Docstoc

The 1970s and 1980s

Document Sample
The 1970s and 1980s Powered By Docstoc
					The 1970s and 1980s


       The Home Stretch
Jimmy Carter’s Presidency
Domestic achievements
   Amnesty -- Pardoned 10,000 draft evaders
    during Vietnam era (campaign pledge)
   Created the Department of Education (and
    the Department of Energy
   Placed the civil service on a merit basis and
    reduced Civil Service System
   Environment: created Superfund
Energy
   1977, created Dept. of Energy at the cabinet
    level (in light of recent energy crisis)
   Proposed raising the tax on gasoline and taxing
    autos that used fuel inefficiently in order to
    reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil-- Got
    only a small portion of this bill through
    Congress.
   2nd fuel shortage in 1979 exacerbated the
    nation’s energy woes. -- Spurred by the Iranian
    Revolution and demise of the Shah.
Economy (stagflation continued)
   Convinced Congress to pass an $18 billion tax cut in 1978.
   1978, proposed voluntary wage and price guidelines to
    combat inflation
        Somewhat successful but did not apply to oil, housing, and
         food.
        By 1980 inflation was 12%
   Federal Reserve Board tightened money supply in order to
    reduce inflation but interest rates soared to 20%!.
        Sales of automobiles and houses suffered which increased
         unemployment.
   By 1980, unemployment reached 7.5%
Environment

   Created "superfund" for the cleanup
    of chemical waste dumps
   Established controls over strip mining
   Protected 100 million acres of Alaskan
    wilderness from development
   Three-mile Island nuclear accident
    occurred in 1979
Deregulation

   Air Transportation Deregulation Act
    (1978): Ended government regulation of
    airline fares and routes
   Action symbolizes Carter as a
    conservative Democrat. (Perhaps the
    most conservative since Grover
    Cleveland)
Peacetime Draft Registration

   18 year-olds required to register with the
    Selective Service System to prepare the
    nation militarily; no one actually drafted.
Humanitarian diplomacy

   Sought to base foreign policy on human
    rights but was criticized for inconsistency
    and lack of attention to American
    interests
Humanitarian Diplomacy
   Verbally lashed out at Cuba and Uganda for
    human rights violations.
   Cut foreign aid to Uruguay, Argentina, and
    Ethiopia.
   Championed black majority in South Africa and
    denounced Apartheid.
   Did not punish South Korea or Philippines -- too
    vital to U.S. security. -- Some saw this as
    hypocritical.
   Humanitarian diplomacy ultimately ineffective.
Panama Canal treaty

   Provided for transfer of ownership of the
    Canal to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed
    its neutrality.
                                                  Arguably his
                                                    greatest
                                                accomplishment



Camp David Accords
(September 17, 1978)
   Another conflict imminent between Egypt and Israel
   Carter invited President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Prime
    Minister Menachem Begin of Israel to a summit
    conference at Camp David.
   After 13 days, Carter persuaded them to sign an accord
    that seemed to place the two countries on a solid road
    toward peace.
   Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO) led by Yasser
    Arafat would use terrorism to protest the existence of
    Israel.
   Sadat eventually assassinated by Muslim extremists.
Recognition of China

   Carter ended official recognition of
    Taiwan and in 1979 recognized the
    People’s Republic of China.
   Conservatives called the decision a "sell
    out"
   UN had recognized Communist China in
    1972 as a member of UN Security Council
SALT II
   SALT I treaty due to expire in late 1977. --
    Carter called for a renewing of the SALT accords
    and extending them to include real reductions in
    nuclear armaments.
   1979, Carter signed SALT II with the USSR.
   Not ratified by the Senate in light of Soviet
    invasion of Afghanistan.
    Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
    (end of detente) December 1979
   Carter’s proclaimed U.S. would "use any means necessary,
    including force," to protect the Persian Gulf against Soviet
    aggression.
   Stopped shipments of grain and certain advanced technology
    to the USSR
   Withdrew from SALT II from the senate
   Boycotted the 1980 summer Olympics held in Moscow. -- In
    retaliation, Moscow boycotted 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles.
   Soviets met stiff resistance in Afghanistan and the war
    became "Russia’s Vietnam"; Soviet forces pulled out a decade
    later
                                                        Cost him the

Iran Hostage Crisis                                     presidency in
                                                            1980




   The Iranian Revolution
       In 1978, a revolution forced the Shah of Iran to flee the
        country.
       Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a religious leader,
        became Iran’s leader. -- Reversed many of Shah’s
        western reforms and established conservative Islamic
        social order.
       Revolutionaries called the U.S. "the Great Satan" for its
        support of money and arms to the Shah of Iran. -- CIA
        had put the Shah in power in 1953 after it overthrew
        Moussadegh supported the Shah’s regime until his
        ouster.
                                                                     Cost him the

Iran Hostage Crisis                                                  presidency in
                                                                         1980




   American hostages
       Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical treatment in
        Oct.
       In response, about 400 Iranians (many of them students) broke into
        the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, taking the occupants
        captive. -- Demanded Shah be returned to Iran for trial and that his
        wealth be confiscated and given to Iran.
       Carter froze Iranian assets in the U.S. and est. a trade embargo
        against Iran.
       Iranians eventually freed the black and women hostages but kept 52
        others.
       April 1980, Carter ordered a Marine rescue attempt but it failed after
        several helicopters broke down and another crashed, killing 8 men.
       Carter perceived as weak, indecisive, and ineffective and suffered for it
        in the 1980 elections.
                                                 Cost him the

Iran Hostage Crisis                              presidency in
                                                     1980




   Release of the hostages after 444 days.
       After extensive negotiations with Iran Carter
        released Iranian assets and the hostages were
        freed on January 20, 1980.
       As a final insult to Carter, hostages were
        released after Reagan took his inaugural oath
        so that Carter could not solve the crisis during
        his presidency.
    Nominations
   Democrats nominated Jimmy Carter after a
    challenge from Senator Edward Kennedy. --
    Kennedy’s Chappaquiddick affair killed his candidacy
   Republicans nominated Ronald Reagan of
    California
       The leading spokesman for American conservatism
       Became a B-grade movie star in the 1940s and was a New
        Deal Democrat until he became a spokesman for General
        Electric in 1954 (during "red scare") -- President of the
        Screen Actor’s Guild in the 1950s and helped purge
        Communists from the film industry.
       California governor from 1966 to 1974
   John Anderson, an Independent Congressman, ran
    on a third party ticket.
Campaign
   Reagan called for reductions in government spending and
    taxes, shift in power from the federal gov’t to the states, and
    advocated "traditional American values" -- family, religion,
    hard work, and patriotism.
        Blasted the Soviets for their aggression and vowed to rebuild
         the U.S. military.
        Received vigorous support from the "New Right" incl.
         evangelical Christian groups like Jerry Falwell’s Moral
         Majority.
             Denounced abortion, pornography, homosexuality, the ERA, and
              esp. affirmative action.
             Championed prayer in schools and tougher penalties for criminals.
        Reagan denounced the activist gov’t and failed "social
         engineering" of the Great Society" in the 1960s.
        Promised to get the government off people's backs.
Campaign

