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Human trafficking_ sex workers and their plights

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Human trafficking_ sex workers and their plights Powered By Docstoc
					 Human trafficking, sex
workers and their plights
       Sarvagya Upadhyay
Inspired by the documentary “The
        Day My God Died”
The Day My God Died
                Overview
• Human trafficking, its extent and causes
• Trafficking in India and why it flourishes
  there
• Kamathipura and Sonagachi: famous red
  light areas in India
• Problems sex workers face in these areas
  – Inhumane treatment (in their own words)
  – Health issues
• What does law says
• Some unanswered questions and links
                Overview
• Human trafficking, its extent and causes
• Trafficking in India and why it flourishes
  there
• Kamathipura and Sonagachi: famous red
  light areas in India
• Problems sex workers face in these areas
  – Inhumane treatment (in their own words)
  – Health issues
• What does law says
• Some unanswered questions and links
          Human trafficking
• Human trafficking is the recruitment,
  transportation, harboring, or receipt of
  people for the purpose of exploitation
• A kind of transnational organized crime
  worth 6 to 10 billion dollars
• Victims are recruited using deception,
  power or abduction
• They are exploited using threats, violence,
  and/ or economic leverage
   Extent of human trafficking
• Estimated 600,000 to 800,000 men,
  women and children are trafficked across
  international borders each year
• 80% are female and up to 50% are minors
• Victims are often trafficked in to
  commercial sexual exploitation
• Two-thirds of women trafficked come from
  Eastern Europe
      Data collected by United States State Department
    Extent of human trafficking
• An estimated 500,000 women from
  Central and Eastern Europe are trafficked
  in EU
• Around 14,000 are trafficked in US and
  Canada each year from Eastern Europe
  and Mexico
• In Asia, Japan is the preferred destination
• 300,000 women and children are in sex
  trade in Southeast Asia
       Data collected by United States State Department
    Extent of human trafficking
• Preferred destinations are nearby
  wealthier nations
• Suppliers are Eastern European countries
  like Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine, and
  Thailand, Philippines in Asia, and Nepal in
  South Asia
• Trafficking is increasing in Africa, South
  Asia and North America
• Iraq war has led to an increase in
  trafficking Iraqi women
      Data collected by United States State Department
   Causes of human trafficking
• Lack of employment opportunities
• Economic disparities, regional imbalance,
  and social discrimination
• Corruption in government and insufficient
  penalties against traffickers
• High demand of sex workers and other
  forms of labor in the host countries
• Profitable business
                Overview
• Human trafficking, its extent and causes
• Trafficking in India and why it flourishes
  there
• Kamathipura and Sonagachi: famous red
  light areas in India
• Problems sex workers face in these areas
  – Inhumane treatment (in their own words)
  – Health issues
• What does law says
• Some unanswered questions and links
         Trafficking in India
• Trafficked women in
  India are mostly from
  Nepal
• Traffickers prefer
  Mumbai over Kolkata
• Local recruiters sell
  them to brokers for 10
  USD
• Brokers sell them to
  brothel owners for 1500
  USD
   Why trafficking flourishes in
               India
• Economic and social vulnerability of
  women and dependence upon males
• Corrupt government officials (including
  cops) and lack of public support and
  sympathy for sex workers
• Baseless beliefs, illiteracy, and
  superstitions
• Weird prevalent systems like chukri (to
  pay off debts) and aadhiya (brothel system)
                Overview
• Human trafficking, its extent and causes
• Trafficking in India and why it flourishes
  there
• Kamathipura and Sonagachi: famous red
  light areas in India
• Problems sex workers face in these areas
  – Inhumane treatment (in their own words)
  – Health issues
• What does law says
• Some unanswered questions and links
  Red light areas: Kamathipura
• Roughly 60,000 sex workers inhabit the
  place
• Mumbai’s oldest and Asia’s largest
  centralized red light area
• More than half of the population of the
  area is from Nepal
• Almost 80% are affected from HIV
• Average age of sex workers is 14 (2004),
  a drop of roughly 10 years from early 90s
   Red light areas: Sonagachi
• The place has roughly 10,000 sex workers,
  from Nepal, Bangladesh, and India
• Largest red light area in Kolkata and is
  more than hundred years old
• It has lowest AIDS rate among any red
  light areas in India
• Better than Kamathipura in sanitation,
  health, and education; cheaper rates
  (minimum Rs. 10 compared to Rs 40 in
  Mumbai)
                Overview
• Human trafficking, its extent and causes
• Trafficking in India and why it flourishes
  there
• Kamathipura and Sonagachi: famous red
  light areas in India
• Problems sex workers face in these areas
  – Inhumane treatment (in their own words)
  – Health issues
• What does law says
• Some unanswered questions and links
 Problems: Inhumane treatment
• Initial hesitation to serve customers is
  dealt with repeated raping, beating with
  rods etc. until the girl finally gives up
• Any opposition from sex workers is met by
  torture like beating, burning with cigarettes,
  locking in a dark room without food etc.
