [a] aSiyl ?              [n] mas'ala masaayil (sal)
 ('Sl)                                                    question\issue\problem\matter\affair\case
purple?\lilac? [a] banafsájiy ? (bnfs)                     [n] mas'ala masaayil (sal)
purslane (vegetable) [ng?] rijla coll? (rjl)              question\request?\inquiry [n] su'aal as'ila\–aat
                                                           (sal)
                                                     81
question\request?\inquiry [n] su'aal as'ila\–aat          railway; the r. [n] as–sikka Hadiyd (sk;)
  (sal)                                                   rain [n] maTar amTaar (mTr)
question\request?\inquiry [n] suwaal as'ila\–             rain [vi] maTar yamTir (mTr)
  aat (sal)                                               rain (as adjectival component of
question\request?\inquiry [n] suwaal as'ila\–               compounds) [a] maTariy (mTr)
  aat (sal)                                               rain (in general) [ng] maTara none? (mTr)
quick; q.ly\fast\prompt; p.ly\rapid; r.ly [n]             rain (in general) [ns?] maTara –aat? (mTr)
  bay–sur9a (sr9)                                         raise (child)\rear (child)\bring up [vt] rabba
quick; q.ly\immediate; i.ly\straight                        yirabbiy (rba)
  away\now [d] guwaam (gwm)                               rank (in army, police?) [n] rutba rutab (rtb)
quiet (person)\calm (person) [a] miskiyn *–               rare; r.ly\seldom\infrequent; i.ly [d] naadir
  iyn\masaakiyn (skn)                                       (ndr)
quiet; make q.\quieten\shut up\silence [vt]               rare\infrequent\strange?\odd?\uncommon\
  sakkat yisakkit (skt)                                     unusual? [a] naadir –iyn (ndr)
Quran school\school; Quran s. [n] xalwa !                 rat; female r.\mouse; female m. [n] faara –aat
  (xla)                                                     (far)
Quran school\school; Quran s. attached to                 rat; male r.\mouse; male m. [n] faar fayraan
  mosque [n] xalwa –aat\xalaawiy (xla)                      (far)
Quran; the Q. [nx] al–qur'aan (gra)                       raw (what?)\uncooked
rabbit; buck (i.e. male) r.\buck (i.e. male)                (what?)\unripe?(what?) [a] nayy (also
  rabbit [n] arnab araanib ('rnb)                           [naYY] cf [LA56.1]) –iyn WHAT COULD
rabbit?\hare? [n] arnab araanib ('rnb)                      THIS MEAN? (ny;)
rabbit\hare? [n] arnab araanib ('rnb)                     raw\unripe?\uncooked? [a] nayy (also [naYY]
radio\wireless [n] raadiy (commoner than                    cf [LA56.1]) –iyn WHAT COULD THIS
  [raadyaw]) rawaadiy (rady)                                MEAN? (ny;)
radio\wireless [n] raadyaw (newer and less                razor [n] Hallaaga –aat (Hlf)
  common than [raadiy]) –haat (rady)                      razor [ne] muws amwaas\mawasa (mws)
radish (vegetable) [ng/] fijil coll (fjl)                 razor/razor–blade\blade; razor–b. [ne] muws
radish (vegetable) [ns/] fijla –aat (fjl)                   amwaas (mws)
rag\shred?\tatter? [n] ∫altuwt ∫alaatiyt (∫lt;)           read to [vt] gara lay/*9alay yagra (gra)
raid (of modern warfare only)\attack (of                  read\declaim (e.g. Quran)?\recite (e.g.
  modern warfare only)\assault (of modern                   Quran)? [vt] gara yagriy (gra)
  warfare only)\invade? (of modern warfare                read\declaim (e.g. Quran)?\recite (e.g.
  only) [vj] #aza 9ala ya#ziy (#za)                         Quran)? [vt] gara yagra (gra)
raid (of modern warfare only)\attack (of                  reading [n] giraaya (gra)
  modern warfare only)\assault (of modern                 ready (of things
  warfare only)\invade? (of modern warfare                  only?)\prepared?\equipped?\finish;
  only) [vt] #aza ya#ziy (passive: [it–], [in–])            f.ed\done (= finished) [a] jaahiz ! (jhz)
  (#za)                                                   ready\prepared\willing [a] musta9idd –iyn
raid?\invade?\attack\aggression; commit                     (9d;)
  a. on [vj] #aar 9ala ya#iyr (#yr)                       ready–made (of clothes)\pre-fabricated [a]
raid?\invade?\attack\aggression; commit                     jaahiz (jhz)
  a. on [vt] #aar (passive: [it–], ([in–])) ya#iyr        real\true\actual\proper?\genuine\authentic
  (#yr)                                                     [a] Hagiygiy NONE (Hg;)
raid\invade\attack\aggress/commit a.ion                   realize [vt] 9irif ya9raf?/ya9rif? (9rf)
  against? [vj] #aar 9ala ya#iyr (#wr)                    really\very\extreme; e.ly [d] xalaaS (xlS)
raid\invade\attack\aggress/commit a.ion?                  reason; for no r. [d] saakit (skt)
  [vt] #aar ya#iyr (#wr)                                  reason; for no r.(e.g. reply to [9amalta kida
rail (of railway only?) [n] gaDiyb guDbaan                  lay]) [d] saakit (skt)
  (gDb)                                                   reason; for no r.(e.g. reply to [9amalta kida
railing\insult,insulting\abuse\reviling [nsv]               lay]) \just\simple; s.ly\own; on o.'s o.
  nabza –aat (nbz)                                          \only\mere; m.ly\[d] saahiy (/saay) (sha)
railway [n] sikka Hadiyd sikak Hadiyd? (Hd;)              reason; there's no reason (to do that) [n]
railway [n] sikka Hadiyd sikak Hadiyd? (sk;)                maa fiy daa9iy (ta9mal kida) (d9a)
railway; the r. [n] as–sikka Hadiyd (sk;)
                                                        82
reason\cause\motive\occasion [n] sabab fiy                   red\ruddy?\rosy?\pink? [a] aHmar Hamra
  asbaab (/azbaab (sb;)                                        Humur (Hmr)
reasonable\sensible\logical\rational                         red–brown (sheep only?)\brownp; red–b.
  (action)\acceptable (action) [a] ma9guwl                     (sheep) [a] aHmar Hamra Humur (Hmr)
  (9gl)                                                      reddish? [a] a∫gar ∫agra ∫ugur (∫gr)
reassure\calm (down) [vt] Tamman yiTammin                    reference [n] marja9 maraaji9 (rj9)
  (Tmn)                                                      reference; with r. to [n] bay nisba lay (nsb)
receive (money, as a salary)\get paid                        reference; with r. to?\regarding? [j] fiy (fy)
  (money) [vt] Saraf yaSruf (Srf)                            reflect\throw back (image) [vt] 9akas (passive:
receive (st. official)\get (st. official)\obtain               [in–], [it–]) ya9kis (9ks)
  (st. official) [vt] istalam yastalim/yistalim (slm)        refractory (any
receive an audience\audience; give an a.                       animal?)\unruly\unmanageable [a] kaafir
  to\interview [vt] gaabal yigaabil (gbl)                      kuffaar (kfr)
receive an order/command/instruction\get                     refrain from\abstain from\keep from [vt+?]
  an order/command/instruction [vt] jaa–                       aba yaaba ('ba)
  amur awaamir (jy)                                          refrain from\abstain from\keep from [vi+]
receive an order/command/nstruction; get                       aba maa +imperfect yaaba ('ba)
  an order/command/nstruction [vts] ∫aal                     refrigerator\fridge [n] tallaaja –aat (tlj)
  amur awaamir ('xd)                                         refugee [n] laajiy –iyn (lja)
receive; I r.d news\get; I got news\hear; I                  refugee camp\camp; refugee c. [n] mu9askar
  h.d [vt] jaa-niy° xabar (jy)                                 laajiyiyn –aat (9skr)
recent; r.ly\late; l.ly [d] gariyb (grb)                     refuse (to allow) [vtj+] aba lay (ma) yaaba ('ba)
recipe [n] waSfa –aat? (wSf)                                 refuse (to allow) [o?] aba lay (ma) yaaba (ma)
recitation; religious r. [n/] zikir (zkr)                    refuse dump\rubbish dump (where r. is
reckon\consider\regard as [vis+] Hasab                         burnt) [n] kuw∫a kuwa∫ (kw∫)
  yaHsib (Hsb)                                               refuse?\decline? [vt+] aba (passive: [it–], [in–]
recommendation\*advice?\*counsel? [n]                          ([it’aba/ittaba?], [in’aba/innaba]?) yaaba ('ba)
  taWSiya –aat (wSa)                                         refuse\turn down?\decline (to accept)?
recording\tape–recording\register; r.ing?                      [vt+] rafaD yarfuD (rfD)
  [n] tasjiyl –aat (sjl)                                     regime (political) [n] niZaam nuZum\anZima
recover (from an illness)\survive (an                          (nZm)
  illness) [vj] ∫ifa min ya∫fa (∫fa)                         region (of a tribe) [nf] daar diyaar (dwr)
recover (from an illness)\survive (an                        region between two rivers?\area between
  illness) [vi] gaam yaguwm (gwm)                              two rivers [n] jaziyra juzur\jazaayir (jzr)
recover (from an illness)\well; get well                     reject [vt] aba yaaba ('ba)
  (from an illness)\better; get b. (from an                  rejoice\cheerful; be c.?\glad; be g.\happy;
  illness) [vt] biga kiwayyis yabga (bga)                      be h. [vi+] firiH yafraH (frH)
recover (from an illness)\well; get well                     relation (by blood; i.e. blood
  (from an illness)\better; get b. (from an                    relative)\relative, by blood\blood
  illness) [a] biga kiwayyis yabga (kys)                       relation/relative [n] gariyb garaayib (grb)
recover (from an injury) [vj] bira min yabra                 relation/r.ship\reference\bearing [n] nisba
  (bra)                                                        nisab? (nsb)
recover (from an injury) [vj] bira min yabra                 relation; have social r.s with\live
  (bra)                                                        with\associate with\social; have s.
recover from (an illness)\well; get well                       relations with [vt] 9aa∫ar yi9aa∫ir (9∫r)
  (from an illness)\better; get b. (from an                  relation; r.s (by blood)\relative; r.s (by
  illness) [vj] gaam min yaguwm (gwm)                          blood)\blood; blood r.s [np/] ahal ('hl)
recover from (an illness)\well; get well                     relation; r.s (i.e. relatives), by
  (from an illness)\better; get b. (from an                    marriage\relative; r.s by marriage [n]
  illness) [vj] gaam min yaguwm (gwm)                          nasaaba (nsb)
recover from (an injury) [vj] bira min yabra                 relationship; blood r.\relatedness, by blood
  (bra)                                                        [n] garaaba (grb)
recover from mental illness [vi] niSiH                       relationship; marriage r.\relatedness, by
  yanSaH (nSH)                                                 marriage [n] nasaaba (nsb)
                                                             relationship\kinship [n/] riHim arHaam (rHm)
                                                    83
relative (non-immediate)\relation (non-                  reopen, reopen an unhealed wound [vt]
  immediate) [n] sirr asraar (sr;)                         9awwar yi9awwir (9wr)
relative; r.s\folk\family\kin/kinsfolk [n/] ahal         repeat (something spoken) [vt] raddad
  *aahaal\*ahaaliy ('hl)                                   yiraddid (rd;)
release (from prison)\free (from prison)                 repeat\reiterate\again; do a.\repeat; do
  [vtj] Talla9 (min as-sijin) yiTalli9 (Tl9)               r.edly? [vt+?] karrar yikarrir (kr;)
release (from prison)\free (from prison) [vt]            repentence\penitence\contrition? [nsv?]
  fakka yafikk (fk;)                                       tawba –aat (twb)
reliable\trustworthy [a] amiyn ! ('mn)                   replace [vtj] baddal Haaja bay Haaja yibaddil
religion (confessional faith) [n] diyaana –aat             (bdl)
  (dyn)                                                  replace"\substitute"\exchange; give in e."
religion\creed?\faith?\belief? [n] diyn adyaan             [j] jaab badal (bdl)
  (dyn)                                                  replace"\substitute"\exchange; give in e."
religious man\holy man [a] fagiyr (= [fakiy°])             [n?] jaab bidaal (bdl)
  fugara (fgr)                                           replace"\substitute"\exchange; give in e."
religious man\holy man [n] fagiyr? *–                      [vt] jaab badal (jyb)
  iyn\fugara (fgr)                                       replace"\substitute"\exchange; give in e."
religious man\holy man [n] fakiy° fakaya (fka)             [vt] jaab bidaal (jyb)
rely on (to do st.) [vt]? taakal yitaakil (tkl)          reply to\respond to\answer [vjj+][vtj+] radda
rely on o.a. (so that the job doesn't get                  yarudd (rd;)
  done)\leave to o.a. (so that the job                   reply\answer\response [n] jawaab –aat (jwb)
  doesn't get done) [vr] ittaakal yittaakal (tkl)        reply\answer\response [n] radd ruduwd (rd;)
rely on\depend on\trust in? [vj+] ittakal 9ala           report\account? [n] taqriyr taqaariyr (gr;)
  yattakil (tkl)                                         representative?\agent\proxy\substitute\del
rely on\depend on\trust in? [vj] i9tamad 9ala              egate [n] naayib nuwwaab (nwb)
  ya9tamid (9md)                                         republic [n] jamhuwriyya –aat (jmhr)
remain; cause to r.\stay; cause to s. [vt]               reputation (good)\name\standing\repute [n]
  xalla yixalliy (xla)                                     sum9a suma9 (sm9)
remain; r.ing/remainder\left (over) [a] baagiy           request\apply for\seek\ask (for) [vt] Talab
  bawaagiy (bga)                                           yaTlub (Tlb)
remedy?\cure?\medicine/medication?\drug                  request\order\application\wish\desire [n]
  ? [nm] dawa adwiya\diwyaat (dwa)                         Talab –aat (Tlb)
remember?\memorize\learn by heart\heart;                 rescue, be r.ed?\escape?\save os.?\save;
  learn. [vt] HifiZ yaHfaZ (HfZ)                           be s.ed?\get away unharmed [vi] nija yanja
remember\think of [vts+] itzakkar/izzakkar                 (nja)
  yitzakkar/yatzakkar/yizzakkar/yazzakkar (zkr)          reservation\booking [n/] Hajiz (Hjz)
remind\attention; call so.'s a. to? [vtj] zakkar         reserve/make a r.ation for (e.g. seat in a
  bay yizakkir (zkr)                                       train) [vt] Hajaz (passive: [it–], [in–]) yaHjiz
remind\attention; call so.'s a. to? [vds+]                 (Hjz)
  zakkar yizakkir (zkr)                                  reserve; r.d (seat on train, plane,
remorseful for (less common than                           etc.)\booked [a] maHjuwz (Hjz)
  [nadmaan])\regretful for (less common                  resign [vi] istaqaal yastaqiyl? (gyl)
  than [nadmaan]) [aj] naadim 9alay –iyn (ndm)           resin?\glue (paper glue)\gum [ng/] samu#
remorseful for\regretful for [aj] nadmaan                  coll (Sm#)
  9alay –iyn (ndm)                                       resist\contradict\oppose\object; raise
remove\get rid of\rid; get r. of [vt] rafa9                o.ions to? [vt] 9aaraD yi9aariD (9rD)
  yarfa9 (rf9)                                           respect (behave properly in relation to)
rendezvous\appointment [n] maW9id                          (social norms) [vt] iHtaram yaHtarim (Hrm)
  mawaa9id (w9d)                                         respect; with r. to?\deal; d.ing with? [j] fiy
renounce (Islam, God)\disbelieve in (Islam,                (fy)
  God) [vj] kafar bay yakfir (kfr)                       respect; with r. to\regard; with r. to [n] bay
renounce?\despair of\give up hope of [vj+]                 nisba lay (nsb)
  yi'is min yay'as (yas)                                 responsiblilty (for)\accountability (for) [n]
rent [n] iyjaar ('jr)                                      mas'uwliyya –aat? (sal)
rent\hire\let\lease? [vt] ajjar yi'ajjir ('jr)
                                                    84
rest; take a r.\relax\easy; take it e.? [n] uxud         rich\wealthy\prosperous\well-
  RaaHtak (rwH)                                            off\comfortable (financially) [a] mirawwig –
rest\relax [vi] irtaaH yartaaH (rwH)                       iyn (rwg)
rest\repose\recreation?\ease\leisure [n]                 rich\wealthy\prosperous\well-
  raaHa (cf. [irtiyaaH] –aat? (rwH)                        off\comfortable (financially) [a] murtaaH –
restaurant\cafe [n] maT9am maTaa9im (T9m)                  iyn (ryH)
restful\comfortable (chair etc)\cozy [a]                 rid; get r. of\free; be f.(d) from [vj] itHalla
  muriyH (rwH)                                             min yatHalla? (Hl;)
resthouse; government r.\guest–house;                    rid; get r. of\free; be f.(d) from [vj] itxallaS
  gover. g. [n] istiraaHa –aat (rwH)                       min yitxallaS (xlS)
restore to health (of God)\cure (of God) [vt]            riddle [n] Hijjayya ? (Hja)
  ∫afa ya∫fiy (∫fa)                                      ride\mount\go in\travel in\climb\board\get
restore, may God restore you to health [vt]                on [vtm?] rikib yarkab (rkb)
  aLLaa ya∫fiyk (∫fa)                                    right (hand)\hand; right hand [nf?] yamiyn
result\upshot\issue\outcome\consequence                    (ymn)
  [n] natiyja nataayij (ntj)                             right (moral) [n] SaHH (SH;)
retain\hold (safe)\care; take c. of\keep\save            right side/hand [n] yamiyn none (periphrastic
  [vt] HafaZ yaHfaZ (HfZ)                                  form: yaddayn–yum al–yamiyn) (ymn)
retain\hold (safe)\care; take c. of\keep\save            right\title/entitlement\claim (rightful) [n]
  [vt] Hifiz yaHfaZ (HfZ)                                  Hagg ? (Hg;)
retire [n] nazal fi-l-ma9aa∫ (9y∫)                       ring (a bell) [vt] dagga yadugg (dg;)
retire [n] nazal al-ma9aa∫ yanzil (9y∫)                  ring (a bell) [vt] Darab yaDrab (Drb)
retire [vi] nazal fi-l-ma9aa∫ (nzl)                      ring (drop–earring on lower part of ear)
retire [vt] nazal al-ma9aa∫ yanzil (nzl)                   (gold)\earring [n] fidwa fidaw (fda)
return [n] rujuw9 (rj9)                                  ring (of a bell) [vi] dagga yadugg (dg;)
return (by the same route)\turn back (on                 ring (of a bell) [vi] Darab yaDrab (Drb)
  the same route)\come back (on the same                 ring (of a telephone) [vi] ranna yarinn? (rn;)
  route)\back; come b. (on the same                      ring (of a telephone) [vi] Darab yaDrab (Drb)
  route)\retrace one's steps [vim] Sadda                 ring (worn on finger) [n] xaatim
  yaSudd (Sd;)                                             xawaatim\xatam (xtm)
return (by the same route)\turn back (on                 ring, and other objects given to fiancee as
  the same route)\come back (on the same                   part of dowry\dowry; ring and other
  route)\back; come b. (on the same                        objects given to fiancee as part of
  route)\retrace one's steps [vtm?] Sadda                  d.\engagement present (from bridegroom
  yaSudd (Sd;)                                             to bride)\present; engagement p. from
return (make r.)\bring back [vtm] Sadda                    bridegroom to bride [n] ∫abka ? (∫bk)
  yaSudd (Sd;)                                           ring; r.ing sound?\tinkle; t.ing sound? [ns?]
return\come back\go back\get back [vtm]                    ranna –aat (rn;)
  raja9 yarja9 (rj9)                                     rise (of sun; also moon, stars?) [vim] Tala9
reverse; the r. of this/that (is true) [n/] 9aksi          yaTla9 (Tl9)
  kida (9ks)                                             rise; r.n (of sun)?\up; of sun? [a] Taali9 (Tl9)
revolution\upheaval?\uprising?\revolt?\riot              rise\ascend\come up\go up\come out\go
  ? [n] saWra –aat (swr)                                   out [vtm] Tala9 yaTla9 (Tl9)
rhinocerous (animal) [b] ab/abuw garin none              risk\run a risk with [vj] xaatar bay yixaatir
  ([naas/Haywaanaat ab garin[) (grn)                       (xTr)
ribbon\band\tape\cord?\string? [n] ∫ariyT                river bed (seasonally wet)\bed (of a river)
  ∫araayiT\a∫riTa (∫rT)                                    [n] xawr xayraan\axwaar (xwr)
rice [ng] ruzz coll (rz;)                                river; land between r.s?\land; l.between
rice seed\seed; rice s. [ng] Habbat ruzz ? (rz;)           rivers? [n] jaziyra juzur\jazaayir (jzr)
rich\wealthy\prosperous [a] #aniy a#niya                 rivet?\nut (of a bolt) [n] Saaamuwla –
  (#na)                                                    aat\Sawaamiyl (Sml)
rich\wealthy\prosperous [a] #anyaan –iyn                 roan (of animal =?) [a] a∫gar ∫agra ∫ugur (∫gr)
  (#na)                                                  roar (with laughter)\guffaw (with laughter)
rich\wealthy\prosperous\well off/well–to–                  [vi] gargar yigargir (gr;;)
  do [a] mugarri∫ –iyn (gr∫)
                                                    85
robe; thin, cotton robe like [jallaabiyya]?              rub?\embrocate\knead?\massage [vt] dallak
  [n] 9arraagiy 9araariyg (9rg)                            yidallik (dlk)
roll [vtm] daHraj yidaHrij (dHrj)                        rubber (for erasing pencil marks)\eraser
roll; rolls \bun; buns [ng] ra#iyf *ra#aayif (but          (for pencil, etc.) [n] istiyka –aat\asaatiyg ('stk)
  this does not mean ‘types of loaves [LA07.1])          rubber (for erasing pencil marks)\eraser
  (r#f)                                                    (for pencil, etc.) [n] istiyga –aat\asaatiyg ('stg)
roof (flat roof only?) [n/] saTiH suTuwH (sTH)           rude\impolite\ill–mannered\manner; ill–
roof?\ceiling [n/] sagif suguwf (sgf)                      m.ed\cheeky\insolent [a] galiyl adab –iyn
roof?\ceiling [n/] sagif suguwf (sgf)                      adab (gl;)
roof\ceiling? [n] raas bayt raysaan buyuwt (byt)         rude\impolite\ill–mannered\manner; ill–
roof\ceiling? [n] Raas bayt ru'uws buyuwt (ras)            m.ed\cheeky\insolent [n] galiyl adab –iyn
roof\ceiling? [n] Raas al-bayt ? (byt)                     adab ('db)
roof\ceiling? [n] Raas al-bayt ? (ras)                   rug (wollen, black and white lines only?)
room [n] awDa uwaD ('wD)                                   [ns?] sijjaada –aat\sajaajiyd (sjd)
room [n] 9awDa 9uwaD (9wD)                               rug; long wollen r.\carpet; long wollen c.
root (of a plant, tree) [n/] 9irig 9uruwg (9rg)            [n] ∫amla ∫imal\*∫umaal\∫imaal (∫ml)
rope\cable?\hawser?\cord?\string?\thread                 rug? (i.e. blanket) [n] baTTaaniyya –
  ? [n/] Habil Hibaal\Hubaal (Hbl)                         aat\baTaaTiyn (bTn)
rope\cord [n/] Habil Hubaal\Hibaal (Hbl)                 rug\carpet\prayer–mat?\mat; prayer–mat?
rose (plant)\flower (plant) [ns] warda –aat                [n] sijjaaja –aat\sajaajiyj (sj;)
  (wrd)                                                  rug\carpet\prayer–mat?\mat; prayer–mat?
rose/r.s (plant)\flower; f.s (plant) [ng/] warid           [n] sijjaada –aat\sajaajiyd (sjd)
  wuruwd (wrd)                                           ruin/r.s (of a building)\damaged (state, of
rose?\flower [ns] warda –aat (wrd)                         building) [n] xaraaba –aat (xrb)
roses?\flowers [ng] warid wuruwd (wrd)                   ruin?\damage\harm/do harm to\destroy?
rot/go rotten?\off; go o.? [vi] baaZ yabuwZ                [vt] xassar yixassir (xsr)
  (bwZ)                                                  rule (of a game) [n] qaanuwn qawaaniyn (gn;)
rot\rotten; go r.\decay\putrify\spoil [vi]               rule\sovereignty\government [n/] Hukum
  9affan yi9affin (9fn)                                    none? (Hkm)
rotl (unit of weight = half a kilo approx.?)             ruler (instrument) [n] masTara masaaTir (sTr)
  [n/] raTul arTaal (rTl)                                ruler\sovereign?\governor?\judge [n]
rotten\putrid\decay; d.ed\decompose; d.d                   Haakim Hukkaam (Hkm)
  [a] mi9affin (9fn)                                     ruler\sovereign?\governor?\judge [n]
rottenness\putridness\decay\mold\moldine                   Haakim Hukkaam (Hkm)
  ss\mustiness\mildew/mildewiness\septic                 ruling; formal legal ruling (in Islam) [nm?]
  ness?\smell (rotten) [n] 9afaana NONE (9fn)              fatwa fataawiy (fta)
rough (object, person)\coarse [a/] xi∫in –iyn            rumour\hearsay [n] i∫aa9a –aat (∫y9)
  (x∫n)                                                  run out\be finished [vi] ∫aTTab yi∫aTTib (∫Tb)
rough (object, person)\coarse [a/] xi∫in –iyn            run out\expire?\end/come to an e. (time,
  (x∫n)                                                    things) [vi] intaha yantahiy (nha)
rough; r.ly\approximate; a.ly (normally with             run?\dash?\quick;be q.\hurry\hasten\rush?
  time?) [j] Hawaalay (Hwl)                                [vim] asra9 yasri9 (sr9)
roundabout [n] Siyniyya Sawaaniy (Syn)                   run\run away\hurry?\rush? [vtm] jara yajriy
row\line\file\rank?\file\queue [n] Saff Sufuwf             (jra)
  (Sf;)                                                  rural area [n] riyf ? (ryf)
rub (e.g. shoe, table, mirror)\wipe (e.g.                Russia [nx] ruwsya (rws)
  shoe, table, mirror) [vt] masaH yamsaH                 Russian [ax] ruwsiy –iyn\ruws (rws)
  (msH)                                                  sack [n] ∫uwaal –aat (∫wl)
rub (hard)\scrub?\scour? [vt] da9ak yad9ak               sack; leather s.\bag; leather b.?(for what?)