   Carter defended his record, but was
    uninspiring in style.
       Inability to control "double digit" inflation
        especially damaging.
   Iran crisis also damaging.
   Charged that Reagan was a war-monger
    who might push the country into nuclear
    war.
Results: Reagan d. Carter 489
to 49
   Reagan got over 51% of vote; Carter 41%;
    Anderson 7%.
   Carter first elected president to be unseated by
    voters since Herbert Hoover.
   Republicans gained control of the Senate for
    first time in 25 years.
   Ushered in the conservative "Reagan
    Revolution" that would continue into the mid-
    1990s.
Reagan and the Cold War
    REAGAN’S WORLD VIEW
 THE U.S. MILITARY IS WEAK VS. THE
  SOVIET UNION
 COMMUNISM IS AN EVIL POLITICAL

  SYSTEM
 THE SOVIET’S ONLY RESPECT
  POWER
 STRENGTHENING THE MILITARY IS A

  PRIORITY.
 “PEACE THROUGH STRENGTH”
    THE MILITARY BUILD-UP
 CARTER HAD INCREASE MILITARY
  SPENDING $171 BILLION IN 1980
 REAGAN ADDS $300 BILLION

 OVER 8 YEARS REAGAN INCREASE
  MILITARY SPENDING ONE TRILLION
  DOLLARS.
 CARTER HAD CUT THE B-1 , REAGAN
  RESTORE THE PROGRAM
 REAGAN EXPANDS MX PROGRAM

 INSTALLS PERSHING II MISSILES IN
       ARMS CONTROL
 REAGAN REJECT SALT II
 PROPOSES “START”= STRATEGIC
  ARMS REDUCTION TREATY
 REAGAN SPEAKS OF WINNING A

  LIMITED NUCLEAR WAR
        NUCLEAR FREEZE
          MOVEMENT
 US & SOVIETS HAVE 50,000
  NUCLEAR WEAPONS
 RANDAL FORESBERG ORGANIZES
  GRASS ROOT MOVEMENT
 CALLS THE A BILATERAL FREEZE ON
  NEW WEAPONS
    • 9 STATES PASS PASS RESOLUTIONS
    • REAGAN REFUSES THE PETITIONS
NUCLEAR POLICY
    TERMS
            TERMS
 MIRV = MULTIPLE INDEPENDENTLY
  RE-TARGETABLE VEHICLE.
 START = STRATEGIC ARMS

  REDUCTION TREATY
 SDI = STRATEGIC DEFENSE
  INITIATIVE.
 MAD = MUTUAL ASSURED
  DESTRUCTION
 COUNTER FORCE+ TARGETTING
  YOUR OPPONENTS WEAPONS

 KILOTON = EXPLOSIVE POWER OF
  1OOO TONS OF TNT
 MEGATON = EXPLOSIVE POWER OF
  1 MILLION TONS OF TNT
            MORE…
 ALL EXPLOSIVES USED IN WORLD
  WAR II = 3 MEGATONS
 TYPICAL U.S. NUCLEAR WEAPON IS

  15 MEGATONS OR 5 TIME THE
  POWER OF WW II
Reagan’s early rhetoric vis-
 à-vis Soviet Union harsh
   U.S. concerned about Soviet invasion of
    Afghanistan in 1979
   Sought to deal with Soviets from a position
    of strength by embarking on a massive new
    round to the arms race -- American’s could
    better bear the burden of the expense while
    the Soviets couldn’t.
    October 1981, Reagan seemed to endorse
    the concept that the U.S. might fight the
    Soviets in a "limited" nuclear war on
    European soil. -- Western Europeans
    horrified
        Strategic Defense
      Initiative (SDI) -- "Star
               Wars"
   March 1983, Reagan announced his
    intention to pursue a high-technology
    missile- defense system.
    • Plan called for orbiting battle stations in space
      that could fire laser beams or other forms of
      concentrated energy to vaporize intercontinental
      missiles on lift-off.
    • Reagan claimed SDI offered a nuclear umbrella
      over American cities.
    • Most scientists viewed SDI as impossible and it
      became the cause of much ridicule in the
      scientific community.
   Diplomatically, Reagan sought to use SDI
    to scare the Soviets.
        Strategic Defense
     Initiative (SDI) -- "Star
   NUTS vs. MADWars"
    • SDI upset four decades of strategic thinking about
      nuclear weapons.
    • Nuclear Utilization Theory (NUTs) advocated
      the winning of a nuclear war. -- Reagan’s staff
      drew up estimates of so-called reasonable losses
      in the event of a nuclear war -- some as high as
      40%.
    • Hitherto, Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)
      had assured Reagan’s dramatic increase in
      defense spending placed enormous pressures on
      the Soviet economy.
          When Gorbachev came to power in 1985, he would
           try to reform the Soviet system rather than out-
           compete the U.S.
          Some historians today credit Reagan's aggressive
           policies as winning the Cold War and forcing the
           disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991.
CRITICISMS OF THE PLAN
 MUST BE NEARLY PERFECT TO BE
  WORTHWHILE
 TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPOSSIBLE

 TOO EXPENSIVE

 VIEWED AS A “FIRST STRIKE”
  WEAPON
 UNDERCUTS SYSTEM OF
  DETERRENCE
 TO DATE WE HAVE SPENT NEARLY
  $300 BILLION, AN SYSTEM HAS
  FAILED EVERY TEST
    "Solidarity" movement in
         Poland (1982)
 Sought reforms but was
  ultimately stopped by Polish
  military that was intimidated by
  Soviets to restore order.
 Reagan imposed economic
  sanctions on Poland and Russia.
 U.S. grain sales not cut off since

