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Policy for Health Safety and Welfare

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          “Effective control of health, safety and welfare reaches to
          the core of a thriving business. This is particularly so in
          public bodies where high visibility in the community requires
          exemplary standards in this field. Wherever it has influence,
          West Dorset District Council will set and achieve high
          standards of work practices, leading to safe delivery of
          services and a healthy working environment for staff and
          the community.”




                     Document No: 0   Issued to: Intranet




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  In paper form, this is a controlled document issued to specific persons. Additional
  copies can be obtained from Health and Safety Officer. Amendments will be issued. It
  is also available on the intranet.




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                                        5
February 2006
FIRST ..........................................................................................................................3
     Aims ...........................................................................................................................................................11
     Intention.........................................................................................................................................................12
     Communication..............................................................................................................................................13
     Consultation...................................................................................................................................................13

  Part 2 - Organisation and Responsibilities..........................................................14
  Allocation of line management responsibilities ..............................................................14
     The Council ...................................................................................................................................................14
     Chief Executive .............................................................................................................................................15
     Lead Director .................................................................................................................................................16
     Directors ........................................................................................................................................................16
     Service Managers...........................................................................................................................................17
     Line Managers / Supervisors .........................................................................................................................19
     Managers of stand alone locations.................................................................................................................20
     Managers at locations which are leased.........................................................................................................20

  Allocation of Functional Management Responsibilities ...............................................................................21
    Lead Director for Health and Safety..............................................................................................................21
    Corporate Services Manager..........................................................................................................................21
    Technical Services Manager ..........................................................................................................................22
    Community Protection Manager....................................................................................................................23
    Election and Registration Officer ..................................................................................................................23
    Customer Services Team Leaders..................................................................................................................23

  Specialists functions.........................................................................................................................................23
    Health & Safety Officer.................................................................................................................................24
    Health and Safety Co-ordinator .....................................................................................................................26

  Employees.........................................................................................................................................................27
   Employees’ responsibilities ...........................................................................................................................27
   Disciplinary action.........................................................................................................................................28

  Safety Committee and Safety Representatives..............................................................................................29
    Employee Consultation..................................................................................................................................29
    Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision ......................................................................................31

  Management System – HSG65 ...................................................................................................32
   Policy .........................................................................................................................................................32
   Organising ..............................................................................................................................................32
   Planning ...................................................................................................................................................32
   Measuring performance ..................................................................................................................33
   Auditing and reviewing performance .....................................................................................33

NATIONAL JOINT COUNCIL FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES................34

  Green Book Part 4.7 - Management of Health & Safety..............................................................................34
   Joint Consultation ..........................................................................................................................................34
   Local Authorities should recognise that: .......................................................................................................34


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Part 3 - Arrangements ............................................................................................................37
3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................37

3.2 Management of Health & Safety at Work .............................................................43
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................43
   Suitable and Sufficient Risk Assessment.......................................................................................................43
   Planning .........................................................................................................................................................46
   Organisation...................................................................................................................................................46
   Control ...........................................................................................................................................................47
   Monitoring .....................................................................................................................................................47
   Review ...........................................................................................................................................................47
   Specific Requirements for Managing Risk ....................................................................................................48
   Information for Employees ............................................................................................................................50
   Capabilities and Training...............................................................................................................................51
   Employees’ duties..........................................................................................................................................51
   Temporary Workers.......................................................................................................................................52
   New or Expectant Mothers ............................................................................................................................52
   Young Persons ...............................................................................................................................................53
   Disabled staff .................................................................................................................................................53
   Responsibilities..............................................................................................................................................53

3.3 Risk Assessment ........................................................................................................................55
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................55
   Procedures .....................................................................................................................................................55
   Responsibilities..............................................................................................................................................59

3.4 Accidents, Incidents and Disease ..................................................................................63
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................63
   Procedures .....................................................................................................................................................63
   Responsibilities..............................................................................................................................................66
   Contacts .........................................................................................................................................................66
   Accident Report Form .....................................................................................................................69

3.5 Young People ..............................................................................................................................71
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................71
   Procedures .....................................................................................................................................................71
   Responsibilities..............................................................................................................................................72

3.6 Display Screen Equipment ................................................................................................73
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................73
   Procedures and practices................................................................................................................................73
   Definitions .....................................................................................................................................................74
   Responsibilities..............................................................................................................................................75

3.7     Manual Handling ....................................................................................................................77
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................77
   Procedures and practices................................................................................................................................77
   Responsibilities..............................................................................................................................................79

3.8 Confined Spaces ........................................................................................................................81
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................81
   Responsibilities..............................................................................................................................................83
   Confined Space Entry Permit                              Appendix 3.8A ............................................................................84
   Confined Space Entry Permit                              Appendix 3.8A ............................................................................85
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3.9       PAT Testing of Electrical Equipment ...................................................................87
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................87
   Procedures .....................................................................................................................................................87
   User Checks ...................................................................................................................................................87
   Table 1: Portable Electrical Appliance - Inspection and Testing...................................................................88
   Examples........................................................................................................................................................89
   Personal Items of Electrical Equipment.........................................................................................................89
   PAT Register              Appendix 3.8B .............................................................................................................92

3.10      Fire Risk Management .....................................................................................................93
   Summary........................................................................................................................................................93
   Procedures .....................................................................................................................................................93
   The Risk Assessment .....................................................................................................................................93
   Additional Considerations .............................................................................................................................98
   Technical Guidance Notes ..........................................................................................................101
   1.   Exit Routes..............................................................................................................................................101
   2.   Detectors/Alarms ....................................................................................................................................101
   3.   Classification of Fires .............................................................................................................................101
   4.   Fire Fighting Equipment.........................................................................................................................101
   5.   Structural items .......................................................................................................................................102
   6.   Maintenance............................................................................................................................................102
   7.   Fire action notices...................................................................................................................................102
   8.   Inflammable storage ...............................................................................................................................102

3.11          Provision and Use of Work Equipment - PUWER ....................................107
   Summary......................................................................................................................................................107
   Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................107
   Dangerous Parts of Machinery ....................................................................................................................108
   Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................111

3.12 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment .......................................................113
   Summary......................................................................................................................................................113
   Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................113
   Strength and Stability...................................................................................................................................114
   Lifting Operations........................................................................................................................................117
   Storage .........................................................................................................................................................118
   Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................118
   Appendix 3.12A...........................................................................................................................................121

3.13          Travelling Officers and Lone Workers ..........................................................125
   Summary......................................................................................................................................................125
   Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................125
   Self responsibility ........................................................................................................................................126
   Potential for confrontation ...........................................................................................................................126
   Friendly meetings ........................................................................................................................................126
   Out of hours meetings..................................................................................................................................127
   Buddy working ............................................................................................................................................127
   Whereabouts boards.....................................................................................................................................127
   Missing staff ................................................................................................................................................127
   When to take action .....................................................................................................................................128
   Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................128

Appendix D.....................................................................................................................................................133
 Violence, Threats and Abuse .......................................................................................................................133
 Reasons Why Abuse May Occur .................................................................................................................133
 General Measures to Reduce the Risk of Violence......................................................................................136
 Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................138
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    Further Information .....................................................................................................................................138

 3.14          Asbestos.....................................................................................................................................139
    Summary......................................................................................................................................................139
    Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................139
    Licences .......................................................................................................................................................141
    Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................141
    Other Applicable Regulations......................................................................................................................142
    For Labelling and Transport of Asbestos ....................................................................................................142
    Additional Information ................................................................................................................................142

 3.15      Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) .........................145
    Summary......................................................................................................................................................145
    Procedures - Practical Steps for a Good Risk Assessment ..........................................................................148
    Recording and reviewing the assessment ....................................................................................................150
    Using the controls ........................................................................................................................................152
    Maintain controls .........................................................................................................................................153
    Risk Phrases.................................................................................................................................................157


3.16          ROAD SAFETY .........................................................................................165

 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................165
   Responsibility ..............................................................................................................................................165
   Speed ...........................................................................................................................................................165
   Training .......................................................................................................................................................166
   Documents ...................................................................................................................................................166
   Mobile phones .............................................................................................................................................167
   Medication ...................................................................................................................................................167
   Tiredness......................................................................................................................................................167
   Driving alone ...............................................................................................................................................168
   Winter driving..............................................................................................................................................168
   Vehicle choice .............................................................................................................................................168
   Breakdowns .................................................................................................................................................169
   Minibus ........................................................................................................................................................169
   Highway Code .............................................................................................................................................169
   Before the journey .......................................................................................................................................172
   Road rage .....................................................................................................................................................174
   Visibility ......................................................................................................................................................174

 3.17          Safety Signs ............................................................................................................................177
    Summary......................................................................................................................................................177
    Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................177
    Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................178
    Types and Use of Signs ...............................................................................................................................181

 3.18      Management of Workplace Stress .........................................................................185
    Summary......................................................................................................................................................185
    What is stress? .............................................................................................................................................185
    Possible sources of stress in the workplace .................................................................................................185
    Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................186
    Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................187
    Employees....................................................................................................................................................188
    How to recognise the signs of stress............................................................................................................189

 Table 1 – Record of stress support ...............................................................................................................193
   Risk Assessment Guidance ..........................................................................................................................195
   Stress Risk Assessment................................................................................................................................197
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 Auditing the stress management standards .......................................................................199
 Demands ......................................................................................................................................................199
 Control .........................................................................................................................................................199
 Support.........................................................................................................................................................200
 Relationships................................................................................................................................................200
 Role..............................................................................................................................................................201
 Change .........................................................................................................................................................201

3.19       New and Expectant Mothers ..................................................................................205
 Summary......................................................................................................................................................205
 Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................205
 Stage One.....................................................................................................................................................205
 Stage Two ....................................................................................................................................................205
 Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................206
 Figure 1 – What you must do ......................................................................................................................207
 Look for the hazards ....................................................................................................................................209

3.20       Working at Height.........................................................................................................213
 Summary......................................................................................................................................................213
 Planning and procedures..............................................................................................................................213
 Choice of access equipment.........................................................................................................................214
 MEWP – cherry pickers etc .........................................................................................................................214
 Scaffold providers........................................................................................................................................214
 Ladders and stepladders – see figures at Appendix A .................................................................................215
 Fragile surfaces............................................................................................................................................215
 Medical factors ............................................................................................................................................216
 Responsibilities............................................................................................................................................216




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       Part 1 - Policy Statement
Aims
       1.    West Dorset District Council aims to provide a safe and healthy working
             environment for all its employees. It will endeavour to:

             ♦    Ensure work carried out by its employees does not adversely affect
                  the health and safety of anyone else in the vicinity; such as
                  customers, suppliers, contractors or the public;

             ♦    Develop and implement a successful health and safety management
                  system based on guidance by the Health and Safety Executive,
                  which recognises that the principles of good health and safety
                  management and good quality management are the same and are an
                  integral part of the council’s performance;

             ♦    Develop a no blame culture whereby all accidents, incidents of ill
                  health, other loss events and near misses are investigated, the cause
                  identified and new measures adopted to ensure, so far as is
                  reasonably practicable, a safe and healthy working environment.

             ♦    Ensure all employees are able to work in a safe and healthy manner
                  and make a maximum contribution to the health and safety of their
                  workplace. Competence is key to this aim and will be achieved by
                  effective recruitment and through training and experience gained in
                  the workplace. Competent persons will be available to assist
                  managers in fulfilling their obligations under this policy;

             ♦    Support periodic health promotion initiatives and encourage
                  managers to release staff and allow their involvement;

             ♦    Meet its obligations under all relevant health, safety and welfare
                  legislation, so far as it is reasonably practicable.

       2.    West Dorset District Council recognises injuries and ill health arise in
             the home, during leisure pursuits and whilst driving. The council will
             promote awareness of these issues and periodically provide guidance to
             help reduce such incidents.




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  February 2006
Intention

      3.    The council places the management of occupational health and safety as a
            prime responsibility of line management from the Chief Executive to the
            first line supervisor and intends that:

            ♦   Managers and supervisors will be accountable for the health, safety
                and welfare of staff under their control and the areas they are
                responsible for, including common and shared areas. Where a
                number of divisions share the same premises, one manager will co-
                ordinate health and safety.

            ♦   All staff will play their part in the implementation of this policy and
                must comply with any safety procedures. They have an individual
                responsibility to take all reasonable care for the safety of themselves
                and others and to co-operate with management in matters of health,
                safety and welfare.

            ♦   The identification of hazards and the assessment of risks is a key part
                of our policy for health and safety. Suitable and sufficient risk
                assessments will be conducted, recorded and control measures will be
                implemented to reduce the risk to an acceptable level, on an on-going
                basis.

            ♦   Adequate funding and other resources will be provided to meet its
                health and safety obligations and will give priority to high-risk areas
                as determined by risk assessment.

            ♦   Where risk assessment identifies the need for personal protective
                equipment it will be provided at no charge to employees.

            ♦   Whenever West Dorset District Council requires a person to work
                from home, appropriate equipment will be provided but the fabric and
                condition of the home will remain the responsibility of the person
                working there.

            ♦   All other persons on West Dorset District Council premises will be
                required to observe our health and safety policy and procedures and
                other safety rules and instructions given by persons implementing the
                Council’s Policy.

            ♦   Compliance with the policy will be monitored and regular audits will
                be conducted.

            ♦   Timely implementation of new legislation and good practice is
                expected.


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Communication

      4.       This policy is kept under review and regular amendments issued as appropriate.
               It will is widely circulated and:

               ♦ Managers will bring this policy to the attention of all their staff and others
                 affected by it and ensure all their personnel are aware of amendments to the
                 policy and effect they have on working practices.

               ♦ This policy document is available at suitable locations and retained by
                 managers for access by their staff. A summarised booklet is available to all
                 staff and the policy is available on the intranet.



Consultation

      5.       West Dorset District Council will consult and co-operate with safety
               representatives appointed in accordance with the Health and Safety at Work etc.
               Act 1974 and will provide appropriate facilities to enable them to carry out their
               duties in accordance with the relevant Codes of Practice. Where there is no
               union representation West Dorset District Council will consult directly with the
               employees or their elected representative.

      6.       The Health and Safety Committee is an appropriate forum for consultation.




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   February 2006
Part 2 - Organisation and Responsibilities
Allocation of line management responsibilities

The Council
      1.      The council through all its committees and forums accepts its collective role in
              providing exemplary health and safety leadership within the organisation. The
              council will contribute to the corporate risk control process and will, so far as is
              reasonably practicable:

              a.   Provide and maintain a workplace and working environment for employees
                   which is safe and without risks to health, including adequate facilities and
                   arrangements for welfare and security at work;

              b. Provide adequate funds and other resources to meet the council’s health and
                 safety obligations and to participate actively in national initiatives to
                 improve safety;

              c.   Ensure that all relevant provisions of health and safety legislation, codes of
                   safe working practices are observed through the application of an effective
                   policy of health, safety and welfare thus protecting council employees and
                   others who are affected by the council’s undertaking;

              d. Councillors will consider the effects on health and safety of the decisions
                 made in their committees and at least annually, appraise the effectiveness of
                 the policy via a performance report of all the services to the relevant
                 committee;

              e.   Provide and maintain plant and systems of work that are safe and without
                   risks to health;

              f.   Make arrangements for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in
                   connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and
                   substances;

              g.   Provide information, instruction, training and supervision to ensure the
                   health, safety and welfare at work of all council employees. This includes
                   bringing to the attention of staff the statement of health and safety policy
                   and its amendments;

              h. Maintain any place of work under the council’s control in a condition that is
                 safe and without risks to health and provide and maintain a safe means of
                 access and egress, including suitable procedures for action in the event of
                 emergency;




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                                                                                           February 2006
              i.        Incorporate appropriate health and safety clauses within all contracts.
                        Acceptance of a tender based on cost is only to be considered after
                        appropriate review of the health and safety implications within the tenders,
                        as well as the contractors previous health and safety performance;

              j.        Ensure competent persons are appointed to assist the council with measures
                        to comply with the relevant statutory provisions.

Chief Executive

      2.     In addition to the duties and responsibilities assigned to directors, the Chief
             Executive accepts the key role in ensuring systems are in place (and are being
             followed) to manage the significant risks faced by the organisation, and:

                   a.     Provides advice, leadership and direction to ensure clear management of
                          health and safety and gives a clear message to all involved that risks to
                          health and safety must be effectively controlled;

                   b.     Accepts overall responsibility for implementation of the council’s health
                          safety and welfare policy and compliance with health and safety
                          legislation, except for the duties and responsibilities which are placed on
                          council committees;

                   c.     Ensure the Leader of Council, members of the executive committee and
                          directors are informed and trained in respect of their collective and
                          individual responsibilities and fulfil their duties in relation to this policy
                          and provides appropriate training for this purpose;

                   d.     Ensure competent health and safety assistance is provided to
                          management and staff and advise the council to allocate adequate
                          resources to achieve compliance with health and safety policies;

                   e.     Supports the health and safety committee.

                   f.     Supports an audit process which monitors and reviews health and safety
                          performance, culminating in an annual report to the appropriate
                          committee.

      3.      The co-ordination of these responsibilities and the undertaking of the auditing
              and monitoring roles are delegated to the Corporate Services Manager.




                                                       15
   February 2006
Lead Director

      4.    The Chief Executive has appointed a lead director for health and safety to
            represent the management team and champion health and safety issues. This
            will not remove any of the health and safety responsibilities, which are inherent
            in the position of other directors. The lead director is the Director of Corporate
            Resources.


Directors

      5.    The directors are responsible for overseeing the implementing of all relevant
            health and safety legislation within their span of control. In addition they must,
            so as far as is reasonably practicable:

                a.   Collectively, via the management team, provide health and safety
                     leadership within the council and ensure the intentions of the health and
                     safety policy are considered during any decision making process.

                b.   Be directly responsible to the Chief Executive for the effective
                     implementation of the policy within their directorate;

                c.   Ensure all responsibilities allocated to service managers are properly
                     and effectively carried out and they have active support when
                     implementing requirements of the policy and any relevant health and
                     safety legislation;

                d.   Monitor and report performance of their divisions by presenting an
                     annual report to the Chief Executive and to the relevant committee
                     covering aspects of health and safety and welfare and by any other
                     means determined in the policy;

                e.   Ensure all service managers attend relevant periodic safety training
                     sessions;

                f.   Take account of the advice of the Health and Safety Officer and other
                     specialist advice to ensure the policy is implemented;

                g.   Ensure the provision and maintenance of a safe and healthy working
                     environment forms a key measure of performance of their managers
                     during appraisal and that health and safety is on the agenda of
                     management and directorate meetings.