  (d9k)                                                    [n] kurtaala karaatiyl (krtl)
rub (with force, e.g. clothes)\scrub (e.g.               sacred\holy [a] muqaddas –iyn (gds)
  clothes) [vt] 9arak ya9rik (9rk)                       sacrifice\offer up (during [9iyd aD–
rub?\embrocate\knead?\massage [vt] dallak                  DaHiyya]?+?) [vt] DaHHa yiDaHHiy (DHa)
  yidallik (dlk)
                                                    86
sad (sadness–inducing)\sorrowful                         saw (wood) [vt] na∫ar yan∫ur (n∫r)
 (sorrow–inducing)\mournful (m.ness–                     say [vtj] gaal 9alay yaguwl (gwl)
 inducing) [a] muHzin (Hzn)                              say to\tell\speak to? [vj+] gaal lay yaguwl
sad (thing, general disposition,                          (gwl)
 now)\sorrowful? (thing, general                         say?\tell [vi+] Haddas yiHaddis (Hds)
 disposition, now)\mournful? (thing,                     scab (on a wound?) [n] gara9awba –
 general disposition, now)\grieve; g.d?                   aat\garaa9iyb (gr9)
 (thing, general disposition, now) [a]                   scab (on wound?) [n] gi∫ra gi∫ar (g∫r)
 Haziyn –iyn (Hzn)                                       scale; s.s (of fish)\husk?\slough (of
saddle [n/] sarij suruwj (srj)                            snake)? [ng] gi∫ir gu∫uwr (g∫r)
safe; s.ly [j] bay salaama (by)                          scarf [n] ∫aal –aat (∫al)
safe; s.ly [n] bay salaama (slm)                         scarf, worn by young girls on head and
sake; for the s. of\because of\account; on                shoulders [n] TarHa TiraH (TrH)
 a. of [j] 9a∫aan (∫an)                                  scarf, worn by young girls on head and
sake; for the s. of\because of\account; on                shoulders [n] TarHa TiraH (TrH)
 a. of [j] 9a∫aan (9la)                                  scatter; bc. s.ed?\disperse\separate?\part?
sake; for your sake?\account; on your                     [vim] itfarza9 yitfarza9 (frz9)
 account? [a] bi-xaaTr-ak (xTr)                          scatter; be s.ed?\disperse\separate?\part?
salad [n] salaTa –aat (slT)                               [vim] itfarrag yitfarrag (frg)
sale [n] bay9 (by9)                                      scatter; be s.ed\disperse; be d.ed vim]
saliva (inside mouth) [n] riyg ? (ryg)                    itfarza9 yitfarza9 (frz9)
salt [n/] miliH (mlH)                                    scatter?\disperse\separate?\part? [vt]
salt; put s. on/in\put salt on/in\pour salt               farza9 yifarzi9 (frz9)
 on/in [vtj] mallaH yimalliH (mlH)                       scatter?\disperse\separate?\part? [vt] farrag
salty (of object tasted)\over-salted (of                  yifarrig (frg)
 food)\salted; over-s. (of food) [a] maaliH              scatter\disperse [vt] farza9 yifarzi9 (frz9)
 (mlH)                                                   scent\perfume [n] riyHa *–aat\riyaH (ryH)
sand (area/patch of s.?) [ns?] ramla° –aat               school (as adjective) [a] madrasiy (drs)
 (rml)                                                   school; Quran school\Quran school [n]
sandal [n] ∫ib∫ib ∫abaa∫ib (∫b;;)                         xalwa xalaawiy (xla)
sandal (made of leather) [n] ∫abaT ∫ubaaTa               school\madrasah (religious college)? [n]
 (∫bT)                                                    madrasa madaaris (drs)
sandal; rubber/plastic s.\rubber sandal [n]              science\knowledge; branch of k.\learning;
 sifinja (= [∫ib∫ib]) –aat (sfnj)                         branch of l.\branch of
sandal\shoe? [n] na9aal –aat\na9laat? (n9l)               knowledge/learning [n/] 9ilim 9uluwm (9lm)
sandwich [n] sandwiyt∫ –aat (sndw)                       scientific [a] 9ilmiy –iyn (9lm)
sandwich [n] sandawiyt∫ –aat (sndw)                      scorpion [nf] 9agrab 9agaarib (9grb)
satisfy; (s. os.)\drink o.'s fill [vi] riwa yarwa        scratch [vt] galgal yigalgil (gl;;)
 (rwa)                                                   scratch [nvs] xad∫a –aat (xd∫)
satisfy; s.ied\accept; a.ing [a] raaDiy –iyn             scratch [nv] xarba∫a –aat (xr∫)
 (rDa)                                                   scratch [vt] xarba∫ yixarbi∫ (xrb∫)
Saturday [nx/] yawm as–sabit (sbt)                       scratch (e.g. so.'s face) [vt] naxa∫ yanxu∫ (nx∫)
Saturday [nx/] as–sabit (sbt)                            scratch (the skin?+?) [vt] xarba∫ yixarbi∫ (xrb∫)
Saturday [nx] yawm as–sabit ayaam as–sabit?              scratch (to relieve an itch) [vt] Hakka yaHukk
 (ywm)                                                    (Hk;)
sauce (in cooking) [n] SalSa ? (SlS)                     scratch (to relieve an itch) [vt] kara∫
saucepan\pot; cooking p.?\cooking pot                     yakru∫\yakri∫ (kr∫)
 (type?) [n] Halla Hilal (Hl;)                           scratch (to relieve an itch) [vt] hara∫ yahri∫
Saudi [ax] sa9uwdiy –iyn (s9d)                            (hr∫)
Saudi Arabia [nx] as–sa9uwdiyya (s9d)                    scratch off\scrape off\abrade?\peel off [vt]
savage? (unable to get on with other                      ga∫aT yag∫uT (g∫T)
 people; not part of society) [a] mitwaHHi∫ –            screen\curtain?\drape?\cover/c.ing? [n]
 iyn (wH∫)                                                sitaara –aat\sataayir (str)
save; s.ing (of money only?) [n] tawfiyr (wfr)           screw [n] galabawZ ([galawawZ] more common)
saw [n] min∫aar manaa∫iyr (n∫r)                           –aat (glbZ)
                                                     87
screw [n] galawawz –aat (glwZ)                            seize (e.g. a thief) [vt] masak yamsik (msk)
screwdriver [n] mafakk –aat (fk;)                         seldom\rare; r.ly [d] naadir (ndr)
script [n] kitaaba –aat (ktb)                             selection\choice [n] ixtiyaar –aat? (xyr)
sea [n/] baHar maaliH ! (bHr)                             selection\choice [nv/] 9azil none? (9zl)
sea [n/] baHar maaliH buHuwr maalHa (bHr)                 self [nf/] nafis-/nafs- (nfs)
sea [n/] baHar maaliH buHuwr maalHa (bHr)                 self (emphatic) [o] zaat +PRONOUN SUFFIX
sea [n/] baHar maaliH biHuwr maaliH (mlH)                  (zat)
sea [a] baHar al–maaliH biHuwr al–maaliH                  self; he has no appetite [nf/] nafis SAME
 (mlH)                                                     (/[anfus]?) (nfs)
sea [a] baHar maaliH buHuwr maalHa (mlH)                  selfish\egoistical [a] anaaniy –iyn ('na)
sea [a] baHar maaliH biHaar maalHa (mlH)                  selfishness\egoism [a] anaaniyya ('na)
sea [a] baHar maaliH buHuwr maalHa (mlH)                  sell (to) [vt] baa9 (lay) yabiy9 (by9)
sea\river (any large r.) [n/] baHar buHuwr                seller; female seller [n] sitt –aat (st;)
 (bHr)                                                    seller; street s. (who sells e.g. books,
search (by police, etc.)\inspection [n] taftiy∫            displayed on ground)\street seller [n]
 –aat (ft∫)                                                farraa∫iy –a (fr∫)
search for\look for [vj] kaas lay yakuws (kws)            send out\out; send o.\expel? [vim]\[vtm]
season [n/] faSil fuSuwl (fSl)                             xarraj yixarrij (xrj)
seat (in cinema, bus, etc.)\chair? [n] mag9ad             send up/out [vtm] Talla9 yiTalli9 (Tl9)
 magaa9id (g9d)                                           send\dispatch [vtm] rassal yirassil (rsl)
second [a] taaniy –iyn ([taaniyn], or [taaniyiyn])        sense\meaning\signification\import [nm]
 (tna)                                                     ma9na ma9aaniy (9na)
second (unit of time) [n] saanya sawaaniy (sna)           sense\reason\understanding\comprehensi
second helping (in restaurant or school;                   on [n/] 9agul\*9agil 9uguwl (9gl)
 given free)\more (food) (in restaurant or                sensible\rational\wise\intelligent\reasonabl
 school; given free) [n] waSla –aat (wSl)                  e [a] 9aagil 9uggaal (9gl)
second; the s. time\another time\again [n]                sensible\rational\wise\intelligent\reasonabl
 taaniy maRRa (mr;)                                        e [a] 9aagil –iyn\9ugala (9gl)
secret; s.ly\private; p.ly? [d] sirr (sr;)                sensitive (about oneself)\touchy [a] Hassaas
secret\private?\confidential\mysterious\cry                –iyn (Hs;)
 ptic [a] sirriy –iyn (sr;)                               sensitivity (towards other people's
secret\private\confidential\mysterious?\cry                feelings) [a] iHsaas none (Hs;)
 ptic? [a] sirriy –iyn (sr;)                              sentence\clause [n] jumla jumal (jml)
secretary [n] sikirtayra –aat (skrt)                      separate [vt] faSal yafSil (fSl)
secretary (man) [n] sikirtayr –aat (skrt)                 separate\part\divide\sever?\sunder? [vt]
secretary (man) [n] sikritayr –aat (skrt)                  farrag yifarrig (frg)
secretary (senior civil servant directly                  separate\part\divide\sever?\sunder? [vt]
 responsible to government minister) [n]                   farrag yifarrig (frg)
 wakiyl wukala (wkl)                                      sergeant (police) [n] nafar anfaar? (nfr)
section?\division?\segment? [n] giT9a giTa9               serial (television, radio) [n] musalsal –aat (sl;;)
 (gT9)                                                    serial (television, radio) [n] musalsal –aat (sl;;)
security service(s) [n] amn ('mn)                         servant (woman)\maidservant\domestic
security; feeling of s.\safety; feeling of s.?             servant [n] xaddaama –aat (xdm)
 [n] amaan ('mn)                                          servant\manservant? [n] xaddaam –iyn (xdm)
see\look at? [vt] ∫aaf ya∫uwf (∫wf)                       serve [vt] xadam yaxdim (xdm)
seed/s.s [n] tayraab tawaariyb (trb)                      serve (food, to people) [vtj] kaffa (passive: [it-
seed/s.s [n] tagaawiy (tga)                                ]) yikaffiy (kfa)
seed; seeds\pip; pips (e.g. of melons,                    service (rendered) [n] xidma *–aat\xadamaat
 cucumbers, oranges) [ng] Habb Hubuwb                      (xdm)
 (Hb;)                                                    session? (of what?) [n] ga9da –aat (g9d)
seed\kernel?\pip\pit?\stone (of fruit)? [ns?]             set (a bone) (in a splint?/in plaster?) [vt]
 bizra buzuwr (bzr)                                        jabbar yijabbir (jbr)
segment (e.g. of orange) [n] giT9a giTa9                  set (a broken bone; implies successful
 (gT9)                                                     healing) [vt] jabar (passive: [it–], [in–])
seize (e.g. a thief) [vt] gabaD yagbuD (gbD)               *yajbur\yajbir (jbr)
                                                 88
set (in a splint; hospital usage; does not            sex (act) [n] jins none? (jns)
 imply succesful healing) [n/] 9amal (fi–r–           sex; have s. with (of a woman)\copulate
 rijil) jibis ya9mal (jbs)                             with (of a woman)\intercourse; have
set (in a splint; hospital usage; does not             sexual i. with (of a woman)\make love
 imply succesful healing) [vt] jabbas yijabbis         with (of a woman) [vt] nayyak yinayyik (nyk)
 (jbs)                                                sex; have s. with (of man; woman as
set (in a splint; hospital usage; does not             OBJ.)\copulate with (of man; woman as
 imply succesful healing) [vtj] 9amal (fi–r–           OBJ.) [vt] naak yaniyk (nyk)
 rijil) jibis ya9mal (9ml)                            sex\intercourse; sexual i.\copulate; c.ing
set (of complementary things; e.g. tools,              [n] nayk (nyk)
 teeth, cups, plates) [n/] Tagim Tiguwm               sexual [a] jinsiy ? (jns)
 (Tgm)                                                sexual desire\desire; sexual d. [n] ∫ahwa –aat
set (sun)\go down (sun)?\down; go d.                   (∫ha)
 (sun)? [vi] #arab ya#rab\ya#rib (#rb)                sexual; overwhelming s. desire\desire;
set out\start out\depart\leave [vim?] gaam             overwhelming sexual d.\lust [n] 9aram ?
 yaguwm (gwm)                                          (9rm)
set; be s. (a broken bone; implies                    shadow\shade\shelter?\protection? [n] Dull
 successful healing) [vi] jabar *yajbur\yajbir         aDlaal (Dl;)
 (jbr)                                                shadow\shade\shelter?\protection? [n] Dull
set; s.ing (of bones) [nv/] jabir (jbr)                aDlaal (Dl;)
settle (down; in a place) [vj] itwaTTan fiy           shake [vt] ∫ak∫ak yi∫ak∫ik (∫k;;)
 yitwaTTan (wTn)                                      shake hands with [nf] sallam 9alay (zawl) fiy
settle (down; in a place) [vt] itwaTTan                iyd-uw yisallim ('yd)
 yitwaTTan (wTn)                                      shake hands with [vj] sallam 9alay (zawl) fiy
settle (down; in a place?)\residence; take             iyd-uw yisallim (slm)
 up r. [vi?] istaWTan yistaWTan (wTn)                 shake hands with [vt] SaafaH yiSaafiH (SfH)
settle (down; in a place?)\residence; take            shake\swing?\brandish?\wave? [vt] hazza
 up r. [vj] istaWTan fiy yistaWTan (wTn)               yahizz (hz;)
settle (down; in a place?)\residence; take            shake\swing\sway [vt] lawlaH yilawliH (lwlH)
 up r. [vt] istaWTan yistaWTin (wTn)                  shallow (well, river, water) [a] giSayyir (gSr)
settle (in a place)\move to (to live in)\come         shame on you [n] 9ayb 9alayk (9yb)
 to live in? [vj][vt] sakan fiy/OBJ.                  shame?(indicates disapproval of an
 yaskun\yaskin (skn)                                   action) [aj?] Haraam 9alayk (Hrm)
settle (so., in a place)\live; cause to l.            shame\exposure\disgrace\scandal
 (in)\dwell; cause to d. (in)\inhabit; cause           (domestic, political, etc.) [n] faDiyHa
 to i.\house/provide with a house [vd?]                faDaayiH (fDH)
 sakkan yisakkin (skn)                                shape; made into (by traditional process) a
settle (so., in a place)\live; cause to l.             s.\form; made (by traditional process)
 (in)\dwell; cause to d. (in)\inhabit; cause           into a f. [at]? ma9muwl —iyn (9ml)
 to i.\house/provide with a house [vtj?]              shape; of that s. [n/] bi-∫-∫akil da (∫kl)
 sakkan fiy? yisakkin (skn)                           shape\figure\form [n/] ∫akil a∫kaal (∫kl)
seven [n] sab9a –aat (sb9)                            share (st.) (with o.a.) [vt] itgaasam yitgaasam
seven hundred [n] subu9 miya (sb9)                     (gsm)
seven hundred [n] subu9 miya (my’)                    share out?\distribute\allot\apportion [vt]
seven; make s. [vi] sabba9 yisabbi9 (sb9)              wazza9 yiwazzi9 (wz9)
seventh (fraction) [n/] subu9 asbaa9 (sb9)            share/s.of profits [n] naSiyb naSaayib (nSb)
several people?\number; a n. of people?               sharp (e.g. of knife) [a] saniyn sunaan (sn;)
 [n] jumlat naas (jml)                                sharp (e.g. of knife) [a] Tariyn (Trn)
severe (person)\cruel (person)\hard                   shave [vt] Halag yaHlig (Hlg)
 (person)\harsh (person)\stern (person)               shave [vt] Halag (ad-digin) yaHlig (Hlg)
 [a/] Sa9ab –iyn (S9b)                                shave; s.ing [nv] Hilaaga (Hlg)
severe (person)\cruel (person)\hard                   shawl [n] ∫aal –aat\∫iylaan (∫al)
 (person)\harsh (person)\stern (person) [a]           she\it (fem. sing)\they (inanimate plural)
 gaasiy –iyn (gsa)                                     [w] hiyya (hy)
sew\stitch? [vt] xayyaT yixayyiT (xyT)                she\it\they (inanimate plural) [w] hiy (hy)
                                                     89
shear?\cut (with scissors/shears?)\clip?                  shorten\small; make s.(er)?\lower? [vi]
 [vt] gaSSa yaguSS (gS;)                                    gaSSar yigaSSir (gSr)
sheep (female only) [ns] Daanaaya –aat? (Dan)             shotgun?\rifle?\gun [n] bundugiyya banaadig
sheep (male and female) [ng] Daan coll (Dan)                (bndg)
sheep (male) [n] xaruwf xiraaf\xirfaan (xrf)              shoulder (part of body) [n/] katif
sheep (male) [n] xaruwf xurfaan (xrf)                       kutuwf\aktaaf (ktf)
sheep (male) [n] xaruwf xiraaf\xirfaan (xrf)              shoulder (part of body) [n/] katif
sheep (male) [n] xaruwf xiraaf\xirfaan (xrf)                kutuwf\aktaaf (ktf)
sheep; female sheep\ewe [n] na9ja –aat\ni9aaj             shoulder/shoulder–blade? [n/?] katif aktaaf
 (n9j)                                                      (ktf)
sheet [n] milaaya –aat (mla)                              shout [vi+?] kawrak yikawrik (kwrk)
sheet of p.\paper; piece of                               shout\cry\scream? [n] kawraak kawaariyk
 p.\document\record [ns] waraga –aat (wrg)                  (kwrk)
sheet of p.\paper; piece of p.\paper; bit of              show\demonstrate [vd] warra yiwarriy (wra)
 p. [ns] waraga –aat\aWraag (wrg)                         shower [n] Hammaam –aat (Hm;)
sheet of p.\paper; piece of p.paper; bit of p.            shower; take a s.? [vi] istaHamma yistaHamma
 [ns] waraga (= [waragaaya]) –aat (wrg)                     (Hm;)
sheikh of a Sufi order [n] ∫ayx                           shower; taking a s.?\bath; take a b.\bathe
 ∫uyuwx\ma∫aayix\ma∫aayxa (∫yx)                             [nv] istiHmaam (Hm;)
shelf\rack\ledge? [n] raff rufuwf (rf;)                   shrine; domed s. (of a saint [waliy]) [n]
shell (which type?)\sea–shell? [ns] wad9a –                 gubba gubab (gb;)
 aat (wd9)                                                shrub\bush (nb.– a true Arabic lexical
shell/s.s?\sea–shell/s.–s.s? [ng/] wadi9 coll               item?) [ns?] ∫ijayra –aat (∫jr)
 (wd9)                                                    shrub\bush (small tree) [ns?] ∫idayra –aat (∫dr)
shell?\peel?\rind?\skin (e.g. of                          shrub\bush (small tree) [ns] ∫idayra –aat? (∫dr)
 onion)\crust? [ng] gi∫ir gu∫uwr (g∫r)                    shut (up, completely)\close
shelter; of thatch over a wooden frame,                     (up/completely)\latch (tightly, etc.?)?\lock
 with flat roof (protects from sun) [n]                     (thoroughly)?\bolt (thoroughly)? [vt] gaffal
 raakuwba rawaakiyb (rkb)                                   yigaffil (gfl)
shepherd [n] raa9iy ruwaa9iyya (r9a)                      shut\close [vi] gafal yagfil (gfl)
shepherd [n] raa9iy ra9aawiyya (r9a)                      shut\close\latch?\lock?\bolt? [vt] gafal yakfil
shepherd\herdsman [n] raa9iy ra9aawiyya                     (gfl)
 (r9a)                                                    shut\closed [a] magfuwl ? (gfl)
shepherd\herdsman [n] raa9iy ruwaa9iyya                   sick; become s.\ill; fall ill\fall ill/sick [vi]
 (r9a)                                                      miriD yamraD (mrD)
ship\vessel\boat [n] safiyna sufun\safaayin               sick; feel s.\vomit; feel like v.ing [vi] Tamma
 (sfn)                                                      yaTumm\yaTimm (Tm;)
shirt [n] gamiyS gumSaan\agmiSa (gmS)                     sick; I feel s.\vomit; I feel like v.ing [nf/]
shock [n] Sadma –aat (Sdm)                                  baTniy Tammat (bTn)
shoe (of red leather; traditional)\slipper (of            sick; I feel s.\vomit; I feel like v.ing [vi]
 red leather; traditional) [n] markuwb                      baTniy Tammat (Tm;)
 maraakiyb (rkb)                                          sick; I feel s.\vomit; I feel like v.ing [vi]
shoe; spongy plastic? s.\sandal;                            gaLb-iy° Tamma (Tm;)
 household s. [n] sifinja (= [∫ib∫ib]) –aat (sfnj)        sick; I feel s.\vomit; I feel like v.ing [vi] nafs-
shoe; spongy plastic? s.\sandal;                            iy° Tammat (Tm;)
 household s. [n] isfinja –aat (sfnj)                     sick; I feel s.\vomit; I feel like v.ing [n/]
shoe\pair of shoes (non-traditional,                        gaLb-iy° Tamma (glb)
 factory-made) [n] jazma jizam (jzm)                      sick; I feel s.\vomit; I feel like v.ing [nf/]
shoot (in football) [vi] ∫aat ya∫uwt (∫wt)                  nafs-iy° Tammat (nfs)
short\small?\low? [a] giSayyir guSaar (gSr)               sick\ill [a] 9ayyaan –iyn (9ya)
shortage (of a commodity)? [n] azma –                     sick\ill [a] 9ayyaan –iyn (9ya)
 aat\azamaat ('zm)                                        sick\ill\diseased\unwell [a] mariyD –iyn (mrD)
shortcoming?\disgrace\shame?\flaw? [n]                    sick\ill\diseased\unwell [a] marDaan –
 9ayb 9uyuwb (9yb)                                          iyn\maraaDa (mrD)
                                                          sickness\illness\disease [nm] 9aya none (9ya)
                                                    90
sickness\illness\disease [nm] 9aya none (9ya)            sink (for washing up)\basin; washing-up
side [n] jamb –aat (jnb)                                   basin\washing-up basin [n] HawD (al-
side [n] jamb jawaanib (jnb)                               #asiyl) (#sl)
side; on the other s. of the orchard [d?] bi–            sip; drink (up) by s.ing [vi] Hisa yaHsa (Hsa)
  #aadiy aj–jinayna (#da)                                sip; drink (up) by s.ing [vi] Hasa yaHsa (Hsa)
side\direction [n] naaHya nawaaHiy (nHa)                 sister [nf/] uxut axwaat ('xt)
sight (faculty of s.                                     sister (on both paternal and maternal
  only?)\eyesight?\vision? [nv?] ∫awf coll                 side?) [n] ∫agiyga –aat (∫g;)
  (∫wf)                                                  sit (down) [vj] ga9ad yag9ud (g9d)
sight\view\panorama?\scene [n] manZar                    sit; s.ting/stay; s.ing/?? [a] gaa9id –iyn (g9d)
  manaaZir (nZr)                                         sitting room\reception–room (men's room)
sign [vt][vj] waqqa9 OBJ.\9alay\fiy                        (= [daywaan]) [n] Saalawn –aat\Sawaaliyn
  yiwaggi9\yiwaqqi9 (wg9)                                  (Saln)
sign; first s. (of st. good)\first sign (of st.          sitting–room\reception–room (men's room)
  good)\encouraging signs [np] ba∫aayir (b∫r)              [n] daywaan dayaawiyn (dwn)
sign\undersign [vt] maDa yamDa\yamDiy                    sitting–room\reception–room (men's room)
  (mDa)                                                    [n] daywaan dawaawiyn (dwn)
sign\undersign [vt] maDa yamDa\yamDiy                    sitting–room\reception–room (men's room)
  (mDa)                                                    [n] daywaan –aat (dwn)
signal\sign [n] i∫aara –aat (∫wr)                        six [n] sitta –aat (st;)
sign-board [n] laafTa ? (lfT)                            six hundred [n] suttu miya (st;)
sign-board [n] yaafTa ? (yfT)                            six hundred [n] suttu miya (my’)
silence\calm (down)\soothe\pacify\hush                   six hundred\hundred; six h. [n] suttumiyya
  (up) [vt] sakkat yisakkit (skt)                          (st;)
silence\calm\soothe\pacify\hush up [vt]                  six hundred\hundred; six h. [n?] suttumiyya
  sakkat yisakkit (skt)                                    (my)
silent\taciturn?\reticent?\still\quiet [a] saakit        sixth (fraction) [n/] sudus asdaas (sds)
  –iyn (skt)                                             sixth (ordinal number) [a] saatt (st;)
silly\stupid\obsess; pointlessly o.ed                    sixth (ordinal number) [a] saadis (sds)
  (keeps going on about some pointless                   size\bulk?\volume? [n/] Hajim
  matter) [a] 9abiyT 9ubaTa\9abbaaTa (9bT)                 Hujuwm\aHjaam (Hjm)
silly\stupid\obsess; pointlessly o.ed                    skilful\skilled\competent [a] ∫aaTir –
  (keeps going on about some pointless                     iyn\∫uTTaar (∫Tr)
  matter) [a] 9abiyT –iyn\9abaayiT\9abbaaTa              skilful\skilled\competent [a] maahir ? (mhr)
  (9bT)                                                  skin (piece/area of s.)\hide (piece/area of
similar to\like\resembling [aj] ∫abiyh (bay) –             h.)\leather (piece of l.) [ns] jilda –aat (jld)
  iyn (∫bh)                                              skin\hide\leather [ng/?] jilid juluwd = 1. types
similar"?\like"? [n] ∫abah ? (∫bh)                         of skin; 2. many skins (jld)
simple\easy\plain?\uncomplicated? [a]                    skirt [n] iskart –aat ('skr)
  basiyT –iyn\busaTa (bsT)                               skirt [n] iskart –aat ('skr)
sin; grave sin\grave sin [n] kabiyra kabaayir            skirt [n] iskartiy iskartaat ('skr)
  (kbr)                                                  skullcap (garment) [n] Taagiyya Tawaagiy
sin; s.s [np] sayy'iaat (swa)                              (Twg)
sincere?\candid\genuine?\faithful?\true?\h               sky [n] sama none (sma)
  onest [a] Saadig –iyn (Sdg)                            slander [vt] hajam yahjim (hjm)
sincere\honest [a] muxliS –iyn (xlS)                     slander; s.ing\libel; l.ing?\defame; d.ing?