  it would hurt U.S. farmers.
    KAL 007, September 1983
   Soviets blew from the sky a Korean airliner
    carrying hundreds of civilians including
    many Americans.
    • Plane had accidentally veered into Soviet
      airspace.
   By end of 1983, all arms-control
    negotiations with Russians were broken off.
   "Evil Empire" speech -- Reagan called
    the USSR "the evil empire" and the "focus
    of evil in the modern world." -- Justified his
    military build-up as necessary to thwart
    aggressive Soviets.
                  Lebanon
   Reagan sent Marines to Lebanon in 1983 as
    part of an international peacekeeping force
    after Israeli attacks against Palestinian
    strongholds in Lebanon caused chaos.
   October 23, 1983, a suicide bomber
    crashed his truck into a U.S. Marine
    barracks killing 241 Marines.
    • Reagan soon pulled remaining American troops
      while suffering no political damage from the
      attack.
    • Opponents called him a "Teflon president" to
      whom nothing hurtful could stick.
       Bombing of Libya
   Reagan ordered the bombing
  of Libya in 1986 in retaliation for
  an alleged Libyan-sponsored
  bombing of a West Berlin
  discotheque that killed a U.S.
  serviceman.
 Col. Mommar Qaddafi had
  long been a sponsor for
  terrorism against the West.
          Iran-Iraq War
   U.S. backed Iraq and its leader
    Saddam Hussein as Iran and the
    U.S. had become bitter enemies
    since 1979 Iranian Revolution.
    CENTRAL AMERICA
   REAGAN SUPPORTS ANTI-
    COMMUNIST JUNTA IN EL SALVADO
    • JUNTA USES “DEATH SQUADS”
   REAGAN ORDERS CIA TO ORGANIZE
    CONTRAS IN NICARAGUA.
    • GOAL OVERTHROW SANDINISTAS IN
      NICARAGUA
    • CONTRAS USE TERRORIST TACTICS
    • REAGAN CALLS THEM “FREEDOM
      FIGHTERS”
    • FUNDED BY U.S.
    THE BOLAND AMENDMENT
 CONGRESS BAN FURTHER AID TO
  THE CONTRAS ( OVERRIDE REAGAN
  VETO)
 REAGAN STILL WANTS TO FUND THE

  CONTRAS
 TELLS AIDS TO FIND AWAY
IRAN CONTRA
  SCANDAL
    IRANIAN HOSTAGE CRISIS
 PRESIDENT REAGAN WAS CREDIT
  WITH WINNING RELEASE
 RUMORS OF A SECRET DEAL

 PARIS 1980

 DEAL: HOLD HOSTAGES UNTIL
  AFTER THE ELECTION
 WE WILL PROVIDE WEAPONS
      HOSTAGE TACTIC
        CONTINUES
 MORE AMERICANS ARE KIDNAPPED
  BY ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISTS
 OUR POLICY: WE DO NOT

  NEGOTIATE WITH TERRORIST
 TO DO SO WOULD ENCOURAGE
  MORE KIDNAPPING
       IRAN/IRAQ WAR
 THE U.S. BOYCOTT OF IRAN
 U.S. SUPPORTS IRAQ

 IRANIAN MILITARY USES U.S.
  WEAPONS FROM ERA OF THE SHAH.
 NEED REPLACEMENTS AND PARTS
NICARAGUA & THE CONTRAS
 SANDINISTA COME TO POWER
  DURING CARTER ADMINISTRATION
 ESTABLISH A COMMUNIST
  GOVERNMENT
 PRESIDENT REAGAN SET A PRIORITY
  TO OVERTHROW THE SANDINISTAS
 C.I.A. FUNDS THE CONTRAS.
  REAGAN CALLS THEM “FREEDOM
  FIGHTERS”
     CONGRESS CHECKS
    PRESIDENTIAL ACTION
 CONGRESS PASSED THE BOLAND
  AMENDMENT: BARRING FUNDS
  DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY TO
  SUPPORT THE CONTRAS
 PRESIDENT REAGAN SECRETLY
  TELLS HIS STAFF TO VIOLATE THE
  BOLAND AMENDMENT
 COLONEL OLIVER NORTH IS IN
  CHARGE OF THE OPERATION
    IRANIANS MAKE AN OFFER
 PROVIDE US WITH WEAPONS WE
  WILL RELEASE THE HOSTAGES
 VIOLATES OUR POLICY AND LAW

 WE USE THE ISRAELIS AS OUR

  AGENT
 MONEY DERIVED FROM THE DEAL IS
  OFF THE BOOKS
 NORTH SUGGEST USING IT TO FUND
  THE CONTRAS; A VIOLATION OF
  FEDERAL LAW
    REAGAN SENDS A BIBLE
           IRAN
 GOOD WILL GESTURE
 EVIDENCE OF HIS DIRECT
  INVOLVEMENT
 WE SEND ANTI-TANK MISSILES

 IRANIANS RELEASE ONE HOSTAGE
  AFTER PROMISING 6 RELEASES
       MORE TRADES
 WE SELL THEM MORE WEAPONS
 IRAN RELEASES NO NEW
  HOSTAGES, BUT THE MONEY IS
  SENT TO THE CONTRAS
 THEY PROMISE MORE RELEASES FOR
  MORE WEAPONS
 WE SEND MORE WEAPONS, BUT NO
  MORE HOSTAGES ARE RELEASED
      CONGRESSIONAL
       INVESTIGATION
 COMPUTER RECORDS PROVE THE
  PRESIDENT
 THIS WAS AN IMPEACHABLE CRIME,
  BUT REAGAN’S TERM WAS NEARLY
  UP
 AFTER HE LEAVES OFFICE HE
  BECOMES THE FIRST PRESIDENT TO
  BE FORCE TO TESTIFY IN COURT
  UNDER OATH.
REAGONOMICS
1980 ECONOMIC SITUATION
   STAGFLATION
    • HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT 8%
    • HIGH INFLATION 12%
    • NEGATIVE ECONOMIC GROWTH –3%
    • BUDGET DEFICIT OF $50 BILLION
    A NEW THEORY: SUPPLY
       SIDE ECONOMICS
 DEVELOPED BY ARTHUR LAFFER
 WHY IS THE ECONOMY BAD?

    • TAX RATES ARE TOO HIGH
    • GOVERNMENT IS TOO BIG AND COSTLY
    • THERE IS TOO MUCH GOVERNMENT
      REGULATION
       THE SOLUTION
 A MASSIVE 30% TAX CUT
 REDUCTION OF GOVERNMENT
  PROGRAMS
 REDUCE GOVERNMENT REGULATION
    SUPPLY SIDE PROMISES
 FULL EMPLOYMENT (3%
  UNEMPLOYMENT RATE)
 STRONG ECONOMIC GROWTH

 PRICE STABILITY: AN END TO

  INFLATION
 A BALANCED BUDGET

 TAX REVENUE = BASE TIMES RATE

    • CUTTING TAXES WILL MAKE THE BASE
      GROW RAPIDLY, SO REVENUE WILL
      INCREASE
     RESULTS OF PLAN
 THE ECONOMY GETS WORSE
 DEFICITS GO FROM $50 TO $200
  BILLION
 NATIONAL DEBT WAS $1 TRILLION

  IN 1980
 BY 1988 IT IS $4 TRILLION
THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION
ELECTION OF 1988

• PROPOSED REPEAL OF 22ND
  AMENDMENT
• GEORGE BUSH REPUBLICAN NOMINEE
• DEMOCRATS NOMINATE MICHAEL
  DUKAKIS FROM MASS.
• JESSIE JACKSON, RAINBOW
  COALITION
BUSH CHOOSES A V.P.