                                                  16
                                                                                       February 2006
Service Managers

      6.      Service managers and direct reporting officers (DROs) are responsible for
              safeguarding their staff and implementing the requirements of all relevant health
              and safety legislation within their division and/or spheres of control. The
              management system of policy; organising; planning; monitoring and review
              should be applied (see end of Part 2). They must, so far as is reasonably
              practicable:

   Policy
                   a.   Be accountable to their director for the effective implementation of the
                        council’s health and safety policy and legal compliance within their
                        Divisions;

                   b. Ensure all responsibilities allocated to managers or other officers within
                      their control are clearly communicated to them and are properly and
                      effectively carried out;

Organising
                   c.   Ensure this policy is brought to the attention of, and is implemented by, all
                        employees under their control and also that staff have their active support
                        and encouragement when implementing health, safety and welfare
                        requirements;

                   d. Introduce safe systems of work for general and specialised activities
                      within their span of control and incorporate them within the local Part 4 of
                      the Policy as appropriate. Safe systems are to be developed by reference
                      to codes of safe working practice and then documented within site-specific
                      policies. Detailed method statements may be required;

                   e.   Take account of advice from the Health and Safety Officer and other
                        specialists to ensure the policy is implemented;

                   f.   Provide an information dissemination system for health and safety matters
                        within their divisions or spans of control and communicate the method to
                        all staff affected by it. The system must be published as a local procedure
                        in Part 4 of the policy;

                   g.   Carry out the functions of the Technical Services Manager for property
                        and land not controlled by Technical Services, ensuring that it is safe and
                        without risks to health.

                   h. Ensure appropriate delegation of their responsibilities when they are
                      absent;

                   i.   Facilitate the role of Trades Union in the health and safety process;



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   February 2006
Planning
           j.   Via any business plan, ensure adequate resources are available to meet the
                health and safety requirements of their divisions and to control risk via an
                on-going programme of risk assessments. The assessment of risk must be
                integrated into the normal management process to ensure the legal
                requirement is met and becomes a continual process;

           k. Provide such information, instruction, training and supervision, as is
              necessary, including induction, to ensure the health safety and welfare of
              employees under their control;

           l.   Insist all staff within their control attend relevant safety training sessions
                to acquire the competence to carry out their duties;

           m. Ensure appropriate health and safety clauses are incorporated in all
              contracts;

Measuring
        n. Actively monitor performance of their divisions against the requirements
           of the policy, and ensure all accidents, dangerous occurrences, near misses
           and incidents of ill health are reported and investigated and any failures of
           control remedied;

           o.   Ensure health and safety is on the agenda at divisional and team meetings;

Review
           p. Regularly review accident, incident and ill health figures to detect any
              unfavourable trends or risk management failure;

           q. Conduct an annual health and safety inspection of their divisions and
              provide a report to the director covering aspects of health and safety and
              welfare.




                                                 18
                                                                                       February 2006
Line Managers / Supervisors

      7.      Line managers and supervisors, are responsible for the health and safety of their
              staff, including casual, volunteers and other persons who may be affected by
              any operations they control. Therefore they must develop, implement and
              regularly update safety procedures and safe systems of work. They must, so far
              as is reasonably practicable:

                   a.   Implement the health and safety policy and codes of safe working practice
                        as applicable to them, particularly those in Part 3 and Part 4 of the policy;

                   b. Conduct risk assessments of all areas and tasks and take any remedial
                      actions necessary to eliminate risk and control residual risk. Where
                      implementation of the control measure is not within their remit, pass the
                      requirement to the appropriate manager for remedial action;

                   c.   Provide staff with all information, instruction, training and supervision to
                        ensure their health and safety at work and, when entrusting tasks to
                        employees, take into account their knowledge and capabilities. They are
                        expected to inform all employees of the risks to their health and safety
                        identified by risk assessment and the preventive and protective measures
                        in place. This can be done during training sessions or via ‘toolbox talks;’

                   d. Ensure full health and safety training is given to a new employee at
                      induction, or to a re-deployed employee, and when new equipment or
                      systems of work are introduced. Also record training details and courses
                      attended on the individual’s personal file, or provide the Personnel section
                      with the details;

                   e.   Supervise staff (closely and/or periodically) to ensure all safety rules are
                        observed and all defects to plant, equipment, fittings and fabric of
                        buildings are reported. Monitor defect rectification to ensure completion;

                   f.   Prior to the use of all buildings, plant, equipment, layouts, processes or
                        substances complete a risk assessment to ensure they are substantially free
                        of risk. Where necessary obtain advice on aspects of health and safety
                        from the Health and Safety Officer or other competent parties such as
                        suppliers of equipment etc;

                   g.   Ensure emergency procedures for serious and imminent danger and for
                        any danger areas are provided and ensure all procedures are followed in
                        the event of any serious incident;

                   h. Co-operate and co-ordinate with other employers who share any
                      workplace or site, including self employed contractors, to enable both
                      parties to comply with any relevant requirements. The relevant safety
                      information must be provided and shared by both parties;


                                                     19
   February 2006
              i.   Conduct routine inspections of their workplaces and sites to assess and
                   report on health and safety performance, as required by service managers.
                   Also accompany the Health and Safety Officer and/or Safety
                   Representative on any planned inspections;

              j.   Consult and co-operate with appointed safety representatives on safety
                   related issues in accordance with the relevant statutory provisions and
                   consider any representation concerning health, safety and welfare from
                   staff under their control, advising them of any remedial action (or
                   otherwise) taken;

              k. Take care not to issue any instruction to employees which conflicts with
                 the requirements of the policy or relevant codes of practice;

              l.   Ensure appropriate delegation of their responsibilities when they are
                   absent.

Managers of stand alone locations

      8.     Managers who control premises owned by the council and not controlled by
             Technical Services, have an additional responsibility to maintain the property
             and any associated systems. Procedures for these and any other issues
             associated with the building should be developed locally and incorporated in
             Part 4 of this policy. Both the Health and Safety Officer and Technical Services
             division will be available for advice and guidance in these matters.

Managers at locations which are leased

      9.     Managers at properties that are leased from an independent landlord have the
             responsibilities of service managers and line managers, as outlined above, for
             the areas they control. In addition they will have the following responsibilities:

              a.   To check and comply with the terms and conditions of the lease. Seek
                   Technical Services advice when dealing with landlords and implementing
                   any procedures which are normally the domain of Technical Services.
                   Items to be checked include:

                     • The maintenance of common areas within the building;

                     • Provision, maintenance and testing of fire detection and fire fighting
                       equipment and emergency procedures;

                     • Maintenance of the fabric of the building;

                     • Security equipment and procedures.

              b. Liaise and co-operate with other occupiers and the landlord in establishing
                 any building wide procedures that require joint action to implement.

                                                   20
                                                                                        February 2006
Allocation of Functional Management Responsibilities


Lead Director for Health and Safety

      10.     The Chief Executive appoints the Director of Corporate Resources as the lead
              director to co-ordinate the council’s responsibilities towards health and safety.
              In addition to the normal line management responsibilities of a director, the lead
              director is expected to:

                   a.   Act as the point of contact for any collective responsibilities of the
                        management team and make decisions on their behalf;

                   b. Be the management team’s driving force, to help ensure health and safety
                      issues are addressed according to the policy.

Corporate Services Manager

      11.     The Corporate Services Manager will have health and safety responsibilities
              delegated to him by the Chief Executive, including the management of the
              Health and Safety Officer. In addition to the normal responsibilities of a service
              manager, the Corporate Services Manager will also, so far as is reasonably
              practicable:

                   a.   Co-ordinate consultations involving trade unions and management on
                        health, safety and welfare issues;

                   b. Provide an occupational health service appropriate to risks faced by all
                      employees and according to any requirement of any relevant statutory
                      provisions;

                   c.   Co-ordinate measures throughout the council’s services arising from
                        implementation of health and safety legislation;

                   d. Provide an advisory, consultancy, information and monitoring service on
                      health, safety and welfare issues for all divisions of the council;

                   e.   Monitor and report any unsatisfactory health, safety and welfare standards
                        to the appropriate director and/or service manager for rectification;

                   f.   Produce amendments to the health, safety and welfare policy.




                                                    21
   February 2006
Technical Services Manager

      12.   In addition to the normal responsibilities of a service manager, the Technical
            Services Manager will:

              a.   When notified of a defect to buildings or services under the control of
                   Technical Services, which affects the health or safety of any person,
                   ensure the quickest possible rectification of the defect and, in conjunction
                   with local management, prevent people coming into contact with the
                   hazard until it is removed;

              b. Routinely conduct property safety audits and implement control measures
                 for dealing with any health and safety defects discovered. This could
                 form part of any property audit conducted for other purposes;

              c.   Provide planned preventative maintenance systems to meet the health and
                   safety requirement for all premises and equipment etc under the control of
                   Technical Services;

              d. To act as landlord and comply with the Occupier’s Liability Acts for
                 premises or on land owned by the council but not occupied by any of its
                 employees and managed by Technical Services.

              e.   Exercise control over common areas that are corporately shared and not
                   controlled by other divisions ie basements, chambers, meeting and
                   interview rooms, main corridors and cellars etc in properties owned and
                   occupied by the Council, whether jointly or completely. Technical
                   Services will outline these areas and the level of control which will be
                   delegated to other divisions;

              f.   Conduct risk assessments of the common areas mentioned above and in
                   conjunction with the Health and Safety Officer conduct fire risk
                   assessments of the property owned by the council and controlled by
                   Technical Services;

              g.   Install and maintain all the fire hardware (detection and emergency
                   lighting systems, fire fighting equipment etc.) requirements of the fire
                   certificates or fire risk assessments of the property owned by the council
                   and managed by Technical Services;

              h. Apply for Fire Certificates and amendments as required by fire legislation
                 and co-ordinate any actions in conjunction with the Health and Safety
                 Officer;

              i.   Co-ordinate the provision of engineering inspections by insurance
                   companies and notify appropriate service managers of any remedial
                   actions required. Retain relevant documentation appertaining to the
                   inspections, copying to local managers where appropriate.

                                                   22
                                                                                        February 2006
Community Protection Manager

       13.    On request or if considered appropriate, the Community Protection Manager
              will provide any expert advice and guidance to the Corporate Services Manager
              relating to health and safety to enable the Corporate Services Manager and
              subsequently the Health and Safety Officer to effectively carry out their duties.
              Also provide support to Corporate Services Manager for any staff health
              promotion schemes being considered and implemented. The level of support
              will be dependent upon the scheme being implemented.


       14.    On request or if considered appropriate, the Community Protection Manager
              will provide any expert advice, support and guidance relating to building control
              to the Corporate Services Manager regarding fire and building safety to enable
              the Corporate Services Manager and subsequently the Health and Safety Officer
              to effectively carry out their duties.


Election and Registration Officer

       15.    In addition to the responsibilities of a line manager, the Electoral Registration
              Officer will, so far as is reasonably practicable ensure:

                   a.   There are clear responsibilities for the health and safety laid down for all
                        the persons concerned in the preparation and conduct of elections and
                        polls;

                   b. That presiding officers and returning officers have sufficient training,
                      advice and guidance to carry out their health and safety duties and
                      responsibilities towards all paid staff, volunteers, the electorate and any
                      other person who may be impacted when making preparations and
                      conducting elections.

Customer Services Team Leaders

       16.    The customer services team leaders report directly to their directors. As such
              they have full service manager responsibility for their own staff and a shared
              line manager responsibility for their other staff, whilst they are working away
              from their division, in the customer services function.

Specialists functions

       17.    Other specialists not identified in this policy, who have authority by statute or
              agreed by the council, have the same duties as managers / supervisors /
              employees as appropriate as detailed in this policy.



                                                     23
   February 2006
      18.    Where any person has specialised knowledge on any subject which impacts on
             health and safety that person on request or if considered appropriate will be
             expected to give support, advice and guidance to the Corporate Services
             Manager and subsequently the Health and Safety Officer to enable them to
             effectively carry out their duties.

Health & Safety Officer

      19.    A Health and Safety Officer (HSO) will be appointed and report directly to the
             Corporate Services Manager. The Health and Safety Officer will have the
             necessary competence to advise on safety standards and to guide and inform the
             Council, all levels of management/supervision and employees in health and
             safety matters, to assist them in understanding and fulfilling their duties, and in
             particular:

              a.   Provision of information about the implications of relevant legislation to
                   managers and employees and the actions they must take;

              b. To maintain a written statement of the council’s health safety and welfare
                 policy.

              c.   Monitoring the establishment and maintenance of satisfactory standards
                   across the council’s range of activities, and report to the relevant service
                   manager or director as appropriate if those standards are not being
                   maintained;

              d. Interpreting European Union directives and subsequent legislation, codes
                 of practice and guidance and where appropriate implement any actions
                 arising;

              e.   Developing performance standards and local performance indicators by
                   which health and safety can be measured by the health and safety
                   committee and others;

              f.   Preparing documentation and co-ordinating responses from divisions to
                   the management team and to the relevant committee on West Dorset
                   District Council’s health and safety performance at least annually;

              g.   Devising, developing and delivering health and safety training as required
                   by the policy;

              h. Issuing a “Notice to stop” any job or process where the Health and Safety
                 Officer considers it to present an immediate risk of injury to the persons
                 involved, to any other person who may be affected by the activity or
                 damage to plant, where the council has a responsibility under relevant
                 legislation (delegated powers);

              i.   Bringing to attention of local management any contravention of relevant
                   statutory provisions, the policy, codes of safe working practice and any

                                                    24
                                                                                         February 2006
                        unsafe practices, including security. Advise on suitability of safety
                        appliances, equipment and protective clothing;

                   j.   Bringing to the attention of the relevant service manager or director as
                        appropriate when advice given concerning the contravention above is not
                        followed;

                   k. Liaison with the HSE and other enforcing authorities to assist in the
                      development of health and safety procedures;

                   l.   Maintaining accident, dangerous occurrence, and notifiable disease etc
                        statistics and provide management with reports and recommendations with
                        a view to reducing these to the minimum. Notifying the HSE as required
                        by RIDDOR legislation.

                   m. Advise on the provision of all first aid requirements throughout the
                      Council;

                   n. Advising on eye and eyesight testing in accordance with the council’s
                      Display Screen Equipment (DSE) policy;

                   o.   Advise the person responsible for providing fire and emergency
                        procedures and any documentation required by the Fire Certificate.
                        Administer the provision of fire wardens in conjunction with the health
                        and safety co-ordinator, service manager or Technical Services Manager
                        as appropriate in all premises where the accommodation is owned by the
                        council and shared by divisions, includes advising staff at other locations
                        on procedures and documentation to be developed and implemented;

                   p. Investigating any serious accident, dangerous occurrence, near miss or
                      incident of ill health, with a view to ascertaining and overcoming any
                      shortcomings in the organisation and arrangements for dealing with health
                      and safety at work.

Right of access

      20.     The Health and Safety Officer has the right of access at all reasonable times to
              all the Council’s premises without prior notice. Arrangements to visit sites
              where contractors have control, or premises that have been leased with no
              council occupation, will be made via the council’s representative for the site or
              premises.




                                                    25
   February 2006
Health and Safety Co-ordinator

      21.    For buildings that are owned by the council and shared by a number of divisions
             eg Stratton House, The Old School House and Glyde Path House, or shared with
             other organisations, co-operation will be required to ensure implementation of
             health and safety measures.           The senior manager/supervisor, or the
             manager/supervisor with most involvement in operations at that site, will carry
             out this co-ordinating role. The person appointed to this position will normally
             reside in that building, but not necessarily be expected to be present at all times,
             and be a point of contact for and co-ordinate any health and safety issues across
             normal reporting lines. This role will not remove any responsibilities from line
             management and staff for the areas or activities they are responsible for.

      22.    The health and safety co-ordinator will be appointed on the basis of agreement
             between the resident divisions and will have sufficient bearing to carry out the
             function. The Health and Safety Officer will undertake the role for Stratton
             House.     All health and safety co-ordinators will have the following
             responsibilities, so far as reasonably practicable:

              a.   Be the point of contact for any health and safety issue building wide;

              b. Hold copies of any statutory documents, certificates policies or procedures
                 relating to the building and or associated equipment and be the point of
                 contact for dissemination of information within the building;

              c.   Responsible for the development and administration of the local fire and
                   first aid procedures and documentation (support will be available from the
                   Health and Safety Officer);

              d. Co-ordinate risk assessments, particularly any associated with the
                 common areas of the premises and assist line managers in identifying and
                 eliminating potential hazards and bring safety issues to the attention of
                 line managers for their action;

              e.   In consultation with the HSO, be the council’s representative when
                   dealing with any health and safety statutory bodies for the building;

              f.   Periodically monitor and inspect the property to ensure compliance with
                   health and safety standards, reporting any deficiencies to the appropriate
                   person for rectification and ensure that all defects that come to their
                   attention, within all areas of the property, are reported to the Technical
                   Services repair desk;

              g.   Appoint a deputy for long periods of absence, such as holidays.




                                                    26
                                                                                          February 2006
Employees

Employees’ responsibilities

      23.     Every employee, without exception, is required to take reasonable care to ensure
              their own health and safety and that of others who may be affected by their acts
              or omissions at work. They are required to:

                   a.   Co-operate with management on all health and safety issues and to ensure
                        the observance of the law and the effectiveness of this policy;

                   b. Correctly use work items provided by the employer, including personal
                      protective equipment, in accordance with training or instructions;

                   c.   Not interfere with, or misuse anything provided in the interests of health
                        and safety or welfare;

                   d. Read all relevant risk assessments and comply with the stated control
                      measures;

                   e.   Report all accidents, incidents and dangerous occurrences, near misses,
                        whether persons are injured or plant is damaged or not. An accident
                        report form is provided for this purpose;

                   f.   Report all hazards through line management except where they have the
                        responsibility for removing such hazard where it is safe and reasonable to
                        do so, and must inform their manager accordingly;

                   g.   Report all property and equipment defects to the Technical Services
                        division;

                   h. Use any machinery, equipment, substance, transport or safety device
                      provided in accordance with any training given or instructions issued in
                      compliance with any regulations or codes of practice;

                   i.   Inform their line manager of any work situation which they would
                        reasonably consider represents a serious and immediate danger to health
                        and safety and any shortcomings in the employer’s protective
                        arrangements for health and safety;

                   j.   In common areas of buildings, employees must also ensure permission has
                        been granted from Technical Services before moving any fixtures,
                        furniture, equipment, and then only if competent to do so.

      24.     All employees are encouraged to make suggestions to their managers to improve
              health and safety in their workplace.



                                                    27
   February 2006
Disciplinary action

      25.    All staff should be aware that West Dorset District Council may take
             disciplinary action, as appropriate, against any staff who are wilfully negligent
             of their own safety or that of others, in carrying out their duties, or who wilfully
             disregard or disobey instructions or advice from their managers or safety
             advisers in regard to safe working practice.




                                                    28
                                                                                          February 2006
Safety Committee and Safety Representatives

      26.     It is indicative of the positive approach to workplace health, safety and welfare
              that the council encourages the safety committee to support employees and
              promote the health, safety and welfare of employees by reference to best
              practice. The committee will foster development of a sense of corporate
              responsibility for health, safety and welfare, and will:

                        ♦ Assist in the process of integrating health, safety and welfare;
                        ♦ Receive and discuss accident reports and statistics;
                        ♦ Consider audit reports;
                        ♦ Be familiar with health, safety and welfare information from other
                           agencies;
                        ♦ Receive and consider reports from workplace representatives;
                        ♦ Monitor our health, safety and welfare policy;
                        ♦ Be familiar with health and safety training requirements;
                        ♦ Promote internal publicity campaigns.

      27.     The Corporate Services Manager will chair the safety committee and a director
              will attend each meeting to provide the essential link to the management team.
              Councillor and Trades Union involvement is encouraged.

Employee Consultation

      28.     Safety representatives nominated by the Trades Union will be recognised by the
              authority and afforded appropriate facilities in accordance with the relevant
              legislation. The council will consult safety representatives in good time when
              changes occur that have a significant effect on health and safety and in
              particular for the following:

                   a.     The introduction of any safety measure at the workplace;

                   b. The arrangements for appointing or nominating competent persons;

                   c.     Any health and safety information the council is required to provide to
                          employees;

                   d. The planning of any health and safety training for employees;

                   e.     The health and safety consequences for the employees of the introduction
                          of new technologies into the workplace.



                                                       29
   February 2006
29.    here there are employees who are not represented by safety representatives
      under the Safety Representatives and Safety Committee Regulations 1977, the
      appropriate manager will consult those employees directly, or with their elected
      representative, in good time on matters relating to their health and safety at
      work (as above). Consultations will be in accordance with the Health and
      Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996.

30.   The council’s representative for consultation with UNISON will be the
      Corporate Services Manager. This may be delegated to the Personnel Team
      Leader or the Health and Safety Officer. The West Dorset Services Manager
      will also have consultative responsibility with other recognised Trades Union at
      the depots. Appropriate local consultation may take place between managers
      and safety representatives where the issue is local, such as introduction of a new
      machine or a new safe system of work etc.

31.   Where consultation is required, managers must ensure that persons engaged in
      the consultation have all the necessary information to competently participate in
      the process.