sing\chant? [vt?] #anna (passive: [it–]) yi#anniy          [nv] buhtaan (bht)
  (#na)                                                  slander\defame\libel? [vt?] bahat (passive: [it–
singer (male)\vocalist (male) [n] mu#anniy –               ], [in–]) yabhat (bht)
  iyn (#na)                                              slate [n] lawH alwaaH\*layHaan (lwH)
single woman [n] 9azaba/9azaba° –aat (9zb)               slate [n] lawH *liHaan\*layHaan (lwH)
sink (for washing up)\basin; washing-up                  slate; writing s. (in Qur'an school)\writing
  basin\washing-up basin [n] HawD (al-                     slate (in Qur'an school) [n] lawH
  #asiyl) (HwD)                                            (*?)alwaaH\layHaan (lwH)
                                                         slaughter/s.ing? [nv/?] DabiH (DbH)
                                                 91
slaughter\butcher (animal only?) [vt] DabaH           slow; s.ly\leisurely; in a l. way\unhurried;
  yaDbaH (DbH)                                          u.ly [n/] 9ala mahl-ak (mhl)
slave; female s. [n] xaadma –aat? (xdm)               slow; s.ly\little by little [n] Habba Habba (Hb;)
slave; female s. [n] 9abda –aat? (9bd)                slow; the watch/clock is slow [a] as–saa9a
slave\bondsman [n/] 9abid 9abiyd\9abbaada               mi'axxira ('xr)
  (9bd)                                               slumber\nap\doze [nsv?] #afwa –aat (#fa)
sleep, short sleep\nap\doze [n] #afwa –aat            small\little?\tiny?\minute?\paltry?\scanty?
  (#fa)                                                 [a] Sa#ayyir (/sa#ayyir?) –iyn (S#r)
sleep, short sleep\nap\doze [n] #amda –aat            small\little\paltry?\scanty?\insignificant?
  (md)                                                  [a] Sa#ayyir Su#aar (S#r)
sleep; go to s.\slumber\bed; go to bed\fall           smallholder?\gardener, market gardener?
  asleep\asleep; fall a. [vi] naam yanuwm               [n] Ha∫∫aa∫ –iyn (H∫;)
  (nwm)                                               smell/give off a s.\stench; give off a s.? [ni]
sleep\nap\doze [n] nawma –aat (nwm)                     Talla9 riyHa (ryH)
sleep\slumber [ng] nawm coll (nwm)                    smell/give off a s.\stench; give off a s.? [vt]
sleepy; be/feel s.\drowsy; be/feel d. [vi]              Talla9 riyHa (Tl9)
  ni9is yan9as (n9s)                                  smell?\odour? [n] riyHa *–aat\riyaH (ryH)
slice (e.g. of fruit, also meat)\rasher (of           smell\sniff [vt] ∫amma ya∫umm (∫m;)
  meat) [n] sariyHa saraayiH (srH)                    smell\sniff?\snuff? [vt] ∫amma ya∫umm (∫m;)
slice (of fruit, meat, etc.?)\rasher (of meat)        smile [vi] ibtasam yabtasim (bsm)
  [n] ∫ariyHa ∫araayiH (∫rH)                          smile [ns?] basma –aat\basamaat (bsm)
slip; make s.\trip up [vtm] zaHlag yizahlig           smoke [vt] daxxan yidaxxin (dxn)
  (zHlg)                                              smoke [vt?] daxxan yidaxxin (dxn)
slip; make/cause to slip [vtm] zaHlag yizaHlig        smoke (a cigarette) [nt?] ∫irib sijaara ya∫rab
  (zHlg)                                                (sjr)
slip; make/cause to slip (of st. wet; e.g.            smoke (a cigarette) [vt?] ∫irib sijaara ya∫rab
  mud, banana skin) [vtm] zalag yazlig (zlg)            (∫rb)
slipper; light s. (= [∫ib∫ib]) [n] barTuw∫            smoke (a cigarette/cigarettes) [vi] sajjar
  baraaTiy∫ (brT∫)                                      yisajjir (sjr)
slipper? [n] ∫ib∫ib ∫abaa∫ib (∫b;;)                   smoke (cigarette) [nt?] ∫irib sajaayir ya∫rab (sjr)
slow [a] tagiyl tugaal (tgl)                          smoke (cigarettes) [vt?] ∫irib sajaayir ya∫rab
slow [a] tagiyl –iyn\tugala (tgl)                       (∫rb)
slow (down)\go slower [vi] haddan yihaddin            smoke\fume?\vapour? [n] duxxaan (dxn)
  (hdn)                                               smoking [n] tadxiyn (dxn)
slow (down)\go; make g. slower [vi] hadan             smooth peanut butter\peanut; smooth p.
  yahdin (hdn)                                          butter [ng] fuwl masHuwn coll (fwl)
slow (down)\go; make g. slower [vt] haddan            snake [n] dabiyb dabaayib (db;)
  yihaddin (hdn)                                      snake\serpent?\viper? [n] dabiyb dabaayib
slow; go s.ly [n/] 9ala mahl-ak (mhl)                   (db;)
slow; go slowly! [j] 9ala mahl–ak (9la)               snatch (and run/get away)\wrench (away)
slow; go slowly! [n/] 9ala mahl-ak (mhl)                (and run/get away)\wrest (away) (and
slow; he's slow [n] Haraktuw tagiyla (Hrk)              run/get away)\seize (and run/get
slow; s.ly?\leisurely; in a l.                          away)\grab (and run/get away) [vt] xaTaf
  way?\unhurried; u.ly? [j] bi–∫iway∫ (by)              yaxTif (xTf)
slow; s.ly?\leisurely; in a l.                        snatch (away) (e.g. food which is wanted
  way?\unhurried; u.ly? [n?] bi–∫ay∫ (∫y∫)              by so. else at a meal)\grab (e.g. food
slow; s.ly?\leisurely; in a l.                          which is wanted by so. else at a meal) [vt]
  way?\unhurried; u.ly? [n?] bi–∫iway∫ (∫y∫)            xama∫ yaxmi∫\yaxmu∫ (xm∫)
slow; s.ly?\leisurely; inal. way?\unhurried;          snatch\abduct\carry off [vt] xaTaf yaxTif
  u.ly? [j] bi–∫ay∫ (by)                                (xTf)
slow; s.ly\leisurely; in a l. way\unhurried;          snatch\pull (towards o.s., with force) [vt]
  u.ly [n] baRRaaHa (rwH)                               jabad (passive: [it–], [in–]) yajbid (jbd)
slow; s.ly\leisurely; in a l. way\unhurried;          sneeze [vi] 9aTas ya9Tus (9Ts)
  u.ly [j] 9ala mahlak (9la)                          snigger\suppress laughter\laugh; a
                                                        suppressed l. [vi] katkat yikatkit (kt;;)
                                                   92
snow?\ice (artificially made)\block; b.(s) of           some\few; a f. [a] waaHdiyn (wHd)
 ice [ng/] talij tuluwj (tlj)                           somebody came here this morning [n] fiy
snow?\ice (artificially made)\block; b.(s) of            zawl jaa hina ma9a S-SabaaH (zwl)
 ice talij tuluwj (tlj)                                 someone (used definitely)\somebody
snuff" (tobacco?; chewed/sucked?in                       (used definitely)\one (= someone; used
 mouth) [n] sa9uwT none (s9D)                            definitely)\anybody (used
so that [c] 9a∫aan (∫an)                                 definitely)\anyone (used
so that [c] 9a∫aan (9la)                                 definitely)\person (used definitely) [n] az-
so that [c] 9ala ∫aan (9la)                              zawl (zwl)
so–and–so (female person)\such–and–                     someone\somebody\you (in sense of
 such (female person) [af] filaaniyya –aat               'someone') [n] waaHid (wHd)
 (fln)                                                  sometimes\from time to time\time; from t.
so–and–so\such–and–such [a] filaaniy –iyn                to t.\occasionally [d+] maRRa maRRa (mr;)
 (fln)                                                  sometimes\often?\frequent; f.ly? [d+]
so–and–so\such–and–such (of                              maRRaat (mr;)
 people+things?) [w?] filaan da/fulaan da ?             somewhere; I forgot it somewhere [n] nisiyt-
 (da)                                                    a fiy Hitta (Ht;)
so–and–so\such–and–such (of                             somewhere; I forgot it somewhere [j] nisiyt-
 people+things?) [n] filaan ? (fln)                      a fiy Hitta (fy)
so–and–so\such–and–such (of                             son [n/] ibin abna ('bn)
 people+things?) [w?] filaan da/fulaan da ?             song\melody?\tune? [n] u#niya –aat\a#aaniy
 (fln)                                                   (#na)
so–and–so\such–and–such (of                             soon [d] gariyb (grb)
 people+things?) [w?] fulaan ? (fln)                    sorcerer\magician\witch\charmer\wizard?
so–and–so\such–and–such? [w?] fulaan                     [n] saHHaar saHaaHiyr (sHr)
 (fln)                                                  sorghum\*millet\durra (variety of sorghum)
soap [ng] Saabuwn coll (Sbn)                             [n] dura ([zura] more common, according to Ali)
soap–powder\powder; soap–powder [n]                      (dra)
 Saabuwn budra (bdr)                                    sorghum\*millet\durra (variety of sorghum)
soap–powder\powder; soap–powder [n]                      [n] zura none (zra)
 Saabuwn budra (Sbn)                                    sorry; be s. over\sad; be s. about?\regret
sober (not drunk) [a] SaaHiy –iyn (SHa)                  [vj] it'assaf 9alay/*min/*lay/*9a∫aan yit’assaf
sober (not drunk) [a] waa9iy –iyn (w9a)                  ('sf)
sociable (good at getting to know people)               sorry; I'm s.\pardon; I beg your p. [a] (ana)
 [a] waluwf ? (wlf)                                      aasif ('sf)
social [a] ijtimaa9iy –iyn (jm9)                        sorry; I'm s.\pardon; I beg your p. [a] (ana)
socialism [n] i∫tiraakiyya (∫rk)                         mut'assif ('sf)
socialist [a] i∫tiraakiy –iyn (∫rk)                     sorry\pardon; I beg your p. [o] sawriy (swr)
society\community [n] mujtama9 –aat (jm9)               sorry\pardon; I beg your p. [d] 9afwan (9fa)
sock\pair of socks [n] ∫urraab –aat (∫rb)               sorry\sad\regretful [a] mut'assif –iyn ('sf)
soft\smooth?\tender?\fine [a] naa9im (n9m)              sort, the same s. as"\type; the same t. as"?
soil,black fertile? soil\fertile,black soil [ng]         [n/] jinis ajnaas (jns)
 Tiyn coll (Tyn)                                        soul\psyche?\spirit?\mind? [nf/] nafis
soldier\private (military)? [n] 9askariy –               nufuws\anfus (nfs)
 iyn\9asaakir (9skr)                                    soul\spirit [nf] ruwH arwaaH (rwH)
soldier\private (non-officer soldier)\man;              sound\voice\noise [n] Sawt aSwaat (Swt)
 men (in plural; i.e. non-officer soldiers)             soup [n] ∫awrba –aat (∫rb)
 [n] 9askáriy/9askariy 9asaakir (9skr)                  soup with bread in ([fatta] has four layers
solution [n] Hall Hiluwl? (Hl;)                          ([Tabagaat]): 1. [laHma] (on top), 2. [ruzz],
solve\decode?\decipher? [vt] Halla yaHill                3. [ra#iyf], 4. [kisra]); [bikubbuw fiy-huw
 (Hl;)                                                   [maraga]) [n] fatta (ft;)
Somali [ax] Sawmaaliy –iyn\Sawmaal (Swml)               soup\broth\bouillon? [n] ∫awrba –aat (∫rb)
Somalia (country) [nx] aS–Sawmaal (Swml)                sour\acid/a.ic [a] HaamuD NONE (not used of
some\certain\number; a n. of [o/] ba9aD                  people) (HmD)
 (b9D)                                                  south [n] januwb (jnb)
                                                   93
south; the S. (of Sudan) [n] aj–januwb (jnb)            spill [vt] daffag yidaffig (dfg)
southern/s.er (esp. person from South                   spirit possession ceremony [n] zaar *–aat
 Sudan) [n] januwbiy –iyn (jnb)                          (zar)
sovereignty?\kingship?\royalty?\monarchy                spit [vi] baza# yabzu# (bz#)
 ? [n] mulk/muluk (mlk)                                 spit [vi] baza# yabzuq? (bzg)
sow [vt] tayrab yitayrib (tyrb)                         spit [vi] baSa# yabSug (bS#)
sow; be s.n\spread; be s.\scatter; be                   spit/spittle\saliva (when spat out) [n] buzaaq
 s.ed\plant; be p.ed?\raise;be r.d\till; be              (bzg)
 t.ed\cultivate; be c.d\grow; be g.n (plants)           spite; in s. of (the fact that)\despite (fact) [j]
 [vi] ziri9 yazra9 (zr9)                                 ma9a (m9a)
sow\spread\scatter\plant?\raise\till\cultivat           spite; in s. of\despite [j] bi-r-ra#mi min (by)
 e [vt] zara9 yazra9 (zr9)                              spite; in s. of\despite [n] bi-r-ra#mi min (r#m)
space; make s. (for o.s. or for                         spite; in s. of\despite [n] ra#mi (r#m)
 others)\room; make r. (for o.s. or for                 spite; in s. of\despite [j] #aSban 9an (9n)
 others)\make space/room (for o.s. or for               spite; in s. of\despite [dj] #aSban 9an (#Sb)
 others) [vim]? fajja yafijj? (fj;)                     spite; in s. of\despite [j] ma9a (m9a)
speak (a language) [vt] itkallam yitkallam              spite; in s. of\despite [j] bi-r-ra#mi min (min)
 (klm)                                                  spittle\spit\saliva (when spat out) [n] buzaa#
speak about\talk about [vj] itkallam 9an/fiy             ? (bz#)
 yitkallam (klm)                                        spoil (by over-indulging)\over-indulge [vt]
speak to about\talk to about [vtj] kallam                xammaj yixammij (xmj)
 9an/fiy yikallim (klm)                                 spoil (child)\pamper [vt] dalla9 yidalli9 (dl9)
speak; s.ing\speech [n] kalaam (klm)                    spoil (child; by bringing up badly)\bring up
special [a] maxSuwS –iyn (xS;)                           badly (and thus spoil; a child)\raise badly
special [a] maxSuwS –iyn (xS;)                           (and thus spoil; a child) [vt] xassar yixassir
special; s.ly\especial; e.ly\specific; s.ly? [d]         (xsr)
 maxSuwS (xS;)                                          spoil the behaviour of (a child; e.g. by
specialise in\expert; be an e. in [vj] itxaSSaS          continually allowing them to do
 fiy yitxaSSaS (xS;)                                     unacceptable things)\over-indulgent; be
specialist\expert [a?] mutxaSSiS –iyn (xS;)              o. to a child (and thus spoil
specialist\expert [n] axiSSaa'iy –a (xS;)                them)\indulgent; be over-i. to a child and
speech?\conversation\talk\discussion\say;                thus spoil them) [vt] xarrab yixarrib (xrb)
 what so. is s.ing [n] Hadiys none (Hds)                spoil; be s.t\pamper; be p.ed [vi] biTir
speech?\lecture?\sermon (in                              yabTar (bTr)
 mosque+church?) [n] xuTba xuTab (xTb)                  spoil; s.ed (child)\pamper; p.ed [a]
speed\velocity\pace\fastness\rapidity\quic               mubaTTar –iyn? (bTr)
 kness [n] sur9a (sr9)                                  spoil; s.ed (child)\pamper; p.ed [a] mudalla9
spell [vt] katab yaktib (ktb)                            –iyn (dl9)
spell (different from usage of [katab]?) [vt]           sponge [ng] asfanj coll (sfnj)
 ithajja yithajja (hja)                                 sponge [ng] isfanj coll (sfnj)
spell; s.ing (cf. usage of [kitaaba]?) [n]              sponge (for washing body) [ns] isfinja –aat
 tahjiya none (hja)                                      (sfnj)
spend (money); also spend up money (so                  sponge sandal?\rubber sandal\sandal;
 there is none left)\expend\pay (out)                    rubber s. [n] sifinja (= [∫ib∫ib]) –aat ('sfn)
 (money) [vt] Saraf yaSruf (Srf)                        sponge; piece of s. [ns] isfinja –aat (sfnj)
spend (money)\expend (money)? [vt] Saraf                sponge; piece of s. [ns] asfanja –aat (sfnj)
 yaSruf (Srf)                                           sponge; single s./piece of s. [ns] asfanja –aat
spend the night\stay the night\overnight;                (sfnj)
 stay o. [vi[vi][vt]] bayyat (= [baat]) yibayyit        sponge; single s./piece of s. [ns] isfanja –aat
 (byt)                                                   (sfnj)
spice [n] buhaar –aat (bhr)                             sponge? [ng] sifinj coll (sfnj)
spice (e.g. cadroman, ginge)\condiment                  spoon [n] ma9laga ma9aalig (9lg)
 (e.g. cadroman, ginge)\seasoning (e.g.                 spoon [n] mal9aga malaa9ig (l9g)
 cadroman, ginge) [n] tawaabil (tbl)                    sport\exercise (physical)? [n] riyaaDa –aat
spider [bb] umm ∫abatuw same (∫bt)                       (rwD)
                                                  94
spray [vt?] baxxa yabuxx (bx;)                          cause/get to k.\rap?; cause/get to r.