• J. DANFORTH QUAYLE III
• SENATOR FROM INDIANA
• SON OF WEALTHY PUBLISHER
• YOUNG & INEXPERIENCED
• AVOID SERVICE IN VIETNAM
DUKAKIS MAKE A CHOICE

• LLOYD BENSON OF TEXAS
• LONG CAREER IN THE SENATE
• EXPERIENCED LAW MAKER
BUSH PROMISES

• A KINDER GENTLER AMERICA
• NO NEW TAXES
• STRESSES HIS INVOLVEMENT IN
  REAGAN ADMINISTRATION
• DENIES INVOLVEMENT IN IRAN
  CONTRA AND SAVINGS AND LOAN
  SCANDALS
DUKAKIS

• PROMISES TO DO FOR AMERICA WHAT
  HE DID FOR MASS.
• HE WILL END SUPPLY SIDE
  ECONOMICS
• REDUCE THE BUDGET DEFICIT
• CUT MILITARY SPENDING
DUKAKIS
NEGATIVE AD CAMPAIGN

• WILLIE HORTON
• THE HARBOR
• TAX AND SPEND LIBERALS
• THE FLAG
ELECTION RESULTS

• BUSH WINS 40 STATES
• 426 ELECTORAL VOTES
• 54% OF POPULAR VOTE
• DUKAKIS 112 ELECTORAL VOTES
• 46% OF POPULAR VOTE
• DEMOCRATS CONTROL CONGRESS
BUSH FOCUS FOREIGN POLICY
• MATCHES HIS INTEREST
• AS BUSH COMES TO POWER SOVIET
  UNION COLLAPSED
• BERLIN WALL COMES DOWN 1989
• BY 1994 SOVIET TROOPS LEAVE
  EASTERN EUROPE
• A “NEW WORLD ORDER”
BUSH’S SUCCESSES

• GORBACHEV & BUSH SIGN ARMS
  CONTROL AGREEMENT
• REDUCE WEAPONS BY 25%
• NATO TROOPS REDUCED BY 50%
• WARSAW PACT ENDED
• RUSSIA’S ADOPT MARKET ECONOMICS
BUSH’S BIG MISTAKE

• TO CLOSE DEFICIT BUSH AGREES TO
  A TAX INCREASE.
• DURING CAMPAIGN: “READ MY LIPS,
  NO NEW TAXES!”
• CREDITABILITY HURT
NICARAGUA

• BUSH WITHDRAWS SUPPORT FOR
  CONTRAS
• SIGNS AN ACCORD WITH
  SANDINISTAS
• NICARAGUA 1990 VOTES
  SANDINISTAS OUT
• ELECT VIOL ETTA CHAMORRO
COUP ATTEMPT IN RUSSIA

• AUGUST 21,1991 HARD LINE
  COMMUNIST TRY TO SEIZE THE
  GOV’T.
• GORBACHEV IS ARRESTED
• BORIS YELTSIN PRESIDENT OF
  RUSSIA ACTS
• GORBACHEV IS FREED
SOVIET UNION DISSOLVES

• BECOME COMMONWEALTH OF
  INDEPENDENT STATES
• BUSH IS CAUTIOUS
• COLD WAR IS OVER
• RUSSIA GOES THROW HARD TIMES
• BUSH SENDS RUSSIA $35 BILLION IN
  AID
NUCLEAR CONCERN

• WHO IS CONTROLLING NUCLEAR
  WEAPONS
• 27,000 WARHEADS
• BUSH DECLARES A PEACE DIVIDEND
• MILITARY SPENDING IS CUT
PANAMA & NORIEGA

• COUP ATTEMPT FAILS OCT. 1989
• MANUEL NORIEGA OVERTURNS
  ELECTION
• DENOUNCES U.S. AND GEORGE BUSH
• AMERICAN OFFICER KILLED
• ANOTHER BEATEN & WIFE IS
  SEXUALLY ASSAULTED
OPERATION “JUST CAUSE”

• NORIEGA IS INDICTED AS A DRUG
  DEALER
• BUSH ORDERS AN INVASION TO
  CAPTURE NORIEGA
• FIRST USE OF NEW STRATEGY:
  “OVERWHELMING FORCE”
• FIRST USE OF STEALTH BOMBER
INVASION NIGHT OF DEC.20TH
1989
• 5000 AIRBORNE TROOPS SENT
• THOUSANDS MORE ALREADY IN THE
  CANAL ZONE
• NORIEGA IS DRUNK AT TIME OF THE
  INVASION
• HIDES IN THE VATICAN EMBASSY
• WIDE SPREAD LOOTING
NORIEGA CAPTURED

• PLAY ROCK MUSIC TO DRIVE HIM OUT
  OF THE EMBASSY
• U.S. RESTORES ELECTED OFFICIALS
• MAKES NORIEGA’S “DIGNITY SQUADS”
  THE NEW POLICE FORCE
• COST OF THE WAR
 • 3,000 TO 5000 PANAMANIANS KILLED
 • 23 U.S. SOLDIERS KILLED, 312
   WOUNDED
 • MASS GRAVES FOUND
NORIEGA’S FATE

• TAKEN TO THE U.S.
• TRIED FOR DRUG DEALING
• CONVICTED, SERVING A LIFE
  SENTENCE
• DRUG FLOW FROM PANAMA
  INCREASES
THE PHILIPPINES

• FERDINAND MARCOS 1986
• BENIGNO AQUINO ASSASSINATED
• CORAZON AQUINO CHALLENGES
  MARCOS
• REVOLUTION DRIVES MARCOS OUT OF
  POWER
• DIES IN HAWAII
• 1991 U.S AGREES TO LEAVE THE
  PHILIPPINES
SOUTH AFRICA

• BISHOP DESMOND TUTU
• PROTESTS APARTHEID
• U.S. IMPOSES TRADE SANCTIONS
• 1990 F.W. DE KLERK FREE NELSON
  MANDELA LEADER OF THE AFRICAN
  NATIONAL CONGRESS
• APARTHEID ENDS IN 1991
CHINA PRO DEMOCRACY
MOVEMENT
• TIANAMMEN SQUARE, BEIJING
• COMMUNIST CRUSH THE PROTEST
• BUSH CALLS FOR CONSTRUCTIVE
  ENGAGEMENT
• GRANTS CHINA “MOST FAVORED
  TRADE STATUS
U.S. TRADE DEFICIT