                                            30
                                                                                 February 2006
   Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision

   32.     The council recognises the importance of giving the necessary information,
           instruction and training and providing appropriate supervision (IITS) to ensure,
           so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of all
           employees. There are three general categories:

                  i.       Induction;

                 ii.       Job specific;

                iii.       General health and safety awareness and responsibilities.

   33.   IITS will cover such areas as:

           ♦           All known hazards which might be encountered in the division, including
                       those where the safety of the public may be affected;

           ♦           The measures which are employed to contain or minimise the hazards,
                       including emergency procedures;

           ♦           The necessary information, instruction and training to ensure a competent
                       work force and, where that has yet to be achieved, an appropriate level of
                       supervision will be provided.

   34.     A training syllabus ought to be provided to ensure completeness and to aid
           corporate knowledge. Details of training received and courses should be
           recorded on the individual’s personal file.

   35.     The council will provide adequate training for all its directors, managers and
           staff generally in implementation of legislation, this policy and codes of safe
           working practices. It is the responsibility of senior management to ensure staff
           are released and attend such training.

   36.     Staff are encouraged to develop through the appraisal system.




                                                     31
February 2006
Management System – HSG65

           The management system which the council wishes to adopt to ensure successful
           health and safety management is set out in The Health and Safety Executive’s
           publication “Successful Health and Safety Management” (HS(G)65) and is
           outlined below.

Policy

           High standards of health and safety are achieved by developing health and safety
           policies, which contribute to the performance of the organisation while meeting
           its responsibilities to people and the environment in a way that fulfils both the
           letter and the spirit of the law. The policies are cost effective and aimed at
           achieving the preservation and development of physical and human resources and
           reductions in financial losses and liabilities. The health and safety policies
           influence all of the organisations activities and decisions, including those to do
           with the selection of resources and information, the design and operation of
           working systems, the design and delivery of services and the control and disposal
           of waste.


Organising

           Organisations that achieve high health and safety standards are structured and
           operated so as to put their health and safety policies into effective practice. This
           is helped by the creation of a positive culture that secures involvement and
           participation at all levels. It is sustained by effective communications and the
           promotion of competence, which enables all employees to make a responsible and
           informed contribution to the health and safety effort. The visible and active
           leadership of senior managers is necessary to develop and maintain a culture
           supportive of health and safety management. Their aim is to motivate and
           empower people to work safely. The vision values and beliefs of leaders become
           the shared ‘common knowledge’ of all.


Planning

           Successful organisations adopt a planned and systematic approach to policy
           implementation. Their aim is to minimise risks created by work activities and
           services. They use risk assessment methods to decide priorities and set objectives
           for hazard elimination and risk reduction. Performance standards are established
           and performance measured against them. Specific actions needed to promote a
           positive health and safety culture and to eliminate and control risks are identified.
           Wherever possible, risks are eliminated by the careful selection and design of
           facilities, equipment and processes or minimised by the use of physical control
           measures. Where this is not possible systems of work and personal protective
           equipment are used to control risks.

                                                   32
                                                                                         February 2006
Measuring performance

           Health and safety performance in organisations that manage health and safety
           successfully is measured against pre-determined standards. This reveals when
           and where action is needed to improve performance. The success of action taken
           to control risks is assessed through active self monitoring involving a range of
           techniques which includes examination of both hardware (premises, plant and
           substances) and software (people, procedures and systems), including individual
           behaviour. Failures of control are assessed through reactive monitoring which
           requires the thorough investigation of any accidents, ill health or incidents with
           the potential to cause harm or loss. In both active and reactive monitoring the
           objectives are not only to determine the immediate causes of substandard
           performance but, more importantly, to identify the underlying causes and the
           implications for the design and operation of the health and safety management
           system.

Auditing and reviewing performance

           Learning from all relevant experience and applying the lessons learned are
           important elements in effective health and safety management. This needs to be
           done systematically through regular reviews of performance based on data both
           from monitoring activities and from independent audits of the whole health and
           safety management system. These form the basis for self-regulation and for
           securing compliance with Sections 2 to 6 of the Health and Safety at Work etc.
           Act 1974. Commitment to continuous improvement involves the constant
           development of policies, approaches to implementation and techniques of risk
           control. Organisations, which achieve high standards of health and safety, assess
           their health and safety performance by internal reference to key performance
           indicators and by external comparison with the performance of like organisations.
           They often also record and account for their performance in their annual reports.




                                               33
  February 2006
National Joint Council for Local Government Services

Green Book Part 4.7 - Management of Health & Safety


     The National Joint Council included health & safety guidance in the Green Book part 4.7. The
     NJC recognises that effective health and safety management is vital to good employment.
     Proper planning, organising, controlling, monitoring and reviewing is vital and will lead to a
     reduction in losses and the improved delivery of services. The essential elements of the
     guidance are included below:

     (1.3)   Local authorities are diverse in size, structure and services delivered and a wide variety
             of hazards exist. The risks posed are to be controlled proactively by the systematic
             application of preventive and protective measures within a risk assessment framework.

     (1.4)   Consultation with the workforce through trade union safety representatives is
             recognised as one of the key ways in which health and safety performance can be
             improved. The NJC promotes joint consultation on all matters relating to the health and
             safety of the workforce. Safety committees are recognised as an effective mechanism to
             assist in the management of health and safety.

     (1.5)   Authorities have a statutory duty under the Health & Safety at Work etc Act 1974 with
             regard to the health and safety of their employees and others who may be affected by
             their undertaking. This duty cannot be contracted out. Authorities should ensure that
             adequate resources are allocated to securing the health, safety and welfare of its
             employees and those affected by its undertaking.

Joint Consultation


     (2.2)   Full use must be made of safety representatives and safety committees. This will
             include the provision of information, opportunities for attendance at approved
             union/TUC training, arrangements to investigate health and safety matters and provision
             for joint safety committees to review the effectiveness of policies and procedures. Joint
             safety committees should deal not only with those matters required by regulation but
             also such other issues as may be agreed.

Local Authorities should recognise that:


              a.     The health and safety and well being of the workforce is crucial to the proper
                     functioning of the authority and the provision of its services.


              b.     Health and safety must be adequately considered in policy development and in
                     the decision making process at all levels by both officers and elected members
                     of the authority.
                                                     34
                                                                                          February 2006
           c.   Commitment to health and safety is necessary from the top of the authority at
                both elected and officer level. As such there should be a designated person at
                both elected and director (first or second tier) level with the role of driving up
                health and safety standards. Employees at all levels must understand and accept
                their health and safety responsibilities.


           d.   Health and safety management should be incorporated in the authority’s
                performance monitoring and reporting arrangements and improvement planning
                process.


           e.   Services are now delivered in many ways eg by contractors and in partnership
                with both the voluntary and private sectors. Authorities must have a system in
                place to satisfy themselves that contractors and partners have the ability and
                resources for effectively managing health and safety, thus protecting all who
                may be affected. Health & safety must be incorporated into contracts and
                partnership agreements and the performance properly monitored. Contracts and
                partnership agreements should include arrangements for joint consultation and
                sharing of information. Authorities should recognise the value of safety
                representatives in maintaining health and safety standards of contractors.


           f.   Organisational change can affect the well being of employees; therefore
                effective dialogue with trade union representatives over health and safety
                implications is essential to reduce potential risks to health and to promote
                employee well being.


           g.   A high standard of occupational health provision aimed at ensuring the well-
                being of the workforce coupled with effective implementation of rehabilitation
                and redeployment policies are important.




                                             35
February 2006
 h.    Training is vital to securing the health and safety competency throughout the
       workforce. Local authorities should ensure that employees are given adequate
       health and safety training following recruitment and repeated as required, and in
       particular:

         •   On specific hazards and risks

         •   When exposed to new or increased risks due to changes in responsibility,
             the environment or the introduction or change of technology.

         •   For those who supervise and manage service provision.

 i.    Training must be reviewed periodically and safety representatives should be
       consulted in the development and delivery of training programmes to ensure all
       existing and new risks are addressed.

 j.    The authority must ensure that they have appropriate access to competent advice
       that is consistent with the size and diverse risk environment of local authorities.
       The source and nature of the competent advice should be the subject of
       consultation to ensure that all existing and new risks are adequately addressed.

The NJC is to produce joint guidance on implementation issues.




                                        36
                                                                             February 2006
Part 3 - Arrangements
3.1     Introduction

        1.    The purpose of the arrangements section of the health, safety and welfare policy is to
              provide practical guidance to management and staff on a variety of subjects associated
              with best practice in the control of hazards, required by the Health and Safety at Work
              Act 1974.

        2.    This section is where new chapters will be added to guide staff on new Regulations
              associated with specific subjects of interest to a reasonable number of our staff. Not
              all Regulations will have a chapter in this section. Where a particular subject is not
              covered in this section, the service manager is required to introduce best practice,
              using a suitable information source for guidance eg the Health and Safety Executive,
              professional association or Regulations.

Responsibilities

        3.    Responsibilities of each layer of management are covered in Part 2 of this policy.
              There is no intention of repeating those duties for each and every chapter in this
              section. As a general rule, it is the service manager who is responsible for the
              implementation of safe working practice.
References

        4.    Where there is legislation, Approved Codes of Practice, HSE Guidance or any other
              Codes of Practice and Guidance which are applicable they will be listed in this section.

Implementation Plan

        5.    The appendix to this chapter can be used to ensure a suitable implementation
              programme is followed.




                                                 37
April 2005
38
     February 2006
                                                                                           Appendix 3.1A

                                   West Dorset District Council

                             Health and Safety Changes – The Process

The process for introducing health and safety issues is as follows:

   i.      The Health & Safety Officer (HSO) is to brief the Director of Corporate Resources and the
           Manager of Corporate Services on new developments requiring changes to our Health &
           Safety Policy.

  ii.      The HSO will draft an amendment and circulate it to selected Service Managers and/or
           members of the safety committee for consultation and comment.

 iii.      The subject will be placed on the agenda for DMTs and Managers’ Monthly Meeting. The
           main points could be presented by any of the three named above.

 iv.       A report to the Management Team will summarise the main points and their relevance to this
           Council. An implementation programme with dates of the relevant DMTs, MMM and safety
           committee report will be attached. See Appendix B.

  v.       The HSO will disseminate the amendment to the Health & Safety Policy using the controlled
           document feedback form and update the on-line Policy. (This could be step iii).

 vi.       A timescale for implementation will be agreed and included with the amendment.

vii.       Managers will prepare a written plan for the introduction of the changes to an agreed and
           published timescale. Managers will publish a brief report to their director (copy to the HSO).
           The report should be in the form of an initial/interim and final compliance report. This allows
           managers the opportunity to plan for and implement the changes, and gives the directors the
           information they require to ensure compliance with legislation and best practice.

viii.      If applicable, the Members will be informed via an appropriate committee information bundle
           or other report.

 ix.       Further dissemination will include use of the intranet.

  x.       Marketing will take place as appropriate, including team briefing.




                                                      39
        February 2006
                                      West Dorset District Council
                       Health and Safety Changes - Implementation Programme
Subject:
             ……………………………………………………………………………………………
                                                     Planned Date        Comments

  1
           Initial meeting of:
           Director of Corporate Resources
                 Corporate Services Manager
                         Health & Safety Officer
  2
           Draft
                    H&S Policy Amendment

  3
           Consultation
            Selected Managers and Safety Committee

  4
           DMT1
                       Corporate Resources

  5
           DMT2
                       Community Services

  6
           DMT3
                    Planning & Environment

  7
           Managers’ Monthly Meeting
                            Formal Agreement

  8
           Safety Committee
                     Information or Decision

  9
           Final
                       Policy Amendment

 10        Advertising
                              Media

 11        Reports to directors
                   By each Service Manager
                     Initial / Interim / Final



                                                     40
                                                                                February 2006
                                                        Health & Safety Implementation Chart                         Appendix 13.1B


                                                    Action – Feedback – Comments               Further action: By whom   Completed
                                             Date                                                                 when
Meeting of:
           Director of Corporate Resources
               Corporate Services Manager
                   Health & Safety Officer
Draft
               H&S Policy Amendment
Consult         Selected Managers
                      Safety Committee
DMT1
                   Corporate Resources

DMT2
                   Community Services

DMT3
               Planning & Environment

Managers’
                       Monthly Meeting

Safety Committee
            Information or Decision
Final
                 Policy Amendment
Advertising
                             Media



   Subject: The introduction of…………………………………………………………………

   For use if required
                                                                      41
          February 2006
42
     February 2006
3.2      Management of Health & Safety at Work


Summary

         1.      The most recent changes to the management of health and safety at work were
                 introduced in 1999. These changes include: a hierarchy of risk control measures; a
                 requirement to arrange contacts with the emergency services; clarification that
                 employers should use competent employees rather than external health and safety
                 consultants; and an explicit requirement that employers cannot use an action or default
                 of an employee or consultant as a defence against criminal proceedings. The
                 Government have also introduced a Revitalising Health and Safety initiative and the
                 Our Healthier Nation – Healthy Workplace programme. This chapter explains those
                 changes and also gives general guidance on the management of health and safety at
                 work.

         2.      The changes also consolidate the regulations, amended in the 1990’s, concerning; new
                 and expectant mothers, the employment of young persons, and fire precautions at
                 work. All of these factors require that managers must have a thorough understanding
                 of their health and safety responsibilities and this is particularly important at West
                 Dorset District Council where our business centres fulfil diverse functions.
                 Increasingly, there is a need for the council to promote best practice and to ensure that
                 our suppliers and business partners apply the correct health and safety standards. The
                 Turnbull Guidelines on corporate governance will lead to the requirement for health
                 and safety performance to be reported as part of our annual report. The aim within
                 local government is to achieve the exemplary standards that the wider community will
                 aspire to.


Suitable and Sufficient Risk Assessment

         3.      The key point of the management regulations is that, every employer must make a
                 suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks to the health and safety of those affected
                 by his business and then use the results to identify the measures that they need to take
                 to ensure safety and comply with the law. The findings of the assessment must be
                 recorded, dated and the name of the assessor included. The validity period of the
                 protective measures should also be stated. All risk assessments must be kept under
                 review and updated if significant changes occur. Young persons require additional
                 considerations and these are explained in a separate chapter. All our managers are
                 expected to instigate a risk assessment programme for their departments.




                                                     43
      February 2006
4.   The risk assessment will identify the hazards, evaluate the extent of the risks and take
     into account the existing precautions and their effectiveness. Appropriate sources of
     information must be referred to eg legislation, codes of practice, manufacturers’
     instructions and the trade press. It may be necessary to seek advice from competent
     sources. The content of the assessment will include foreseeable risks ie those about
     which an employer could reasonably be expected to know. It may need to include a
     broad range of risks and detailed planning and employee training will be included in
     the control factors.

5.   The views and practical knowledge of the employees and their safety representatives
     will form an intrinsic part of the assessment and the assessment process should involve
     management in addition to any advisors or consultants. Where workplaces are shared
     there will need to be co-operation, by all employers, to produce an overall risk
     assessment. The council’s risk assessors will be provided with suitable training.

6.   Use of a ‘model’ risk assessment is only appropriate if the employer is satisfied that
     the model is appropriate to their workplace and that the model is adapted to cover
     other hazards and risks that are present. The assessment must cover all aspects of the
     work activity including non-routine tasks such as maintenance, cleaning, receipt and
     despatch and emergencies. It should cover all persons affected such as clients,
     contractors, visitors, and the public, home workers, travelling staff, volunteers and
     casuals.

7.   Normally the assessment will be task based, but there may be a requirement to
     carryout a subject-based assessment eg fire, electricity, transport, machinery, and
     substances. Whatever type is used, the assessment must take account of the way the
     work is organised and the effect that this might have on health. It should also take
     account of risks to the public and of the need to cover fire risks. A variety of other
     regulations require risk assessments covering the specific hazards and risks that they
     intend to control. Observation of the actual working practices is necessary, because
     this may differ from the published system of work. The risk assessment method is
     explained in the next chapter. The ‘five steps to risk assessment’ are:

         Identify the hazards.
         Identify who might be harmed and how.
         Evaluate the risks from the identified hazards.
         Record the significant findings – including reference to other documents, a list of
         current preventive measures and an action plan.
         Review and revise periodically and particularly when adverse events occur or if
         significant changes take place.




                                        44
                                                                            February 2006
   8.      The guiding principles (or hierarchy of risk control measures) are specified. These are
           the ‘principles of prevention:’

              i.   Avoidance of risk at the outset.
             ii.   Evaluation of risks that cannot be avoided – by completion of risk assessments.
            iii.   Combat the risks at source, rather than using palliative measures.
            iv.    Adapting the work and workplace to the individual and giving them control over
                   their work after consulting them about their requirements.
              v.   Using technological progress to improve the system of work and safety.
             vi.   Replacing the dangerous by the non-dangerous or less dangerous.
            vii.   Developing a coherent overall prevention policy, which covers technology,
                   organisation of work working conditions, social relationships, and the influence
                   of factors relating to the work environment.
           viii.   Giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective
                   measures.
            ix.    Giving appropriate instructions to employees.
             x.    The existence of a positive health and safety culture should exist within an
                   organisation. That means the avoidance, prevention and reduction of risks at
                   work must be accepted as part of the organisation’s approach and attitude to all
                   its activities. It should be recognised at all levels of the organisation, from junior
                   to senior management.

   9.      The main tool for managing health and safety at work is by completing and reviewing
           risk assessments.

  10.      Consulting employees or their representatives is good practice and is a requirement of
           health and safety law. Employees are a valuable source of information and can
           provide useful feedback about the effectiveness of particular arrangements and control
           measures. Safety representatives are an effective channel for employees’ views and
           will often identify a potential problem, enabling the employer to take prompt action.
           They can also explain safety procedures to (a sometimes reluctant) staff.




                                                  45
February 2006
Health & Safety Arrangements

      11.      Every employer shall have appropriate arrangements for managing risk including the
               preventive and protective measures. The management system needs to reflect the
               complexity of the organisation’s activities. The key elements of the of an effective
               system are found in HS(G)65 Successful Health and Safety Management and, to
               facilitate their adoption at West Dorset District Council, they are included in this
               policy at chapter 2.6.      A successful system includes the essential elements of
               planning, organisation, control, monitoring and review. These are briefly explained
               below.

Planning

      12.      Employers are required to set up an effective management system to implement their
               health and safety policy. This will include:

                •   Adopting a systematic approach to the completion of risk assessments. These
                    will decide priorities and set objectives to eliminate hazards and reduce risks.
                •   Setting a programme, with deadlines, for completion of risk assessments and
                    implementation of the preventive and protective measures identified by the risk
                    assessment.
                •   Selecting appropriate methods of risk control to minimise risks.
                •   Establishment of priorities and developing performance standards for the
                    completion of risk assessments and implementation of the preventive and
                    protective measures. At each stage the system should minimise the risk of harm
                    to people. Normally, risk should be eliminated by selection and design of
                    facilities, equipment and processes.

Organisation

      13.      The workplace organisation should include:

                •   Involving employees and their representatives in carrying out risk assessments,
                    deciding on preventive and protective measures and implementation of those
                    measures. Health and safety committees and team working can achieve these
                    requirements.
                •   Establishing effective means of communication and consultation in which a
                    positive approach to health and safety is clearly visible and, where the necessary,
                    safety information is disseminated to staff.
                •   Ensuring competence by the provision of adequate information, instruction and
                    training and its evaluation, particularly for those who carry out risk assessments
                    and make decisions about preventive and protective measures. Assistance and
                    advice may be necessary to support the assessor.




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                                                                                      February 2006
Control

      14.     Control factors include:

                   •   Clarifying health and safety responsibilities and ensuring well co-ordinated
                       activities.
                   •   Ensuring everyone with responsibilities clearly understands what they have to do
                       and ensuring that they have sufficient time and resources to discharge them
                       effectively.
                   •   Setting standards to judge the performance of those with responsibilities and
                       ensuring they achieve them. The reward of good performance is as important as
                       taking action to improve poor performance.
                   •   Ensuring adequate and appropriate supervision, particularly for new employees
                       and trainees.