spray (with water, etc.) [vt?] baxxa yabuxx             [vd][vtj xabbat yixabbit (xbT)
 (bx;)                                                 stamp; rubber–s.\rubber–stamp\seal [vt]
spray\splash?\sprinkle\spatter?\spurt? [vt]             xatam yaxtim (xtm)
 ra∫∫a (passive: [it–], [in–]) yaru∫∫ (r∫∫)            stamp?\beat?\strike?\knock?\rap? [vt?]
spread (out) (e.g. things on ground) [vt]               xabat yaxbut\yaxbit (xbT)
 fara∫ yafru∫ (fr∫)                                    stand a chance (of getting)\have a chance
spread\bigger; get b.?\get bigger? [vi]                 (of getting)\chance; have/stand a c. (of
 inta∫ar yanta∫ir (n∫r)                                 getting) [vt] ∫amma ya∫umm (∫m;)
spread\bigger; get b.\get bigger [vi] zaad             stand; make s. (still)\still; make stand s.
 yaziyd (zyd)                                           [vt] waggaf yiwaggif (wgf)
spread\scatter [vtm?] na∫ar yan∫ur (n∫r)               stand; s.ing/standing waiting\wait;
spring (mechanical) [n] yaay –aat (yay)                 standing w.ing? [a] waagif –iyn (wgf)
spring (of metal, etc.)\spiral spring [n] yaay         standing\status\rank (in general sense) [n]
 –aat (yay)                                             makaana ? (kwn)
spring\jump\leap?\hop?\skip? [vim?] naTTa              star [ns] najma –aat (njm)
 (passive: [it–]; NB. [in–] a little peculiar)         star (/stars) [nb] najim nujuwm (njm)
 yanuTT (nT;)                                          star; s.s [ng] najim nujuwm (njm)
spring\source\fountainhead (of water) [nf]             start (fire)\break out (fire) [vi] gaam
 9ayn 9uyuwn (9yn)                                      (/gaamat?) yaguwm (taguwm?) (gwm)
sprout\come up (plants)\grow (plants                   start; at the start of May\beginning; at the
 only?) [vi] Tala9 yaTla9 (Tl9)                         beginning of May [a ?] awwal ∫ahri xamsa
square (public)\field (sports)?\ground                  ('wl)
 (sports) [n] maydaan mayaadiyn (mydn)                 start; at the start of May\beginning; at the
square\quadrangle [n] muRabba9 –aat (rb9)               beginning of May [d] fiy awwal ('wl)
squint–eyed [a] aHwaS HaWSa° HuwuS (HwS)               start; at the start of May\beginning; at the
squint–eyed; bc. s. [vi] HawwaS yiHawwiS                beginning of May [d] awwal ∫ahri xamsa ('wl)
 (HwS)                                                 start; at the start of May\beginning; at the
squint–eyed; go s.\cross–eyed; go c. [vi]               beginning of May [j] fiy awwal (fy)
 HawwaS yiHawwiS (HwS)                                 starvation?\hunger [n] juw9 none (jw9)
squint–eyed\cross–eyed [a] aHwaS HaWSa°                state; get to the state where ...? [vi+] biga
 HuwuS (HwS)                                            yabga (bga)
srping\source (water) [nf?] 9ayn 9uyuwn (9yn)          state; United States (of America) [nx] al–
staff?\rod?\wand?\stick\walk; w.ing stick?              wilaayaat al–muttaHida (wla)
 [nes] 9aSa/9aSa° 9aSaayaat (9Sa)                      state\condition [n] Haala –aat (Hwl)
staff?\stick; walking–s.\crutch (for                   state\country\empire [n] daWla duwal (dwl)
 walking)\walk; w.ingstick [n] 9ukkaaz                 station [n] maHaTTa –aat (HT;)
 9akaakiyz (9kz)                                       stature\figure?\build\frame [n/] jurum NONE
stage (e.g. of work)\phase (e.g. of work) [n]           (gm;)
 fatra –aat (ftr)                                      statute\law [n] qaanuwn qawaaniyn (gn;)
stage (esp. in education)\level (esp. in               stay (at a house/hotel/place)\lodge? [vj?]
 education) [n] marHala maraaHil (rHl)                  nazal yanzil (nzl)
staight (not crooked) [a] 9adiyl (9dl)                 stay up late\late; stay up l.\go to bed late
stair; s.s of a ladder?/staircase? [n] darajaat         [vi] sihir yashar (shr)
 as–sillim (slm)                                       stay\remain?\abide [vj][vt] ga9ad yag9ud (g9d)
stairs of a ladder?/staircase? [n] darajaat as–        stay\remain\keep (= remain good; of
 sillim (drj)                                           food)\continue (to be) [vi] ga9ad yag9ud
stale (by virtue of having been left                    (g9d)
 overnight)\old (of food; by virtue of                 steadfast [a] Sabuwr –iyn (Sbr)
 having been left overnight) [a] baayit ? (byt)        steal\pilfer\filch\rob [vt] sarag yasrig (srg)
stamp (what types?)\revenue stamp                      steamer\engine\steam–ship\ship; steam–
 (what?) [n] dam#a –aat\dima# (dm#)                     ship [n] baabuwr –aat (babr)
stamp on [vj] daas yaduws (dws)                        steamship\engine (steam
stamp; cause/get to s.?\beat?; cause/get to             only?)\locomotive? [n] baabuwr –
 b.\strike?; cause/get to s.\knock?;                    aat\bawaabiyr (babr)
                                                   95
steel [ng] Sulb coll (Slb)                              stop (doing)\give up (doing) [vi] wigif
steel (substance, metal) [ng] fawlaaz coll (flz)         yagiyf\yagif (wgf)
steep?\immerse?\submerse?\sink?\dip?\pl                 stop (doing)\give up (doing) [vj] wagaf min
 unge? [vt] #ammas (passive: [it–] yi#ammis              yagiyf\yagif (wgf)
 (#ms)                                                  stop (doing)\give up (doing) [vt] waggaf
step [n] ∫abHa –aat (∫bH)                                yiwaggif (wgf)
step (by a door) [ns] 9ataba –aat (9tb)                 stop (doing)\give up (doing)\cease (doing)
step (figurative) [n] xaTwa –aat (xTa)                   [vj] wigif min yagiyf\yagif (wgf)
step (in a stadium, or theatre) [n] mudarraj –          stop\detain [vt] waggaf yiwaggif (wgf)
 aat (drj)                                              stop\halt\park (car) [vt] waggaf yiwaggif (wgf)
step (of a ladder, stairs) [n] daraja –aat (drj)        stop\stand still/up?\still; stand s. [vi] wigif
step; s.s of a ladder?/staircase? [n] darajaat           yagiyf\yagif (wgf)
 as–sillim (drj)                                        stop\stand still/up?\stll; stand s. [vi] wagaf
step?\foot\leg? [n] gadam agdaam (gdm)                   yagiyf\yagif (wgf)
step\pace\stride [n] xaTwa –aat (xTa)                   store?CHECK THIS [vt] kabba yukubb (kb;)
steps of a ladder?/staircase? [n] darajaat as–          store\away; put a.\put
 sillim (slm)                                            away\conserve\preserve [vt] HafaZ yaHfaZ
stern\zealot\extremist [a] mit∫addid –iyn (∫d;)          (HfZ)
stew [n] mulaaH (mlH)                                   store\sho\department store? [n] maxzan
stew, cooked in a cooking pot ([Halla])? [n]             maxaazin (xzn)
 Halla (Hl;)                                            store\shop [n] maHall –aat (Hl;)
stick [vt] laSSag yilaSSig (lSg)                        store\shop [np] maHallaat (Hl;)
stick [ns] 9aSaaya –aat\9iSiy (9Sa)                     store\shop [n] dukkaan dakaakiyn (dkn)
stick; s.s [ng] 9aSaay coll (9Sa)                       store\stock up [vt] xazzan yixazzin (xzn)
stick?\rod?\pole? [n] 9uwd 9iydaan\a9waad               store\stock up\accumulate?\dam? [vt]
 (9wd)                                                   xazzan yixazzin (xzn)
sticky tape\sellotape [a] lazzaag –aat? (lzg)           storeroom/storehous\stockroom\depositar
sticky; very s.\gluey; very g.\adhesive;                 y\depot [n] maxzan maxaazin (xzn)
 powerfully a. [a] lazzaag –iyn? (lzg)                  story (i.e. event talked about)\account
still (with non–verbal positive sentences)               (event talked about)\narration (event
 [d] lissa9 (ls;)                                        talked about) [n] gawl ? (gwl)
still (with non–verbal positive sentences)              story (i.e. event talked about)\account
 [d] lissa9 (ls9)                                        (event talked about)\narration (event
sting (e.g. bee) [vt] 9aDDa yi9aDDiy (9Da)               talked about) [n] kalaam ? (klm)
stingy\miserly\mean [a] naa∫if –iyn (n∫f)               story\tale\narrative\account [n] Hikaaya –aat
stink?\odour; give off an odour? [ni] Talla9             (Hka)
 riyHa (ryH)                                            straight [d] du#riy (d#r)
stink?\odour; give off an odour? [vi] Talla9            straight (on) [d] Tawwaaliy (Twl)
 riyHa (Tl9)                                            straight away\immediately\now [d]
stomach [n] ma9ida –aat (m9d)                            Tawwaaliy (Twl)
stomach (large)\belly\paunch (part of                   straight on [d?] 9adiyl (9dl)
 body) [ne/] kari∫ kuruw∫\kir∫aat (kr∫)                 strange\odd\extraordinary (can be good or
stomach ache (bad)\ache;very bad                         bad) [a] 9ajiyb 9ujaab (9jb)
 stomach a. [n] 9aSra (9Sr)                             strange\odd\extraordinary (can be good or
stone, on marjuiana\intoxicate with                      bad) [a] 9ajiyb –iyn\9ujaba (9jb)
 marjuiana [vt] saTal yasTul (sTl)                      strange\odd\queer\quaint?\unusual?\curio
stone; get s.d on marjuiana\intoxicate; get              us? [a] #ariyb –iyn (#rb)
 i.d by marjuiana [vi] saTal yasTul (sTl)               stranger\outsider [a] #ariyb #uraba (#rb)
stone; s.s\rock; r.s?\gravel\pebble; p.s. [ng]          straw [ng] ga∫∫ gu∫uw∫ (= 1. different types of
 zalaT –aat (zlT)                                        straw; 2. many straw(/much straw?) (g∫;)
stone\rock? [n] Hajar Hijaar\Hujaar (Hjr)               straw hut [n] guTTiyya –aat\gaTaaTiy (gT;)
stoned; intoxicated by marjuiana [a]                    straw\blade of straw [ns] ga∫∫a –aat (g∫;)
 masTuwl –iyn\masaaTiyl (sTl)                           stream (seasonal)? [n] xawr xayraan\axwaar
stool; low s. made of wood [n] bambar                    (xwr)
 banaabir (bnbr)
                                                  96
strength (physical)\force (physical)\power             stupid/made t look stupid by virtue of
 (physical)\vigour (physical)\might                     having had a trick played on
 (physical) [n] Hayl (Hwl)                              os.\silly/made to look silly by virtue of
strength\health; good h.\good health [n]                having had a trick played on os. [a]
 miruwwa (mra)                                          ma#affal –iyn (#fl)
strength\vigour?\potency\power\force\inte              stupid\dim–witted\silly\foolish\idiot/i.ic [a]
 nsity [n] guwwa (gwa)                                  ablam balma bulum (blm)
stretch [vt] ∫adda ya∫idd (∫d;)                        stupid\slow–witted\dull–
stretch (o.s.) out (e.g. on bed) [vi] itmaddad          witted\simple\idiot/ic [a] baliyd –iyn\bulada
 yitmaddad (md;)                                        (bld)
strike (industtrial) [n] iDraab –aat (Drb)             stutter [vt] tamtam yitamtim (tm;;)
strike/go on strike (industrial) [n] 9amal             stutterer [a] tamtaam –iyn (tm;;)
 iDraab –aat (Drb)                                     style of dressing? [ns?] labsa –aat (lbs)
strip (clothes)\take off (clothes) [n?] mallaS         subject (at school +?)\theme?\topic? [n]
 al–huduwm yamluS (hdm)                                 maadda mawaadd (md;)
strong [a] ∫adiyd –iyn (∫d;)                           substitute?\replace? [vtj] baddal Haaja bay
strong (e.g. of army, sports team) [a] gawiy            Haaja yibaddil (bdl)
 ? (gwa)                                               substitute\compensate\recompense for?
strong (of character) [a] gawiy ? (gwa)                 [vtj] 9awwaD 9an yi9awwiD (9wD)
strong (of wind) [a] ∫adiyd (∫d;)                      succeed [vi?] najaH yanjaH (njH)
strong (psychologically; able to withstand             success\progree; good p.? [n] najaaH ? (njH)
 problems)\tough (psychologically; able                successful [a ?] naajiH (njH)
 to withstand problems)\resilient                      such and such (a thing)\such things [d]
 (psychologically) [a] jaamid –iyn (jmd)                kida uw-kida (kda)
strong (still strong when not expected; e.g.           such and such (a thing)\such things [o]
 of old man)\powerful (still p. when not                kida uw-kida (w)
 expected; e.g. of old man)\forceful (still f.         suck (any powdery substance) [vt] saffa
 when not expected; e.g. of old                         yasiff (sf;)
 man)\vigorous (still v. when not                      suck (up)\soak up?\absorb? [vt] maSSa
 expected; e.g. of old man) [a] ∫adiyd –iyn             yamuSS (mS;)
 (∫d;)                                                 Sudan/the Sudan [n] as–suwdaan (swd)
strong (voice, noise)\powerful (voice,                 Sudanese [ax] suwdaaniy –iyn (swd)
 noise)\loud (voice, noise) [a] 9aaliy –iyn?           Sudanese (colloquial) Arabic\Arabic;
 (9la)                                                  Sudanese A. [n] kalaam as–suwdaan (klm)
strong tea [a] ∫aay tagiyl (tgl)                       Sudanese (colloquial)
strong; big and s.\big and strong [a] 9aatiy            Arabic\Arabic;Sudanese A. [a] kalaam as–
 9ataawa (9ta)                                          suwdaan (swd)
strong; big and s.\big and strong [a] 9aatiy –         Sudanese (person) [n/] ibn as–suwdaan abna
 iyn\*9uta (9ta)                                        as–suwdaan? ('bn)
strong\vigorous?\potent\mighty?\powerful               Sudanese (person) [n] ibn as–suwdaan abna
 [a] gawiy –iyn? (gwa)                                  as–suwdaan? (swd)
student\scholar\pupil (secondary school                Sudanese (person) [n] wadd as–suwdaan
 only?) [n] Taalib Tullaab\Talaba (Tlb)                 awlaad as–suwdaaan? (swd)
study\learn\go to (i.e. study in) (e.g.                Sudanese (person) [n] wadd as–suwdaan
 school) [vt] gara yagra\yagriy (gra)                   awlaad as–suwdaaan? (wld)
stuff\fill? (+tooth?)\fill in?\load (gun)? [vt]        Sudanese Arabic\Arabic; Sudanese Arabic
 Ha∫a yaH∫iy (H∫a)                                      [n] kalaam as–suwdaan (swd)
stuff\matter\substance\material [n] maadda             Sudanese Arabic\Arabic; Sudanese Arabic
 mawaadd (md;)                                          [n] kalaam as–suwdaan ? (klm)
stupid and stubborn\silly and                          Sudd (region in Southern Sudan) [n]
 stubborn\daft and stubborn\unintelligent               manaaTig as-siduwd (sd;)
 and stubborn\stubborn and                             Sudd (region in Southern Sudan) [n]
 stupid\unresponsive to sensible ideas [a]              manaaTig as-siduwd (nTg)
 mugaffal –iyn (gfl)                                   sudden danger\unexpected
                                                        danger\danger; sudden d. [n] faj'a –aat (fj')
                                                    97
sudden danger\unexpected                                 summer (in C. Sudan from April to July?)
 danger\danger; suddend. [n] faj9a –aat (fj9)             [n] Sayf (Syf)
sudden event?\unexpected event? [n] faj'a                sun (object; not sunlight) [nf/] 9ayn a∫-∫amis
 –aat (fj')                                               (∫ms)
sudden event?\unexpected event? [n] faj9a                sun (object; not sunlight) [nf/] 9ayn a∫-∫ami∫
 –aat (fj9)                                               (∫m∫)
sudden; s.ly\unexpected;                                 sun (object; not sunlight) [nf] 9ayn a∫-∫ami∫
 e.ly?\inedvertent; i.ly? [d] faj9a (fj9)                 (9yn)
suffer from"\have (disease, ailment) [j] 9ind            sun (object; not sunlight) [nf] 9ayn a∫-∫amis
 (9nd)                                                    (9yn)
suffer from"\have" (disease,                             Sunday [nx] al–Hadd ('Hd)
 ailment)\afflict"/be a.ed by" [j] 9inda (9nd)           Sunday [n] yawm al–aHad ('Hd)
suffer from"\have" (disease,                             Sunday [n] al–aHadd ('Hd)
 ailment)\afflict/be a.ed by" [vt] jaa yajiy (jy)        sunlight\light from sun\sun (light from s.)
suffer\pain; be in p. [vi] ti9ib yat9ab (t9b)             [nf/] ∫amis ∫umuws (∫ms)
suffer\pain; be in p. [vt]? 9aana yi9aaniy (9na)         sunlight\light from sun\sun (light from s.)
suffice\enough; be e.\sufficient; be s. [vt]              [nf/] ∫ami∫ ∫umuw∫ (∫m∫)
 kaffa yikaffiy (kfa)                                    sunset (place/time of s.? only?)\set; s.ing
Sufi (Islamic mystic) [n] Suwfiy –iyya\–iyn               (of sun) [n] mu#rib (#rb)
 (Swf)                                                   sunset?\prayer; evening–p.\evening–
Sufi meeting–house [n] zaawya                             pr..\evening? [n] mu#rib (#rb)
 zawaaya\*ziwiy (zwa)                                    sunset\set; setting of sun [n] mu#rib (#rb)
Sufi mendicant?\dervish; mendicant d.? [n]               supper\evening meal\meal; evening m.
 fagiyr –iyn\fugara PLURAL [fugara] apparently            [nm] 9a∫a 9i∫yaat (9∫a)
 rejected by Ali – but check this (fgr)                  supply? [vtj] gaddam yigaddim (gdm)
Sufi sect\sect; Sufi s.\order; Sufi                      support (e.g. of a beam supporting a roof)
 o.(Islamic) [n] Tariyga Turug (Trg)                      [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)
Sufism\mysticism (Islamic) [n] Suwfiyya                  support (esp. st. which is in danger of
 (Swf)                                                    falling)\prop (up)\hold up [vt] sanad yasnid
sugar [ng] sukkar coll (skr)                              (snd)
sugar [ng] sukkar coll (skr)                             support" (an idea, proposal, etc.) [j] ma9a
sugar; a little sugar (in tea, coffee) [n]                (m9a)
 sukkar basiyT (skr)                                     support\back [vt] saanad yisaanid (snd)
suggest [vt]? iqtaraH yaqtariH (qrH)                     support\back [vi] wigif ma9a yagiyf (wgf)
suggest [vt] waSaf yawSif (wSf)                          support\back; b.ing\help\aid\assistance [n]
suggest? [vt]? gaal yaguwl (gwl)                          musaa9ada –aat (s9d)
suit [vt] waafag yiwaafig (wfg)                          support\back\confirm\help? [vt] ayyad
suit (of clothes)\jacket [n] badla bidal (bdl)            yi'ayyid? ('yd)
suit/be suitable for (.e.g. clothes)\fitting; be         support\prop (up)\lean [vt] taka yatkiy (tka)
 f. for [vt] naasab yinaasib (nsb)                       support\prop (up)\lean [vt] takka yitakkiy (tka)
suit/be suitable for\fitting; be f.                      suppose\assume [vi+]? iftaraD yaftariD (frD)
 for\acceptable; be a. for [vj] laag ma9a                sure; be s. of\trust [vt] Daman yaDman (Dmn)
 yaliyg (lyg)                                            sure; make s. of\convince os. of\proof;
suit; it doesn't suit me [vt] maa yiwaafigniy             gain p. of [vj] it'akkad min yit'akkad ('kd)
 (wfg)                                                   sure; make s. of\convince os. of\proof;
suit\suitable; be s. for [vj] nafa9 ma9a yanfa9           gain p. of [vj] itHaggag min yitHaggag (Hg;)
 (nf9)                                                   sure; s.ly [d+] akiyd ('kd)
suitable\fit;                                            surgery [n] jiraaHa NONE (jrH)
 f.ing\appropriate\proper\adequate? [a]                  surpass [vt] faat yafuwt (fwt)
 munaasib (nsb)                                          surprise/s.ing event? [n] faj'a –aat (fj')
sultan [n] sulTaan salaaTiyn (slTn)                      surprise/s.ing event? [n] faj9a –aat (fj9)
sultan [n] sulTaan salaaTiyn (slTn)                      surprise; s.d/taken by surprise\unawares;
sultan; area ruled over by a [sulTaan] [n]                caught u.\catch; caught unawares\take;
 salTana –aat (slTn)                                      taken by surprise [a] saahiy –iyn (sha)
sultanate [n] salTana –aat (slTn)
                                                   98
surprise; s.d/taken by surprise\unawares;               swelling [n] waram awraam? (wrm)
 caught u.\catch; caught unawares\take;                 swift; s.ly\speedy; s.ily [n] bay–sur9a (sr9)
 taken by surprise [a] sahyaan –iyn (sha)               swim (not float?) [vim] 9aam ya9uwm (9wm)
surprise; taken by s.\unaware (caught                   swim\float [vim?] 9aam ya9uwm (9wm)
 u.)\off-guard [a] #aflaan –iyn (#fl)                   swine\pig\hog [n] xinziyr xanaaziyr (xnzr)
survive (accident)\recover from (illness)?              switch (electric, etc.)\light switch\button
 [vi] 9aa∫ ya9iy∫ (9y∫)                                   (on appliance, not clothing) [n] zirr azraar
suspect (wanted by police, etc.) [n]                      (zr;)
 muttaham –iyn (thm)                                    switch (electric, etc.; complete unit, not
suspect of\accuse of\charge with? [vtj+]                  just 'button' element, which is [zirr])\light
 taham bay (passive: [it–], [in–]) yatham (thm)           switch unit complete unit, not just
suspect of\accuse of\charge with? [vtj+]                  'button' element, which is [zirr]) [n]
 ittaham bay yattaham (thm)                               muftaaH mafaatiyH (ftH)
suspect of\accuse of\charge with?\indict                sword\sabre\foil?\rapier? [n] sayf suyuwf
 for? [vtj+] ittaham bay yattahim (whm)                   (syf)
suspect?\doubt\mistrust?\distrust\suspect               sympathy\compassion\commiseration?\pit
 \apprehensive; be a. of\doubt; have d.s                  y [n] ∫afaga (∫fg)
 about [vj?] ∫akka fiy ([fiy] commonly used; cf.        Syria [nx] suwriya (swry)
 [min]) ya∫ikk\ya∫ukk (∫k;)                             Syrian [ax] suwriy –iyn (swry)
swallow (down?)\gulp down? [vt] bala9                   table [n] Tarabayza –aat\Taraabiyz (Trbz)
 yabla9 (bl9)                                           table [n] Tarabayza –aat (Trbz)
swapping (e.g. in school)\bartering (e.g. in            table?\inventory?roster?\list\register?\inde
 school) [nv]? badal ! (bdl)                              x? [n] lista lisat (lst)
sway\stir\move [vi] itlawlaH yitlawlaH (lwlH)           tail [n] Danab aDnaab\(*?)Dunubba (Dnb)
swear (an oath) [vi] qasam yaqsim (gsm)                 tail [n] Danab Dunuwb (Dnb)
swear by\oath; take an o. on [vi+] Halaf bay            tail\end? [n] Danab Dunuwba (Dnb)
 yaHlif (Hlf)                                           tail\end? [n] Danab Dunuwb\aDnaab (Dnb)
sweat\perspiration [n] 9arag (9rg)                      tail\end? [n] Danab (*?)Dunubba (Dnb)
sweat\perspiration [n] 9arag (9rg)                      tailor [n] tarziy –iyya (trz)
sweat\perspire [vi] 9irig ya9rag (9rg)                  Taiwan (Republic of China) [n] taaywaan
sweater\jumper [n] faniyla fanaayil (fnl)                 (tywn)
sweaty/sweating\perspire; p.ing [a] 9argaan             take [vt] axad yaaxud ('xd)
 –iyn (9rg)                                             take (away) (from s.o.) by force\remove
sweep (using a Western-style broom                        (from s.o. by force)\snatch (away) (from
 ([maknasa]) [vt?] kanas yaknus (kns)                     s.o.) by force\wrest (from s.o.) [vt] gaLa9
sweep (using a Western-style broom                        yagLa9 (gl9)
 ([maknasa]) [vt] kanas yaknus\yaknis (kns)             take (hold of) [vt] masak yamsik (msk)
sweep\brush (floor) [vt] ga∫∫a yagu∫∫ (g∫;)             take a handful of [vt] xama∫ yaxmi∫\yaxmu∫
sweet [n] Halaawa Halaawiyaat (Hla)                       (xm∫)
sweet potato\potato; sweet p. (vegetable)               take care with those people [vt] a9mal
 [ng] baabáy° coll (baby)                                 Hisaabak min an–naas dayl (9ml)
sweet potato\potato; sweet p. (vegetable)               take it (when offering st.)\have it [vx?] haak
 [ng] bambáy° coll (bmby)                                 (m.sg.), haakiy (f.sg.) *haakuw ( m./com.pl),
sweet water\fresh water [a] mawya Hilwa                   haa–kum (m.com.pl.), haakan (f.pl.) (hak)
 (Hla)                                                  take off (clothes) (= [malaS])\remove
sweet water\fresh water [n] mawya Hilwa                   (clothes) (= [malaS])\strip? (clothes) (=
 (mwa)                                                    [malaS]) [vt?] mallaS yimalliS (mlS)
sweet water\fresh water [n] mawya Hilwa                 take off (clothes)\remove [vd]\[vtj] gaLLa9
 (mwa)                                                    (passive [it:]) yigalli9 (gl9)
sweet\pleasant?\nice\charming\delightful\p              take off (clothes)\remove (clothes)\strip
 retty [a/] Hiluw –iyn (Hla)                              (clothes) [vt] gaLa9 yagLa9 (gl9)
sweetheart (in poetry, songs)\darling (in               take off (clothes)\remove (clothes)\strip
 poetry, songs)\beloved (woman) (in                       (clothes) [vt] gaLa9 yagLa9 (gl9)
 poetry, songs) [a] Habiyba –aat (Hb;)                  take off (clothes)\remove (clothes)\strip
swelling [n] waram awraam (wrm)                           (clothes) [vt?] malaS yamluS (mlS)
                                                    99
take off (clothes)\remove (clothes)\strip?               taste\sample (food)\try (out)\test (food
  (clothes) [vd] mallaS yimalliS (mlS)                     only?) [vt] daag yaduwg (dwg)
take off/from\remove [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)              taste\sample (food)\try (out)\test (food
take out (e.g. in a medical                                only?) [vt] Daa# yaDuw# (Dw#)
  operation)\remove (e.g. in a medical                   taste\sample (food)\try out\test [vt] Daag
  operation)\extract (e.g. in a medical                    yaDuwg (Dwg)
  operation)\cut off (e.g. a finger) [vt] ∫aal           taste\sample\test? [vt] Daag yaDuwg (Dwg)
  ya∫iyl (∫yl)                                           tasteless (of food)\insipid (of food)\bad (of
take; make t. off clothes\strip\remove                     taste)\spoil; s.t (of taste)\wrong (of taste)
  (clothes)\undress [vd] gaLLa9 yigaLLi9 (gl9)             [a] maasix (= [masiyx]; opp. of [Taa9im]) ?