• 1945 U.S. LARGEST CREDITOR
  NATION
• BY 1988 U.S. IS LARGEST DEBTOR
  NATION
• PRESIDENT BUSH LEADS A TRADE
  MISSION TO JAPAN
• THROWS UP ON JAPANESE PRIME
  MINSTER
THE PERSIAN GULF WAR
                 1991
IRAQ INVADED KUWAIT

• AUGUST 2ND 1990
• DISPUTE OVER RUMALIA OIL FIELD
• SADDAM HUSSEIN CLAIMED KUWAIT
  WAS THE 8TH PROVINCE OF IRAQ
IRAN-IRAQ WAR 1980 TO 1988

• IRAQ ATTACKED IRAN
• IRAQ HAD U.S. SUPPORT
BEFORE INVADING KUWAIT

• SADDAM ASKED U.S. PERMISSION
• BUSH RESPONSE: YOUR DISPUTE IS A
  LOCAL MATTER, YOU WORK IT OUT
• SADDAM TOOK THAT TO MEAN HE
  WAS FREE TO ACT
PRESIDENT BUSH’S REACTION

• THE LESSON OF MUNICH
• BUSH: “ AGGRESSION MUST BE
  STOPPED”
• THE INVASION OF KUWAIT WILL NOT
  STAND!
UNITED NATIONS ACTION

• RESOLUTION DEMANDS THAT SADDAM
  WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM KUWAIT
• SETS A DEADLINE: JAN. 15TH, 1991
• U.N. IMPOSES ECONOMIC SANCTIONS
• BUSH ANNOUNCES
IRAQ INVADED KUWAIT

• AUGUST 2ND 1990
• DISPUTE OVER RUMALIA OIL FIELD
• SADDAM HUSSEIN CLAIMED KUWAIT
  WAS THE 8TH PROVINCE OF IRAQ
IRAN-IRAQ WAR 1980 TO 1988

• IRAQ ATTACKED IRAN
• IRAQ HAD U.S. SUPPORT
BEFORE INVADING KUWAIT

• SADDAM ASKED U.S. PERMISSION
• BUSH RESPONSE: YOUR DISPUTE IS A
  LOCAL MATTER, YOU WORK IT OUT
• SADDAM TOOK THAT TO MEAN HE
  WAS FREE TO ACT
PRESIDENT BUSH’S REACTION

• THE LESSON OF MUNICH
• BUSH: “ AGGRESSION MUST BE
  STOPPED”
• THE INVASION OF KUWAIT WILL NOT
  STAND!
UNITED NATIONS ACTION

• RESOLUTION DEMANDS THAT SADDAM
  WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM KUWAIT
• SETS A DEADLINE: JAN. 15TH, 1991
• U.N. IMPOSES ECONOMIC SANCTIONS
• BUSH ANNOUNCES DEADLINE
OPERATION DESERT STORM

• 41 DAY AIR CAMPAIGN
• 100 HOUR GROUND INVASION
• PRESIDENT BUSH’S “PERFECT
  VICTORY”
• PRESIDENT BUSH HAS 75% APPROVAL
  RATING.
THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION
ELECTION OF 1988

• PROPOSED REPEAL OF 22ND
  AMENDMENT
• GEORGE BUSH REPUBLICAN NOMINEE
• DEMOCRATS NOMINATE MICHAEL
  DUKAKIS FROM MASS.
• JESSIE JACKSON, RAINBOW
  COALITION
BUSH CHOOSES A V.P.

• J. DANFORTH QUAYLE III
• SENATOR FROM INDIANA
• SON OF WEALTHY PUBLISHER
• YOUNG & INEXPERIENCED
• AVOID SERVICE IN VIETNAM
DUKAKIS MAKE A CHOICE

• LLOYD BENSON OF TEXAS
• LONG CAREER IN THE SENATE
• EXPERIENCED LAW MAKER
BUSH PROMISES

• A KINDER GENTLER AMERICA
• NO NEW TAXES
• STRESSES HIS INVOLVEMENT IN
  REAGAN ADMINISTRATION
• DENIES INVOLVEMENT IN IRAN
  CONTRA AND SAVINGS AND LOAN
  SCANDALS
DUKAKIS

• PROMISES TO DO FOR AMERICA WHAT
  HE DID FOR MASS.
• HE WILL END SUPPLY SIDE
  ECONOMICS
• REDUCE THE BUDGET DEFICIT
• CUT MILITARY SPENDING
DUKAKIS
NEGATIVE AD CAMPAIGN

• WILLIE HORTON
• THE HARBOR
• TAX AND SPEND LIBERALS
• THE FLAG
ELECTION RESULTS

• BUSH WINS 40 STATES
• 426 ELECTORAL VOTES
• 54% OF POPULAR VOTE
• DUKAKIS 112 ELECTORAL VOTES
• 46% OF POPULAR VOTE
• DEMOCRATS CONTROL CONGRESS
BUSH FOCUS FOREIGN POLICY
• MATCHES HIS INTEREST
• AS BUSH COMES TO POWER SOVIET
  UNION COLLAPSED
• BERLIN WALL COMES DOWN 1989
• BY 1994 SOVIET TROOPS LEAVE
  EASTERN EUROPE
• A “NEW WORLD ORDER”
BUSH’S SUCCESSES

• GORBACHEV & BUSH SIGN ARMS
  CONTROL AGREEMENT
• REDUCE WEAPONS BY 25%
• NATO TROOPS REDUCED BY 50%
• WARSAW PACT ENDED
• RUSSIA ADOPT MARKET ECONOMICS
BUSH’S BIG MISTAKE

• TO CLOSE DEFICIT BUSH AGREES TO
  A TAX INCREASE.
• DURING CAMPAIGN: “READ MY LIPS,
  NO NEW TAXES!”
• CREDITABILITY HURT
NICARAGUA

• BUSH WITHDRAWS SUPPORT FOR
  CONTRAS
• SIGNS AN ACCORD WITH
  SANDINISTAS
• NICARAGUA 1990 VOTES
  SANDINISTAS OUT
• ELECT VIOLETTA CHAMORRO
COUP ATTEMPT IN RUSSIA

• AUGUST 21,1991 HARD LINE
  COMMUNIST TRY TO SEIZE THE
  GOV’T.
• GORBACHEV IS ARRESTED
• BORIS YELTSIN PRESIDENT OF
  RUSSIA ACTS
• GORBACHEV IS FREED
SOVIET UNION DISSOLVES