• Once the rate is fixed, the customer can
  do whatever he wants; opposition have
  lead to stabbing in some cases leading to
  death
 Problems: Inhumane treatment
• On an average, sex workers serve at least
  5 clients per day; the number can rise to
  20 or 30 sometimes
• They undergo 6 abortions on average per
  year performed by midwives without any
  care
• A good night is equivalent to 2 USD; a bad
  night might result in no pay to the worker
• Money, not health is the bottom line of this
  business
          In their own words
• “The first night they forced me to have sex.
  When I refused, they held me down, beat
  me and raped me. I was seven years old.”
  Gina, who is suffering from AIDS now
• “The people of my village hold me in
  contempt. They treat me badly. People
  don’t understand that I was tricked and
  suffered a lot.” Meena, after being rescued
  at the age of 14
        From the documentary “The Day My God Died”
          In their own words
• “I trusted my friend. They drugged us with
  something you take with bread. I never
  came back from there… When I refused to
  have sex they beat me for days. They
  threatened to bury me alive.” Anita, sold at
  the age of 12
• “I would not wish that life on an enemy. It
  was pure hell. It would be better to hang
  yourself and die.” Sita, sold at the age of
  15
        From the documentary “The Day My God Died”
     Problems: Health issues
• Sex workers suffer from infectious
  diseases like syphilis and others due to
  lack of sanitation in the area; they infect
  the clients with the same
• More HIV positive cases due to unsafe sex;
  more than 80% of Mumbai sex workers
  are HIV positive and almost 90 HIV
  positive cases are reported hourly
                Overview
• Human trafficking, its extent and causes
• Trafficking in India and why it flourishes
  there
• Kamathipura and Sonagachi: famous red
  light areas in India
• Problems sex workers face in these areas
  – Inhumane treatment (in their own words)
  – Health issues
• What does law says
• Some unanswered questions and links
        What does law says?
• In 1956, the Government of India passed
  the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act; last
  amended in 1986
• The law is pretty ambiguous; it is designed
  to combat commercialized vice but
  prostitution is not illegal
• Brothels are illegal but in practice they are
  restricted in a certain location; little effort is
  made to impede them
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act
• Prostitution is legally allowed to thrive but
  away from public
• Sex work is neither legal nor illegal; workers
  are not allowed to solicit clients in public
• The premises which is utilized should be 200
  yards away from any public place (includes
  public conveyance); it is called brothel if two
  or more sex workers use it
• Sex workers are not protected under normal
  worker laws
ITPA: Salient features (Sections
              3-5)
• Punishment for keeping a brothel or
  allowing premises to be used as a brothel;
  punishment up to 3 years
• Punishment for living on the earnings of
  prostitution; punishment up to 2 years, 25
  USD fine, or both
• Procuring, inducing or taking person for
  the sake of prostitution; punishment in
  between 3 to 7 years and fine up to 50
  USD
ITPA: Salient features (Sections
              6-8)
• Detaining a person in premises where
  prostitution is carried on; punishment up to
  7 years
• Prostitution in or in the vicinity of public
  place; punishment up to 7 years
• Seducing or soliciting for the purpose of
  prostitution in public or close by;
  punishment up to 1 year and/ or fine up to
  13 USD
           Issues with ITPA
• Brothels are illegal according to section 3
  but they prosper
• Traffickers are not prosecuted under
  sections 3, 4, 5, 6 but under section 8
  which leads to less punishment
• Sex workers are normally booked under
  section 8 which do not talk about rescuing
  them; rescuing a person comes under
  another section
                Overview
• Human trafficking, its extent and causes
• Trafficking in India and why it flourishes
  there
• Kamathipura and Sonagachi: famous red
  light areas in India
• Problems sex workers face in these areas
  – Inhumane treatment (in their own words)
  – Health issues
• What does law says
• Some unanswered questions and links
      Unanswered questions
• Is the government liable for the trafficked
  person of another country?
• What is the government doing for the
  rescued sex workers?
• The brothels are illegal by law; how come
  they still exist and manage to grow?
• How do government plans to combat with
  AIDS in red light areas?
                  Links
• Born into Brothels: Calcutta's Red Light
  Kids An Oscar award winning
  documentary on the future of the kids in
  Sonagachi
• Ohh God! Save Me An article about a
  teenage girl in a brothel in Pune
• The Day My God Died The website of the
  documentary film
• The Price of Youth An expose version of
  the documentary film

				
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