take?\grab?\clasp?\hold; take                              (msx)
  h.of?\hold?\seize? [vt] gabaD yagbuD (gbD)             tasteless (of food; lacking salt, or
take\contain [vt] ∫aal ya∫iyl (∫yl)                        sugar)\insipid (of food; lacking salt or
take\obtain?\receive?\get? [vtm?] ∫aal ya∫iyl              sugar) [a] masiyx (= [maasix]; opp. of
  (∫yl)                                                    [Taa9im]) ? (msx)
talk [vi] itkallam yitkallam (klm)                       taxi [n] taks takaasiy (tks)
talk; empty/meaningless t. [n] kalaam faari#             taxi [n] taksiy takaasiy (tks)
  (klm)                                                  taxi?\minibus [n] buks bakaasiy (bks)
talk\converse [vr] itHaddas yitHaddas (Hds)              taxi?\minibus [n] buksiy bakaasiy (bks)
tame\domesticate; d.d (animal; not of                    tea [n] ∫aay (∫ay)
  people) [a] aliyf –aat? ('lf)                          tea with milk [n] ∫aay bi-l-Haliyb (∫ay)
tame\domesticate; d.d (animal; not of                    tea with milk [n] ∫aay laban (∫ay)
  people) [a] aliyf –aat? ('lf)                          tea with milk [n] ∫aay bay–laban (∫ay)
tame\domesticate; d.d (animal; not of                    tea without milk/black tea [n] ∫aay saada (∫ay)
  people) [a] waluwf ? (wlf)                             tea; black t. [a] ∫aay aHmar (Hmr)
tank (e.g. on lorry)\cistern [n] Sahriyj                 tea; black t. [n] ∫aay saada (∫ay)
  Sahaariyj (Shrj)                                       tea; black t. [n] ∫aay aHmar (∫ay)
tank (e.g. on lorry)\cistern [n] Sihriyj                 tea; strong t. [n] ∫aay tagiyl (∫ay)
  Sahaariyj (Shrj)                                       tea; weak t. [n] ∫aay xafiyf (∫ay)
tank; water t. (e.g. on lorry) [n] funTaaz               teach [vd] adda yaddiy (d;a)
  fanaaTiyz (fnTz)                                       teach (how to read
tank; water t. (e.g. on lorry) [n] funTaas                 only?)\instruct?\educate? [vd] garra
  fanaaTiys (fnTs)                                         yigarriy (gra)
tanker lorry\lorry; tanker l. [n] 9arabiyyat             teach; t.ing\instruction\tuition [n] tadriys
  funTaas (fnTs)                                           (drs)
tap [n] Hanafiyya –aat (Hnf)                             teach; t.ing\train; t.ing?\school; s.ing? [n]
tap (fitment) [n] Hanafiyya –aat (Hnf)                     ta9liym (9lm)
tape (for measuring/recording, etc.) [n]                 teach\instruct [vd] darras yidarris (drs)
  ∫ariyT a∫riTa (∫rT)                                    teach\instruct\educate?\school? [vd] 9allam
tape (for measuring/recording, etc.) [n]                   yi9allim (9lm)
  ∫ariyT a∫riTa (∫rT)                                    teacher (fem.)\schoolmistress\mistress
tape recorder\recorder; tape r. [n] musajjil –             (school) [n] ustaaza –aat ('stz)
  aat (sjl)                                              teacher (female) [n] mudarrisa –aat (drs)
task\job (specific task) [n] ∫a#laana –aat? (∫#l)        teacher (male) [n] mudarris –iyn (drs)
task\job (specific task) [n] ∫u#laana –aat? (∫#l)        teacher (semi–
taste (of st. only?) [n] maDaag –aat (Dwg)                 honorific)\schoolmaster\lecturer [n] ustaaz
taste/bit (of food) to taste\sample (of food,              asaatza ('stz)
  to taste)\bit (of food, to taste) [n] Duwaaga          teacher; term of address for female
  (Dwg)                                                    teacher in school\miss" (term of address
taste\flavour [n/] Ta9am none (T9m)                        for female teacher in school) [n] sitt –aat
taste\flavour (esp. nice f.?)\relish? [n/]                 (st;)
  Ta9am (T9m)                                            teacher\schoolmaster (form of address to
taste\sample (food)\try (out)\test (food                   teacher/schoolmaster) [n] yaa ustaaz ('stz)
  0nly?) [vt] Daag (NB [daa#] is more common)            team (e.g. football team) [n] fariyq ? (frq)
  yaDuwg (Dwg)
                                                      100
teapot\pot; teapot\kettle (i.e. teapot; but                 tend (animals)\look after (animals)\care for
  normally used like kettle for boiling tea)                  (animals) [vi] kalaf yaklif (klf)
  [n] barraad baraariyd (brd)                               tense\nervous? [a] mitnarfis —iyn (nrfs)
tear/t.s/teardrops [n] mawya fi-l-9ayn (mwa)                tense\nervous\jumpy [a] 9aSabiy —iyn (9Sb)
tear/teardrop [ng] dami9 dumuw9 (dm9)                       tent (what type/t.s?) [n] xayma xiyam (xym)
tear/teardrop [ns] dam9a –aat\dumuw9 (dm9)                  tent (what type/t.s?) [n] xayma xiyaam (xym)
tear/teardrop [ns] dam9a –aat\dumuw9 (dm9)                  tent; large t.\marquee\pavillion (weddings
tedious (person; not fun to be with; e.g.                     etc) [n] Saywaan Sawaawiyn (Sywn)
  doesn't tell jokes; used esp. by                          tent; large t.\pavillion?\marquee [n] Saywaan
  women)\boring (person; not fun to be                        –aat (Swn)
  with; e.g. doesn't tell jokes; used esp. by               tepid \lukewarm [a] daafiy (dfa)
  women) [a] masiyx –iyn (msx)                              term; school/academic? t. [n] fatra diraasiyya
telephone book\phone book [n] daliyl                          –aat? (ftr)
  talafawnaat ? (tlfn)                                      terrain?\ground\soil [nf/] ariD araaDiy ('rD)
telephone book\phone book [n] daliyl                        testicle [ns?] bayDa buyuwD (byD)
  taylafawnaat ? (tlfn)                                     testicle; t.s (two?,more?) [ng] bayD buyuwD
telephone book\phone book [n] daliyl                          (byD)
  tilifawnaat ? (tlfn)                                      text\passage [n] naSS nuSuwS (nS;)
telephone book\phone book [n] daliyl                        thank you (used sarcastically, to reject
  talafawnaat ? (dl;)                                         offer of something) [ap] mut∫akkiriyn (∫kr)
telephone book\phone book [n] daliyl                        thank you (very formal usage) [vtj] a∫kurak
  taylafawnaat ? (dl;)                                        (∫kr)
telephone book\phone book [n] daliyl                        thank you (very formal usage) [vtj] ba∫kurak
  tilifawnaat ? (dl;)                                         (∫kr)
telephone\call (on the phone)\ring                          thank you" (reply to [salaamt-ak], said to ill
  (up)\phone [vtj] Darab (lay zawl) talafawn                  person)\God preserve you (reply to
  yaDrab (Drb)                                                [salaamt-ak], said to ill person)\preserve;
telephone\call (on the phone)\ring                            God p. you (reply to [salaamt-ak], said to
  (up)\phone [vj] Darab lay yaDrab (Drb)                      ill person) [vt] aLLaa yisallimak ('lh)
telephone\phone [n] talafawn –aat (tlfn)                    thank you" (reply to [salaamt-ak], said to ill
telephone\phone [n] taylafawn –aat (tlfn)                     person)\God preserve you (reply to
telephone\phone [n] tilifawn –aat (tlfn)                      [salaamt-ak], said to ill person)\preserve;
television [n] tilifizyawn –aat (tlfz)                        God p. you (reply to [salaamt-ak], said to
television [n] talafizyawn –aat (tlfz)                        ill person) [vt] aLLaa yisallimak (slm)
tell [vd] warra yiwarriy (wra)                              thank you; (reply to [mu∫taagiyn] ‘we have
tell (a story)\relate\narrate\report\account;                 missed you’/’welcome; w. back’ [a] b-il–
  give an a. [vtj] Haka lay (passive: [it–], [in–])           aktar (∫wg)
  yaHkiy (Hka)                                              thank; no t.s for duty [n/] laa ∫ukur 9ala waajib
tell (a story)\relate\narrate\report\account;                 (∫kr)
  give an a. [vd?] gaSSa lay yagiSS (gS;)                   thank; t. you" (etc.) (reply by sick person
tell (a story)\relate\narrate\report\account;                 to so. saying to them '[kaffaara]')\God;
  give an a. [vd] warra yiwarriy (wra)                        may G. forgive your sins (reply by sick
tell (by extension of basic meaning                           person to so. saying to them
  'show')\inform of (by extension of basic                    '[kaffaara]')\forgive; may God f. your
  meaning 'show') [vd] warra yiwarriy (wra)                   sins\sin; may God forgive your s.s (reply
tell (how to do st.)\direction; give d.s about                by sick person to so. saying to them
  how to\explain how to [vt+] waSSaf                          '[kaffaara]') [n] kaffaR aLLa sayyi'aat-ak
  yiwaSSif (wSf)                                              yikaffir ('lh)
tell\ask?\request? [vt+] kallam yikallim (klm)              thank; t. you" (etc.) (reply by sick person
temperature [n] darajat al–HaRaaRa (Hr;)                      to so. saying to them '[kaffaara]')\God;
temperature [n] darajat al–HaRaaRa (drj)                      may G. forgive your sins (reply by sick
temperature; having a slight t. [a] daafiy                    person to so. saying to them
  (dfa)                                                       '[kaffaara]')\forgive; may God f. your
tenant [n] mu'ajjir –iyn ('jr)                                sins\sin; may God forgive your s.s (reply
tenant [n] mustaajir –iyn ('jr)                               by sick person to so. saying to them
                                                        101
  '[kaffaara]') [np] kaffaR aLLa sayyi'aat-ak                 these\those (plural) [w?] dayl-(+PRONOUN
  yikaffir (swa)                                                SUFFIX) (da)
thank; t. you" (etc.) (reply by sick person                   these\those (plural) [w?] dayl (dyl)
  to so. saying to them '[kaffaara]')\God;                    they (fem. plural) [w] hin (hn)
  may G. forgive your sins (reply by sick                     they (fem. plural) [w] hinna (hn)
  person to so. saying to them                                they (masc. plural) [w] hum (hm)
  '[kaffaara]')\forgive; may God f. your                      they (masc. plural) [w] humma (hm)
  sins\sin; may God forgive your s.s (reply                   they (masc. plural) [w] hun (hn)
  by sick person to so. saying to them                        thief [n] sarraag –iyn\saraariyg (srg)
  '[kaffaara]') [vt] kaffaR aLLa sayyi'aat-ak                 thief (used metaphorically; = what
  yikaffir (kfr)                                                precisely? [n] nahhaab –iyn (nhb)
thank\grateful; be g. to (passive: [it–]/[i∫–],               thief\robber\criminal? [n] Haraamiy –iyya
  [in–]) [vtj?] ∫akar (lay/ 9alay ‘for’) ya∫kur (∫kr)           (Hrm)
thanks\gratitude [n/] ∫ukur none? (∫kr)                       thin [a] naHiyl ? (nHl)
that (over there) (fem. sg.) [w?] diyka (da)                  thin (e.g. of paper) [a] xafiyf ? (xf;)
that (over there) (fem. sing) [w?] diyk (da)                  thin (e.g. of thread)\fine (e.g. of
that (over there) (fem. sing.) [w?] diyk (dyk)                  thread)\delicate (e.g. of
that (over there) (masc.) [w?] daaka (da)                       thread)\exquisite?\subtle? [a] rifayyi9 –iyn
that (over there) (masc.) [w?] daak (da)                        (rf9)
that (over there)(fem. sing.) [w?] diyk (k)                   thin and exhausted (metaphorically of a
that (over there)(masc.) [w?] daak (k)                          person)\weak and exhausted
that (over there)(masc.) [w?] daak-                             (metaphorically of a person)\exhausted;
  (+PRONOUN SUFFIX) (k)                                         weak/thin and exhausted (metaphorically
thatch; rectangular mud building with t.ed                      of a person) [a] ∫arbaan –iyn (∫rb)
  sloping roof; walls may be made of                          thin; bc. t. (of crops, through having used
  [Tiyn], or [∫arganiy], or [Tuwb aHmar] (=                     up water in soil)\weak; bc. w. t. (of crops,
  [jaaluwS] [n] kurnuk karaanik (krnk)                          through having used up water in soil)\wilt
the\who\which\that [o] al ('l)                                  (of crops, through having used up water
theatre [n] masraH masaariH (srH)                               in soil)\wither [vi?] ∫irib ya∫rab (∫rb)
theft [n] sirga –aat (srg)                                    thin; having bc. t. (of crops, through
theft (instance of t.?) [n] sariga –aat (srg)                   having used up water in soil)\weak;
theft (single act of t.)\steal; s.ing (single                   having bc. w. t. (of crops, through having
  act of s.ing)\robbery (single act of r.) [n]                  used up water in soil)\wilt; having w.ed
  sarga ? (srg)                                                 (of crops, through having used up water
then\after that\afterwards [d] ba9dayn (b9d)                    in soil) [a] ∫arbaan –iyn (∫rb)
then\therefore\case; in that c.\hence [d] izan                thin\fine\delicate? [a] rifayyi9 –iyn (rf9)
  ('zn)                                                       thin\skinny\lean?\slim? [a] Da9iyf Du9aaf
there is\present\exist; e.ing\have"? [o] fiy                    (D9f)
  (fi)                                                        thin\skinny\lean?\slim? [a] Da9iyf –
there; there he is [o] yaa huw da (ya)                          iyn\*Du9afa (D9f)
there; there he is [o] yaa huw (ya)                           thin\slender?\slim?\slight?\lean?\gaunt?
there; there she is [o] yaa hiy diy (ya)                        [a] rifayyi9 –iyn (rf9)
there; there they are [o] yaa hum dayl (ya)                   thin\slender\slim\fine\delicate [a] rigayyig –
there\over there [d] hinaak (hna)                               iyn\rugaag (rg;)
there\over there [d] hinaaka (hna)                            thin\slim?\slender?\slight?\lean?\gaunt?
therefore\reason; for than r.\thus\so [d]                       [a] naHiyf –iyn\nuHafa (nHf)
  9a∫aan kida (kda)                                           thing/thingy/thingummibob [n] hinaaya –aat
therefore\reason; for that r.\thus\so [j]                       (hn)
  9a∫aan kida (∫an)                                           thing? [n] ∫a#alaana ? (∫#l)
therefore\reason; for that r.\thus\so [j]                     thing\object [n] ∫iy a∫yaa? (∫y)
  9a∫aan kida (9la)                                           thing\object [n] Haraka –aat (Hrk)
these (plural)\those (plural) [w?] dayla (da)                 thing\object [n] Haraka –aat (Hrk)
these\those (non–emphatic) [wm?] dayl (da)                    thing\object [n] Haraka –aat (Hrk)
these\those (plural) [w?] dayl (da)                           thing\object [n] ∫a#ala ∫a#alaat (∫#l)
                                                              thing\object [n] Haaja –aat (Hwj)
                                                      102
thing\object\subject (of discussion) [n]                    thousand [n] alif (/alfi) aalaaf\uluwf ('lf)
  ∫a#laaniyya –aat (∫#l)                                    thread?\string?\line?\wire\rail? [n/] silik
thing\object\subject (of discussion) [n]                      suluwk (slk)
  ∫a#laana –aat? (∫#l)                                      thread\twine?\cord?\string?\fibre [n] xayT
thing\object\subject (of discussion) [n]                      xuyuwT (xyT)
  ∫u#laaniyya –aat (∫#l)                                    threat\menace?\intimidation? [n] tahdiyd –
thing\object\subject (of discussion) [n]                      aat\*tahaadiyd (hd;)
  ∫u#laana –aat? (∫#l)                                      threaten with\menace with [vtj+] haddad bay
thingy\whatsit (filler word) [n?] hinaay –a –                 yihaddid (hd;)
  iyn/–aat (hn)                                             threaten\menace [vtj+] haddad bay? yihaddid
think (about)\consider [vj] fakkar fiy yifakkir               (hd;)
  (fkr)                                                     three [n] talaata (tlt)
think about\ponder\consider\reflect on?                     three hundred [n] tultu miya (tlt)
  [vj] fakkar fiy yifakkir (fkr)                            three hundred [n] tultu miya (my?)