• BECOME COMMONWEALTH OF
  INDEPENDENT STATES
• BUSH IS CAUTIOUS
• COLD WAR IS OVER
• RUSSIA GOES THROUGH HARD TIMES
• BUSH SENDS RUSSIA $35 BILLION IN
  AID
NUCLEAR CONCERN

• WHO IS CONTROLLING NUCLEAR
  WEAPONS?
• 27,000 WARHEADS
• BUSH DECLARES A PEACE DIVIDEND
• MILITARY SPENDING IS CUT
PANAMA

• MANUEL NORIEGA OVERTURNS
  ELECTION
• DENOUNCES U.S. AND GEORGE BUSH
• BUSH ORDERS AN INVASION TO
  CAPTURE NORIEGA
• COST 15,000 LIVES
THE PHILIPPINES

• FERDINAND MARCOS 1986
• BENIGNO AQUINO ASSASSINATED
• CORAZON AQUINO CHALLENGES
  MARCOS
• REVOLUTION DRIVES MARCOS OUT OF
  POWER
• DIES IN HAWAII
• 1991 U.S AGREES TO LEAVE THE
  PHILIPPINES
SOUTH AFRICA

• BISHOP DESMOND TUTU
• PROTESTS APARTHEID
• 1990 F.W. DE KLERK FREES NELSON
  MANDELA LEADER OF THE AFRICAN
  NATIONAL CONGRESS
• APARTHEID ENDS IN 1991
CHINA PRO DEMOCRACY
MOVEMENT
• TIANAMMEN SQUARE, BEIJING
• COMMUNIST CRUSH THE PROTEST
• BUSH CALLS FOR CONSTRUCTIVE
  ENGAGEMENT
• GRANTS CHINA “MOST FAVORED
  TRADE STATUS
U.S. TRADE DEFICIT

• 1945 U.S. LARGEST CREDITOR
  NATION
• BY 1988 U.S. IS LARGEST DEBTOR
  NATION
• PRESIDENT BUSH LEADS A TRADE
  MISSION TO JAPAN
• THROWS UP ON JAPANESE PRIME
  MINSTER
THE CLINTON YEARS 1992 TO
2000
OPERATION DESERT STORM
 • JAN. 16TH 1991 AIR CAMPAIGN BEGINS
 • LASTS 41 DAYS
 • LAND ASSAULT BEGINS FEB. 23RD
 • ALLIED COMMANDER: GEN. NORMAN
   SCHWARZKOPF
 • SADAM HUSSEIN: PROMISES “THE
   MOTHER OF ALL BATTLES”
THE 100 HOUR WAR
 • IRAQ BIO & CHEMICAL WEAPONS
 • THEY HAVE A LARGE ARSENAL
 • BUT IRAQI ARMY QUICKLY FOLDS
 • TRAPPED ON THE “ROAD OF
   DEATH.”
MORE…
• KUWAIT IS LIBERATED
• THE GHOST OF VIETNAM
  DESTROYED
• CEASE-FIRE SIGNED FEB. 27TH
PRES. BUSH’S PERFECT VICTORY
 • LIGHT ALLIED CASUALTIES:
   “FRIENDLY FIRE.”
 • BUSH CALLS FOR OVERTHROW OF
   SADAM, BUT GIVES NO AID.
 • TROOPS COME HOME TO HEROES
   WELCOME
MORE…
• U.S. TROOPS STATIONED IN
  SAUDI ARABIA
• BUSH APPROVAL RATING 75%
PRES. BUSH LOOKS UNBEATABLE IN
92
 • LEADING DEMOCRATS
   WITHDRAW FROM RACE.
 • OPENS DOOR FOR BILL
   CLINTON
PROBLEMS FOR PRESIDENT BUSH
 • SOCIAL ISSUES: ABORTION,
   AFFIRMATIVE ACTION, RACE
   RELATIONS
 • DEPT OF EDUCATION ATTACKS
   AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
 • BUSH THREATENS TO VETO NEW
   CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
THE CLARENCE THOMAS
APPOINTMENT
 • 1991 THURGOOD MARSHALL RESIGNS
   FROM COURT
 • BUSH NOMINATED CLARENCE THOMAS
 • LIBERAL GROUPS PROTEST. NAACP,
   NOW
 • JUDICIARY COMMITTEE DIVIDED 7 TO
   7
ANITA HILL CHARGES
 • SEXUAL HARASSMENT BY CLARENCE
   THOMAS
 • HILL GAVE GRAPHIC DESCRIPTION,
   PASSES A LIE DETECTOR TEST
 • THOMAS CLAIMS HE IS BEING
   “LYNCHED” CLAIMS RACISM
 • SENATE VOTES TO CONFIRM 52 TO 48
THE ECONOMY
 •   UNEMPLOYMENT IS 7% NATIONALLY
 •   10% IN CALIFORNIA
 •   DEFICIT IS $250 BILLION PER YEAR
 •   PRES. BUSH HAS NO ANSWERS
 •   IN 1990 HE AGREED TO $133 BILLION
     TAX INCREASE. VIOLATE HIS
     ELECTION PLEDGE
SAVINGS AND LOAN CRISIS
 • REAGAN DE-REGULATION
   LEADS TO MISMANAGEMENT &
   FRAUD
 • LINCOLN SAVING AND LOAN
   COLLAPSES
 • CEO’S GET “GOLDEN
   PARACHUTES.”
MORE…
• TAXPAYERS BAIL OUT
  COSTS $500 BILLION
• JUSTICE DEPT LOOKS THE
  OTHER WAY.
• VIRTUALLY NO ONE IS PUNISHED FOR
  THE FRAUD
CLINTON; FIRST “BABY BOOMER”
PRESIDENT
 • SMOOTH, KNOWLEDGEABLE, GIFTED
   SPEAKER, GOOD T.V. IMAGE
 • CONDUCTS “TALK SHOW” PRIMARIES
 • RHODES SCHOLAR, YALE LAW SCHOOL
 • GOVERNOR OF ARKANSAS AT 32
 • MARRIED TO HILLARY RODHAM
THE CAMPAIGN
 • BUSH CHALLENGED BY PAT
   BUCHANAN. BUSH VIEW AS “TOO
   LIBERAL.”
 • H. ROSS PEROT ENTERS AS
   INDEPENDENT
 • BUSH RE-NOMINATED
 • CONSERVATIVE SPEAK AT
   CONVENTION TALK ABOUT A
   “CULTURE WAR”.
CLINTON “A NEW DEMOCRAT”
 • MOVES PARTY FROM LEFT TO THE
   CENTER
 • CALLS FOR “INVESTMENT”, NOT
   SPENDING
 • CALLS FOR WELFARE REFORM
 • HEALTH CARE REFORM
 • KEY ISSUE: THE ECONOMY
 • BUSH USES THE CHARACTER ISSUE.
CLINTON WINS
 • POP VOTE 43 MILLION FOR
   CLINTON
 • BUSH 36 MILLION
 • PEROT 19 MILLION
 • ELECTORAL VOTE: 370 TO168
 • DEMOCRATS CONTROL BOTH
   HOUSES OF CONGRESS.
CLINTON PROMISES A DIVERSE
GOV’T.
 • APPOINTS RECORD NUMBER OF
   WOMEN: JANET RENO, DONNA
   SHALALA, HAZEL O’LEARY, RUTH
   BADER GINSBERG.
 • ETHNIC MINORITIES: HENRY
   CISNEROS, HOUSING AND URBAN
   AFFAIRS
 • RON BROWN, SEC OF COMMERCE
PRES. CLINTON’S SLOW START

