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ENERGY SOURCES

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    TOPIC: ENERGY SOURCES
    SUB: NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
                SOURCES




        NON-CONVENTIOAL ENERGY SOURCES


    ABSTRACT
    INTRODUCTION
             1) CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
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              2) ENERGY CRISES
             3) POWER CONSUMPTION IN THE WORLD
    NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
             1)SOLAR ENERGY
                a)DEFINATION
                b)APPLICATIONS
                c)ADVANTAGES
             2)HYDRO POWER
             3)WAVE POWER
             4) GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SOURCES
                a)DEPOSITES
                b)IMPACT
                c) USES
            5)TIDAL POWER
    SOCIAL IMPACT
    CONCLUSION
      REFERENCES




ABSTRACT:
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       This paper presents of energy sources focusing on non-conventional
sources.
As we know Law of Energy conservation states that

“ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR BE DISTROYED BUT CAN
BE CONVERED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER.”


 The immovable potential energy and movable kinetic energy needs
electrical energy for executing any work as the other forms of energy is not
viable in today’s modern context. We depend upon different sources of
energy in one way or other, either directly or indirectly for our future
energy requirements.

   There are two vital sources of energy.

1. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (COMMERCIAL/NON-RENEWABLE)
2. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (NONCOMMERCIAL/RENWABLE)

        In this paper we are going to learn about the main energy sources
required for the human life. They are mainly solar energy, hydro power,
geothermal energy etc. The solar energy is the cheapest of all requires
mainly the solar panels which are capable of storing energy and can be
used in various forms. Some of the applications are listed in the paper.
Coming to Hydro power is the major process used in India for generating
power. In many parts of India hydro power is utilized in many ways.
Stating in geothermal energy is the heat from within the earth. Actually
Geo thermal energy is generated in the earth’s core, about 4000 miles below
the earth’s surface. Direct use of Geo thermal energy as in heating
applications has all most no negative impact on the environment. The Geo
thermal power plants release about 1 to 3 percent of the carbon dioxide
which is not that much harmful to the environment or human life.




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INTRODUCTION:

 ENERGY SOURCES:

 Energy: Energy can neither be created nor can be destroyed but can be
transformed from one form to another.

   1. Conventional energy sources
   2. Non-conventional energy sources

CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES:

These are defined as the sources, which provide a net supply of energy.
These are the sources, which are widely used. Ex: Coal, Oil, Gas etc.

ENERGY CRISES:

                  Current energy sources of the world are facing great
challenges. They include an increasing world population, demands for
higher standards of living, a need for less population and need to avert
global warming and possible end of fossil fuels. Without energy entire
industrialized infrastructure would collapse.
                   Energy (Electricity) is essential for industrialization.
Information technology, transportation, communication, agriculture, what
not every thing. Also all most all the usage of air conditioners, automobiles
and refrigerators, is tippled all over the world. Because of all these reasons
energy is no more a luxury but a necessity.
                    For example if we considered any one of the non-
renewable re sources like Coal, nearly 30% to 40% of countries energy
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production depends upon the coal. So continuous usage and dependence on
the coal for the energy production may lead to the exhaustion / extinction
of the coal reserves. Not only coal all most all the energy (Conventional)
reserves are about to face a serious threat of extinction i.e., with in next 50
- 100 years all most all the energy reserves get vanished.




POWER CONSUMPTION IN THE WORLD


     CONSUMPTION                    PERCENTAGE (%)


     House hold                     30%
     Transportation                 20%
     Agriculture                    2%
     Industry                       33%
     Electricity                    13%
     Military                       2%
      TOTAL                         100%



So there is a need for searching for the alternate ways for power energy
production.

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NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES:
               Non conventional Energy sources are the sources, which
provide a net supply of that, can be renewable. Non conventional Energy
sources find its great application only when

              ELECTRICITY IS THEROTICALLY POSSIBLE
              TECHNICALLY FEASIBLE
              ECONOMICALLY VIABLE
I.e., production of electricity from renewable sources should be
theoretically possible, technically achievable and economically successful.
But any system in the world is technically achievable and economically
successful only when the advantages through the system are far better
than disadvantages
              Few examples for Non conventional Energy Sources are
           1. SOLAR ENERGY
           2. HYDRO ENERGY
           3. WIND ENERGY
           4. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
           5. OCEAN ENERGY
           6. WAVE ENERGY
           7. TIDAL ENERGY
           8. BIO GAS ENERGY


SOLAR ENERGY:

        Solar power is a technology of obtaining energy from the light of
sun.