think; I thought that you ... [a] ana gaayl–ak ...          thrice\three times [n] talaat marraat (tlt)
  (gwl)                                                     thrice\three times [n] talaata marra (tlt)
think\believe\assume?\presume?\suppose                      thrice\three times [n] talaata marraat (tlt)
  ? [vds+] Zanna yaZunn\yaZinn (Zn;)                        thrice\three times [n] talaata maRRa (mr;)
think\believe\consider [vts+] iftakar yaftakir              thrice\three times [n] talaat maRRaat (mr;)
  (fkr)                                                     thrice\three times [n] talaata maRRaat (mr;)
thinking\thought (activity) [n] tafkiyr none                throat (tube used for swallowing -
  (fkr)                                                       oesophogus)\gullet (tube used for
third (fraction) [n/] tilit atlaat (tlt)                      swallowing - oesophagus)\oesophagus
third (ordinal) [a] taalit (tlt)                              [n/] Halig Huluwg (Hlg)
third; he came t. (e.g. in a race) [c] jaa t-taalit         throw away/out (of liquids, powder) (one
  (tlt)                                                       can [ka∫aH] the same things which one
third; one t. of the people [n/] tilt an–naas (tlt)           can also [kabba]; [kabba] however does
thirst [ng] 9aTa∫ NONE (9T∫)                                  not involve throwing away) [vt] ka∫aH
thirst [ng] 9aTa∫ NONE (9T∫)                                  yak∫aH (k∫H)
thirst; quench o.'s t.\quench o.'s thirst [vi]              throw away\chuck away\rid; get r. of [vt]
  riwa yarwa (rwa)                                            rama yarmiy (rma)
thirst? [ng/?] 9aTa∫ NONE (9T∫)                             throw away\chuck away\rid; get r. of? [vt]
thirsty [a] 9aT∫aan –iyn\9aTaa∫a (9T∫)                        jada9 yajda9 (jd9)
thirsty; bc. t. [vi] 9iTi∫ ya9Ta∫ (9T∫)                     throw to the ground\throw down [vt] rama
thirsty; get /b.bc. t. 9iTi∫ ya9Ta∫ (9T∫)                     yarmiy (rma)
this (feminine singular)\that (feminine)                    throw\fling?\hurl? [vtj] jada9 yajda9 (jd9)
  singular) (non–emphatic) [wm?] di (da)                    thump; I'll t. you\punch; I'll p. you [vd]
this (masculine singular)\that (masculine                     addiy-k bunya ('da)
  singular) (non–emphatic) [wm?] da (da)                    thunder (sound/crash of thunder) [n] Sawt
this\that [d] kida (kda)                                      ar–ra9ad (Swt)
thorn/t.s\spike/s.s\prick(le)/p.s?\spine/s.s                Thursday [nx] yawm al–xamiys ayyaam al–
  [ng] ∫awk coll (∫wk)                                        xamiys? (xms)
thorn\spike\prick/prickle?\spine [ns] ∫awka –               Thursday [nx] al–xamiys (xms)
  aat\*∫uwak (∫wk)                                          Thursday [nx] yawm al–xamiys ayyaam al–
those (emphatic) [w?] dayka (da)                              xamiys (ywm)
those (emphatic) [w] dayk (da)                              thus\hence\therefore\for?\because? [c] fa
those (emphatic) [w] daylaak (da)                             (fa)
those (over there) (plural) [w?] daylaak (da)               ticket (for what?) [n] tazkira tazaakir (zkr)
those (over there) (plural) [w?] daylaaka (da)              tickle [vt] da#da# yida#di# (d#;;)
those (over there) (plural) [w?] daylaaka (da)              tickle [vt] gargat yigargit (grgt)
those (over there) (plural) [w?] daylak (dyl)               tickle [vt] gaLgaL yigaLgiL (gl;;)
those (over there) (plural) [w?] daylak (dyl)               tickle [vt] galgal yigalgil (gl;;)
thought\idea\notion\concept [n] fikra                       tickle [vt] kalkal yikalkil (kl;;)
  afkaar\*fikar (fkr)                                       tickle [vt] kalkal yikalkil (kl;;)
thousand [n] alf (/alfi) aalaaf\uluwf ('lf)
                                                    103
tie up\bind\fasten\attach\hitch\connect [vt]              to (the house of _ only?) [j] lay 9inda (9nd)
  rabaT yarbuT (rbT)                                      to the house/place of\at the house/place of
tie\necktie [n] karafitta –aat (krft)                       [j] 9inda (9nd)
tighten\pull tight\taut; pull t.\tight; pull              to\order; in o. to [c] 9a∫aan (∫an)
  t.\straight; pull s. [vt] ∫adda ya∫idd (∫d;)            to\order; in o. to [c] 9a∫aan (9la)
tighten\tight; make t.\taut; draw/make t. [vt]            to\order; in o. to [c] 9ala ∫aan (9la)
  ∫adda ya∫idd (∫d;)                                      toad/t.s?\frog/f.s [ng] ga9awnj coll (g9nj)
tile (a floor) [vt] ballaT yiballiT (blT)                 toad\frog [ns?] ga9awnja –aat (g9nj)
till\until [c] Hatta (Hta)                                tobacco [n] taaba (tab)
till\until [c?] laaman (lmn)                              tobacco (= [tumbaak suwdaaniy]?) [ng]
time (period of time) [n] fatra –aat (ftr)                  tumbaak (tmbk)
time of meeting (agreed)\rendezvous [n]                   tobacco; chewing t.\chew; c.ing tobacco
  maW9id mawaa9iyd (w9d)                                    [ng] tumbaak suwdaaniy (tmbk)
time; take your t.\gentle; g.ly\easy; take it             tobacco; chewing t.\chew; c.ing tobacco
  e. [n/] 9ala mahl-ak (mhl)                                [a] tumbaak suwdaaniy (swd)
time; takeyour t.?\gentle; g.ly?\easy; take it            tobe [tawb]\sari; s.–like woman's garment
  e.? [n] 9ala raaHtak (rwH)                                [n] tawb taybaan\tiyaab (twb)
time\period\span of time\moment?\instant?                 today [n] al–layla (lyl)
  [n/] wakit awkaat (wkt)                                 today [n] al–layla (lyl)
time\period\stretch of time?\duration? [n]                today; up till t. [ns] li-l-layla (lyl)
  zaman azmaan (zmn)                                      toe [nf/] uSba9 ar–rijil ! (rjl)
time\turn?\occasion [n] maRRa –aat (mr;)                  toe [n] uSba9 ar–rijil aSaabi9 ar–rijil (Sb9)
tin (big tincontainer)\can?\jerry can? [n]                together [p?] ma9a ba9aD (b9D)
  SafiyHa SafaayiH (SfH)                                  together [j ?] ma9a ba9aD (m9a)
tin (container, not substance?)\can?\jerry                together [d] sawa (swa)
  can? [ns?] tanaka –aat (tnk)                            toilet; flush t.\flush toilet [n] Hammaam –aat
tin (small)\packet\box (made of what)\can?                  (Hm;)
  [n] 9ilba 9ilab (9lb)                                   toilet\lavatory [n] bayt al–adab buyuwt al–adab
tin can (petrol can etc.)\can; large tin c. [n]             ('db)
  SafiyHa SafaayiH (SfH)                                  toilet\lavatory [n] adbaxaana –aat ('db)
tin; open t. coffee pot\pot; open tin coffee              toilet\lavatory [n] adabxaana –aat ('db)
  p. [n] tanaka –aat (tnk)                                toilet\lavatory [n] bayt adab buyuwt adab (byt)
tire/b/b t.d\weary;get w.(from strenuous                  toilet\lavatory [n] adbaxaana –aat (xan)
  work) [vi] ti9ib yat9ab (t9b)                           toilet\lavatory [n] adabxaana –aat (xan)
tire; bc. t.d\exhaust; bc. e.ed [vi] fitir yaftar         toilet\lavatory [n] dabluwsiy –haat (dblws)
  (ftr)                                                   toilet–soap (for washing hands and
tire; t.d\exhaust; e.ed [a] fatraan –iyn (ftr)              body)\soap; toilet–soap (for washing
tire; t.ing?\exhaust; e.ing?\fatigue; f.ing?                hands and body) [ng] Saabuwn Hammaam
  [a] mut9ib –iyn (t9b)                                     coll (Sbn)
tire; you're t.d\weary; you're w. [vi] ti9ibta            tolerate?\bear\withstand\endure [vi]
  (t9b)                                                     istaHmal yistaHmal\*yistaHmil (Hml)
tire\exhaust [vt] fattar yifattir (ftr)                   tomato [ns] TamaaTma –aat? (Tm;;)
tired; bc. t. of (implies also                            tomato [ns] TamaaTma –aat (Tm;;)
  annoyance/anger)\sick of (implies                       tomato/t.es [ng] TamaaTim (Tm;;)
  annoyance/anger) [vj] zihijta min yazhaj                tomato; t.s [ng] TamaaTim coll (Tm;;)
  (zhj)                                                   tomb, of a saint?\saint; s.'s tomb? [n] gubba
tired; be/feel t.? [vi] ni9is yan9as (n9s)                  gubab (gb;)
tired?\weary?\exhausted? [a] ta9baan –                    tomorrow [d] baakir (bkr)
  iyn\ta9aaba (t9b)                                       tomorrow [d] bukra (bkr)
tired\drowsy\sleepy [a] na9saan –iyn (NOT                 tomorrow [n] aS–SabaaH (SbH)
  *[na9aasa]) (n9s)                                       tomorrow; the day after t. [j] ba9ad bukra
tired\exhausted? [n] #albaan –iyn\#alaaba (#lb)             (b9d)
title; used for schoolteachers, bureaucrats               tomorrow; the day after t. [j] ba9ad bukra
  [n] sayyid (swd)                                          (bkr)
to (the house of – only?) [j] lay 9inda (ly)
                                                       104
tomorrow; the day after t. [j] ba9di bukra                   tough (meat) [a] gawiy –iyn? (gwa)
  (bkr)                                                      tough\strong\hard [a] gawiy –iyn? (gwa)
tongue [n] lisaan lawaasiyn (also [alsina] – but             toward/t.s\direction; in the d. of [j] 9ala (9la)
  rather Standard Arabic) (lsn)                              towards\direction; in the d. of\to [j?] naaHyat
tongue (part of body) [n] lisaan lawaasiyn                     (nHa)
  (also [alsina] – but rather Standard Arabic) (lsn)         towel [n] ba∫kiyr ba∫aakiyr (b∫kr)
tonight [n] bil–layl (lyl)                                   towel [n] bi∫kiyr ba∫aakiyr (b∫kr)
too [d] ziyaada (zyd)                                        town [ne] balad buluwd\bilaad (bld)
too; do t. much\much; do too                                 town [ne] balad buluwd\bilaad (bld)
  m.\excessive; do e.ly [vt]/[[vj] zayyad                    town [ne] bilaad buluwd (bld)
  yizayyid (zwd)                                             town council\village council [a] majlis
too; do t. much\much; do too                                   maHalliy majaalis ... (bld)
  m.\excessive; do e.ly [vt]/[[vj] zaad yaziyd               town\city [n] madiyna mudun\*madaayin (mdn)
  (zyd)                                                      tractor [n] tarattar –aat (tr;;)
too; do t. much\much; do too                                 tractor [n] taraktar –aat (trkt)
  m.\excessive; do e.ly [vt]/[[vj] zawwad                    tractor [n] tarakrar –aat (trkr)
  yizawwid (zyd)                                             trade?\commerce?\business [n] tijaara (bzns)
tooth (part of body)\incisor; front i.\tusk (of              trade\commerce\business [n] tijaara (tjr)
  elephant)\fang (of snake)? [nf] sinn                       tradition; t.al account relating to the
  sunuwn(\[asnaan] in borrowings from Standard                 Pophet Muhammad/prophetic tradition;
  Arabic) (sn;)                                                account relating to the Prophet
tooth-brush; traditional 'tooth-brush' made                    Muhammad [n] Hadiys (nabawiy ∫ariyf)
  from a stick\stick used as a traditional                     aHaadiys (Hds)
  tooth-cleaner [n] muswag masaawiyg (swg)                   tradition? [n] 9aada –aat\9awaayid (9wd)
toothpaste [np] ma9juwn asnaan (sn;)                         traffic [n] Haraka none? (Hrk)
toothpaste [n] ma9juwn asnaan (9jn)                          train (in sport)\drill (in sport) [vt] darrab
top [d] fawg (fwg)                                             yidarrib (drb)
top; the t. floor/storey [d?] ad–dawr al–fawg                train (in sport)\drill (in sport) [vt] marran
  (fwg)                                                        yimarrin (mrn)
torch (battery +other electric? only?) [n]                   train (in sport)\drill o.s. (in sport)\practice
  baTTaariyya –aat (bTr)                                       (in sport) [vi] itmarran yitamarran (mrn)
touch (continually)?\handle?\finger about                    train (railway train) [n/?] gaTar
  with?\fiddle around with (by touching                        guTuwr\guTaara\giTaara (gTr)
  constantly)\play around with (by                           train (railway train) [n/?] gaTar
  touching constantly) [vt] habba∫ yihabbi∫                    guTuwr\gaTaara (gTr)
  (hb∫)                                                      traitor [n?] xaayin –iyn\xawana (xwn)
touch (more, or with greater                                 traitor [n?] xaayin *xayaana (xwn)
  deliberateness than,                                       transfer\copy (writing, lesson,
  [limis]/[lamas])\handle (more, or with                       etc.)\transport? [vt] nagal yangul (ngl)
  greater deliberateness than,                               translate\interpret [vt] tarjam yitarjim (trjm)
  [limis]/[lamas])\feel (more, or with greater               translation [n] tarjama –aat (trjm)
  deliberateness than, [limis]/[lamas]) [vjs]                transport/t.ation\communication; lines of
  lammas fiy lammas (lms)                                      c.? [np] muwaaSalaat (wSl)
touch (more, or with greater                                 travel\trip; make a t.\journey; go on a j.
  deliberateness than,                                         [vjm][vtm] saafar lay/OBJ. yisaafir (sfr)
  [limis]/[lamas])\handle (more, or with                     traveller\passenger? [n] misaafir –iyn (sfr)
  greater deliberateness than,                               tray (type/s?) [n] Siyniyya Sawaaniy (Syn)
  [limis]/[lamas])\feel (more, or with greater               tray–cover\cover; tray–c. [n] Tabag
  deliberateness than, [limis]/[lamas]) [vts]                  Tubaaga\aTbaag (Tbg)
  lammas yilammis (lms)                                      treat (a patient?) [vt] daawa yidaawiy (dwa)
touch; t.ing (voice, music)\move; m.ing                      treat (a person?/a disease?) [vt?] daawa
  (voice, music)\appealing (voice, music)                      yidaawiy (dwa)
  [a] Hanuwn –iyn (Hn;)                                      treat (an ailment; by use of magic charms)
touch\handle?\feel [vts] limis yalmas (lms)                    [vt] HawwaT yiHawwiT (HwT)
touch\handle\finger? [vt?] haba∫ yahbi∫ (hb∫)
                                                         105
treat (by use of spoken charm) [vj] 9azam                      troubled; bc. t.\worried; bc./get w.\alarmed;
  lay/9alay ya9zim (9zm)                                         bc./get a.?\disturbed; bc./get t.?\upset;
treat (patient,disease?) [vt] 9aalaj (passive:                   bc./get u.?\uneasy; bc./get u.\become
  [it–]) yi9aalij (9lj)                                          worried/uneasy\get worried/uneasy [vi]
treat (snake-bite, etc., by use of a magic                       gallag yigallig (glg)
  charm [vt] Hawa yaHwiy (Hwa)                                 troublesome (causes lots of problems) [a]
treat (so. by reading the Quran [qur'aan]                        #alabaawiy –a (#lb)
  over them)\read (the Quran) over so. (in                     troublesome\annoying? [a] mut9ib –iyn (t9b)
  order to cure them off an illness) [vj] gara                 trouser; traditional baggy t.s [n] surwaal
  lay/9alay yagriy\yagra (gra)                                   saraawiyl (srwl)
treat\cure [vt] 9aalaj (passive: [it–]) yi9aalij (9lj)         trousers; pair of t. [n] banTalawn –
treat\deal with [vt] 9aamal (passive: [it–])                     aat\banaaTliyn (bnTl)
  yi9aamil (9ml)                                               true/truth? [n] Hagg ? (Hg;)
treatment (medical)\remedy\cure\therapy                        true; make come
  [n] 9ilaaj –aat (9lj)                                          t.\fulfill\actualize\effectrealize [vt] Haggag
treatment? [nm] dawa adwiya (dwa)                                yiHaggig (Hg;)
tree/t.s [ng] ∫adar coll (∫dr)                                 true\correct\right (not of people) [a] SaHiyH
tree/t.s [ng] ∫idar coll (∫dr)                                   none (SH;)
tree/t.s\shrub/s.s?\bush/b.es? [ng] ∫ajar coll                 trust\confidence; have c. in\convince; be
  (∫jr)                                                          c.d by [vt] aaman yi'aamin ('mn)
tree\shrub\bush [ns] ∫ajara –aat (∫jr)                         truth\reality?\fact [n] Hagiyga Hagaayig (Hg;)
trial\test\examination? [n] ixtibaar –aat? (xbr)               try (out)\test\sample\experience [vt] jarrab
triangle [n] mutallat –aat (tlt)                                 yijarrib (jrb)
triangle [n] musallas –aat (sls)                               try\attempt\endeavour\effort; make an e.
tribal grouping (consisting of [xa∫um                            [vt+?] Haawal yiHaawil (Hwl)
  bayt]s)\grouping; tribal g. (consisting of                   try\attempt\endeavour\effort; make an e.
  [xa∫um bayt]s) [nf/] baTun biTuwn (bTn)                        [vt+?] Haawal yiHaawil (Hwl)
tribe [n] gabiyla gabaayil (gbl)                               tube?\pipe?\conduit?\duct? [ns] ambuwba *–
trick [n] maglab magaalib? (glb)                                 aat\anaabiyb (nb;)
trick (minor plot)\plot (over minor                            Tuesday [nx] yawm at–talaataº (tlt)
  matter)/conspiracy (over minor matter)                       Tuesday [nx] at–talaataº (tlt)
  [n] mal9uwbiyya –aat (l9b)                                   Tuesday [nx] yawm at–talaataº ayyaam at–
trick? [n] ba9buwS ba9aabiyS (b9bS)                              talaataº? (ywm)
trickery\deception\deceit\fraud? [n] #a∫∫                      tumour; benign t.\benign tumour [n] xurraaj
  none? (#∫;)                                                    *–aat (informant rejects [xurraajaat] as plural
trickery\trick [n] xid9a xida9 (xd9)                             [LA07.1]) (xrj)
triumph (of battles of Muhammad + early                        Tunis (city)\Tunisia [nx] tuwnis (twns)
  Muslims only) [n/] fatiH futuwHaat (ftH)                     Tunisian [ax] tuwnisiy –iyn (twns)
triumph (of battles of Muhammad + early                        turban [n] 9imma 9imam (9m;)
  Muslims only) [n/] fituwH –aat (ftH)                         turban (garment) [n] 9imma 9imam (9m;)
trivial\unimportant\slight\trifling\little\minor               Turk/t.ish\Ottoman (popularly) [ax] turkiy
  [a] basiyT –iyn\busaTa (bsT)                                   turuk\atraak (trk)
trouble\bother [n] 9azaab (9zb)                                Turk/t.ish\Ottoman (popularly) [ax] turkiy –
trouble\exertion\labour\toil\drudgery [n/]                       iyn\turuk (trk)
  ta9ab none (t9b)                                             turn (off) (from road) [vim] laffa yaliff (lf;)
trouble\worry\alarm?\disturb?\upset?\unea                      turn around/in a
  sy; make u.\make uneasy [vj] gallag bay                        circle\spin?\whirl?\rotate?\revolve? [vi]
  yigallig (glg)                                                 dawwar yidawwir (dwr)
trouble\worry\alarm?\disturb?\upset?\unea                      turn around/in a
  sy; make u.\make uneasy [vt] gallag yigallig                   circle\spin?\whirl?\rotate?\revolve\turn
  (glg)                                                          over [vt] dawwar yidawwir (dwr)
troubled; bc. t.\worried; bc. w.?\alarmed;                     turn into\transform into [vd] galab yaglib (glb)
  bc. a.?\disturbed; bc. t.?\upset; bc. u.?                    turn off\out/switch off/out\put off/out [vt]
  [vi] gilig yaglag (glg)                                        gafal yakfil (gfl)
                                                               turn out [vt+] Tala9 yaTla9 (Tl9)
                                                  106
turn out (to be) [vt+] Tala9 yaTla9 (Tl9)               unbeliever (roughly, non–Muslim)\infidel
turn over\upturn\revolve\turn over [vt] galab            [n] kaafir –iyn\kuffaar (kfr)
  yaglib (glb)                                          unbeneficial\useless [n] maa minn-uw faayda
turn round (e.g. in dancing)\twirl (round)               (fyd)
  (e.g. in dancing) [vi] dawwar yidawwir (dwr)          unbeneficial\useless [o] maa minn-uw faayda
turn round (so that the front faces the                  (ma)
  back)\round; turn r. (so that the front               unbeneficial\useless [j] maa minn-uw faayda
  faces the back) [vt] 9akas ya9kis (9ks)                (mn)
turn upside down\upside; turn upside                    uncivil\impolite\rude\uncouth\cheeky\insol
  down [vt] galab yaglib (glb)                           ent [a] galiyl adab –iyn adab (gl;)
turn\revolve?\rotate?\go round?\round; go               uncivil\impolite\rude\uncouth\cheeky\insol
  r.? [vim] dawwar yidawwir (dwr)                        ent [n] galiyl adab –iyn adab ('db)
turn\spin?\whirl?\rotate?\revolve? [vt]                 uncle (father's brother)\paternal uncle [n]
  dawwar yidawwir (dwr)                                  9amm a9maam (9m;)
twelth [a] iTnaa∫araawiy ? (tna)                        uncle; maternal u.\maternal uncle [n] xaal
twelth (ordinal number) [n] itnaa∫araawiy (tna)          xaylaan\axwaal (xwl)
twelth (ordinal number) [a] itnaa∫araawiy (9∫r)         unclean?\dirty\filthy?\soil; s.ed?\sully;
twelve [n] iTnaa∫ar (tna)                                s.ed? [a] wasxaan –iyn? (wsx)
twelve [n] iTnaa∫ar (9∫r)                               uncover\expose?\bare; lay b.? [vt] ka∫af
twentieth (ordinal number) [a?] 9i∫riyn (9∫r)            yak∫if (k∫f)
twentieth (ordinal number) [a] 9i∫riynaawiy             understand; do you u. (end of sentence,
  (9∫r)                                                  emphatic) [vt] ∫ufta (∫wf)
twisted?\crooked\curved?\bent? [a] a9waj                understand\comprehend\realize [vts+] fihim
  9awja 9uwj (9wj)                                       yafham (fhm)
two [n] itnayn (tna)                                    undertake; he undertook to help me (legal
two hundred [n] miytayn (my?)                            usage) [vjj+] it9ahhad (lay–y°) bil–musaa9a da
two hundred\hundred; two h. [nl] miytayn                 (9hd)
  dual (my)                                             undertake\obligate os.to\pledge os.to\bind
type; those/that type of people\sort;                    osto [vj+] it9ahhad bay yit9ahhad (9hd)
  those/that sort of people [nj] naw9 min               unearth\dig up\exhume\disinter [vt] naba∫
  (nw9)                                                  yanbu∫ (nb∫)
type; what t. of soup\kind; what k. of soup             uneasy; bc. u.\apprehensive?; bc. a.\worry;
  [q] ∫awrbat ∫inuw (∫n)                                 bc. w.ed?\concern; bc. c.ed? [vi] gilig
tyrant\oppressor [n?] Zaalim –iyn\Zullaam                yaglag (glg)
  (Zlm)                                                 uneasy\apprehensive?\worry;
tyre (of car, bicycle etc.)\outer tube (of               w.ed?\concern; c.ed? [a] galgaan (=
  bicycle, etc.) [n] lastik lasaatik (lstk)              [migallig]) –iyn (glg)
Uganda [nx] yaw#anda (yw#n)                             uneasy\apprehensive?\worry;
Ugandan [ax] yaw#andiy –iyn (yw#n)                       w.ed?\concern; c.ed?\upset\disurb;
ugliness (moral) ([∫ana°] is normally used               d.ed?\trouble; t.d?\perturb;
  in specific phrases) [n] ∫anaº (/∫ana?) (∫na)          p.ed?\anxious [a] migallig (= [galgaan]) –iyn
ugliness (physical) ([∫ana°] is normally                 (glg)
  used in specific phrases) [n] ∫anaº (/∫ana?)          unforgiving? [a] Hargaan –iyn (Hrg)
  (∫na)                                                 unfriendly person?\unsociable person [a]
ugly (much stronger and more negative                    zawl jaaff naas jaaffiyn (jf;)
  than                                                  unhappy?\unlucky?\miserable?\distress;
  [∫ayn])\repulsive\repugnant\disgusting\un              d.ed? [a] miskiyn masaakiyn (mskn)
  pleasant [a] gabiyH –iyn\gubaHa (gbH)                 unhappy\umlucky\miserable\wretched\dist
ugly (often with sense of affection) [a] ∫ayn            ressed? [a] ∫agiy –iyn (∫ga)
  –iyn (∫yn)                                            unhappy\unlucky\miserable?\distress;
unapproachable\unfriendly [a/] Sa9ab –iyn                d.ed? [a] ∫agiy –iyn\a∫giya (∫ga)
  (S9b)                                                 unhealthy\insanitary [a] maa SiHHiy (SH;)
unawares [d] faj'a (fj')                                unhealthy\insanitary [o] maa SiHHiy (ma)
unawares [d] faj9a (fj9)                                unhurt\unharmed\intact?\undamaged? [a]
                                                         saalim –iyn (slm)
                                                  107
uniform [n] zayy NONE (zy;)                             until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;
unify (bc. one)\unite (bc. one) [vi] itwaHHad            up till n.\yet; as y.? [j] lay hassiy (ly)
 yitwaHHad (wHd)                                        until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;
unify (make one)\unite (make one) [vt]                   up till n.\yet; as y.? [j] lay hassa9 (ly)
 waHHad yiwaHHid (wHd)                                  until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;
union\association [nx] ittiHaad (wHd)                    up till n.\yet; as y.? [j] lay hassa (ly)
union\unity\oneness [n] wiHda/wuHda (wHd)               until now\till; up till now [d] lai hassa9 (ly)
unit [n] wiHda/wuHda –aat (wHd)                         until now\till; up till now [d] lai hassi (ly)
unit [n] wuHda –aat (wHd)                               until now\till; up till now [d] lai hassiy (hs;)
United States (of America) [ax] al–wilaayaat            until now\till; up till now [d] lai hassa9 (hs9)
 al–muttaHida (wHd)                                     until today\up till today [j] li-l-layla (ly)
university [n] jaam9a –aat (jm9)                        until\till\up to when [n] la–#aayat maa (#ay)
unjust; treat u.ly\unfair; treat                        until\till\up to when [c] la–Haddi (Hd;)
 u.ly\harm?\mistreat?\tyrannize? [vt] Zalam             until\till\up to when [n] la–Haddi maa (Hd;)
 yaZlum (Zlm)                                           until\till\up to when [c] la–#aayat (#wa?)