Monitoring

      15.     The effective control of risks requires an assessment of the implementation of the
              health and safety policy and feedback on the development of a positive health and
              safety culture. Monitoring includes:

                   •   Having a plan and a routine of inspections and checks to ensure that the
                       preventive and protective measures are in place and effective. Active
                       monitoring will reveal how effective the management system is functioning.
                   •   Investigating the immediate and underlying causes of incidents and accidents to
                       ensure correct remedial action is taken, lessons are learnt and long-term
                       objectives are considered.
                   •   Recording and analysing the results of monitoring to identify trends that may not
                       be obvious from one incident.

Review

      16.     Review involves:

                   •   The establishing of priorities for remedial action arising from the monitoring and
                       ensuring timely action.
                   •   Periodically reviewing the whole of the health and safety management system
                       including the elements of planning, organisation, control and monitoring to
                       ensure the system remains effective.




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   February 2006
Specific Requirements for Managing Risk

Health Surveillance

      17.    Risk assessments may identify the need for health surveillance.         This should be
             introduced where the following criteria apply:

              •   There is an identifiable disease or adverse health condition related to the work
                  concerned; and
              •   Suitable medical techniques are available; and
              •   There is a reasonable likelihood of the condition occurring; and
              •   Surveillance is likely to lead to further protection of the health and safety of the
                  employees involved.

      18.    Access to an appropriately qualified practitioner is required for health surveillance.
             Our personnel department provides initial contact with our nominated occupational
             health doctor, occupational health nurse or other specialists. The primary purpose of
             health surveillance is to detect adverse health effects at an early stage in order that
             further harm can be prevented. Health surveillance may be required for exposure to:

              •   Noise or hand arm vibration.
              •   Hazardous substances such as chemicals, solvents, fumes, dusts, gases, vapours,
                  aerosols, biological agents. This is covered by the COSHH regulations.
              •   Asbestos, lead and work in compressed air.

Health and Safety Assistance

      19.    Every employer is required to appoint one or more competent persons to assist him
             with health, safety, and welfare and fire regulations. The time available for them to
             fulfil their functions and the means at their disposal must be adequate having regard
             to; the size of the undertaking, the risks to which his employees are exposed and the
             distribution of those risks.

      20.    A person is regarded as competent if they have sufficient training and experience or
             knowledge and other qualities to enable him to properly assist his employer. If a
             competent person is employed internally then that person is to be appointed to assist
             employer, rather than appointing an external consultant. The appointment of either
             internal or external advisors does not absolve the employer from his health and safety
             responsibilities. It does give the employer added assurance that these responsibilities
             will be discharged adequately. External services are usually only employed in an
             advisory capacity.




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                                                                                     February 2006
      21.     Competency does not always depend on possession of particular skills or
              qualifications. In some circumstances it may be sufficient to have:

                   •   An understanding of current best practice;
                   •   An awareness of the limitations of one’s own previous experience and
                       knowledge;
                   •   A willingness to supplement that knowledge by obtaining additional advice.


Procedures for Serious and Imminent Danger

      22.     An employer is required to:

                   •   Establish and implement appropriate procedures to protect staff and other people
                       during emergencies eg fire, and inform staff of those procedures.
                   •   Nominate a sufficient number of competent persons to assist in evacuation ie fire
                       wardens nominated by the local manager.
                   •   Restrict access to danger areas unless the employee has received adequate health
                       and safety instruction.
                   •   Allow staff to immediately stop work and evacuate to a place of safety and
                       prevent them from re-entering the building.

Contacts with External Services

      23.     The employer is required to ensure that any necessary contacts with external services
              are arranged, particularly with regard to fire, first aid, rescue work and public disorder.
              Procedures must be established and staff with additional responsibilities will need
              clear written guidance of their responsibilities. Fire and first aid emergency
              procedures are displayed on the fire action notice boards, located throughout our
              offices. The telephone numbers required to call for assistance are displayed. Other
              emergencies will require particular guidance to be drawn up based on the risk
              assessment, although the priority remains to prevent accidents in the first place.

      24.     For certain groups of staff, eg our civil emergency team, there may be a need for work
              to continue despite the serious danger. This would be, for example, where human life
              is at risk. These exceptional circumstances can be anticipated and are the subject of
              the relevant procedures co-ordinated by the council’s emergency planning team. The
              list of disasters could include flood, toxic cloud and landslide.

      25.     Guidance on fire risk assessment is given elsewhere in this policy.




                                                    49
   February 2006
Information for Employees

      26.   There is a requirement to provide employees with certain information in a form that
            they can understand. Managers are required to take specific action to ensure that staff
            are given information relating to:

              •   Risks to their health and safety identified by the risk assessment.
              •   Preventive and protective measures that employees need to know to ensure their
                  own health and safety and ensure they do not put others at risk.
              •   Procedures for serious and imminent danger and fire evacuation.
              •   The identity of the fire wardens and other safety related persons.
              •   Risks notified by other employers at joint workplaces – for both the permanent
                  and temporary sharing of a work location.

      27.   This information is to be provided to the parent (or school) before a child is employed
            or given work experience.


Co-operation and Co-ordination

      28.   For shared workplaces, each employer should co-operate with the other employers to
            comply with the health and safety requirements and prohibitions. They must take all
            reasonable steps to co-ordinate the necessary measures and ensure the other employer
            is informed of risks to their employees’ health and safety. Where one employer
            controls the site the other employers must assist in assessing the risks and co-
            ordinating the necessary measures. New employers who join an existing site must be
            incorporated into the co-ordinated procedures. The risk assessments must cover the
            whole site and all those affected by the risk must be informed of the nature of the risk
            and the preventive and protective measures. Where there is no controlling employer
            the employers should agree joint arrangements, such as appointing a health and safety
            co-ordinator to offer competent advice. This does not to absolve employers of their
            legal responsibilities. The person in control of a multi-occupancy workplace, eg
            common reception areas, will need to ensure that suitable arrangements are put into
            place. The service manager with the greatest involvement at a workplace is deemed to
            be responsible for co-ordinating the measures required for safety.


Persons Working in Host Employers’ Sites

      29.   The host employer should ensure that visiting employees are provided with
            comprehensible information on the risks that they face and the measures taken by the
            host employer to protect them from those risks; including fire precautions and
            procedures. The identity of the fire warden and the evacuation procedures are to be
            made known to the visiting employee. This can be done by reference to the relevant
            fire action notice board situated in the corridors and near the building exits. Adequate
            checks must be carried out to ensure that the visiting employee has been given all the
            necessary information – particularly where this information is passed via their
            employer. These requirements include contractors who provide cleaning, repair and


                                               50
                                                                                   February 2006
              maintenance services, as well as those on secondment to the host employer. Technical
              Services are the contact point for contractors providing maintenance services etc.

      30.     Where a visiting employer introduces risks to the permanent workforce they have a
              duty to inform the host employer of those risks and to co-operate with the host
              employer to co-ordinate control measures.


Capabilities and Training

      31.     Before entrusting tasks to his employees, all employers are required to taken into
              account their capabilities as regards health and safety. The demands of the job should
              not exceed the employees’ ability to carry out the work without risks to themselves or
              others. The risk assessment will determine the level of training and competence
              required for each type of work. Adequate health and safety training must be provided:

                   •   On recruitment.
                   •   On exposure to new risks due to:
                        − Transfer or changed responsibilities;
                        − Introduction of new equipment or changes to existing equipment;
                        − Introduction of new technology;
                        − Introduction of a new or changed system of work.
                   •   Periodically where appropriate.

      32.     The training must take place during working hours and be adapted to take account of
              new risks or changes to the existing risks. Training is required for all employees
              irrespective of the nature of their contract eg senior management, permanent,
              temporary, part-time, casual or voluntary. Safety representatives should be consulted
              about the training required for those persons that they represent.

      33.     The training will include basic skills, specific on-the-job training and training in health
              and safety or emergency procedures. Training will also be required for specific risks
              covered by other legislation. Those with formal qualifications will still require some
              training. Refresher training will be needed where skills have declined due to lack of
              regular use. Home workers, mobile staff and those who deputise for others must be
              included in the training scheme. New employees will have the greatest need for
              training and for young persons their training requirements will be paramount.


Employees’ duties

      34.     Employees have a legal duty to take reasonable care for their own health and safety
              and that of others who may be affected by their actions or omissions at work. This is
              explained in the HSE leaflet ‘What you should know’ provided to all employees by the
              personnel section.




                                                  51
   February 2006
      35.   Employees are require to use machinery, equipment, dangerous substance, transport
            equipment, means of production or safety device in accordance with the training and
            instructions given to him. All employees should inform their employer and/or the
            employer’s safety representative, without delay, of any situation that represented a
            serious and immediate danger or other shortcomings in the health and safety
            protection arrangements. This requirement does not reduce the responsibility of the
            employer to comply with duties under the regulations. In particular, employers need
            to ensure that the employees receive adequate instruction and training to enable them
            to comply with their duties. To ensure a common standard, and to reduce the training
            burden on each department, the HSO will provide a health and safety induction course
            for mainstream employees.

Temporary Workers

      36.   Temporary workers are to be treated exactly the same as permanent employees with
            the additional expectation that the employer will take the required action to ensure the
            worker is provided with comprehensible information, before he commences work,
            regarding the qualifications and skills required for the tasks involved and any health
            surveillance measures required.

      37.   Managers must ensure that the use of temporary staff is notified to those employees
            who give them health and safety assistance eg fire wardens, receptionists etc.

      38.   Where more than one employer is involved in an employment situation they must pass
            the appropriate health and safety information between each other and to the relevant
            employees.

New or Expectant Mothers

      39.   If new or expectant mothers, or those breastfeeding, inform their employer of that fact
            then the employer must carry out a risk assessment and introduce the controls
            necessary to safeguard both mother and baby from any harm associated with the work
            activity including those due to any process, working conditions, or physical, biological
            or chemical agents. With regard to infectious or contagious diseases the employee at
            work must not be exposed to a level of risk higher than that expected outside the
            workplace.

      40.   The working conditions or hours of work may need to be changed; or it may be
            necessary to offer alternative work; or suspend the employee from work if an
            appropriate medical certificate is received which states this as a requirement. The
            employer may ask for a medical certificate to show that the employee is pregnant but
            this should not delay the introduction of appropriate protective measures.

      41.   The fact that a woman of child-bearing age is employed must be taken into account
            when carrying out general risk assessments.




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                                                                                   February 2006
Young Persons

       42.       The requirements for risk assessments to protect young persons are explained in
                 chapter 3.5.

Disabled staff

       43.       The requirements and capabilities of disabled staff must be considered when
                 completing risk assessments to comply with the workplace regulations. Suitable
                 controls should be introduced if necessary to safeguard the staff from any harm
                 associated with the work activity or working conditions. The items to consider are,
                 where necessary, those parts of the workplace (including, in particular, doors,
                 passageways, stairs, showers, washbasins, toilets and workstations) used or occupied
                 directly by disabled persons at work. The term ‘disability’ is as defined by the
                 Disability Discrimination Act 1995.

Responsibilities

       44.       The directors recognise their responsibilities in ensuring that health and safety issues
                 are given sufficient priority within departmental business plans and at departmental
                 meetings, thereby ensuring that all managers follow a planned and reported
                 programme to implement the necessary health and safety arrangements.

       45.       Service managers and heads of service are expected to keep their directors informed of
                 progress (or the lack of it) in order that any conflicting priorities can be resolved.

       46.       Line managers and supervisors are to assist with the implementation of the risk
                 assessment and control programme.

       47.       Employees are expected to co-operate with their manager to ensure the safety of
                 themselves and their colleagues.

References

                 Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1999
                 Health & Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002


Superseded

                 Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1992
                 Health & Safety (Young Persons) Regulations 1997
                 Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997 Part III




                                                    53
   February 2006
54
     February 2006
3.3      Risk Assessment

Summary
    1.           The legal requirement to undertake risk assessments is an inherent part of employment
                 law. Most subjects associated with the health safety and welfare of employees will
                 require a risk assessment to be made.

         2.      The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSWR) requires every
                 employer to make a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks to the health and
                 safety of their employees to which they are exposed whilst they are at work, and the
                 risks to the health and safety of persons not in their employment arising out of or in
                 connection with the conduct of their undertaking, for the purposes of identifying the
                 measures the employer needs to take to comply with the relevant statutory provisions.
                 These all-embracing regulations make more explicit that which was already implicit in
                 the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974.

         3.      The Health & Safety Executive recommend the Five Steps to Risk Assessment and
                 this is the method generally adopted by the council. A separate risk assessment for
                 management regulations is not necessary where one is required under a set of specific
                 regulations.

         4.      Although the requirement to undertake risk assessment is driven by legislation the
                 benefits of assessing the risk and managing any residual risk can, apart from the
                 obvious moral duty of not wishing to harm employees and others, create long term
                 financial benefit for the council. This effective management of human resources
                 should be part of every manager’s objective. Reduction in injury and sickness absence
                 will create a good working environment.

Procedures
      5.         Each manager or supervisor must undertake a ‘walk through’ of his or her areas of
                 responsibility. From that walk through, which in the first instance is probably best
                 undertaken as a desktop exercise with all the direct reporting officers, a risk
                 assessment plan must be developed. The health and safety officer can advise and
                 assist as necessary.

         6.      The plan should include:

                      •   The time and date of the walk through and who was involved;
                      •   Identification of the main areas of risk within the division;
                      •   The method used to develop the plan and details of the assessment programme;
                      •   Target dates for completion of the risk assessments;
                      •   The teams to tackle the assessments and who is to lead them;
                      •   The schedule of assessments which include a priority order action based on risk;
                      •   How this programme is communicated to all staff and others affected by it;
                      •   Signatures of those involved in the assessment.



                                                       55
      February 2006
7.   Managers should ensure that those who are undertaking risk assessments have
     sufficient knowledge of the tasks being assessed and have had sufficient training and
     know their limitations. It is always advisable for more than one person to undertake
     risk assessment. Staff should be advised to seek further advice if needed.

8.   Risk assessment and risk management training is available and the course
     documentation explains procedures and assessment forms that can be used. There are
     no fixed rules about how a risk assessment should be undertaken but it is expected that
     the general principles outlined in the management regulations, and the training, are
     followed eg the five steps to risk assessment. The level of detail recorded should be
     broadly proportionate to the risk.

9.   The requirements and the technique of risk assessment are incorporated in
     management training. The method described in that training is outlined below and a
     suitable blank risk assessment form is at Appendix 3.3A. In 2003 the council adopted
     the 3 x 3 risk matrix as the preferred method of risk prioritisation – shown overleaf.




                                        56
                                                                           February 2006
Risk Matrix – To assist in deciding the levels of risk and priorities for action.

                                          Likely /Probable/        Possible           Remote /
         Likelihood                           Frequent                                Unlikely



         Severity
                                                 3                   2                   1
           (Consequence)
                                             (High)           (Medium)               (Low)
         Fatal or Major
         injury /
         Permanent                 3             9                    6                  3
         disability or
         Mental injury         (High)

         Minor injury
                                   2             6                    4                  2
                               (Medium)

         No injury or
         damage                    1             3                    2                  1
                                (Low)

       Likelihood                             Description

       3. Likely / Probable / frequent        Event ‘only to be expected,’ occurs repeatedly / not
                                              surprised that it happened
       2. Possible                            Could occur at sometime
       1. Remote                              Unlikely but possible
       0. Improbable                          So unlikely that probability is close to zero


       Severity

       3. Catastrophic / very significant injury or ill-health / very high cost
       2. Significant effect / over 3-day absence / considerable cost
       1. Minor effect / minor injury ‘first aid’/ low cost

                               Likelihood x Severity = Priority number

                   Low 1 - 2                     Medium 3 - 4                     High 6 – 9

                   Leave to last                 Plan to rectify                  Act now!




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10.   The likelihood of a given hazard being realised as an accident or an ill health situation
      increases with the frequency of occurrence and with the pattern of exposure to it. This
      will be a function both of the repetition time and the number of persons exposed to
      each potential event. Where children, older people or those with any form of
      disability face a hazard the risk of injury is more likely and the consequences are
      potentially higher.

11.   The basic legal duties placed on employers (that is managers as representatives of the
      employer) are to:

         a.    Adequately assess the risks to the health and safety of employees and
               adequately assess the risks to the health and safety of persons not in his
               employment.

         b.    The assessments should record ‘significant findings’ and note any groups of
               employees at risk;

         c.    Identify and implement appropriate risk-control measures;

         d.    Provide information for employees on risks and risk-control procedures;

         e.    Review and if necessary modify the assessments on a regular basis and if
               considered no longer valid;

         f.    Ensure that employees are provided with such health surveillance as is
               appropriate;

         g.    Appoint competent persons to assist in protective and preventive measures;

         h.    Establish appropriate procedures for serious and imminent danger including
               facilities to enable people to stop work;

         i.    Ensure exchange of information, etc., when workplaces are shared or when
               used by workers ‘not their employee’ i.e. self employed, employees of
               contractors;

         j.    Ensure adequate and appropriate health and safety training;

         k.    Ensure adequate provision of information on risks for agency, casual, and
               sub-contractors’ workers.




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                                                                              February 2006
Definitions

              Hazard - something with a potential to cause harm. A situation that could occur
              which has the potential for human injury, damage to property, damage to the
              environment, or economic loss.

              Risk - an estimation of the likelihood, and potential consequences of a defined hazard.
              Risk expresses the likelihood that the harm from a particular hazard is realised. Risk
              therefore reflects both the likelihood that harm will occur and its severity.

Responsibilities

       12.    Service managers - will have a plan of implementation of risk assessments within
              their division. They will:

               •   Ensure adequate training is given to the persons undertaking the assessments;

               •   Take the reasonably practicable approach to implement the actions arising from
                   the assessments;

               •   Carry out regular monitoring of progress of risk assessment plan and the
                   subsequent reviews;

               •   Provide regular updates to the director with special responsibilities for health
                   and safety or the relevant committee.

       13.    Managers and supervisors - will carry out risk assessments in accordance with
              divisional plan and implement actions arising from the plan. Those actions that
              require extra resources should be passed to service manager for consideration and
              action.

       14.    Employees - Apart from the duties outlined in Part 2 of this policy, employees are
              required to use any equipment provided in a safe manner in accordance with training
              given; report hazards or health and safety shortcomings.

References
              The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations
              HSE Approved Code of Practice L21
              A guide to risk assessment (West Dorset District Council)
              Health and Safety Risk Management - Management training document (Human
              Applications)
              Risk Assessment (MHSWR) - A Guide for Managers (West Dorset District Council)




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                                                                Risk Assessment Form                                                Appendix 3.3A

Workplace                                     Activity                                    References
STEP 4 – Record your findings

    STEP 1                      STEP 2                   STEP 3                                       Priority =      Action…       Completed
    Look for the hazards        Decide who might be       Evaluate the risks and decide whether     Severity (1-3)                  Signature…
                                harmed, and how           existing precautions are adequate or            X           Date …        Date…
                                                                                                   Likelihood (1-3)   By whom…
                                                          more should be done
                                                                                                    eg. 2 X 3 = 6
1




Pages      Signed                                        Date                              Date of Previous RA        Review Date    File

                                                                                                                      STEP 5

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STEP 4 – Record your findings

    STEP 1                      STEP 2                STEP 3                                      Priority =      Action…    Completed
    Look for the hazards        Decide who might be    Evaluate the risks and decide whether    Severity (1-3)               Signature…
                                harmed, and how        existing precautions are adequate or           X           Date …     Date…
                                                                                               Likelihood (1-3)   By whom…
                                                       more should be done
                                                                                                eg. 2 X 3 = 6




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                                                                                                                                 February 2006
3.4      Accidents, Incidents and Disease

Summary

         1.      Employees are obliged to notify the council of any accidents at work, using the
                 accident form at the end of this chapter. The council and persons who have control
                 over employees and work premises have obligations to notify and report to the Health
                 and Safety Executive certain injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences. There is
                 also a requirement to report certain work related disease.