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              SUN

         Solar power was once considered like nuclear power, too cheap to
maintain but this proved illusory because of the high cost of photo
voltaic cells and due to limited demand. Experts however believe that
with mass production and improvement in technology the unit price
would drop and this would make it attractive for the consumers in
relation to thermal or hydal power. Since solar power does not have
moving parts produces no noise or pollution less maintenance and can be
installed anywhere.
        A solar thermal device on the other hand captures and transfers
the heat energy available in solar radiation. The energy generated can be
used for thermal applications in different fields.




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SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS


How does solar energy work?

Friends of the Earth parliamentary campaigner Martyn Williams
produces his own electricity on the roof of his London home, selling
surplus back to the nationwide electricity system National Grid. Here
Martyn explains how solar energy works.




                                                            Sun-day: Martyn Williams on the roof of his house


What inspired you to invest in producing your own green electricity?
The driving force was to [make a contribution to] prevent climate change.
The incentive was that the house needed a new roof anyway.

Was it much more expensive than retiling?
To replace the roof would have cost £5000. The solar panels brought this to £20,000. A 50%
grant from the Energy Saving Trust brought this to £10,000.

How did you find out about the grant?
The Energy Saving Trust provided both information and a 50% grant on condition that one
of their approved installers was employed on the project.Did it take a long time to install?




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My wife Sarah and I spent a week stripping and re-
insulating the roof. The installers then took three days
to lay the panels.

They were almost fighting about who got to do the work.
They were all eager to have a look at the panels as they
hadn't worked with them before.


                                                              Sunbelievable: top view




How much of your electricity comes from the panels?
We designed the roof to meet our energy needs with the help of old
electricity bills. Over the seasons it averages 75%. At peak times we sell
surplus back to the national grid.

What are the other benefits of the roof?
With grants to encourage interest, solar will become more affordable and
available to more people. This will in turn help reduce our carbon
emissions, the real benefits of which will be felt by baby Ruth and future
generations.

Would you recommend a solar roof to other people?
Yes, it is definitely worth it! It's great to be able to make a difference and
reduce your impact on the environment, especially as climate change is
becoming more apparent.

ADVANTAGES:

           India is a one of the few countries blessed with long days and
plenty sun shine especially in desert areas. Solar thermal energy in India
can be used for both industrial and domestic purpose. Solar energy can
also be used to meet the electricity requirement too and it can be provide
electricity continuously not less than 9 months in an year. Solar energy
is renewable, clean, abundant, wide spread, pollution free. So various
technologies are developing and being developed to have an advance
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utilization of solar energy, store it, concentrate it, and convert it into
useful forms of energy. The only dis advantage is that the solar panels
are very costly and it is not useful in cloudy days and non-tropical
regions.

HYDRO POWER:

                      Hydro Electricity is one of the renewable energy
used today that makes a large contribution to world energy production.
The long terms technical potential is believed to be 9 to 12 times current
hydro power production, but environmental concerns increasingly block
new dam construction. There is a growing interest in mini projects,
which avoid many problems of the larger dams like formation of Silt
                       The Hydropower is produced in more volumes in
many of the countries. However this is the seasonal power and the
quantum varies according to the season. Hydropower facilities in United
States can generate enough power to supply 28-million household with
electricity, equivalent of nearly 500 million barrels of oil. Hydropower
produced using impoundment diversion and pumped storage methods.
Also there are mtypes of turbines are in used has been selected based on
their application and head of water storage.

   1.  The pelt - on turbine can be used for 50 - 6000 feet high head
        application and able to generate 200 MW
    2. Francis turbine can be used for 10 - 10,000 feet and able to
       generate
        800 MW
    3. Propeller turbine can be used for 10 - 300 feet and generates unto
       100 MW.
    4.   Kaplan turbine can generate 400 MW
         This is emission free generation, however undesirable,
environment effect such as fish injury, and mortality from passage
though turbine and determent the effect on the quantity of the down
stream are taking place.




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WAVE POWER:

   Wave power is the extraction of energy from waves in large bodies of
water such as Occasions and large lakes. Wave power is the form of
renewable energy that is in rise. It should not be confused with tidal
power, which involves construction of dam or power tower (which is
basically a large tube which waves push air through create power to
create power with turbines), which are both structures connected to land.
Wave power is harnessed by other means, including floating objects or
missions on the floor of the body of water.




ADVANTAGES;
      1. Potentially high abundant for countries with large costal lines.
      2. Potentially minimum effect on the environment.

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      3. Wave power is renewable source.
      4. Highly predicable compared to wind and solar.




DIS ADVANTAGES
   1. Requires further research, development and investment in
infrastructure
   2. Repairs at sea are costlier and more time consuming should
generators be damaged (Storms etc.)