unless\if not\except? [o] illa iza ('za)                until\till\up to when [o] la–#aayat maa (ma)
unless\if not\except? [o] illa iza ('l;)                until\till\up to when [o] la–Haddi maa (ma)
unless\if not\except? [c] illa ('l;)                    until\till\up to\far; as f. as [n] la–#aayat (#ay)
unless\if not\except? [c] in maa ('n)                   until\till\up to\far; as f. as [n] la–Haddi (Hd;)
unless\if not\except? [c] kaan maa (kwn)                until\up to (the time when)\till [c] lamman
unless\if not\except? [o] kaan maa (ma)                  (lmn)
unless\if not\except? [o] in maa (ma)                   untill\till\up to\far; as f. as [j] lay (ly)
unlucky\unfortunate [a] ∫agiy –iyn\a∫giya (∫ga)         unusual; find u. [vt+?] ista#rab yasta#rib (#rb)
unoccupied\leisure; at l.\free (of                      unusual?\uncommon?\abnormal\strange\o
 commitments) [a] faaDiy –iyn (fDa)                      dd\extraordinary\bizarre [a] maa 9aadiy –iyn
unpleasant; he's u.\nature; he's ill–n.d [a]             (9wd)
 damm-uw tagiyl (tgl)                                   unusual?\uncommon?\abnormal\strange\o
unpleasant; he's u.\nature; he's ill–n.d [n]             dd\extraordinary\bizarre [o] maa 9aadiy –iyn
 damm-uw tagiyl (dm;)                                    (ma)
unrest\unease\disquiet\alarm [n] galag (glg)            up\upstairs\on top\top; on t.\above [d] fawg
unruly (animal)\uncontrolled (animal) [a]                (fwg)
 kaafir kuffaar (kfr)                                   up\upwards [d] lay fawg (fwg)
unsure (person)\wavering [a] mutzabzib –iyn             up\upwards [d] fawg (fwg)
 (zb;;)                                                 up\upwards [j] lay fawg (ly)
untie (knot; not                                        up\upwards [j] lay fawg (ly)
 shoelace)\unbind\unfasten?\unravel?\un                 uphold\defend [vj] daafa9 9an yidaafi9 (df9)
 do (knot; not shoelace) [vt] Halla yaHill              upright iron pole (e.g. for setting up
 (Hl;)                                                   hammock-like cot ([murjaaHa])\iron; i.
untie\unbind\unfasten\undo\detach?\unbut                 pole (e.g. for setting up hammock-like cot
 ton? [vt] fakka yafikk (fk;)                            ([murjaaHa])\pole; iron p. (e.g. for setting
until now\hitherto\till; up till now [j] lay             up hammock-like cot ([murjaaHa]) [ns]
 hassa9 (ly)                                             Hadiyda –aat? (Hd;)
until now\hitherto\till; up till now [n] lay            upright?\reliable?\trustworthy?\loyal?\faith
 hassa9 (hs9)                                            ful? [a] amiyn –iyn\umana ('mn)
until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;         upright\honourable\honest [a] naziyh ? (nzh)
 up till n.\yet; as y.? [ns] li-l-layla (lyl)           uprising\insurrection\mutiny\revolt\rebellio
until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;          n [n] tamarrud –aat (mrd)
 up till n.\yet; as y.? [d] lay hassa (hs;)             upset\disturb; d.ed?\trouble; t.d?\perturb;
until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;          p.ed? [a] galgaan (= [migallig]) –iyn (glg)
 up till n.\yet; as y.? [d] lay hassiy (hs;)            upset\disturb; d.ed?\trouble; t.d?\perturb;
until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;          p.ed?\worried [a] mitnarfis –iyn (nrfs)
 up till n.\yet; as y.? [d] lay hassa9 (hs9)            upshot\consequence [n] HaaSil HawaaSil
until now\hitherto\till; up till now\still\now;          (HSl)
 up till n.\yet; as y.? [j] li-l-layla (ly)             urinate\piss [vt] sayyar yisayyir (syr)
                                                        urinate\piss [vi] baal yabuwl (bwl)
                                                   108
urine\piss [n] bawl (bwl)                                valley; river v.\river valley [n] waadiy
use"\employ"\utilise" [aj] ∫a##aal bay –iyn               widyaan\awdiya (wda)
 (∫#l)                                                   van; brake–v. (on a train) [n] 9arabiyyat
use; be u.d up\end\finish; be f.ed\over,beo.              farmala –aat? (9rb)
 [vi] xiliS (= [xallaS] (intr.)?) yaxlaS (xlS)           vanquish\defeat [vt] hazam yahzim (hzm)
use; be u.d up\end\finish; be f.ed\over; be              vapour?\fume?\steam [n] buxaar none (bxr)
 o. [vi] tamma yatimm (tm;)                              variety of\type of\sort of [nj] naw9 min
use\employ? [vj] i∫ta#al bay ya∫ta#il (∫#l)               anwaa9 (nw9)
use\employ\operate?\run?\apply (st.) [vt]                variety\way?\manner?\mode?\fashion?for
 ista9mal yista9mal (9ml)                                 m? [n] naw9 anwaa9 (nw9)
use\employ\operate?\run?\apply (st.) [vt]                vault?\safe (for money)\coffer? [n] xazna
 ista9mal yista9mal (9ml)                                 xizan (xzn)
used to\accustom; a.ed to\habit; in the h.               vegetable; v.s\green; g.s\herb; h.s? [np]
 of [aj] mut9awwid 9ala –iyn (9wd)                        xuDrawaat (xDr)
used; get u. to\habit;get into the h. of [vj]            vegetables [n] xaDaar none (xDr)
 it9awwad 9ala yit9awwad (9wd)                           vegetables [n] xuDaar none (xDr)
used; get u. to\habit;get into the h. of [vt]            veil?\screen\curtain\drape? [n] sitaara –
 it9awwad yit9awwad (9wd)                                 aat\sataayir (str)
useful\beneficial\advantageous\favourable                vein [n/] 9irig 9uruwg (9rg)
 ? [a] mufiyd (fyd)                                      vein (in body) [n/] 9irig 9uruwg (9rg)
useful\beneficial\advantageous\profitable                veranda in front of house? (= [raakuwba])
 [a] naafi9 –iyn (nf9)                                    [n] baranda –aat (brnd)
utensil; kitchen u.s [n] 9idda (9d;)                     verb [n/] fi9il af9aal (f9l)
utility\avail\benefit\use\usefulness [n]                 verdict (in a court–case?) [n] qaraar –aat (gr;)
 faayda fawaayid (fyd)                                   verdict (legal) [n/] Hukum ? (Hkm)
vagina [n] kuss kusuws\kasasa (ks;)                      verse (of poetry)\line (of poetry)? [n] bayt
vagrant (boy or young man)\waif? (boy or                  *buyuwt\abyaat (byt)
 young man)\tramp (boy or young                          verse (of poetry)\line (of poetry)? [n] bayt
 man)\vagabond (boy or young                              ∫i9ir *buyuwt\abyaat (byt)
 man)\street-child (male) [n] ∫ammaa∫iy –a               verse (of poetry)\line (of poetry)? [n/] bayt
 (∫m∫)                                                    ∫i9ir *buyuwt\abyaat (∫9r)
vagrant (boy or young man)\waif? (boy or                 verse, of the Quran\Quranic verse [ns?] aaya
 young man)\tramp (boy or young                           –aat ('ay)
 man)\vagabond (boy or young                             vertigo; I've got vertigo\dizzy; I'm feeling d.
 man)\street-child (male) [n] ∫ammaasiy –a                [a] ana daayi∫ (dy∫)
 (∫m∫)                                                   vertigo\dizziness [n] dawxa (dwx)
vagrant (girl or young woman)\waif? (girl                vertigo\dizziness [n] laffat Raas (ras)
 or young woman)\tramp (girl or young                    vertigo\dizziness [ns] laffat Raas (lf;)
 woman)\vagabond (girl or young                          vertigo\dizziness [n] daw∫a (dw∫)
 woman)\street-child (female) [n]                        very; the v. ..\self ..\other; none o. than .. [n
 ∫ammaa∫iyya –aat (∫m∫)                                   ?] biz–zaat (zwt)
vagrant (girl or young woman)\waif? (girl                very\extreme; e.ly? [d] xaaliS (xlS)
 or young woman)\tramp (girl or young                    very\extreme; e.ly\real; r.ly [d] jiddan (jd;)
 woman)\vagabond (girl or young                          very\real; r.ly\extreme; e.ly [d] jadd (jd;)
 woman)\street-child (female) [n]                        very\same\none other than\other; none
 ∫ammaasiyya –aat (∫m∫)                                   other than [j] bay–zaatuw (by)
vain; in v.\avail; to no a.\purpose; to no p.            very\same\none other than\other; none
 [j] biduwn faayda (by)                                   other than [n/] bay zaat–uw (zat)
vain; in v.\avail; to no a.\purpose; to no p.            very\same\none other than\other; none
 [j] biduwn faayda (dwn)                                  other than [n/] bay nafsuw (nfs)
vain; in v.\avail; to no a.\purpose; to no p.            vest"; thin cotton garment like short
 [j] biduwn faayda (fyd)                                  [jallaabiyya]? [n] 9arraagiy 9araariyg (9rg)
valid (e.g. of passport) [a] saariy (sra)                vet\veterinary surgeon [a] diktawr baTariy
valley; river v.\river valley [n] waadiy widyaat          dakaatra –iyn (bTr)
 (wda)
                                                  109
vet\veterinary surgeon [a] Tabiyb baTariy               visit\call (social/of doctor, etc.?) [n] ziyaara
  aTibba –iyn (byTr)                                      –aat (zwr)
vet\veterinary surgeon [a] Tabiyb bayTariy              visitor\caller?\guest? [n] zaayir zuwwaar (zyr)
  aTibba –iyn (byTr)                                    voice (most common
vet\veterinary surgeon [n] diktawr baTariy                meaning)\sound?\noise? [n] Hiss *aHsaas
  dakaatra –iyn (dktr)                                    (Hs;)
vet\veterinary surgeon [n] Tabiyb baTariy               voice (most common
  aTibba –iyn (Tb;)                                       meaning)\sound?\noise? [n] Hiss *aHsaas
vet\veterinary surgeon [n] Tabiyb bayTariy                (Hs;)
  aTibba –iyn (Tb;)                                     voice; in a loud v. [n] bay Hiss 9aaliy (Hs;)
veterinary [a] baTariy –iyn (byTr)                      voice\sound?\noise? [n] Hiss *aHsaas (Hs;)
veterinary [a] bayTariy –iyn (byTr)                     volume (of a written work) [n] mujallad –aat
vice–...\deputy\representative [n] naayib                 (jld)
  nuwwaab (nwb)                                         voluntary; v.ly\spontaneous; s.ly\accord;
vicinity; in the v. of\near\close to [aj][at]             of o.’s own a. [j] bi-xtiyaar-iy° (by)
  gariyb min/lay/COMPL. (grb)                           voluntary; v.ly\spontaneous; s.ly\accord;
vicinity\district\area\region\territory? [n]              of o.’s own a. [n] bi-xtiyaar-iy° (xyr)
  manTiga manaaTig (nTg)                                voluntary; v.ly\spontaneous; s.ly\accord;
vicinity\district\area\region\territory? [n]              of one’s own a.\willingly [n] bay xaaTr–uw
  manTiga manaaTig (nTg)                                  (xTr)
victory (e.g. in football, cards)\win (e.g. in          voluntary; v.ly\spontaneous; s.ly\accord;
  football, cards)\defeat (e.g. in football,              of one’s own a.\willingly [j] bay xaaTr–uw
  cards)\lose (e.g. in football, cards) [n/]              (by)
  #ulub none (#lb)                                      voluntary; v.ly\spontaneous; s.ly\accord;
victory (of Muhammad + early Muslims                      of own a. [j] baraa– (bra)
  only?) [n/] fatiH futuwHaat (ftH)                     voluntary; v.ly\spontaneous; s.ly\accord;
victory\triumph [n/] naSur none (nSr)                     of own a. [j] bay nafsuw (by)
victory\triumph [n/] naSur none (nSr)                   voluntary; v.ly\spontaneous; s.ly\accord;
villa\house; large, expensive modern h. [n]               of own a. [nf] bay nafsuw (nfs)
  villa –aat (vl;)                                      vomit (less strong than [gaDaf])\throw up
village\hamlet? [n] Hilla *Halaal\Hallaal (Hl;)           (less strong than [gaDaf])\sick; be s. (less
village\hamlet? [n] Hilla *Hilaal\*Hilal (Hl;)            strong than [gaDaf]) [vi] Tara∫ yaTru∫ (Tr∫)
violent [a] 9aniyf —iyn\*9unafa (9nf)                   vomit (stronger than [Tara∫])\sick; be sick
violet (colour – used by many people?) [a]                (stronger than [Tara∫]) [vi] gaDaf yaDdif
  banafsájiy (bnfs)                                       (gdf)
violin [n] kamaan ? (kmn)                               vomit (up) (stronger than [Tara∫])\sick; be
virtue\merit?\advantage?\excellence? [n]                  sick/sick up (stronger than [Tara∫]) [vt]
  faDiyla faDaayil (fDl)                                  gaDaf yagDif\yagDuf (gDf)
virtue\merit\excellence\advantage? [n]                  vomit (up) (stronger than [Tara∫])\sick; be
  faDiyla faDaayil (fDl)                                  sick/sick up (stronger than [Tara∫]) [vt]
virtuous\pious\devout\godly\holy\religious                gaDaf yagDif (gDf)
  (person) [a] SaaliH SullaaH (SlH)                     vomit\sick; be sick [vi] istafra# yistafra# (fr#)
virtuous\pious\devout\godly\holy\religious              vote for [vtj] adda Sawt–(uw) lay yaddiy (d;a)
  (person) [a] SaaliH –iyn\*SulaHa (SlH)                vote for [n] adda Sawt–(uw) lay yaddiy (Swt)
visa [n] ta'∫iyra –aat ('∫r)                            vote for [vj] Sawwat lay yiSawwit (Swt)
visa [n] viyza (/[fiyza]?) –aat (vyz)                   voyage? [n] safar none (sfr)
visit the tomb ([gubba]) of a saint                     vulgur\crude\coarse\foul–mouthed [a]
  ([waliy])\pilgrimage; make a p. to the                  safiyh –iyn\sufaha (sfh)
  tomb ([gubba]) of a saint ([waliy]) [vt] zaar         wage (monthly only?)\salary\pay [n]
  yazuwr (zwr)                                            maahiyya –aat\mawaahiy (mah)
visit, to the tomb ([gubba]) of a saint                 wage\salary\pay [n] murattab –aat (rtb)
  ([waliy])\pilgrimage, to the tomb ([gubba])           wagon (on a train)\carriage (on a train) [n]
  of a saint ([waliy]) [n] ziyaara –aat (zwr)             9arabiyya –aat?\9arabaat (9rb)
visit/pay a v. on [vt] jaa yajiy (jy)                   waistcoat [n] sidayriy –aat (sdr)
visit/pay a v. to [vj] ma∫a lay yam∫iy (m∫a)            waistcoat [n] sidayriy –aat (sdr)
                                                  110
wait for [vt+] istanna yistanna ('na)                   war [n] Haraaba –aat (Hrb)
wait for\await\expect\anticipate? [vt] intaZar          war/w.fare\fight?\combat?\battle? [nf/ ?]
 yantaZir/yinTaZir (nZr)                                 Harib Huruwb (Hrb)
waiter [n] jarasawn –aat (jrsn)                         war; wage war against\fight\combat\battle
waiter (in restaurant/cafe?) [n] jarasawn –aat           [vt] Haarab yiHaarib (Hrb)
 (jrsn)                                                 ward (in a hospital, prison) [n] 9ambar
wake (up)\get up?\up; get up? [vtj] gawwam               9anaaabir (9nbr)
 yigawwim (gwm)                                         warm [a] daafiy (dfa)
wake up; I woke up?\awake; I awoke? [vj]                warm [a] daafiy (dfa)
 gumta min an–nawm (gwm)                                warm (up) (what?)\heat (up) (what?)\hot;
wake up; I woke up?\awake; I awoke? [n]                  make h. [vt] saxxan yisaxxin (sxn)
 gumta min an–nawm (nwm)                                warm; bc. w. (person, weather, food, etc.)
wake up\awake [vi] SiHa yaSHa (SHa)                      [vi] sixin yasxan (sxn)
wake up\awaken [vtj] gawwam min an–nawm                 warm; bc. w. (person, weather, food, etc.)
 yigawwim (gwm)                                          [vi] saxxan yisaxxin (sxn)
wake up\awaken\rouse [vt] SaHHa yiSaHHiy                warn about/of\caution about/of [vtj] nabbah
 (SHa)                                                   yinabbih (nbh)
wake up\rouse\awaken [vt] tawwar yitawwir               warn of\caution about [vtj+] nabbah yinabbih
 (twr)                                                   (nbh)
walk [vtm] ma∫a 9ala kur9ayn–u (rjl)                    warn?\caution? [vt] nabbah yinabbih (nbh)
walk [vtm] ma∫a bi–l–kuraa9 (kr9)                       warning (official-type w.; e.g. of boy by
walk [vtm] ma∫a 9ala kur9ain–uw (m∫a)                    teacher in school)\caution (official-type
walk [vtm] ma∫a 9ala rijlayn–uw (m∫a)                    w.; e.g. of boy by teacher in school) [n]
walk [vtm] ma∫a bi–l–kuraa9 (m∫a)                        taHziyr *–aat?\*taHaaziyr? (Hzr)
wall [n] HayTa HiyaT (HyT)                              wash (off)\clean\polish?\wipe
wall (free–standing wall; not part of house,             (off/away)\rub (off) [vt] masaH yamsaH
 made of anything)\fence/fencing; not part               (msH)
 of house, made of anything) [n] suwr                   wash arms, legs and face (not whole
 aswaar (swr)                                            body)\have a wash (of arms, legs and
wall (of a building,or free–standing) [n]                face) [vi] it∫aTTaf yit∫aTTaf (∫Tf)
 HayTa HiyaT (HyT)                                      wash; w.ing [nv] #asiyl (#sl)
wall; partition made of bamboo canes                    wash; w.ing (ritual, Islamic)\ablution; major
 ([gana]) tied together [n] HaSiyra –                    a. [n/] #usul (#sl)
 aat\HaSaayir (HSr)                                     wash\launder? [vt] #asal (passive: [in–], [it–])
wander (round)\stroll (round)\walk (round)               ya#sil (#sl)
 [vim] laffa yaliff (lf;)                               wash\launder? [vt] #assal (passive: [it–] yi#assil
wander round\stroll round\walk; take a w.                (#sl)
 round [vtm] laffa yaliff (lf;)                         wash\launder?\clean? [vt] #assal (passive: [it–
wander; take so. for a w. (round)\stroll;                ] yi#assil (#sl)
 take so. for a s. (round)\walk; take so. for           washer/w.man\launderyman [n] #assaal –iyn
 a w. (round)\take so. for a                             (#sl)
 stroll/wander/walk (round) [vim] laffa bay             washer/w.man\laundryman [n] #assaal –iyn
 yaliff (lf;)                                            (#sl)
want [az] 9aawiz –iyn (9wz)                             washer/washerman\laundryman [n] #assaal –
want [az] 9aayiz –iyn (9wz)                              iyn (#sl)
want [az] 9aayiz –iyn (9wz)                             washing (i.e. clothes being washed) [n]
want\desire? [vdz+] daar yaduwr (dwr)                    #asiyl (#sl)
want\desire? [az] daayir –iyn (dwr)                     washing-machine [n] #assaala –aat (#sl)
want\need\require [a] muHtaaj –iyn (Hwj)                washing–soap (for clothes, pots)\soap;
want\need\require [aj] muHtaaj lay –iyn (Hwj)            washing s. (for clothes, pots) [ng] Saabuwn
want\need\require [vj] iHtaaj lay yiHtaaj (Hwj)          #asiyl coll (Sbn)
want\need\require [vt] iHtaaj yiHtaaj (Hwj)             waste (of time) [n] Dayaa9 ? (D79)
want\need\requirement\necessity [n]                     waste (time) [vt] Dayya9 yiDayyi9 (Dy9)
 iHtiyaaj –aat (Hwj)                                    waste (time) [vt] Dayya9 yiDayyi9 (Dy9)
war [nf/ ?] Harib Huruwb\(*?)Huruwbaat (Hrb)
                                                   111
watch out for (as warning)\look out for (as              weak (esp. of animals)\feeble ~(esp. of
 warning)\careful; be c. about (as warning)               animals)\frail? (esp. of animals) [a] baTlaan
 [vtj?] xatta l–baal min yaxutt (xT;)                     (–iyn) (not normally used of people) (bTl)
watch out for (as warning)\look out for (as              weak (of glue) [a] xafiyf ? (xf;)
 warning)\careful; be c. about (as warning)              weak and thin (person, animal)\thin and
 [vtj?] xalla l–baal min yixalliy (xl;)                   weak (person, animal), gaunt [a] yaabis ?
watch out for (as warning)\look out for (as               (ybs)
 warning)\careful; be c. about (as warning)              weak tea [a] ∫aay xafiyf (xf;)
 [j] xalla l–baal min yixalliy (mn)                      weak\feeble?\frail?\delicate? [a] Da9iyf
watch out for (as warning)\look out for (as               Du9aaf (D9f)
 warning)\careful; be c. about (as warning)              weak\feeble?\frail?\delicate? [a] Da9iyf –
 [j] xatta l–baal min yaxutt (mn)                         iyn\*Du9afa (D9f)
watch repairer\clock repairer\repairer;                  weak\feeble?\frail?\thin (animal) [a] baaTil ?
 watch r. [n] saa9aatiy –iyya (sw9)                       (bTl)
watch\observe [vj] laaHaZ lay yilaaHiZ (lHZ)             wear mourning clothes (women) (and
watch\observe [vt] laaHaZ yilaaHiZ (lHZ)                  observe other mourning customs, such
watchmaker\clockmaker (are any made in                    as not wearing perfume)\put on mourning
 Sudan?) [n] saa9aatiy –iyya (sw9)                        clothes (women) (and observe other
watchman?\sentry?\sentinel?\guard? [n]                    mourning customs, such as not wearing
 Haaris Hurraas (Hrs)                                     perfume) [vi?] Haddat taHidd (Hd;)
water [n] mawya –aat (mwa)                               wear out (what?) [vi] gidim yagdam (gdm)
water (an animal)\drink; give to d. [vt] saga            wear; bc. worn out (person)\exhaust; bc.