         2.      Trained first-aiders are available at various locations throughout the council. Their
                 names and telephone numbers are displayed on fire action notices. A first aid room is
                 provided at Stratton House.

Procedures
      3.         Following any accident or dangerous occurrence (near miss), action must be taken to
                 prevent re-occurrence of similar incidents. The potential seriousness of the incident
                 will dictate the amount of time and effort spent on investigating and rectifying the
                 problem. Staff and their line managers will need to discuss and determine the actions
                 to be taken. In any event every incident should be investigated and a review of
                 procedures undertaken if appropriate.

         4.      Reporting of incidents is covered under ‘Responsibilities’ and reporting lines are
                 shown in the flow chart.

Definitions
       5.        An accident could be determined as - any unplanned event that resulted in injury or ill
                 health of people, or damage or loss to property, plant, materials or the environment or
                 loss of business opportunity. An accident also includes acts of non-consensual
                 physical violence done to a person at work.

         6.      Violence - ‘accident’ has been defined as including ‘an act of non consensual physical
                 violence done to a person at work.’

         7.      Dangerous Occurrence - means an occurrence which arises out of or in connection
                 with work, a summary of which is as follows:

                 a.   Lifting machinery etc. - the collapse of any load-bearing part of any of the
                      following:
                        • Lift or hoist
                        • Crane or derrick
                        • Mobile powered access platform
                        • Access cradle or window-cleaning cradle
                        • Excavator
                        • Pile-driving frame or rig having an overall height, when operating, of more
                            than 7 metres
                        • Forklift truck.

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b.   Pressure systems - the failure of any closed vessel (including a boiler or boiler
     tube) or of any associated pipe work, in which internal pressure was above or
     below atmospheric pressure, where the failure has potential to cause death of
     any person.

c.   Overhead electrical lines - any unintentional incident in which plant or
     equipment either comes into contact with 200 volts or more, or causes an
     electrical discharge by coming in close proximity of electrical lines.

d.   Electrical short circuit or overload attended by fire or explosion which results
     in the stoppage of plant involved for more than 24 hrs or which has the potential
     to cause death of any person.

e.   Malfunction of breathing apparatus which in use or testing immediately prior
     to use, which would have posed a danger to the health and safety of user.

f.   The complete or partial collapse of:

       i. Any scaffold that is:

           • More than 5 metres in height which results in a substantial part of the
             scaffold falling or overturning; or
           • Erected over or adjacent to water in circumstances such that there
             would be a risk of drowning to a person falling from the scaffold into
             the water.

     ii.   The suspension arrangements (including any outrigger) of any slung or
           suspended scaffold which causes a working platform or cradle to fall.

g.   Incidents involving a pipeline or pipeline works.


h.   Collapse of building or structure - or partial collapse of any building or
     structure (whether above or below ground) under construction, reconstruction,
     alteration or demolition, which involves a fall of more than 5 tonnes of material;
     any floor or wall of any building (above or below ground) used as a place of
     work; any false-work.

i.   Explosion or fire due to ignition which occurs in any plant or premises which
     results in stoppage of that plant or suspension of the work in the premises for
     more than 24 hours.

j.   Escape of flammable substances - the sudden, uncontrolled release of
     flammable liquid and gas both inside and outside of a building.

k.   Escape of substances - the accidental release or escape of any substance in a
     quantity sufficient to cause death, major injury or any other damage to the health
     of any person.



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                                                                      February 2006
   9.      Major injury

           a.   Any fracture, other than to the fingers, thumbs or toes.

           b.   Any amputation.

           c.   Dislocation of the shoulder, hip knee or spine.

           d.   Loss of sight (whether temporary or permanent).

           e.   A chemical or hot metal burn to the eye or any eye penetrating injury.

           f.   Any injury resulting from an electrical shock or electrical burn (including any
                arcing or arcing products), leading to unconsciousness or requiring resuscitation
                or admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours.

           g.   Any other injury -

                 •   Leading to hypothermia, heat-induced illness or to unconsciousness;

                 •   Requiring resuscitation; or

                 •   Requiring admittance to hospital for 24 hours.

           h.   Loss of consciousness caused by asphyxia or by exposure to harmful substance
                or biological agent.

           i.   Either of the following conditions which result from absorption of any
                substance by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin:

                 •   Acute illness requiring medical treatment; or

                 •   Loss of conscious.

           j.    Acute illness which requires medical treatment where there is reason to believe
                that this resulted from exposure to a biological agent or its toxins or infected
                material.

           k.   Disease of the following types:

                 •   Poisonings

                 •   Skin disease such as; occupational dermatitis, skin cancer, chrome ulcer,
                     oil folliculitis, acne.

                 •   Lung diseases including; occupational             asthma,   farmers   lung,
                     pnuemoconiosis, asbestosis, mesothelioma.


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February 2006
                     •    Infections such as; leptospirosis, hepatitis, tuberculosis, anthrax,
                          legionnaires disease, tetanus.

                     •    Other conditions such as; occupational cancer, musculo-skeletal disorders,
                          the bends, hand-arm vibration syndrome.

       9.     A near miss is considered to be an incident that results in no injury to a person but can
              result in either damage or no damage to property and equipment etc. Reporting near
              miss incidents is a useful accident prevention tool.

Responsibilities

       10.    It is the responsibility of the person who had the accident to notify their line manager
              and to complete the accident report form at the end of this chapter. An accident book
              B1510 is also held by all qualified first-aid staff and at reception in each building for
              completion if required. Some other person may do this on the injured person’s behalf
              if they are incapacitated. The accident form is the official method of informing the
              employer about the accident. Near misses should also be reported to line managers.

       11.    It is the responsibility of all line managers to report an accident involving a member of
              his or her staff on the accident report form. If the injury is considered to be major
              and/or the person is expected to be off work for more than three days, the line manager
              must notify the service manager and Health and Safety Officer without delay.

       12.    Where fatal injuries are caused to the public, or a person is taken to hospital the local
              manager must immediately notify the Health and Safety Officer. These incidents are
              then reported to the HSE by telephone and written report.

       13.    A responsible person, preferably the Health and Safety Officer, must notify the Health
              and Safety Executive of any accident resulting in death, major injury, dangerous
              occurrence by the quickest practicable means (telephone) and also within 10 days
              forward a report form F2508. Any injury that results in more than three days off
              normal work the HSE must also be notified within 10 days. Disease is reportable on
              form F2508A.

Contacts
              HSE Bristol Tel: 01179 886000.
              HSE Incident Contact Centre, Caerphilly Business Park
              Caerphilly, CF83 3GG     Tel: 0845 300 9923 Fax: 0845 300 9924

References
              A guide to the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
              Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 95).
              Accident Book BI510 - 2003.




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                                                                                      February 2006
                                    West Dorset District Council Accident and Incident Reporting System

                   Accident                                Accident (Sport Injury)                Dangerous Occurrence or near miss

Accident at work resulting in injury; arising      Injury sustained by a member of the public       Incident that resulted in damage or could
out of or in connection with the work or             whilst playing voluntary sport at leisure     have resulted in damage or injury; including
business of West Dorset District Council                   facilities under the control of           dangerous occurrences as listed in the
                                                           West Dorset District Council               Reporting of Diseases and Dangerous
                                                                                                    Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
                                                                                                                 and in this policy
               Injured person                                Leisure centre staff
    or colleague if they are incapacitated                    and the duty manager
                                                                                                                          Staff
       Complete Accident Report Form                  Complete L&T Accident Report Form            report incident to manager using the accident
      (see Word template or next page)                      Copies to: L& T office                             report form as a guide
                Notify manager                                 Health & Safety Officer
                                                     Technical Services Accountant (Insurance)

     The first aider should complete the
            Accident Book B1510
       Staff may also may an entry in
            the B1510 if they wish



         Manager to investigate                   Leisure centre manager to investigate                     Manager to investigate
    the accident and take remedial action             the accident and take remedial action            the accident and take remedial action



Contact Health & Safety Officer immediately
for serious accidents or accidents that might                                                         Copy report to Health & Safety Officer
    cause a three day sickness absence

                                     The Health & Safety Officer will normally make the report to external authorities.
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Accident Report Form

This form must be completed for any accident occurring during the course of employment. The employee or their
manager should complete parts 1-6 and send this form to the Health & Safety Officer without delay. Part 7 should follow
as soon as possible.

1. Personal Details
Full name, home address, post code and telephone number.




Age                             Male/Female                    Employee/contractor/visitor/etc

Department and place of work                                                          Employee No:

Work time lost on the day of the accident                              Length of absence from work


2. The Injury
What was the injury eg fracture, burn, cut?

What part of the body was injured?                                                    Left or Right?

Where was the injury treated and by whom?


3. The Accident
Date of the accident?                                                          Time of the accident?

Precisely where did the accident happen?

What was the victim doing?

What equipment or chemicals were being used?

What protective equipment was being used?


4. Involvement of Others
Who else was involved?


Who are the witnesses?


Who has investigated the accident?




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5. What happened?
Include details of: Events before, during and after the accident. Adequacy of the personal protective equipment. First
aid. Weather conditions. Include an inspection of building or equipment




Signature………………….……..                                                          Date………………..…
(on paper copy)


6. Prevention
What measures have been introduced to prevent a similar accident?
If no measures have been taken, state why?




7. Manager or Supervisor’s Investigation Report




Signature…………………………….                                                          Date………………..…

8. Health & Safety Officer’s Report



Signature…………………………….                                                          Date…………………..

Copies of this form must be forwarded without delay to:
   1. The Health and Safety Officer
   2. Personnel section
   3. Unison office




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3.5     Young People

Summary

        1.   The Health and Safety (Young Persons) Regulations 1997 introduced specific
             measures to safeguard young people (under the age of 18 years) who are at risk
             because of their inexperience and (maybe) lack of maturity. The aim was to reinforce
             the normal practice of carrying out risk assessments before a young person is assigned
             a task or taken into a potentially hazardous environment. These regulations were
             subsumed into the management regulations in 2002.

        2.   The employer (West Dorset District Council) must make a risk assessment specifically
             relating to the employment of young people before a work experience placement or
             before employment commences. These regulations should not be a disincentive to
             employing young people or giving them work experience.

Procedures

        3.   A division risk assessor under the direction of the service manager will carry out a risk
             assessment and record the significant findings together with the controlling factors.

        4.   Particular consideration should be given to:

              •    The young person’s inexperience and their lack of risk awareness;

              •    The health and safety training they receive;

              •    Exposure to chemical, biological or physical agents - particularly asbestos, lead,
                   explosives, compressed air, ionising radiation, power presses, guillotines, cranes,
                   hoists, woodworking machines, agricultural machinery and installations etc.

              •    Work area design, equipment used and methods of work;

              •    Any other significant risk.


        5.   Young people are not to be exposed to:

              •    Work beyond their physical or psychological capabilities;

              •    Risks to health from noise, vibration, extremes of heat or cold, harmful
                   radiation;

              •    Work which involves harmful exposure to agents which may chronically affect
                   health such as toxic or carcinogenic substances or those which cause genetic
                   disorder or harm an unborn baby.




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April 2005
       6.     Appropriate risk reduction techniques must be applied with particular attention paid to
              lack of experience and maturity. There may be a need to restrict the work which
              young people are expected to carry out. Close supervision and action to prevent the
              young person being easily led into an inappropriate activity is required.


       7.     Where the young person has not yet reached the school leaving age (a child), the
              findings of the risk assessment must be communicated to the parents or school. This
              must take place before the child commences work or work experience.

       8.     Information and training is an important aspect of work experience and induction.
              The following subjects should be considered:

               •    The safety policy, including drugs, alcohol and smoking;

               •    The young person’s responsibilities;

               •    Informative and relevant safety literature;

               •    Identifying supervisors and safety staff;

               •    Safe-working systems, including manual handling, housekeeping, prohibited
                    areas, dangerous substances and machinery, personal protective equipment and
                    hygiene.

               •    Emergency procedures for accidents, first aid, fire and evacuation.

       Some of the content will need to be re-iterated during the early period.


Responsibilities

       Service managers have overall responsibility to ensure specific risk assessments are carried
       out and that safe systems of work are introduced.

       Line managers/supervisors should ensure that all workplace hazards have been considered
       and that suitable controls to prevent harm are implemented. They must ensure close
       supervision of young and inexperienced persons.


References
      Forms YP1 and YP2 – Available from Personnel division
      Health and Safety (Young Persons) Regulations 1997.
      Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 2002

Repealed Legislation
      Relevant sections of Factories Act 1961 and Offices, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963.




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3.6      Display Screen Equipment

Summary

         1.      The aim of the Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations is to
                 minimise the adverse health effects of upper limb pains and discomfort; eye and
                 eyesight problems; fatigue and stress that can be associated with inappropriate use of
                 computers. Others names are used to describe computers are display screen
                 equipment DSE and visual display units VDUs.

         2.      The council has a duty to provide a safe working environment associated with the use
                 of computers and discharges that duty through its managers. There is a legal
                 requirement to undertake risk assessments, provide free eye and eyesight tests on
                 request and in certain circumstances meet the cost of basic glasses if needed for
                 computer use only. Staff should also be provided with information, instruction and
                 training to regarding their use of computers.

Procedures and practices

         3.      Each division has a trained DSE assessor. This person under the direction of the
                 service manager will undertake DSE assessments of all computer users. All
                 employees who use computers or DSE equipment will be assessed and new staff
                 should be assessed before they become a user. The assessment starts with a user self-
                 questionnaire, which will be used by the assessor as the basis for assessment at the
                 workstation. The assessor will give information and limited training at this time.

         4.      The DSE questionnaire is available in MS Word templates. The assessor will supply
                 the workstation record sheet. This is also available in electronic form. Managers
                 should retain the original assessments and forward a copy to the Personnel division.
                 Files should be archived after staff have left. The user should complete the
                 questionnaire to the best of their knowledge and the assessor will deal with any
                 queries at the time of the assessment.

         5.      Operators should be provided with information on the risks from display screen
                 equipment workstations, risk assessment and measures to reduce the risks.

         6.      Computer users are entitled to free eye and eyesight tests. The provision of free
                 glasses, where applicable, will be in accordance with the agreed scheme via the
                 Personnel division. New staff should have an eye test before becoming a computer
                 user.

         7.      All equipment provided for use at a workstation will conform to the Regulations,
                 associated Guidance and the relevant British Standard.




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      February 2006
      8.      Where more than one person uses a workstation, it should be assessed in relation to all
              users. A record should be kept of the users of this workstation and all the necessary
              equipment should be provided to meet the requirements of all users. This is
              particularly relevant to staff that job share.

      9.      Portable computers such as laptops are included in these regulations provided they are
              in prolonged use.

     10.      Home workers - If a computer user is required to work from home, whether or not the
              workstation is provided in whole or part by the Council, the risks must be assessed.
              The home worker should complete the user self-questionnaire and return it to the
              assessor. The manager may arrange a visit to the home to evaluate the risks.
              Additional training and information may be required to be given to the home worker to
              compensate for the absence of direct management control of their working methods.

Definitions

     11.      User – Is an employee who habitually uses display screen equipment as a significant
              part of their normal work.

     12.      People using a VDU more or less continuously on most days will be classed as a user.
              The criteria for classifying others as users require an assessment of their tasks. Supply
              of computer equipment to an individual member of staff is an important factor in
              determining whether or not an employee is a user. It must also be remembered that
              general health and safety legislation requires that equipment and its use should be safe
              so far as reasonably practicable. Other user criteria may be relevant:

              •   The work often requires the use of a display screen for a period of an hour or
                  longer;

              •   The display screen is used on most days;

              •   There is a need to transfer information quickly to or from the screen; and

              •   The employee’s task require the use of a display screen as an integral part of their
                  role and they are highly dependent on VDUs to do their job, or have little choice
                  about using them.

     13.      Display Screen Equipment (DSE) - means any alphanumeric or graphic display
              screen, regardless of the display involved.

     14.      An operator - is a self-employed person who uses a VDU - (description as per ‘user’).

     15.      Workstation - means an assembly comprising of the DSE; a keyboard or other input
              device; any optional accessories to the DSE; any disc drive, telephone modem, printer,
              document holder, work chair, work desk, work surface or other item peripheral to the
              DSE; and the immediate work environment around the DSE.



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                                                                                      February 2006
Responsibilities

     16.      Service managers have the overall responsibility to ensure DSE assessments are
              carried out within their division. They must allocate resources according to the risk to
              implement the actions arising from assessment. Service managers must retain an
              overall view of the process and provide regular updates as required by the lead
              director for health and safety or the relevant committee.

     17.      Line managers must ensure that all their computers users and operators are assessed.
              Following assessment they must apply appropriate measures to reduce risk. Line
              managers should also plan the activities of computer users to ensure frequent breaks or
              changes of activity are incorporated. Whenever possible, jobs at display screens
              should be designed to consist of a mix of screen-based and non screen-based work to
              prevent fatigue and to vary visual and mental demands. Wherever practicable, users
              should be allowed discretion as to how they carry out tasks.

     18.      DSE Assessors will be trained as a competent person. In recent years this has been
              achieved by using the Dorset County Council DSE assessor as the trainer. Assessors
              will conduct suitable and sufficient DSE assessment of risks under direction of their
              service manager and report back to the users line manager for any actions required.
              They will conduct the assessments in accordance with their training and subsequent
              experience. It is not the responsibility of the assessor to ensure the actions are carried
              out, but many of the problems found can be rectified easily at assessment in co-
              operation with the user and every effort should be made to do this at the time of
              assessment. Simple information and training should be given to users at assessment in
              how to make adjustments etc to all the equipment associated with the workstation in
              order to reduce the risks. Assessors must undertake regular reviews of the assessment
              and in particular when there are significant changes.

     19.      Computer users have a duty to co-operate with the DSE assessors and implement any
              recommended changes to their working environment to reduce risks to themselves.

References

              Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
              HSE guidance L26 – Work with display screen equipment
              VDU’s an Easy Guide to the Regulations HSG 90.
              Health & Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002




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3.7      Manual Handling

Summary

         1.      The Manual Handling Operations Regulations apply to the manual handling of loads
                 ie human effort, as opposed to mechanical handling by crane or forklift truck.

         2.      The Regulations impose the need to avoid manual handling tasks wherever reasonably
                 practicable. If there is a risk of injury and it is not reasonably practicable to avoid
                 moving the loads, or the operation cannot be automated or mechanised, then the task
                 must be assessed, risks reduced and adequate and appropriate information, instruction
                 and training provided in the residual risk. This is a shift away from the notion of ‘safe
                 weights’. Health, safety and productivity are most likely to be optimised if an
                 ergonomic approach is used to design the manual handling operation as a whole.

Procedures and practices

         3.      Manual handling tasks should be identified during a pre-assessment walk through.
                 This can be conducted as a separate item for all manual handling tasks, particularly
                 where there many activities, which involve manual handling, or can be part of the
                 procedure for general risk assessments required under the Management of Health and
                 Safety at Work Regulations.

         4.      A pre-assessment walkthrough form is provided to assist in determining priorities for
                 full risk assessments. A short form checklist and a long form / task list is available to
                 carry out the assessments. It is envisaged that the majority of manual handling tasks
                 can be assessed on the short form. The long form is for the more complex detailed
                 tasks. Each form must be accompanied by an action plan, supplied, where there are
                 actions required to remove or reduce the risk.

         5.      The regulations were amended in 2002 to clarify that the risk assessment should
                 specifically consider:

                  i.   The physical suitability of the employee to carry out the operations;

                 ii.   The clothing, footwear or other personal effects he is wearing;

                iii.   His knowledge and training;

                iv.    The results of any relevant risk assessment carried out to comply with
                       management regulations;

                 v.    Whether the employee is within a group of employees identified by that
                       assessment as being especially at risk; and

                vi.    The results of any health surveillance provided for that employee.