 • OVER-ESTIMATES MANDATE
 • GAYS IN THE MILITARY:
   “DON’T ASK, DON’T TELL”
UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE
• HEALTH CARE REFORM: PUT
  HILLARY IN CHARGE
• PROPOSES MASSIVE PROGRAM
• GOALS: UNIVERSAL COVERAGE
  AND COST CONTAINMENT
• DEFEATED AS TO COMPLEX & TOO
  EXPENSIVE
THE ECONOMY
 • BOOM RESULTS IN RAPID
   GROWTH
 • REVENUES INCREASE: $290
   BILLION DEFICIT TURNS INTO
   $256 BILLION SURPLUS
 • CLINTON SUBMITS FIRST
   BALANCE BUDGET SINCE 1963
GUN CONTROL
 • CLINTON IN 1993 SIGNS THE
   BRADY BILL, REQUIRES WAITING
   PERIOD & BACKGROUND CHECKS
 • CONGRESS PASSES BAN ON SOME
   ASSAULT RIFLES.
 • CLINTON DEBATES THE NRA
TERRORISM STRIKES

 • 1993 MUSLIN EXTREMISTS TRY
   TO DESTROY THE WORLD
   TRADE CENTER, KILL 6
   PEOPLE.
MORE…
• 1995, DOMESTIC TERRORISTS
  DESTROY THE MORROW FEDERAL
  BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA CITY.168
  KILLED.
• TIMOTHY McVEIGH IS RESPONSIBLE
• MOTIVATED BY DESTRUCTION OF
  BRANCH DAVIDEANS, WACO, TX 1993
• GROWING ANTI-GOVERNMENT
  MOVEMENT
TERM LIMITS & REV. OF 1994
 • 23 STATES PASS TERM LIMITS LAWS
 • NEWT GINGRICH AND THE “CONTRACT
   WITH AMERICA.”
 • REPUBLICANS GAIN CONTROL OF
   CONGRESS FOR 1ST TIME IN 40 YEARS
 • CLINTON IS MINORITY PRESIDENT
   WITH REPUBLICAN CONGRESS.
WELFARE REFORM
 • WELFARE TO WORK
 • CUTS GRANTS, REQUIRES ABLE-
   BODIED TO WORK
 • 2 YEAR LIMIT ON BENEFITS
 • RESTRICTS BENEFITS TO IMMIGRANTS
 • CLINTON MOVES RIGHT AND
   EMBRACES THE REFORM
GINGRICH OVER-ESTIMATES HIS
MANDATE
 • ATTACKS PBS, BIG BIRD,
 • CALLS FOR ORPHANAGES FOR THE
   CHILDREN OF THE POOR
 • CAUSES A GOVERNMENT
   SHUTDOWN OVER THE BUDGET
 • CAUSES A PUBLIC BACKLASH
ELECTION OF 1996
 • REPUBLICANS NOMINATE BOB DOLE
 • PEROT RUNS AGAIN
 • DOLE RUNS ON CHARACTER ISSUE
 • BUT THE ECONOMY IS GOOD & WE
   ARE AT PEACE.
 • CLINTON WINS EASILY
CLINTON’S 2ND TERM
 • FIRST DEMOCRAT SINCE FDR TO BE
   RE-ELECTED.
 • ECONOMY CONTINUES TO GROW
 • PRODUCES FIRST BUDGET SURPLUS
   SINCE 1963
 • CLINTON RATIFIES NAFTA
 • HELPS CREATE WORLD TRADE
   ORGANIZATION
CLINTON TAKES ON TOBACCO
INDUSTRY
 • $358 BILLION SETTLEMENT
 • BUT STATES GET GREEDY
CLINTON’S FOREIGN POLICY
 • PRESIDENT BUSH SENT TROOPS TO
   SOMALIA 1991
 • CLINTON SEND MORE TROOPS TO
   PROTECT AID WORKERS AND NATION
   BUILDING
MORE…
• SPECIAL FORCES AMBUSHED 12
  KILLED
• ONE MARINE DRAGGED THROUGH
  STREETS, SHOWN ON T.V.
• CLINTON REMOVE TROOPS 1994
MORE HAITI AND CLINTON
 • PRESIDENT ARISTIDE IS OVER
   THROWN
 • HAITIAN BOAT PEOPLE COME TO
   U.S.
 • CLINTON SENDS 20,000 PEACE
   KEEPERS, RESTORES ARISTIDE AS
   PRESIDENT
CLINTON & MIDDLE EAST
 • 1993 CLINTON GET YITZHAK RABIN
   AND YASIR ARAFAT TO MEET
 • AGREE TO PALESTINIAN HOME RULE
 • THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY IS
   ESTABLISHED.
 • ROAD MAP TO PEACE
ROAD TO PEACE HITS A WALL
 • A JEWISH SETTLER ENTERS A
   MOSQUE AND KILLS DOZENS
 • A JEWISH STUDENT
   ASSASSINATES YITZHAK RABIN
THE IMPEACHMENT OF WILLIAM
JEFFERSON CLINTON
IMPEACHMENT PROCEDURES
 • ARTICLE I SECTION 2 & 3
 • GROUNDS FOR IMPEACHMENT
   – CONVICTION FOR TREASON, BRIBERY, OR
     OTHER HIGH CRIMES AND
     MISDEMEANORS
 • REMOVAL FROM OFFICE REQUIRES 2
   STEPS
   – A FORMAL ACCUSATION OR
     IMPEACHMENT BY THE HOUSE OF REPS.
   – TRIAL & CONVICTION BY THE SENATE. A
     2/3RD VOTE IS REQUIRED.
MORE PROCEDURE
 • THE CHIEF JUSTICE PRESIDES
   (WILLIAM REHNQUIST)
 • THE HOUSE SERVES AS PROSECUTION
WHAT ARE “HIGH CRIMES &
MISDEMEANORS?
 • BRIBERY & TREASON ARE CLEARLY
   DEFINED.
 • HIGH CRIMES & MISDEMEANORS ARE
   AMBIGUOUS TERMS
CONGRESS IS A PARTISAN
ORGANIZATION
 • IT IS HARD TO PUT ASIDE
   PARTISANSHIP & ASSUME A JUDICIAL
   ROLE
 • BOTH IMPEACHMENT TRIALS WERE
   MOTIVATED BY PARTISAN POLITICS.
IMPEACHMENT IN U.S. HISTORY
 • 16 FEDERAL OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN
   IMPEACHED.
 • 2 PRESIDENTS ANDREW JOHNSON &
   BILL CLINTON
HOW DID CLINTON COME TO BE