 yazgiy (sga)                                             e.d (person)\tire; bc. t.d out\ill; bc. I.\old;
water (an animal, plant)\drink; give to d.                bc. old and worn out [vi] #ilib ya#lab (#lb)
 [vt] zaga yazgiy (zga)                                  weariness?\fatigue\tiredness\exhaustion
water; fully–w.ed (land)\irrigate; fully i.d [a]          [n] futuwr (ftr)
 rawyaan ? (rwa)                                         weather [n] jaww (jw;)
water; give a lot of water to [vt] rawa yarwiy           weather; cold/chilly/cool? w. [ng?] barid (brd)
 (rwa)                                                   weather; hot weather\hot weather [n] Harr
water; to be watered (of crops) [vi?] ∫irib               (Hr;)
 ya∫rab (∫rb)                                            wedding/w. feast\marriage\feast; wedding
water; w.ing?\irrigation [n] rayy (rwa)                   f. [n/] 9iris 9irsaat (9rs)
water; well w.ed (ground)\irrigate; i.d                  Wednesday [nx] al–aRbi9a –aat (rb9)
 (land)? [a] ∫arbaan (∫rb)                               Wednesday [nx] yawm al–arbi9aº ?ayyaam al–
water\irrigate [vt] zaga yazgiy (zga)                     arbi9aº (ywm)
water\irrigate? [vt] saga yasgiy (sga)                   weed [vt] Ha∫∫a yaHi∫∫ (H∫;)
watercress [ng] jirjiyr coll (jr;;)                      weed [vt] Ha∫∫a yaHi∫∫ (H∫;)
watercress; piece of w./single w. plant [ns]             week [n] usbuw9 asaabiy9 (sb9)
 jirjiyra –aat (jr;;)                                    weekly [a] usbuw9iy (sb9)
water–jug (with spout)\jug (with spout) [n]              weekly [d] usbuw9iy (sb9)
 ibriyg abaariyg ('brg)                                  weigh [vt] wazan yawzin/yaWzin (wzn)
water–jug (with spout)\jug (with spout) [n]              weigh (out) [vt] wazan yawzin/yaWzin (wzn)
 ibriyk abaariyk ('brk)                                  weight [n/] wazin awzaan (wzn)
water–jug?\jug\pitcher? [n] jagg?\jakk?                  welcome (said when?) [d] ahlan wa–sahlan
 jukuwka (jk;)                                            (shl)
water-tank\tank; water-t. [n] xazzaan –aat               well [d] kuwayyis (kys)
 (xzn)                                                   well (for water) [ne] biyr abyaar (byr)
way; in this w.\manner; in this m.\like this             well (for water)\spring? [ne] biyr abyaar (byr)
 [n/] bi-∫–∫akli da (∫kl)                                well (in good health)\health; in good h. [j]
way; on your way to" [j] bay jaay (by)                    bay xayr –iyn (by)
we [w] niHna (nHn)                                       well (in good health)\health; in good h. [a]
weak (e.g. of football team, students)\poor               ∫adiyd –iyn (∫d;)
 (i.e. of poor quality; e.g. of team,                    well (in good health)\health; in good h. [n]
 students) [a] Da9iyf –iyn (D9f)                          maa 9ind-… 9awaja (9wj)
                                                   112
well; get w.\better; get b. (i.e. well)\reover           while; a short w. ago\time; a short t. ago [n
 [vi] niSiH yanSaH (nSH)                                  ?] gabli ∫uwayya (∫y)
well\fine\good\okay\alright [a] Tayyib (Tyb)             while; a short w. ago\time; a short t. ago [j]
well\fine\okay (reply to [kayf al–Haal]) [a]              gabli ∫uwayya (gbl)
 raayig (rwg)                                            while; a short w. ago\time; a short t. ago [d]
well\fine\okay (reply to [kayf al–Haal]) [a]              gibayl (gbl)
 mirawwig –iyn (rwg)                                     while\during [j ] fiy (fy)
well\fine\okay (reply to [kayf al–Haal]) [n]             whip\flog\lash [vt] jalad yajlid (jld)
 rawga (rwg)                                             whip\lash\scourge [n] sawT sayTaan\siyaaT
well–being\welfare\safety\security [n]                    (swT)
 salaama (slm)                                           whip\lash\scourge? [n] sawT sayTaan\siyaaT
well–bucket\bucket; well–b. [n] daluw                     (swT)
 dalaawiy\dilyaat (dla)                                  whiplash\lash (of the whip) [nsv] jalda –aat
west [n/] #arib (#rb)                                     (jld)
western"?\European [a] afranjiy –iyya\–iyn               whistle [n] Suffaara –aat\Safaafiyr (Sfr)
 ('frn)                                                  whistle (birds and people) [vi] Saffar yiSaffir
western/w.er (i.e. European,American etc.)                (Sfr)
 [a] #arbiy –iyn (#rb)                                   whistle (e.g. penny whistle)\pipe [n]
western/w.er\occidental [a] #arbiy –iyn (#rb)             Zumbaara –aat\Zanaabiyr (Znbr)
wet\damp?\moist?\humid? [a] layyin –iyn?                 whistle?\siren? [n] Suffaara –aat\Safaafiyr (Sfr)
 (lyn)                                                   whistle\chirp (cricket)?\hiss (snake)? [vi?]
what [q] ayh\*ay ('yh)                                    Saffar yiSaffir (Sfr)
what [q] ∫in-uw° (∫n)                                    whistle\pipe (= [Suffaara]?) [n] Zumbaara –
what is your name (less common than                       aat\Zanaabiyr (Znbr)
 [ism-ak min-uw°]) [q] ism-ak ∫in-uw° (∫n)               whistle\siren? [n] Suffaara –aat\Safaafiyr (Sfr)
what is/are .... like\like; what is/are ... like         white; pure w. (camel) [a] abyaD bayDa°
 [q] kayf (kyf)                                           buyuD (byD)
what/which [q] yaat– (yat)                               who [q] min-uw° (mn)
whatever God wills [o] maa ∫aLLaa (ma)                   who [q] miyn-uw° (mn)
whatever God wills\will; whatever God w.s                whoever [a] ayyi waaHid (wHd)
 [o] maa ∫aa'aLLaah (ma)                                 whoever [o] ayyi waaHid ('y;)
whatever\matter; no m. what\however                      whole; the w. time [d] Tawwaaliy (Twl)
 much [c] mahma (mhm)                                    whole\entire\all\every\each [n] kulli … (kl;)
wheat [ng] gamiH gumuwH (gmH)                            whole\entire\all\every\each [n] kull (kl;)
wheat; piece of w./single w. plant [ns]                  why (either first or last word in sentence)
 gamHa –aat (gmH)                                         [q] lay ∫in-uw° (∫n?)
wheel\tyre (and rest of wheel) [n] 9ajala –aat           why (either first or last word in sentence)
 (9jl)                                                    [p] lay ∫in-uw° (ly)
when [q] mitayn (mtn)                                    why (either first or last word in sentence)
when [q] mitayn (mtn)                                     [q] lay (ly)
when [c] wakit (wkt)                                     why\reason; for what r.? [n] fiy ∫aan ∫in-uw°
whenever [n] kulla maa (kl;)                              (∫an)
whenever [o] kulla maa (ma)                              why\reason; for what r.? [n] min ∫aan ∫in-uw°
whenever\more; the m. ...? [c] kullamaa (ma)              (∫an)
where [q] wayn (wyn)                                     why\reason; for what r.? [n] 9ala ∫aan ∫in-uw°
wherever ? maHall maa –aat ma ??? (Hl;)                   (∫an)
wherever ? makaan maa ? (kwn)                            why\reason; for what r.? [n] 9a∫aan ∫in-uw°
which boy? [q] yaat–uw° walad (yat)                       (∫an)
which boy? [q] al–walad yaat–uw° (yat)                   why\reason; for what r.? [q] fiy ∫aan ∫in-uw°
which girl? [q] al–bitt yaat–a° (yat)                     (∫n)
which girl? [q] yaat–uw° bitt (yat)                      why\reason; for what r.? [q] min ∫aan ∫in-uw°
which people? [q] an–naas yaat–um° (yat)                  (∫n)
which people? [q] yaat–uw° naas (yat)                    why\reason; for what r.? [q] 9ala ∫aan ∫in-uw°
which? [q] yaat– (ya)                                     (∫n)
                                                  113
why\reason; for what r.? [q] 9a∫aan ∫in-uw°             window(-glass) (of car, etc.)/car–window
 (∫n)                                                    [ng] gazaaz none (gz;)
why\reason; for what r.? [j] 9ala ∫aan ∫in-uw°          window(-glass) (of car, etc.)/car–window
 (9la)                                                   [ng] gizaaz none (gz;)
why\reason; for what r.? [j] 9a∫aan ∫in-uw°             window/w.s (of car) [ng] gazaaz none (gz;)
 (9la)                                                  window; single window (of car, etc.)/car–
why\reason; for what r.? [j] fiy ∫aan ∫in-uw°            window [ng] lawH gazaaz (gz;)
 (fy)                                                   window; single window (of car, etc.)/car–
why\reason; for what r.? [j] min ∫aan ∫in-uw°            window [ng] lawH gizaaz (gz;)
 (mn)                                                   window; single window (of car, etc.)/car–
wide; make w.(r)\roomy; make                             window [n] lawH gazaaz (lwH)
 r.(ier)?\spacious; make (more) s.?\big;                window; single window (of car, etc.)/car–
 make b./bigger\broad; make b.(er)\large;                window [n] lawH gizaaz (lwH)
 make l.r\extend [vt] wassa9 yiwassi9 (ws9)             window\grid?\grill (e.g. ticket–grill/window
wide\broad\roomy\spacious\large\extensiv                 in cinema) [n] ∫ubbaak ∫abaabiyk (∫bk)
 e [a] waasi9 ? (ws9)                                   wine? [n] xamra xumuwr (xmr)
wife [n] zaWja (also [zawja]) –aat (zwj)                wing (of bird, aeroplane, army, building?)
wife\woman [n] mara niswaan\niswa (mr)                   [n] janaaH *ajniHa\jinHayn (jnH)
wild (of animals and plants; scientific                 wing (of bird, aeroplane, army, building?)
 language) [a] barriy (br;)                              [n] jinaaH *ajniHa\jinHayn (jnH)
wild (of animals or plants) [nm] xala (xla)             wing (of bird\aeroplane) [n] janaaH
wild animal (i.e. not domesticated) [n]                  jinHayn\*ajniHa (jnH)
 Haywaan xala –aat xala (Hya)                           wink at (as a sign) [vj+] #amaz lay ya#miz
wild animal\animal; wild a. [n] Haywaan xala             (#mz)
 Hayawaanaat xala (Hy;)                                 winner (e.g. in a race) [a]? faayiz –iyn (fwz)
wild boar (animal)\boar; wild boar (animal)             winner\victor [n] #aalib –iyn? (#lb)
 [n] kadruwk kadaariyk (kdrk)                           winter (in C. Sudan from November to
wild boar\boar; wild–b. [n] Halluwf Halaaliyf            March?) [nm] ∫ita (∫ta)
 (Hlf)                                                  wish (for)\desire (for)\longing
will (to express future)\going to [o] bi-                (for)\appetite?\want [nj] ra#ba (lay) –
 (IMPERFECT VERB) (b?)                                   aat\ra#abaat (r#b)
will (to express future)\going to [o] Ha-               wish; I w. you'd come yesterday [o] yaa
 (IMPERFECT VERB) (Ha)                                   raytak jiyt amis (ryt)
will\determination [n] 9aziyma 9azaayim (9zm)           wish; I wish ...\only; if only ...\if only ... [o]
win (e.g. a game) [vi] faaz yafuwz (fwz)                 yaa rayt (ryt)
win (e.g. a game, a match)\gain (e.g.                   wish; I wish ...\only; if only ...\if only ... [o]
 money)\acquire (e.g. money)\earn (e.g.                  yaa rayt (ya)
 money) [vt] kasab yaksib (ksb)                         with (i.e. having/owning/possessing) [n ?]
win (e.g. a game, a match)\gain (e.g.                    abuw +NOUN ('b)
 money)\acquire (e.g. money)\earn (e.g.                 with\together with [j] ma9a (m9a)
 money) [vt] kisib yaksab (ksb)                         within Kosti\inside Kosti [j] juwa kuwstiy
win (in a game) [vt] akal yaakul ('kl)                   (jwa)
win?; having won\obtain?; having                        within Kosti\inside Kosti [j] juwa fiy kuwstiy
 o.ed?\gain; having g.ed\acquire?; having                (fy)
 a.d?\earn?; having e.ed?\profit?; having               without [j] bi–duwn +GEN (by)
 p.ed?\winner? [a] kaasib –iyn (ksb)                    without [j] bi–duwn +GEN (dwn)
wind [n] riyH riyaaH? (ryH)                             without [j] min duwn (dwn)
wind up (clock/watch) [vt] mala ! (mla)                 without [j] min duwn (mn)
wind; cool fresh wind (pleasant) [n] Taraawa            witness [vt] ∫aaf ya∫uwf (∫wf)
 (Tra)                                                  witness [n] ∫aahid ∫uhuwd (∫hd)
wind\coil?\spool?\reel? [vt] laffa yaliff (lf;)         witness (in court only?/+of an incident?)
wind\fart [n] riyH none (ryH)                            [n] ∫aahid *–iyn\∫uhuwd (∫hd)
wind\spool?\reel?\wrap (up)\roll (up)\fold              woman [n] insaana ? ('ns)
 (up) [vt] laffa yaliff (lf;)                           woman (mainly contemptuous; possibly
                                                         affectionate) [n] mirayya –aat (mr)
                                                   114
woman; esp. woman with whom one has a                    worry\care\concern\sorrow?\grief?\distres
 specific relationship (e.g. relative, friend,            s? [n] hamm humuwm (hm;)
 colleague, so. who one buys things from)                worse [a] ak9ab (k9b)
 [n] zawla none (zwl)                                    worse\worst [a] aswa (swa)
woman; old woman\old woman [nf] 9ajuwz –                 worse\worst [a] ak9ab (k9b)
 aat\9ajaayiz (9jz)                                      worse\worst [a] aswa (swa)
woman; women [np] 9awiyn (9wn)                           worse\worst (comparative of [ka9ab]) [a]
woman; women\lady; ladies [np] Hariym                     aswa (swa)
 (Hrm)                                                   worship (God)\adore\venerate [vt] 9abad
woman; women\lady; ladies [np] Hariymaat                  *ya9bud\ya9bid (9bd)
 (Hrm)                                                   worship\adore\venerate\serve (religious
woman; women\wife; wives [np] niswaan                     sense?) [vt] 9abad ya9bid\*ya9bud (9bd)
 (nsa)                                                   worth; be w.?(used of what?) [vt] istaahal
woman; women\wife; wives [np] nasaawiyn                   yistaahal ('hl)
 (nsa)                                                   worth; be w.?(used of what?) [vt] istaHagga
woman\wife [n] mara nasaawiyn (mr)                        yastaHigg (Hg;)
wonderful; st. w.\marvellous; st. m.\good;               worthless\useless\valueless [a] maa naafi9 –
 st. g. [am?] Haaja tamaam (tm;)                          iyn (nf9)
wood [n] 9uwd 9iydaan?\a9waad? (9wd)                     wound (many people, animals)\injure
wood; dressed w. [ng] xa∫ab ? (x∫b)                       (many people, animals)\hurt (many
wood; piece of w. [n] 9uwd 9iydaan\a9waad                 people, animals) [vt] jarraH yijarriH (jrH)
 (9wd)                                                   wound; reopen (an old w.)\reopen (an old
wood; undressed w. [ng] HaTab coll (HTb)                  wound) [vt?] 9awwar yi9awwir (9wr)
wood\lumber?\timber? [ng] xa∫ab coll (x∫b)               wound; reopen an unhealed wound [vt]
wood\lumber\timber [ng] xa∫ab ax∫aab (x∫b)                9awwar yi9awwir (9wr)
wool (material) [ng] Suwf coll (Swf)                     wound; single w.\injury; single i.\lesion;
word [n] kalma (= [kilma]) kilmaat\kalmaat (klm)          single l. [ns] jarHa –aat (jrH)
word [n] kilma (= [kalma]) kilmaat\kalmaat (klm)         wound; small w.\injury; small i.\lesion;
word [n] kalima –aat (klm)                                small l. [n] jarHa –aat (jrH)
work (be successful)\succeed/be                          wound; w.ed (in war or accident
 successful (of thing/project) [vi] SalaH                 only)\injure; i.d (in war or accident
 yaSlaH (SlH)                                             only)\hurt (in war or accident only) [a]
work (be successful)\succeed/be                           jariyH juraHa\jarHa (jrH)
 successful (of thing/project) [vi] ma∫a                 wound; w.ed\injure; i.d\hurt [a] majruwH ?
 yam∫iy (m∫a)                                             (jrH)
work; w.ing (of a machine)\operate; o.ing                wound\injure\hurt [vt] jaraH yajraH (jrH)
 (of a machine)\run; r.ing (of a                         wound\injury?\lesion? [n/] jariH juruwH (jrH)
 machine)\motion; in m. (of a machine [a]                wound\injury\lesion [n/] jariH juruwH (jrH)
 ∫a##aal ? (∫#l)                                         wound\lesion\injury [n] 9uwwaara
work?\labour? [n] 9amal (9ml)                             9awwaaraat? (9wr)
work\job\business?\concern?\occupation\                  wrap (up)\roll (up)?\fold (up)? [vt] laffa yaliff
 activity? [n/] ∫u#ul a∫#aal (∫#l)                        (lf;)
work\run\operate\motion; be in m.                        wrath?\rage?\fury?\anger\exasperation [n]
 (machine) [vt?] i∫ta#al ya∫ta#il (∫#l)                   #aDab (#Db)
worker\workman\labourer [n] 9aamil                       wretch\fool\imbecile\idiot?\miserable?\poo
 9ummaal (9ml)                                            r? [a] 9awlaak 9awaaliyk (9wlk)
workshop\factory? [n] war∫a wira∫ (wr∫)                  write/write (down)\compose (st. written
world; the Arab w. [n] al–9aalam al–9arabiy               such as poetry) [vt] katab yaktib (ktb)
 (9lm)                                                   writer\author [n] kaatib kuttaab\*kataba (ktb)
world\universe?\cosmos? [n] 9aalam none                  writing [n] kitaaba (gra)
 (9lm)                                                   wrong (moral) [n] xaTa ? (xTa)
worry; w.ied about (now or general                       wrong" [n] xaTa ? (xTa)
 tendency)\concern; c.ed about (now or                   wrong; do w. (morally) [vt] ajram yajrim (jrm)
 general tendency) [aj] ∫afgaan 9ala –iyn (∫fg)          wrong; go w.\out; become out of o. 9iTil
                                                          ya9Tal (9Tl)
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wrong; you are w./in the w.\fault; you are at           yet; not yet (+ negative verb)\not yet (+
 f. [n] maa 9ind-ak Hagg (Hg;)                            negative verb) now: not up till now (+
wrong; you are w./in the w.\fault; you are at             negative verb)\until; not until now (+
 f. [j] maa 9ind-ak Hagg (9nd)                            negative verb) [j] lay hassa9 (ly)
wrong; you're in the wrong\fault; it's your             yet; not yet (+ negative verb)\not yet (+
 f. [o] maa 9ind-ak Hagg (ma)                             negative verb) now: not up till now (+
wrong\evil; do e. to\treat unjustly\oppress?              negative verb)\until; not until now (+
 [vt] Zalam yaZlum (Zlm)                                  negative verb) [d] lay hassa9 (hs9?)
wrong\iniquity\injustice\unfairness\oppres              yoghurt (= [zabaadiy]?)\curds?\milk;
 sion [n/] Zulum none (Zlm)                               curdled m.? [n] rawb (rwb)
wrong\out of order\broken 9aTlaan –iyn?                 yoghurt (cf. [rawb])\milk; curdled m.? [n]
 (9Tl)                                                    zabaadiy (zbd)
wrong\out of order\broken mu9aTTal                      you (masc. plural; object of verb or
 (\ma9aTTal) ? (9Tl)                                      preposition)\your (masc. plural; suffix on
yard (measure of length) [n] yaarda –aat (yrd)            nouns) [w] –kum (k)
yard (unit of length) [n] yaarda –aat (yrd)             you (masc. plural; object of verb or
year (esp. of calendar year, from January                 preposition)\your (masc. plural; suffix on
 to December)\calendar year (from                         nouns) [w] –kun (k)
 January to December) [n] sana                          you (subject pronoun; fem. plural) [w] ittan
 siniyn\sanawaat (sna)                                    ('t;)
year; I'm thirty–six years old [n] 9umriy sitta         you (subject pronoun; fem. plural) [w] intan
 uw–talaatiyn sana (sna)                                  ('nt)
year; nineteen eighty [n] sanat alf uw–                 you (subject pronoun; fem. sing.) [w] intiy
 tus9umiya uw–tamaaniyn (sna)                             ('nt)
year; which/what year [n] sanat kam (sna)               you (subject pronoun; masc. plural) [w]
yearly\annual [n] sanawiy ? (sna)                         intuw ('nt)
yell/y.ing?\scream/s.ing?\shout/shouting\c              you (subject pronoun; masc. sing.) [w] inta
 ry; c.ing (out)\call; c.ing (out) [nv] kawraak           ('nt)
 kawaariyk (kwrk)                                       young man\man; young m. [n] Sabiy
yellow (yellow to yellow-orange                           Subyaan\Sibya (Ali says [Sibya] is a bit Standard
 colour)\orange; yellow to yellow-orange                  Arabic) (Sba)
 colour [a] aSfar Safra Sufur (Sfr)                     young woman/girl\woman; young w.\girl
yellow\pale?\pallid?\wan? [a] aSfar Safra                 (whatage?) [n] fata° fatawaat\*fityaat (fta)
 Sufur (Sfr)                                            young woman\woman; young w. [n] Sabiyya
yellow–brown (sheep)\golden brown                         –aat (Sba)
 (sheep) [a] a∫gar ∫agra ∫ugur (∫gr)                    young\juvenile?\minor? [a] Sa#ayyir Su#aar
Yemen [nx] al–yaman (ymn)                                 (S#r)
Yemeni [ax] yamaniy –a\–iyya\–iyn (ymn)                 young\offspring [n] wadd awlaad (wld)
yes [o] aay ('ay)                                       young\offspring [n] walad awlaad (wld)
yes [o] aywa ('ay)                                      youth (up to mid/late 30s) [n] ∫abaab (∫b;)
yes (in reply to o.'s name being called out)            youth (up to mid/late 30s) [n] ∫abaab (∫b;)
 [o] na9am (n9m)                                        Zaire [nx] za'iyr (zayr)
yesterday (esp. of evening?) [d] umbaariH               Zaire [nx] zaa'iyr (zayr)
 ('mbrH)                                                Zairese [ax] za'iyriy –iyn (zayr)
yesterday (in daytime only?) [d/] amis ('ms)            Zairese [ax] zaa'iyriy –iyn (zayr)
yesterday; the day before y. [d] awwal                  zero\naught\nothing [n/] Sifir aSfaar (Sfr)
 umbaariH ('mbrH)                                       zikir [zikir]\chant; sufi [Suwfiy] religious
yesterday; the day before y. [d/] awwal amis              c.ing [n/] zikir (zkr)
 ('ms)                                                  zinc [ng] zink (znk)
yesterday; the day before y. [a] awwal                  zinc [ng] zink (znk)
 umbaariH ('wl)                                         zinc [ng] zinkiy coll (znk)
yesterday; the day before y. [d] awwal amis             ziyr (large, almost conical water storage
 ('wl)                                                    jar) [n] ziyr azyaar (zyr)
yet (not yet)\still (not)\now; up till now? [j          zizyphus spina Christi; fruit of the z. s. c.
 ?] lay hassa9 (ly)                                       tree [ng] nabak coll (nbk)
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zizyphus spina Christi; fruit of the z. s. c.
  tree [ns] nabaka –aat (nbk)
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