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      February 2006
      6.      The principles of risk assessment are;-


                                    Likelihood x Severity = Priority number

                Low 1 - 2                       Medium 3 - 4                 High 6 – 9

                Leave to last                   Plan to rectify              Act now!



              The rationales supporting these principles are outlined in section 3.3.


      7.      In most cases managers and supervisors should be able to carry out the assessments
              themselves as they are best placed to know about the manual-handling taking place in
              their own departments. There may be a requirement to draw on the knowledge of
              others within their division or the council who have greater knowledge, experience
              and have been trained in risk assessment to advise or assist in the assessments.

      8.      The following flow chart will assist managers in determining if an assessment is
              required.

      9.      If after assessment it is determined that staff require training to minimise the residual
              risk then training must be carried out by competent / qualified trainers. Staff must be
              made aware of the fact that safe handling is not just work related but also a lifestyle
              issue.

Definitions

      10.     Manual handling - “involves both the transporting and supporting of a load.” It
              includes lifting; lowering; holding; carrying; pushing; pulling; throwing; or moving by
              hand or by bodily force. Anything, which applies force to an object to relocate it from
              point A to point B, is ‘manual handling.’ Risks exist in all sorts of ‘handling’ tasks.
              The application of human effort for a purpose other than transporting or supporting a
              load does not constitute a manual handling operation, eg use of tools.

      11.     Load - is a discrete moveable object and includes any object, person or any animal.
              An implement, tool or machine is not considered to constitute a load while in use for
              its intended purpose.




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                                                                                        February 2006
Responsibilities

       12.    Service managers must ensure that an overall approach has been adopted within their
              division to ensure that all manual handling tasks have been assessed and actions
              arising from the assessments completed. They should adopt the monitoring role and
              provide regular updates as required by the director with special responsibilities for
              health and safety or the relevant council committee.

       13.    Line managers and supervisors must ensure that all manual handling tasks are
              identified within their span of control and where appropriate carry out manual
              handling assessments. All actions arising from the assessments must be addressed.

       14.    All staff who are required to conduct manual handling tasks will need to decide for
              themselves how they will carry out any manual handling tasks they undertake but they
              must recognise their own limitations and use mechanical devices to reduce all
              instances of manual handling. Once they have been trained they must put the training
              into action.

References
              The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
              HSE Guidance L23 Manual Handling.
              Manual Handling solutions you can handle - HSE publication
              Getting to grips with manual handling; lighten the load - HSE leaflets




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Manual Handling Regulations Flow Chart
 Does the Work Involve Manual Handling Operations?                     NO
         A load is a discrete movable object.
  Human effort applied either directly or indirectly.

                              YES

             Is There a Risk of Injury?                                NO
   Make an early judgement as to the likelihood and
                   nature of injury.

                              YES /Possibly


Is It Reasonably Practical to Avoid Moving the Loads?                  YES
                      Eliminate.


                              NO

Is It Reasonably Practical To Automate Or Mechanise
                  The Operations?                                       YES
           This may introduce other risks.
                                                                                                  NO
                                                         Does Some Risk of Manual Handling
                              NO
                                                                     remain?


       Carryout Manual Handling Assessment
         Usually carried out by employer.
                                                                  YES / Possibly




Determine the measures to reduce risk of injury to the
        lowest level reasonably practicable.




                                                                    YES
              Implement the measures.




                                                                End of initial exercise.
      Is the risk of injury sufficiently reduced?



                                                             Review if conditions change
                                                                    significantly.
                         No




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3.8      Confined Spaces

Summary

         1.      The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 require employers to introduce safe systems of
                 work for personnel who may be required to enter a confined space such as a sewer,
                 drain, tank or silo. An open topped vessel, ductwork, flue, pit or trench may have the
                 same safety requirements. The test for applicability is whether the following,
                 reasonably foreseeable risks, may arise due to the enclosed working environment:

                     •   Injury due to fire or explosion;

                     •   Heat exhaustion leading to loss of consciousness;

                     •   Asphyxiation due to lack of air, including drowning or being trapped by solids.

         2.      Initially, consideration should be given to carrying out the work from outside. If entry
                 is unavoidable then a risk assessment is required to identify the safe system of work,
                 which must include comprehensive emergency arrangements. A wide variety of
                 hazards may exist in the confined space and others might be inadvertently introduced
                 by the task, such as:

                 •       A lack of oxygen due to chemical reactions associated with soil; groundwater and
                         chalk/limestone; rust formation; and any substance or residue in the space;

                 •       Poisonous fumes from sewerage, leachate or discharges from industry. Sludge
                         disturbance can release sufficient quantities of fumes to instantly overpower
                         workers;

                 •       Sudden movement of solids or intake of liquids as blockages are cleared, or
                         discharges take place;

                 •       Fire and explosion from flammable vapours, excess oxygen or dust;

                 •       Heat exhaustion causing the collapse of the worker;

                 •       Equipment hazards include electrical and mechanical machinery and welding
                         apparatus,

                 •       Fear and claustrophobia may be experienced.




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Preparations

      3.       Avoid entry to the confined space by using equipment from outside the space eg
               cameras and remote blockage clearance equipment.

      4.       If entry is unavoidable, the site manager will ensure a competent person, who has
               detailed knowledge of the task and hazards, carries out a risk assessment. The risk
               assessment will identify the necessary precautions that must be taken. All personnel
               involved will require adequate information, instruction and training relating to their
               tasks, the hazards and safety precautions, as well as the use of personal safety
               equipment. They should be carefully selected for the work, particularly with regard to
               their knowledge, experience, physical fitness and medical fitness. Use of only one
               trained person will insufficient.

      5.       A knowledgeable supervisor must be appointed on site, to control all aspects of the
               work. Consideration must be given to the task, working environment, materials, tools,
               the capabilities of the workers and emergency preparations. A permit to work system
               is required to actively control the risks, except where the hazards are shown by the risk
               assessment to be negligible. A competent person should issue the permit before the
               work starts. Work progress must be monitored and the permit formally cancelled after
               use. See the Permit to Work at Appendix 3.7.1A

      6.       All equipment required must be available immediately to hand and emergency rescue
               equipment fully set up and ready for immediate use. First aid appliances must also be
               ready, including resuscitation equipment if the risk assessment identifies the need.
               The tools used may need to be non-sparking and electrical equipment low voltage,
               protected by RCD’s.

      7.       If possible isolate all inlets to the confined space and check that the access is a
               sufficient size for quick escape and rescue by persons wearing bulky equipment.

      8.       Thoroughly ventilate the space, using additional openings if possible. Use mechanical
               ventilation equipment if necessary, particularly if using fume-producing apparatus.
               Petrol engines are not to be used in a confined space, due the very great risk of death
               by carbon monoxide poisoning. The use of oxygen to sweeten the atmosphere is
               forbidden, due to the unacceptable increase in the risk of fire with fatal consequences.

      9.       Test the atmosphere for toxic and flammable vapours and for oxygen content, to
               ensure it is fit to breathe. Due to gas layering, it will be necessary to check the
               atmosphere at various heights and continuous monitoring is required where changes to
               air quality could occur. The use of breathing apparatus must be carefully considered.




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       10.    Sufficient trained personnel must be on site ready to carryout a rescue, including the
              rescue of an unconscious person. It is vital that all possible preparations for
              emergency rescue are complete and ready for use before any entry occurs. Apply the
              following test:

              Will it be necessary to set up equipment or leave the site to obtain equipment or call
              for outside assistance before rescue can be attempted? If so, the preparations are
              insufficient and entry should not occur.

       11.    Suitable, tested, communications must be established both inside and outside the
              confined space and a means available to summon help in an emergency. Untrained
              and unprotected personnel must be specifically instructed not to enter the confined
              space under any circumstances, including emergency situations. The wearing of a
              safety harness and strong line will vastly improve the chances of rescue if the worker
              is incapacitated. A tripod must be set up and ready to use and a person trained in first
              aid included in the team outside the confined space. The tripod should be tested
              annually.

       12.    Co-operation between the various contractors is essential and checks to ensure the
              competency of team members will be required.


Responsibilities

       13.    There is little defence in law if a worker is injured in a confined space under the
              control of the Council. Therefore all those involved must apply a high degree of skill
              to ensure the safety of themselves and others.

       14.    Service Managers will need to ensure provision of adequate equipment and a
              sufficient number of trained staff are available for tasks within confined spaces. This
              may be achieved by working concurrently with other organisations. Initial and
              refresher training courses are available from commercial sources, particularly utility
              companies.

       15.    Line Managers and Supervisors are responsible for:

                   •   Deciding if a permit to work system should operate for that task.

                   •   Nominating a person in charge of the work.

                   •   Ensure that a risk assessment is carried out before work in a confined space and
                       checking that action has been taken to control the risks.

                   •   Liaison with other organisations involved in the task to ensure co-operation in
                       the application of health and safety measures.

                   •   Maintaining safety, monitoring and rescue equipment to a high standard. These
                       will require recorded inspection at intervals not exceeding one month.
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References
              The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
              The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992
              Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
              Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992
              Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
              Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994
              The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992

Repealed Legislation
             The relevant section of the Factories Act 1961.




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Confined Space Entry Permit                                                                                                                   Appendix 3.8A


A copy of this permit must be displayed at the entry point.

Location of task......................................................................................................................................….................

Description of work.....................................................................................................................................................

Employees involved, include the supervisor and
contractors............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................

Yes/ No                     Is work possible without entry?

DECIDE WHICH HAZARDS MAY BE ENCOUNTERED

Yes/No                      Lack of oxygen - due to displacement or reaction.
Yes/No                      Poisonous fumes - from sewerage, leachate, discharges or sludge disturbance.
Yes/No                      Sudden influx of liquids or solids - including after blockage clearance.
Yes/No                      Fire or explosion - from flammable vapours, excess oxygen or dust.
Yes/No                      Heat exhaustion - affecting the workers.
Yes/No                      Equipment hazards:
Yes/No                                Electrical
Yes/No                                Machinery
Yes/No                                Welding
Yes/No                                Exhausts
Yes/No                                Others - Specify...............................................................................................
Yes/No                      Is entry still considered vital?

PROTECTIVE MEASURES

Yes/No                      Ventilation carried out.
Yes/No                      Staff fit and capable of task.
Yes/No                      Waterproof coveralls and boots and gloves.
Yes/No                      Safety helmets.
Yes/No                      Face shield or goggles.
Yes/No                      Breathing Apparatus - Specify type................................................................................
Yes/No                      Non-sparking tools.
Yes/No                      No naked lights eg smoking or welding.
Yes/No                      Safety harness and lifeline.
Yes/No                      Torches required.
Yes/No                      Communications available.
Yes/No                      Atmospheric testing for:
Safe/Unsafe                            Oxygen content
Safe/Unsafe                            Explosive mixture
Yes/No                                 Continuous monitoring required.




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ACCESS

Yes/No                      Access and egress difficulties - specify with solution...........................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................................
Yes/No                       Emergency evacuation and first aid available                                                        Authorised on reverse../-



ENTRY AUTHORISATION


Entry date.............................................                Entry time....................... Duration............………….............

Permit expires......................................


I confirm that all appropriate measures have been carried out to ensure safe entry and work within the specified confined
space. Emergency procedures have been established. Only the work detailed on this permit will be carried out. The
issue of other permits eg for hot work has been completed.


ISSUED BY.............................................                 TITLE............... DATE/TIME...................................


ACCEPTED BY.......................................... TITLE.............                            DATE/TIME...................................



WORK COMPLETED

Work within the confined space has been completed and all persons and equipment have vacated. Those involved have
been instructed not to re-enter.


SIGNED.................................................                TITLE................ DATE/TIME................…...................


PERMIT CANCELLED

SIGNED(issuer).......................................... TITLE................ DATE/TIME.................................…..




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3.9      PAT Testing of Electrical Equipment

Summary

         1.      Electrical appliances must be maintained in good condition in order to ensure the
                 safety of the user. This is best achieved by a system of periodic inspection and testing,
                 carried out at a frequency, which depends on the type of equipment and the use to
                 which it is put. This section deals with portable appliance testing (PAT).

         2.      A portable appliance is defined as an electrically operated appliance, connected by a
                 lead and plug that could be moved around. This includes larger items such as
                 computers, photocopiers and televisions, as well as kettles, fans, desk lamps and
                 heaters. If these appliances or their cables become damaged a fatal electric shock or
                 fire can occur.

Procedures

         3.      A system of inspection and testing must be established for portable electrical
                 appliances. Each place of work must be surveyed and all items of portable electrical
                 equipment should be listed in a register. Technical Services coordinate the PAT
                 register for offices. The PAT register for operational sites should be organised locally.

         4.      Initially a risk assessment should be carried out to ensure that each item is suitable for
                 the task and the environment. Manufacturers’ literature must be used for guidance on
                 suitability and use. Personal items, designed for domestic use, may not be sufficiently
                 robust for use at work, although any that are used must be listed. The quantity of
                 electrical equipment used or stored should be minimised. Second-hand equipment
                 must always be tested before first use.

         5.      Refer to Table 1 below to establish the periodicity of inspection and calculate the date
                 due. The initial date will be from new. If a date cannot be decided, carry out a
                 combined inspection/test and calculate the next due date from the results of the test.
                 There are three types of inspection, which are explained below.

User Checks

         6.      Users should look critically at the electrical appliance, lead and plug and check for
                 signs of damage to the outside. They must not open the maintenance covers or the
                 plug cover. This check should be incorporated into the pattern of normal use and is
                 not recorded. If a defect is found then the item must be withdrawn from use, the
                 defect reported, a defect label attached and if considered necessary the plug can be
                 removed to prevent further use.




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      February 2006
Combined Inspection and Testing

         7.       A competent person, using test equipment to prove that the earth lead is correctly
                  connected, carries this out. It is also appropriate when an item is believed to be faulty
                  and a visual inspection is insufficient. Double insulated items (without an earth) do
                  not require this test. Mains connecting cables, which have an earth, require this type
                  of test. Results should be recorded.

Formal Visual Inspection

         8.       This inspection, by a knowledgeable person, is required where testing is unnecessary.
                  Results should be recorded.

Equipment/Environment         User                  Formal visual               Combined inspection
                              checks                inspection                  and testing
Battery-operated:             No                    No                          No
less than 20 volts.
Extra low voltage;            No                    No                          No
less than 50 volts AC.
IT equipment.                 No                    Yes, 2-4 years              No if double insulated
                                                                                -otherwise up to 5 years
Photocopiers, fax             No                    Yes, 2-4 years              No if double insulated
machines; NOT hand-held.                                                        -otherwise up to 5 years
Rarely moved.
Double insulated              No                    Yes, 2-4 years              No
equipment: NOT hand-
held. Moved occasionally,
eg fans, table lamps.
Double insulated              Yes                   Yes, 6 months - 1 year      No
equipment: HAND- HELD
eg some floor cleaners.
Earthed equipment: kettles,   Yes                   Yes, 6 months -1 year       Yes, 1-2 years
some floor cleaners.
Cables and plugs              Yes                   Yes 6 months - 1 Year,      Yes, 1-5 years,
connected to any of the                             the same periodicity as     the same periodicity as for
above.                                              for    the       relevant   the relevant equipment.
Extension leads and                                 equipment.
multipliers/adapters.



                     Table 1: Portable Electrical Appliance - Inspection and Testing


         9.       Equipment that is used in a harsh environment eg workshops or outdoors, or items that
                  are routinely transported, will require more frequent test and inspection. Battery
                  devices and equipment that operates below 50 volts AC do not require routine
                  inspection, although observed defects should be reported and repaired.

       10.        Extension leads/multipliers should be rigorously inspected and tested. Consideration
                  must be given to the type of appliance that may occasionally be connected to the
                  extension. This may alter the requirements for testing the extension lead.




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                                                                                                 February 2006
Examples

               a.    A computer (which is not double insulated) would probably need a visual
                     inspection every 21/2 years and testing every 5 years.

               b.    Kettles used two or three times a day should be inspected annually and tested
                     every 2 years.

               c.    Extension leads and multipliers ought to be tested every year.

Recording

       11.     Each item of equipment will require a label to show that it has been examined. This
               label should be attached to the plug and the date of the next examination should be
               shown. Equipment not requiring a test should have a “No test required” label. To
               assist in the programming of inspection and testing a register of all portable electrical
               equipment is to be held by each division. An example is shown at the appendices,
               although any suitable alternative may be used.

Personal Items of Electrical Equipment

       12.     Staff must be discouraged from using personal electrical items at work. All personal
               items that are used must be tested and a charge levied against the owner.

       13.     Technical Services have a supply of electrical heaters for use in offices where the
               central heating is insufficient. In order to ensure safety, no other heaters are to be used
               in our workplaces.

       14.     Kitchen equipment eg toasters, kettles and microwave ovens should not be introduced
               to the workplace where refreshment facilities are provided corporately.

Responsibilities

       15.     Service Managers have the overall responsibility to ensure appropriate PAT testing is
               carried out within their division. They must also ensure a register of electrical
               equipment is maintained and that equipment is re-tested at an appropriate periodicity.

       16.     Line Managers and Supervisors must ensure all electrical equipment used by their
               staff is marked with the ‘examination due’ date.

       17.     Users of electrical equipment are to ensure that electrical equipment which they intend
               to use has an ‘in date’ examination label.
  References

               Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 - R 4(2)
               HSE IND(G) 236 leaflet



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                                                                                                                                                        Appendix 3.8A
Division                                                     EXAMPLE                                                                         Page

           Item           Ident.   Location   Initial   Periodicity           Date         Date        Date        Date        Date        Date        Date due
                          No:                 date      Inspection       &    completed    completed   completed   completed   completed   completed   (in pencil)
                                                        Test
           Computer       M0321    Room 123   Jan 93    21/2 years - visual   July 95                                                                  July 2000
                                                        5 years - test        Jan 98
           VDU            V0321    Room 123   Jan 93    21/2 years - visual   July 95                                                                  July 2000
                                                        5 years - test        Jan 98
           Kettle         PD/1     Room 123   Jan 95    1 year - visual       Jan 96       Jan 98
                                                        2 years - test        Jan 97                                                                   Jan 99
           Extension      PD/2     Room 123   Jan 96
           lead                                         1 year- test          Jan 97       Jan 98                                                      Jan 99




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               February 2006
                                                 PAT Register                                                         Appendix 3.8B
Division                                                                                                          Page

 Item      Ident No:   Location   Initial   Periodicity   Date        Date        Date        Date        Date         Date        Date due
                                  date      Inspection    completed   completed   completed   completed   completed    completed   (in pencil)
                                            & Test




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                                                                                                                              February 2006
3.10 Fire Risk Management

Summary

       1.       European Union legislation has introduced the requirement for workplace managers to
                take specific responsibility for fire prevention within their areas of accountability. As
                a result the UK fire regulations require a fire risk assessment for all workplaces. This
                will lead to a reduction of risk by control of workplace hazards. Most of the
                requirements fall within the capability of workplace managers following provision of
                adequate guidance and the dedication to comply with these important safety
                improvements. Certain specific risks may need specialist advice.

       2.       The latest regulations (1 December 1999) are intended to reduce the reliance on the
                fire brigade and Fire Certificates, and places further duties on local management to
                ensure that fire risk management includes correct working procedures, as well as
                physical measures. The procedures detailed below are the first steps to achieving cost
                effective compliance with current and future fire regulations, which are risk based and
                less prescriptive than earlier legislation. The council’s insurers require compliance
                with all fire safety legislation.


Procedures

       3.       The new Regulations amend the Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations
                1992. This amendment introduces the requirement for a fire risk assessment as part of
                the normal risk assessment procedures that are required of managers. A line manager,
                nominated by the service manager or head of department, will carry out a divisional
                fire risk assessment. The nominated person should have sufficient authority to
                instigate remedial work (via Technical Services if appropriate) and to ensure that the
                risk control measures are meticulously maintained during the full range of business
                activities. The risk assessment must identify all potential hazards - regardless of
                perceived responsibility. Assumptions should not be made and the factors involved in
                reaching a conclusion should be recorded.