IMPEACHED.
 • CLINTON’S CHARACTER WAS AN ISSUE
   BEFORE HIS ELECTION
   – CHARGES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT
 • WHITEWATER REAL ESTATE DEAL
 • ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO
   INVESTIGATES WHITE WATER.
AN INDEPENDENT COUNCIL IS
APPOINTED
 • FIRST COUNCIL ROBERT FISK
   – DECLARES THERE IS NO CREDITABLE
     EVIDENCE OF CRIME
 • REPUBLICANS CHARGE A WHITEWASH.
   DEMAND A NEW INVESTIGATION
 • 3 JUDGE PANEL APPOINTS A NEW
   INDEPENDENT COUNCIL: KENNETH
   STARR
POWER OF AN INDEPENDENT
COUNCIL
 •   UNLIMITED TIME
 •   UNLIMITED BUDGET
 •   CAN CONVENE A GRANDE JURY
 •   THREATEN WITNESSES
 •   LEAK INFORMATION TO THE PRESS.
KENNETH STARR BECOMES INDEPENDENT
COUNCIL,
 • AUG. 1994
 • CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICAN
 • MANDATE IS TO INVESTIGATE WHITE
   WATER DEAL
 • SUSAN MacDOUGAL IS SENT TO JAIL
   FOR REFUSING TO ANSWER STARR’S
   QUESTIONS
MORE…
• STARR SPENDS $50 MILLION ON THE
  INVESTIGATION AND PRODUCES NO
  CREDITABLE EVIDENCE.
ENTER MONICA LEWINSKY
 • RUMORS ABOUT AN ILLICIT AFFAIR
   SWARMED IN WASHINGTON
 • JAN.8TH 1998 THE STORY BROKE
 • CLINTON GAVE SWORN TESTIMONY IN
   A CIVIL SUIT BROUGHT BY PAULA
   JONES
   – HE DENIED HAVE SEX WITH MISS
     LEWINSKY
THE SUPREME COURT ALLOWED THE
SUIT
 • ORDINARILY PRESIDENT’S ARE
   PROTECT FROM SUIT WHILE IN
   OFFICE.
 • BUT THE COURT RULED THE CASE
   POSED NO “SIGNIFICANT
   DISTRACTION.”
 • THE SUPREME COURT IS CONTROLLED
   BY CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICAN
CLINTON ADMITS HE LIED
 • AFTER MONTHS OF DENIALS
   – “I AM NOT HAVING SEX WITH THAT
     WOMAN…”
 • LYING UNDER OATH IS PERJURY
 • IS LYING ABOUT PERSONAL BEHAVIOR
   A “HIGH CRIME OR MISDEMEANOR?”
THE STARR REPORT SEPT 9, 1998
 • STARR CLAIMED 11 POSSIBLE
   GROUNDS FOR IMPEACHMENT
 • HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTED
   ACCEPT 4 CHARGES
   – 1)   PERJURY TO A GRAND JURY
   – 2)   PERJURY DURING A CIVIL SUIT
   – 3)   OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE
   – 4)   ABUSE OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER.
THE HOUSE ACTS
 • IN A PARTISAN VOTE APPROVES 2
   ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT
   – 1) GRAND JURY PERJURY (228-206)
   – 2) OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE (221-212)
A CLOSER LOOK
 • ARTICLE 1: PRESIDENT FAILED IN HIS
   OATH TO UPHOLD THE CONSTITUTION
   AND EXECUTE THE LAWS OF THE LAND
   – ON AUG 17TH, 1998 HE FAILED TO TELL
     THE WHOLE TRUTH TO A GRAND JURY.
   – EARLIER IN THE PAULA JONES CASE HE
     GAVE MISLEADING TESTIMONY
   – HE TRIED TO INFLUENCE OTHERS TO LIE.
MORE…
• THESE ACTIONS UNDERMINED THE
  INTEGRITY OF HIS OFFICE.
• THEREFORE MR. CLINTON SHOULD BE
  REMOVED FROM OFFICE.
THE 2ND ARTICLE
 • MR. CLINTON OBSTRUCTED JUSTICE
   BY GIVING FALSE TESTIMONY IN A
   CIVIL SUIT
 • HE ENCOURAGED OTHERS TO LIE FOR
   HIM
 • MR. CLINTON LIED TO A JUDGE
 • OFFER A GOVERNMENT JOB IN
   EXCHANGE FOR PERJURED
   TESTIMONY.
 • THEREFORE HE SHOULD BE REMOVED
   FROM OFFICE.
THE PROSECUTION TEAM
 • LED BY HENRY HYDE OF ILLINOIS
 • A REPUBLICAN
 • ALL THE PROSECUTORS WERE
   REPUBLICANS
THE SENATE VOTE FEB 12TH 1999
 • 67 VOTES NEEDED TO CONVICT
 • ARTICLE ONE: 55 YES TO 45 NO (10
   REPUBLICANS VOTED NO)
 • ARTICLE TWO: 50 YES, 50 NO
 • THE ATTEMPT TO REMOVE PRESIDENT
   CLINTON HAD FAILED.
POST SCRIPT
 • NO DOUBT MR. CLINTON LIED UNDER
   OATH.
 • THE SENATE CONDEMNED MR.
   CLINTON’S BEHAVIOR
 • BUT HIS ACTIONS DID NOT RISE TO
   THE LEVEL OF AN IMPEACHABLE
   OFFENSE.
THE IMPACT OF IMPEACHMENT

 • CRIPPLED CLINTON’S SECOND TERM
 • PROVIDED ISSUES FOR THE 2000
   ELECTION
 • DEEPENED THE PARTISAN DIVIDE IN
   THE COUNTRY
 • DIMINISHED CLINTON’S
   ACCOMPLISHMENTS
 • PROVIDED JAY LENO WITH 100’S OF
   JOKES
PRESIDENT CLINTON

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:55
posted:6/26/2011
language:English
pages:176