GEOTHERMAL ENERGY:

      The word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and
thermo (heat). So, geothermal energy is heat from within the earth. We can
use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or

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generate electricity. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source


because the water is replenished by rain fall and the heat is continuously
produced inside the earth




WHERE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOUND?


Geothermal energy is generated in the earth's core, about 4,000 miles below
the surface. Temperatures hotter than the sun's surface are continuously
produced inside the earth by the slow decay of radioactive particles, a
process that happens in all rocks. The earth has a number of different layers:
The core itself has two layers: a solid iron core and an outer core made of
very hot melted rock, called magma. The mantle which surrounds the core
and is about 1,800 miles thick. It is made up of magma and rock. The crust
is the outermost layer of the earth, the land that forms the continents and
ocean floors. It can be three to five miles thick under the oceans and 15 to 35




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miles thick on the continents. The earth's crust is broken into pieces called
plates. Magma comes close to the earth's surface near the edges of these
plates. This is where volcanoes occur. The lava that erupts from volcanoes is
partly magma. Deep underground, the rocks and water absorb the heat from
this magma. The temperature of the rocks and water get hotter and hotter as
you go deeper underground
THE ENVIONMENTAL IMPACT OF GEOTHERMAL
ENERGY DEPENDS ON HOW IT IS BEING USED.
       Direct use and heating applications have almost no negative impact
on the environment. Geothermal power plants do not burn fuel to generate
electricity, so their emission levels are very low. They release about 1 to 3
percent of the carbon dioxide emissions of a fossil fuel plant. Geothermal
plants use scrubber systems to clean the air of hydrogen sulfide that is
naturally found in the steam and hot water. Geothermal plants emit 97
percent less acid rain - causing sulfur compounds than are emitted by fossil
fuel plants. After the steam and water from a geothermal reservoir have been
used, they are re injected back into the earth. Geothermal features in national
parks, such as geysers and fumaroles in Yellowstone National Park, are
protected by law, to prevent the land from being disturbed




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USES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Some applications of geothermal energy use the earth's temperatures near
the surface, while others require drilling miles into the earth. The three
main uses of geothermal energy are:

1) Direct Use and District Heating Systems which use hot water from springs or
reservoirs near the surface.
2) Electricity generation in a power plant requires water or steam at very high
temperature (300 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit). Geothermal power plants are
generally built where geothermal reservoirs are located within a mile or two
of the surface.
3) Geothermal heat pumps use stable ground or water temperatures near the
earth's surface to control building temperatures above ground


TIDAL POWER:




  Tidal energy involves building a dam across the opening to a tidal basin,
called an estuary. The dam, called a barrage, is composed of turbines,
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located within tunnels in the dam that rotate when a tide comes in,
generating electricity.


ADVANTAGES:
 Tidal power is free once the dam is built. This is because tidal power
harnesses the natural power of tides and does not consume fuel. In addition,
the maintenance costs associated with running a tidal station are relatively
low.[citation needed]
 Tides are very reliable because it is easy to predict when high and low
tides will occur. The tide goes in and out twice a day usually at the predicted
times. This makes tidal energy easy to maintain, and positive and negative
spikes in energy can be managed.
DIS ADVANTAGES:
 It provides power only for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is
moving in or out of the basin.
 The availability of suitable estuaries is limited. Construction of artificial
estuaries is highly expensive.
 The barrage construction can affect the transportation system in water.
Boats may not be able to cross the barrage outside of a lock system.
 Maximum power production is limited to 2.5 tetra watts. This is the total
amount of tidal dissipation or the friction measured by the slowing of the
lunar orbit.




SOC IAL IMPACT:
       Though we have different types of non conventional energy sources
we still mostly depend upon conventional energy sources because during the
19th century when India began to come out slowly from the medieval age to
modern age the European world was using a technology to tap conventional
fuels, which were cheap and abundantly available then.

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      When British rulers industrialized India they applied the same
technology to tap the conventional fuels of our country. That is the reason
why the immediate shift from conventional fuels to non-conventional may
not be achievable. This change has to be executed in Phased manner with
decentralization of energy needs in India.


CONCLUSION:
    FINALLY to compensate the lack of energy supply in India, to get
pollution free country and to see India in developed countries, India
should step into usage of non-conventional energy sources for its
domestic purposes, but this is not a one-day or a one-week or a one-
month change. IT IS A PHASED CHANGE.

Reference:

    Non-conventional energy sources by G.D.Rai
    Encyclopedia of energy by MC_Graw Hill
    Solar energy and energy conversion by Kalam, Maheshwari,
     Sawhney
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/renewable energy




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