The Risk Assessment

       4.       There are a variety of methods for carrying out workplace risk assessments and any
                suitable method may be used. One method is explained below and a pro-forma and
                examples are included at Appendices 3.10B & C. Technical guidance is included at
                Appendix A. Policy chapter 3.5 gives additional guidance on general risk assessment.

       5.       The five steps to a normal risk assessment are shown overleaf.




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February 2006
             Step 1 - Identify all the hazards:
Identify all possible ignition sources eg:
Combustible materials used or stored and those that form part
of the fixtures, fittings and furniture.
Flammable liquids and gases.
Features that could cause a fire to spread.



       Step 2 – Identify those who could be at risk

Staff, remote workers, the public, visitors, contractors,
maintainers, cleaners, young people, volunteers, the elderly and
disabled.




     Step 3 – Evaluate Methods to Control the Risk

Include current and proposed methods of risk control measures.




    Step 4 – Apply Risk Controls and Keep Records
Eliminate, avoid, control, transfer or accept the risk.
Keep records of the risk assessment.




                        Step 5 – Review
Review the assessment regularly.
Ensure that daily work does not compromise fire safety.
Review the risks annually with the Business Plan.
Consider proposed changes for their effect on fire safety.




        Fig 1. Steps for carrying out a Fire Risk Assessment




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                                                                   February 2006
Step 1 - Identify the Hazards

       6.       Identify and list all fire hazards eg flammable and combustible materials, sources of
                ignition and structural features that add to the risk. Damaged items, such as ripped
                chair covers or peeled wallpaper, will add to the potential for fire and the presence of
                aerosol cans, or gas canisters, will create a particular risk. During the identification
                process, consider items during receipt, storage, usage and despatch. Include:

                •   Flammables - chemicals, paint, thinners, plastic foams.

                •   Combustibles - paper, cardboard, wood, packaging, display materials, video
                    libraries, curtains, carpets, dried flowers, artificial plants and rubbish. Furniture
                    that pre-dates the Furniture and Furnishings (Fire Safety) Regulations 1988 may
                    increase the fire hazard, due to the flammability of the materials of construction.

                •   Ignition sources - electrical equipment, wiring, light bulbs, ovens, sparks,
                    matches, cigarettes, blowtorches, flues, friction, heaters (particularly portable
                    types). The potential for both accidental ignition and arson should be evaluated.

       7.       Personal electrical equipment will not normally be designed for use at work.
                Therefore personal electrical items should not be used without the express permission
                of the manager. All items must be submitted for PAT testing before permission is
                given. Domestic cookers are rarely needed in the work environment. Microwave
                cookers may be an acceptable alternative.

       8.       As part of the hazard identification process, it is necessary to consider what activities
                take place within the building, whether the structure of the building is suitable and the
                type of internal decor. The following workplace risk categories can be applied:

                • Low - No highly flammable substances are present; there are few combustible
                  materials and virtually no sources of heat or ignition. Therefore there is hardly any
                  risk from fire.

                • Normal - Some combustible materials and sources of heat are present. A fire is
                  likely to be confined or spread slowly.

                • High - Any presence of highly flammable substances. Substantial quantities of
                  combustible materials. Likely rapid spread of fire heat or smoke. Risk to life is
                  high.

Step 2 - Consider who is at risk

       9.       Identify the persons who are at risk in a fire eg staff, remote workers, young people,
                the public, the disabled and contractors. Consider whether those who could be
                affected are familiar with the emergency procedures. Include an estimate of the
                number of people who could be at risk. Severity can be measured in terms of potential
                harm to people.




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February 2006
Step 3 - Evaluate Methods to Control the Risk

      10.    Fire requires a fuel, an ignition source and an air supply in order to be sustained.
             Combination of these factors produces the Fire Triangle (see fig 2). Removal of fuel
             sources and control of ignition sources are the main methods of risk reduction.




                                           Fig 2. Fire Triangle

      11.    Risk elimination, or reduction and control, are the main purpose of the assessment
             procedure. Risk avoidance or transfer, are also factors that can be considered. Each
             hazard should be considered individually and if the risk cannot be eliminated it must
             be controlled by the most appropriate method:

                • Fire detection, alarm and fire fighting equipment - include inspection and test
                  programme by staff and by a competent contractor.

                • Adequate ‘means of escape’ and the protection of escape routes.

                • Fire-escape signs (which include a graphic) and fire action information boards.

                • Emergency lighting.

                • Preparation and publication of emergency procedures and regular evacuation
                  drills.

                • A method of raising the alarm and calling the fire brigade.

                • Regular fire check inspections and checks on housekeeping (daily and weekly).

                • Identification of personnel to assist in case of emergency.

                • Reduction in the quantity of both flammables and combustibles and the correct
                  storage of retained items.

                • A maintenance programme for the test and repair of electrical and mechanical
                  equipment.

                • Use of equipment and machinery only for its designed purpose.

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                                                                                    February 2006
                     • Use of protection measures - fuses, RCD’s, repair of damaged foam furniture,
                       cleaning of flues and ducts.

                     • Easy access by the emergency services.

Arson

        12.     Arson accounts for about 50% of fires in the workplace and should be controlled by
                prevention of access, removal of combustible waste and careful location of
                letterboxes.


Fire Spread

        13.     Fire will spread by convection, conduction, radiation and direct burning. These
                factors must be considered when assessing the risk.


Step 4 - Apply Risk Controls and Keep Records

        14.     The measures identified at Step 3 will need to be prioritised and implemented. A
                numerical scale or low, medium and high-risk ranking can be used. It is necessary to
                record the hazards, the solutions to be applied and, where several solutions were
                considered, the rationale for the chosen method. Typical measures will include:

                 •     Provision of information, instruction and training to all staff and others at risk.

                 •     Good housekeeping.

                 •     Maintenance and test programme for machinery and safety items.

                 •     Close liaison and supervision of contractors.

                 •     Permit to work systems – for ‘hot’ work such as welding, cutting, paint
                       stripping, use of molten tar, as well as use of angle grinders etc, which produce
                       sparks.

                 •     Record keeping.


Step 5 - Review

        15.     Review the assessment regularly and ensure that daily work procedures do not
                compromise fire safety. Any proposed changes to the workplace or work procedures
                should be considered in the context of their effect on fire safety.




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February 2006
Additional Considerations

Means of Escape

      16.    The general rule for an adequate ‘means of escape’ is that occupants must be able to
             turn their backs to a fire, wherever it occurs, and escape to a place of safety.
             Alternative escape routes are often required to meet these criteria. Emergency lighting
             will be required in those areas where failure of the normal lights would create an
             additional hazard. Suitable signs are required to direct evacuation and the escape
             route must always be kept clear of obstructions. The problems of obstruction will
             require particular attention at goods delivery points. Passageways that lead to dead
             ends require measures to prevent an unacceptable risk occurring in the event of a fire.

Portable Heaters

      17.    In cold weather additional heaters are available from Technical Services. These
             heaters should be used with great care to avoid overheating of adjacent items. The
             heaters should not be left unattended. No other form of additional heating is to be
             used at work. If there is a frequent requirement for additional heating then a
             permanent installation is to be considered.

Spontaneous Combustion

      18.    There are some circumstances when articles may ignite without a separate ignition
             source. Oily rags, contaminated sawdust and stripped paint are the most likely
             substances to spontaneously combust. A metal dustbin, with close fitting metal lid,
             should be used to contain this type of waste.

Articles and Dangerous Substances

      19.    Certain articles and dangerous substances are subject to specific regulations eg bulk
             storage of highly flammable liquids and gases. These risks require specialist
             knowledge and should not be treated as a normal risk.

Fire Brigade Liaison

      20.    The local fire brigade can provide general and specialist information regarding fire
             risk reduction. Local managers ought to discuss the issues with Technical Services
             and/or the Health & Safety Officer before the brigade is contacted.


Staff Training

      21.    Several training opportunities are available at West Dorset District Council. Together
             these combine to ensure that the appropriate knowledge can be disseminated
             throughout the council’s workplaces.




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                                                                                   February 2006
Fire Wardens

       22.      Fire Wardens perform an essential role during induction of new staff and in the event
                of emergency evacuation. They have access to the necessary information, instruction
                and training to allow them to carry out their tasks. Direct liaison with managers and
                the Health & Safety Officer is encouraged.


First day

       23.      It is essential that new staff are shown the evacuation routes and fire assembly points
                on the first day of work. Where possible this should be carried out by a Fire Warden
                or deputy. This must become a part of the first day induction process for which the
                manager is responsible. Reference should be made to the fire action board nearest to
                the place where the new member of staff will work.

Induction Training

       24.      In order to assist managers to comply with their induction responsibilities, the Health
                & Safety Officer regularly provides a general health and safety induction course. The
                syllabus includes fire and emergency procedures and all staff should attend this
                course.

Evacuation drills

       25.      The person who holds the fire certificate for a building should regularly organise
                evacuation drills.

Refresher Training

       26.      Emergency procedures will be covered as part of refresher training organised by local
                managers. When new fire risks are introduced, staff must be trained in the correct
                methods of control.


Risk Assessment Training

       27.      A considerable number of managers are trained in risk assessment. The new
                Regulations require fire risk assessment to be included in the normal risk assessment
                procedures. It is expected that the additional factors will be within the capabilities of
                those who are familiar with risk assessment. Additional training will be provided
                when requested by managers.




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Responsibilities

       28.    The Technical Services Manager is responsible for fire risk assessments in areas that
              are normally not accessed by staff, eg boiler rooms, cellars, voids and lofts.

       29.    All Service Managers should ensure that:

               •   Fire Wardens and deputies are appointed in their fire zones.

               •   Instigation of fire risk assessment and the application of appropriate and
                   adequate solutions.

               •   Continuous application of fire risk reduction procedures.

       30.    Line Managers and Supervisors must ensure:

               •   Continuous daily application of fire risk reduction procedures

               •   Adequate control of visitors and contractors.

       31.    All employees are expected to comply with fire and safety legislation, particularly:

               •   Not to interfere with items of equipment provided for fire safety

               •   Co-operate to apply safety procedures

               •   Report if the alarm is not heard at the time of the regular weekly test

               •   Report defects regarding fire safety systems and procedures.

Further Information

              Health and Safety Officer
              Technical Services – Building Surveyor (Property)

References

              Fire Precautions (Workplace) (Amendment) Regulations 1999
              Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997
              Fire Precautions Act 1971 and the Fire Certificate (where issued)
              The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996
              Furniture and Furnishings (Fire Safety) Regulations 1988
              Building Regulations (Schedule 1, Part B)
              BS 7671 Requirements for Electrical Installation (the IEE Wiring Regs 16th edition)
              Highly Flammable Liquids and Liquid Petroleum Gases Regulations 1972




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                                                                                       Appendix 3.10A

                                   Technical Guidance Notes

The risk assessment will lead to the provision of appropriate and adequate equipment for emergency
use. Normally the specifications outlined below will suffice. For greater risks the emergency
facilities must be increased.

1. Exit Routes

All employees should be able to reach a place of safety within two to three minutes.
A normal 750mm wide door will allow 40 persons to pass through per minute.
Wheelchairs require a width of 800mm.
The route must be kept clear at all times and the route needs to be direct.
Doors should open in the direction of travel if they lead from high hazard areas, or may be used by
more than 50 persons, or are at the foot of a stairway.
Sliding or revolving doors are not permitted for emergency exits.
Emergency exits must not be locked or fastened if it prevents immediate opening.
Exits and routes must be signed.
Emergency lighting must be provided if failure of the main lights will create a hazard.

2. Detectors/Alarms

Smelling smoke and shouting fire is a permitted system if the risk is very low. The requirements
increase in proportion to the risks. Consider background noise levels to ensure the alarm is audible.
Alarm buttons should be located on exit routes.

3. Classification of Fires

Class A - Fires involving solid materials eg wood, paper and textiles. Extinguish by cooling with
water.

Class B - Burning liquids or liquefied solids eg petrol, oil, grease and fats. Extinguish by smothering
to exclude oxygen.

Class C - Burning gases. Extinguish by cutting of the gas supply not by extinguishing the flame.

Class D - Metal fires eg magnesium, aluminium and sodium. Special techniques are used to
extinguish this type of fire.

4. Fire Fighting Equipment

Provision of extinguishers will be based on the expected class of fire or fires (see above).
One water fire extinguisher (type 13A) is required per 200m2 of floor area.
At least one extinguisher is required on each floor.
The distance travelled to an extinguisher should not be more than 30m.
For special risks provide dry powder, foam or carbon dioxide.
All equipment should be easily accessible, simple to use and indicated by signs.

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February 2006
5. Structural items

Fire doors are built to withstand smoke or fire for a stated period of time. Often they are provided
with sealing strips that must be kept in good repair.
Decorative coatings may need to be coated with fire retardant finishes.
Holes in walls, doors and ceilings should be sealed to prevent the spread of fire.

6. Maintenance

Equipment and facilities provided for use in emergency are to be maintained in efficient working
order and good repair. A maintenance programme is needed to ensure serviceability.

7. Fire action notices

The Council has a standard notice for use at all Council workplaces.

8. Inflammable storage

Only a ready use supply of highly flammable liquids are to be held in the workplace. The total will
not be more than 25 litres. A metal locker is to be used for storage – painted red and marked Highly
Flammable in white letters. Bulk storage will require a storage facility away from the main
buildings.

Highly flammable liquids have a Flash Point below 320C.




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                                                                                       February 2006
                                                                                                                                             Appendix 3.10

                                                                                   Step 3 - Evaluate       Step 4 - Apply Risk Controls
Step       Item            Type (tick)        List   Quantity / Location         Current Risk Controls   Additional Risk Controls Required         Priority /
                                                                                                                                                   Due Date
1a      Fuel           Flammables

                       Combustibles

                       Rubbish

                       Shredded Waste

                       Recycling

                       Other


1b      Ignition       Heaters
        Source
                       Electrical Equipment

                       Smoking

                       Arson

                       Cooking

                       Machinery

                       Sunlight

                       Chemical reactions

                       Hot work - welding
                       etc

                       Other



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Address :                                   Completed by:                                                Copy to:                             Next Review Date:


                                                                                                               Step 3 - Evaluate         Step 4 - Apply Risk Controls
 Step   Item           Type                      List                      Location                        Current Risk Controls            Risk Controls Required             Priority /
                                                                                                                                                                               Due Date
 1c     Fire spread    Fire doors wedged
        hazards        open

                       Notice boards

                       Decoration

                       Ducts

                       Other

 2      Who is at       1. Staff
        Risk            2. Public
        (Groups or      3. Visitors
        individuals)    4. Contractors
                        5. Maintainers
                        6. Cleaners
                        7. Young people
                        8. Elderly
                        9. Disabled
                       10. Remote workers
                       Periodicity      Action                                                                                     Risk Controls Required
 5      Review         Daily               D1. Ensure escape routes and fire exits are kept clear - all day, every day.

                       Weekly              W2. Fire alarm test.
                                           W3. Check fire doors close correctly and self-closures are functional.
                       Monthly             M4. Visual check of fire extinguishers to ensure they are not discharged.
                                           M5. Check operation of emergency lights.
                       Annual              A6. Review fire risk.

                       Changes             C7. Review before changes occur and after they are introduced.



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                                                                                                                                                                        February 2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Appendix 3.10

               EXAMPLE
                                                                                                                   Step 3 - Evaluate                         Step 4 - Apply Risk Controls
Step       Item             Type (tick)                      List              Quantity/ Location               Current Risk Controls                    Additional Risk Controls Required                       Priority /
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Due Date
1a      Fuel           Flammables v               1. Paint tins.             1. Five tins on shelf                                                                                                             1, 2 & 3.
                                   1,2,3          2. White spirit            2. On shelf                   1. None                                1, 2 & 3. Provide metal locker, red in colour,               21 days
                                                  3.Evo-stick                3. Two tubes                  2. None                                marked ‘Highly Flammable’ in white letters
                                                                                                           3. None                                Water based paint is OK on shelf
                       Combustibles v 4
                                                  4. Wood                    4. 2 sheets, several          4. None                                                                                             4. 1 week
                                                                             lengths, under stairs                                                4. Remove from under stairs. ‘No                             5. --
                                                                                                                                                  Combustibles’ sign.
                       Rubbish     v 5,6          5. Paper                   5. Bulk supply –              5. Correct
                                                  6. Normal refuse           passageway                                                                                                                        6. --
                                                                             6. Bins & Dustbin                                                    5. Remove from passageway                                    7. --
                                                                                                           6. Removed at end of day
                       Shredded Waste v 7         7. From two shredders      7. In recycling bin                                                  6. None
                                                                                                           7. Acceptable in admin office.         7. None                                                      8. HIGH
                                                  8. Paper and               8. Passageway, Admin                                                 8. Remove from passageway. Minimise amount held               1 day
                       Recycling           v 8    cardboard                  office, several offices       8. None                                in other offices.
                                                                                                                                                  9. Put into store or dispose of.
                       Other           v 9        9. Old furniture           9. At rear door               9. None                                                                                             9. 1 week

1b      Ignition       Heaters               1.   1. Old radiant fire        1. Cloakroom                  1. None                                1. Destroy                                                   1. 1 week
        Source
                       Electrical Equip.    2.    2. As per PAT register     2. Throughout                 2. Tested i.a.w. PAT register policy   2. Add new computer scanner to register                      2. 1 month
                                                                                                           3. Smoking outside only. Butt bins
                                                  3. Smokers are employed    3. Throughout                 provided.                              3. Empty butt bins twice per week                            3. 1 week
                       Smoking               3.
                                                  4.   Waste store           4. Rear of building           4.   Separate store – unsecured        4.   Secure the store                                        4. 1 week
                       Arson        4,5 & 6.      5.   Letterbox             5. Main door                  5.   None                              5.   Move to Porch door and fit metal box.                   5. 6 months
                                                  6.   Rear gate             6. Onto waste ground          6.   None                              6.   Increase height of gate. Fit padlock.                   6. 1 week
                       Cooking              7.    7.   Old domestic cooker   7. Kitchen                    7.   None                              7.   Do not use.                                             7. 1 month
                                                                             8. Various locations                                                       Replace with microwave cooker.                         If required.
                       Machinery         8.       8. Angle grinder           9. No chemicals stored in     8. User trained in hazards of use
                       Sunlight          9.       9. Not Applicable          sunlight                      9. Not required                        8. Prevent unauthorised use by locking away.                 8. 1 week
                       Chemical reactions 10      10. Corrosive products     10. Cleaning agents stored    10. None                               9. None                                                      9. --
                       Hot work - welding 11      11. Occasionally           with white spirit             11. Permit to Work system              10. Provide separate dry storage area for corrosives.        10. 1 week
                                                                             11. Workshop & yard           documented but not used                11. Bring permit system into use.                            11. HIGH
                                                                                                                                                                                                               1 day



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       Address:                            Completed by:                                           Copy to:                                          Next Review Date:

                                                                                                                    Step 3 - Evaluate                       Step 4 - Apply Risk Controls
Step    Item               Type (tick)           List                        Location                             Current Risk Controls                         Risk Controls Required                       Priority /
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Due Date
1c      Fire spread    Fire doors wedged         1. Two                      1. Stairs and kitchen           1. Doors marked with correct sign.   1. Remove wedges. Fit automatic closures if required.    1. HIGH 1 day
        hazards        open                      2. All five boards have
                                                 excessive notices loosely   2. Throughout                   2. None                              2. Remove excessive paper. Nominate person to monitor    2. 1 month
                       Notice boards             attached                                                                                         board. Annotate removal date on each notice.
                                                 3. Peeling wallpaper
                       Decoration                4. No loft hatch            3. Boardroom                    3. Defect book available but not     3. Repair. Check defect book regularly                   3. 1 month
                                                 5. Holes through to         4. Foyer                        used                                 4. Re-fit. Check after contractor access.                4. 1 week
                                                 adjacent rooms              5. Boiler room                  4. None                              5. Seal holes                                            5. 1 month
                       Ducts
                                                 6. Permanently open                                         5. None
                                                 access to loft              6. Boiler room/loft             6. None                              6. Install ceiling in boiler room.                       6. 6 months
                       Other

2       Who is at       1. Staff                  1. Nine staff              1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 throughout.    Fire Warden and deputy named.        3, 4 & 5. Visitors, contractors and maintainers to be    3,4,5 2 weeks
        Risk            2. Public                 2. No effect on public                                     Fire Action boards are provided      signed in and out.
        (Groups or      3. Visitors               3. To boardroom                                            Fire alarm installed.                6. Cleaners to be briefed on fire action.                6. 1 week
        individuals)    4. Contractors            4. Occasional                                              Smoke alarms fitted in               7. Risk Assess iaw Health & Safety Policy.
                        5. Maintainers            5. Occasional                                              passageway                           To attend H & S induction course.                        7. 1 month
                        6. Cleaners               6. Weekday evenings                                                                                                                                         1 month
                        7. Young people           7. One work                                                9. All staff briefed to assist.
                        8. Elderly
                                                 experience                                                  Exit door from reception area        9. H & S induction to be provided on site.               9. 1 month
                        9. Disabled
                                                  8. None                                                    has low handles and a ramp.
                       10. Remote workers
                                                  9. One in wheelchair       9. Reception desk               10. None                             10. Fire bell to be fitted in annexe                     10. 3 months
                       11. Volunteers
                                                 10. Store man               10. Annexe to boiler room
                                                                                                                                                  Risk Controls Required
5       Review         P i di it
                       Daily               A tiEnsure escape routes and fire exits are kept clear - all day, every day.
                                           D1.                                                                                                    1. Brief all staff                                       1 week
                       Weekly              W2. Fire alarm test.                                                                                   2 & 3 Brief all staff to report defects.
                                           W3. Check fire doors close correctly and self-closures are functional.                                 4 & 5. Train the store man.                              1 week
                       Monthly             M4. Visual check of fire extinguishers to ensure they are not discharged.
                                           M5. Check operation of emergency lights.
                                                                                                                                                  6. Review with Business Plan to ensure risks are         1 month
                       Annual              A6. Review fire risk.                                                                                  acceptable.                                              6 months
                       Changes             C7. Review before changes occur and after they are introduced.                                         7. Include in project pro-forma.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           3 months



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                                                                                                                                                                                                    February 2006
3.11 Provision and Use of Work Equipment - PUWER

Summary

      1.      Most work tasks require the provision and use of equipment. This has the potential to
              introduce hazards and also provides an opportunity to minimise associated risks by the
              correct selection, maintenance and use of work equipment. This section deals
              specifically with the requirements of The Provision and Use of Work Equipment
              Regulations 1998 (PUWER). Many of the requirements are similar to the 1992
              regulations. New regulations are introduced for mobile work equipment.

      2.      Work equipment is defined as any item used at work, from a hole-punch to a forklift
              truck. Other examples include: photocopiers, toolbox tools, machinery, pressure
              washers and soundproof enclosures. Access equipment such as ladders, hoists, slings
              and scaffold platforms are also subject to these regulations.

      3.      There is some overlap with other regulations eg Health and Safety (Display Screen
              Equipment) Regulations 1992 (see chapter 3.6) and Lifting Operations and Lifting
              Equipment Regulations 1998 (see chapter 3.12). A wide variety of regulations have
              been superseded (listed at the end of the chapter). The regulations apply
              retrospectively to equipment already in use.

Procedures

      4.      Before providing or using work equipment it is necessary to consider to what use1 it
              will be put, by whom, and in what environment. As with most health and safety
              systems, there is a need to base decisions on a risk assessment and compare this with
              the equipment specification. A wide variety of other factors must be considered to
              ensure that equipment remains safe to use and is used in the correct way. These issues
              are outlined below.

      5.      The risk assessment will help you ensure that the work equipment is:

                   •   Suitable for use (and continued use) by considering the purpose of use and
                       conditions associated with use.

                   •   Constructed or adapted to be suitable for the intended use.

                   •   Located in a suitable place, correctly installed and inspected by a competent
                       person before first use.

                   •   Inspected and maintained, at suitable intervals, to ensure that it continues to be
                       safe for use. A competent person should carry out the inspection and
                       appropriate records should be kept. The equipment may also need to be marked,
                       to show that it is ‘in date’ for test.
              1
              Use – Includes: starting, stopping, programming, setting, transporting, repairing, modifying,
              maintaining, servicing, and cleaning.


                                                  107
   February 2006
      6.    Other factors to be considered are ergonomics, control measures and inspections in
            ‘exceptional circumstances.’ Ventilation may be required, particularly where
            chemicals are involved or an internal combustion engine is used.

      7.    There is also a requirement to ensure that any associated risks are eliminated, or if this
            is not possible, controlled by all of the following:

             •    Provision of suitable physical measures eg fixed guards for all dangerous parts,
                  interlocks, markings, warning devices, system controls (such as emergency stop
                  buttons) and personal protective equipment

             •    Provision of jigs, holders, push sticks and other suitable protection appliances

             •    Introducing suitable procedural measures eg precautions and safe systems of
                  work for use and maintenance of the equipment. These procedures ought to be
                  provided as written instructions

             •    Provision of adequate information, instruction, training and supervision for the
                  equipment use. Drawings and pictures should be provided to ensure clarity

             •    Use of the equipment should be restricted to designated and competent persons
                  ie those who have been adequately instructed and trained. Visitors’ competency
                  must be carefully assessed before they are permitted access to the equipment.

      8.    Written instructions must be easily accessible to employees and in a form that they can
            understand. Managers and supervisors of users must be similarly provided for.
            Procedures must be established so that employees are capable of dealing with any
            foreseeable problems, failures and faults associated with the work equipment. Useful
            information that accumulates through experience should be recorded and disseminated
            to other staff. Young people and new employees will need special attention to ensure
            their safety.

      9.    A vital part of user training will include the operation and the reasons for the use of
            safety equipment eg guards, interlocks and personal protective equipment.

     10.    Where a European Directive exists eg for Machinery or Personal Protective
            Equipment, any equipment provided for use after 1 January 1993 must be marked with
            the ‘CE Marking’ and the supplier must provide a copy of the EC Declaration of
            Conformity.

Dangerous Parts of Machinery

     11.    Every employer must take effective action to:

             •    Prevent access to any dangerous part of machinery and rotating stock bar.

             •    Stop the movement of any dangerous part of the machinery, or rotating stock
                  bar, before any part of a person enters a danger zone.

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                                                                                         February 2006
       12.    The hierarchy of measures include fixed guards, or other guards and protection
              devices where fixed guards are not practicable. Where these measures are not
              practicable additional devices must be provided and used such as jigs, holders, push-
              sticks and similar items. Finally information, training and supervision must be
              provided. All the hazards must be considered and the measures must be applied in the
              order stated. Combinations of protective measures are likely to be required.

       13.    Guards and protection devices and additional devices must be well constructed, made
              of sound materials and strong enough for their intended purpose. They must be
              maintainable and any attempt to defeat a guarding system must be prevented by good
              design.

Equipment Controls

       14.    The control mechanisms must be designed and installed to prevent accidental starting
              or changes in operating conditions, such as speed, pressure, temperature or power.
              Careful design will ensure that no one is caught unaware by unexpected changes in the
              operating state of the equipment. Stop controls and power isolators will be required at
              suitable locations that are accessible to the operator. Where appropriate, emergency
              stop buttons should be provided. These are intended to rapidly halt the equipment and
              must not be used as the normal means for stopping the machine.

       15.    All controls must be suitably marked, positioned in a safe place and allow the operator
              a clear view of the hazardous area associated with the equipment. Safety interlock
              systems and warning systems will be required to prevent persons being exposed to
              risks to their health and safety. Control systems must ‘fail-safe.’

       16.    The new regulations require the control system to be designed to be safe. It will only
              be considered to be safe if it does not:

                   •   Create any increased risk when operating normally
                   •   Create additional risk when a part or a component fails
                   •   Give rise to additional risk if the power supply is lost
                   •   Impede the operation of other stop or emergency stop controls.

Stability – All work equipment must be suitably secured to prevent toppling or other hazardous
movement.

Lighting – Suitable and sufficient lighting must be provided which is appropriate to the task.

Maintenance – Equipment is to be constructed or adapted to facilitate safe maintenance and usually
this would mean that the equipment is shut down and re-starting is prevented. Where possible,
maintenance points that are accessible without opening the guards eg adjustment or lubrication points
should be provided. In addition, barriers, a safe means of access and protective equipment may also
be required.




                                                 109
   February 2006
Markings and Warning Signs – Must be clear, easy to understand and unmistakable. Compliance
with the Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 is essential. See Chapter
3.17.

Mobile Work Equipment

      17.    No employee is to be carried on mobile work equipment unless:

              •    It is suitable for carrying persons; and
              •    It incorporates safety features for reducing, to as low as practicable, risks to their
                   safety - including risks from wheels or tracks.

      18.    The requirement is to protect the driver, other workers and passengers. Locks, safety
             belts, guards and notices should be fitted where appropriate. Workers should be
             protected from falling out of the equipment or from unexpected movement. Speeds
             should be controllable and barriers and guards are to be designed to protect against
             contact with wheels. Operator platforms and cabs should be designed for safe use and
             where appropriate, restraint and falling object protection systems must be fitted.

Roll-over Protection

      19.    Mobile work equipment must inherently stable and if the equipment does rollover it
             should be designed to fall only onto its side. It must also safely enclose those being
             carried by the use of rollover protection structures (ROPS), preferable in the form of a
             protective cab. Where rollover bars are fitted, personnel restraint systems must also be
             fitted to prevent workers being crushed between the equipment and the ground. There
             are similar requirements specifically for forklift trucks.

Self-propelled Equipment

      20.    This type of equipment will require:

              •    A mechanism to prevent it being started by unauthorised persons
              •    Effective brakes
              •    Emergency controls and equipment that are independent of the main systems.
              •    Devices to improve the driver’s vision, where necessary
              •    Lights, where necessary
              •    Fire fighting equipment – particularly where escape from the equipment is
                   difficult to achieve.
              •    Self propelled, towed equipment or attachments should only be driven by those
                   who have received appropriate driver training.

      21.    Remote controlled self-propelled equipment must be fitted with devices to stop it
             automatically when the control range is exceeded. Devices to prevent the equipment
             from crushing the worker, as well as alarms and warning lights will be required.




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                                                                                           February 2006
Drive Shafts and Power Take-off Shafts

       22.    These units must be fitted with devices to protect personnel and to prevent seizure. A
              device is also required to prevent contact with the ground whilst the unit is uncoupled.

Responsibilities

       23.    Service Managers should ensure that any equipment purchased or provided for use at
              work conforms to these regulations. This will require a risk assessment to ensure
              suitability. The procurement process will include a programme of planned
              maintenance, assessment of user competency and provision of written instructions.

       24.    Line Managers and Supervisors are to ensure that equipment is used only for its
              intended purpose and in accordance with the written instructions.

       25.    Employees are not to override any guard or safety system. They must only use
              equipment for its intended purpose. All defects must be reported immediately.


References

              Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1992
              Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
              Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992
              Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals Regulations 1996
              Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
              Health & Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002

Superseded

              The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992
              The relevant sections of the Factories Act
              Power Press Regulations 1965 as amended
              Abrasive Wheel Regulations 1970
              Woodworking Machines Regulations 1974
              Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 (R.27)




                                               111
   February 2006
112
      February 2006
3.12 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment

Summary

      1.      The use of equipment for the lifting and lowering of loads will create hazards that
              must be controlled. Therefore all lifting equipment will need to be assessed, examined
              and tested in accordance with the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
              Regulations 1998 (LOLER). Before providing or using lifting equipment, it must be
              ‘thoroughly examined’ by a competent person. To ensure all items are checked it is
              necessary to keep a register of lifting equipment. The risks that could arise from
              failure will determine the extent of the examination and inspection regime. All users
              must be trained in the correct use of the equipment before they are permitted to take
              part in lifting operations.

      2.      Lifting equipment includes: cranes, lifts and hoists, as well as, accessories that are
              used for lifting eg chains, ropes, slings, hooks, shackles, and eyebolts. Typical
              examples include a passenger lift, dumb waiter, vehicle hoist, rope and pulley, patient
              hoist and swimming pool access hoist. For vehicles the equipment would include a
              refuse vehicle loading-arm, tail lift, skip lifting chains and vehicle recovery
              equipment. Forklift trucks are also included in the regulations.

      3.      The Provision of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER), in chapter 3.11, will
              also apply and the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 will be
              relevant where personal safety equipment, such as harnesses, are used.

Procedures

      4.      Before providing or using work equipment it is necessary to consider; to what use it
              will be put, by whom, and in what environment. As with most health and safety
              systems, there is a need to base decisions on a risk assessment and compare the
              assessment with the equipment specification. A wide variety of other issues must be
              considered to ensure that equipment remains safe to use and is used in the correct way.
              Consider:

                   •   Equipment integrity
                   •   The place it will be used
                   •   The purpose for which it will be used.

      5.      The material of manufacture must be carefully selected to ensure suitability for the
              conditions of use. Ergonomic factors must be assessed to ensure the user does not
              suffer a strain or other injury. Users must be provided with suitable access and egress
              and be protected against slips, trips and falls. They may also require environmental
              protection. There is a specific requirement to ensure that the lifting equipment does
              not fail due to high winds.




                                                 113
   February 2006
      6.     The risk assessment will help you ensure that the lifting equipment is:

              •    Suitable for use, by considering the purpose of use and conditions associated
                   with use.
              •    Constructed or adapted to be suitable for the intended use.
              •    Located in a suitable place, correctly installed and inspected by a competent
                   person before first use.
              •    Inspected and maintained, at suitable intervals, to ensure that it continues to be
                   safe for use.

      7.     A competent person (see 3.12.18) should carry out the inspection and appropriate
             records should be kept. Invariably all equipment and accessories will need to be
             recorded in a register. A typical register is shown at Appendices 3.12.B/C. The
             equipment will need to be marked, to show that it is ‘in date’ for test. This will enable
             the user to have confidence in the equipment and also to identify any items that have
             not been tested.

Strength and Stability

      8.     Employers are required to ensure that lifting equipment has adequate strength and
             stability for each load and to particularly consider the mounting and fixing points.
             Every part of the load and its attachments is to be of adequate strength. Pallets and
             skip attachment lugs are included in this requirement. The provision of effective
             measures to ensure stability may include:

               •   Installing a suitable base
               •   Using an anchorage system
               •   Using counterbalance weights, ballast, outriggers or stabilisers.

      9.     Water-borne lifting equipment or loads will need to be additionally stabilised to
             prevent unequal loading. Mobile or removable lifting equipment must be used in a
             way that will ensure safety eg stable ground, correct erection and correctly inflated
             pneumatic tyres.

      10.    Overload warning devices may need to be fitted to the lifting equipment and the
             design must ensure that a power failure will not lead to the uncontrolled descent of the
             load.




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                                                                                          February 2006
Lifting Persons

      11.     Where equipment is used to lift persons it is necessary to be particularly vigilant to
              prevent staff falling, being trapped, struck or crushed. Modifying lifting equipment to
              facilitate the carriage of persons is fraught with risks and should not normally be
              attempted. Sufficient properly designed lifting equipment exists to negate the need for
              modifications to fork lift trucks, telescopic handlers and cranes etc.

      12.     Equipment for lifting persons should be designed to fail-safe. The number of persons
              that may be carried is to be clearly marked and a reliable means of rescue must be
              available.


Marking of Lifting Equipment

      13.     All lifting equipment and accessories should be marked with the safe working load
              (SWL). Diagrams may be needed to show the correct configuration. An identity mark
              and test date label will normally be required. Items designed to lift persons should be
              clearly marked and where equipment may be used to lift persons in error it must be
              clearly marked that it is not suitable for the lifting of persons.


Examination, Inspection and Storage


      14.     Equipment is to be thoroughly examined and a report prepared as per Appendix
              3.12A. The occasions for examination are:

                   •   After installation – before first use
                   •   After assembly – and before use at each new location
                   •   At least every 6 months – if used to lift persons
                   •   At least every 12 months – for equipment not used to lift persons
                   •   In accordance with an examination scheme detailed by a competent person
                   •   Immediately after an exceptional occurrence

      15.     Where appropriate, the equipment must also be inspected by a competent person at
              suitable intervals between each thorough examination. This is to ensure that any
              deterioration is detected and remedied before it has a detrimental effect on health and
              safety.

      16.     All lifting equipment must be accompanied by physical evidence that the last thorough
              examination has been carried out. This is particularly relevant when items are
              transferred from one location (or business) to another. The examination scheme may
              be drawn up by the user, owner, manufacturer or some other competent person and
              must specify those parts of the lifting equipment that must be thoroughly examined. It
              must also state the intervals between examination and test.



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17.   The competent person who carries out the thorough examination must have
      appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the subject
      equipment, so that they will be able to detect defects or weaknesses and to assess the
      importance of these factors in relation to the safety and continued use of the lifting
      equipment. The competent person will need to retain sufficient independence to
      ensure that the examination procedure is objective. A thorough examination is also
      required:

      •    After long periods out of use.
      •    After a significant change in the conditions of use.
      •    After an accident or potentially dangerous event.

18.   The competent person should decide whether a test is necessary (in addition to the
      examination) and what form the test should take. For some equipment the item will
      have to be stripped in order to conduct a thorough examination of its internal
      components. Overload testing is often inappropriate due to the accumulative stress it
      may cause to the equipment. The examination scheme will take account of:

      •    The equipment condition.
      •    The environment in which it will be used.
      •    The number of lifting operations and the loads lifted.

19.   The examination scheme will need to be capable of being produced as a written
      document. It must be kept secure and protected from unauthorised modification. The
      competent person must detail the content of the examination scheme, which must be
      based on the use to which the equipment is put. Any change of use must be authorised
      by a competent person. The supplier or manufacturer should supply information to
      assist in the preparation of an examination scheme.

20.   Within the thorough examination cycle, the equipment is to be additionally inspected
      where there is a significant risk of equipment failure that can be prevented by
      inspection. Typical conditions that can be detected by inspection are:

      •   Rapid wear from arduous use.
      •   Failure through repeated use.
      •   Malfunction of warning devices.
      •   Tampering with safety devices.
      •   Accessories such as slings and chains will not normally require inspection
          because they will receive a regular thorough examination and a pre-use check.




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Reports and Retention of Information

      21.     When a thorough examination is carried out the equipment examiner must make a
              report in writing as well as verbally. Reports are still required when the defects are
              rectified on the spot or if the equipment is scrapped. The examiner is to:

              •        Immediately notify the employer of any defect, which potentially affects safety
              •        Notify the employer of any defect, which could affect safety at a later date
              •        Make a written report to the employer and equipment owner as soon as is
                       practicable and within 28 days
              •        Inform the enforcing authority if there is an imminent risk of personal injury.

      22.     Following an examination, inspection or test, the employer must:

              •         Ensure the lifting equipment is not used until the defects are rectified and/or
                        ensure that the equipment is not used beyond any specified date.
              •         Retain EU Declarations of Conformity throughout the life of the equipment.
              •         Retain installation examination certificates throughout the life of the equipment.
              •         Retain thorough examination reports until the next report is made or for two
                        years (whichever is the later).
              •         Retain all defect reports until the next defect report is received.


Lifting Operations

      23.     Lifting operations must be properly planned by a competent person; be correctly
              supervised and carried out in a safe manner. The competent person will have adequate
              practical and theoretical knowledge and experience to carry out the task safely.
              Consideration must be given to the:

                   •    Equipment – suitability, stability, serviceability, test date and markings.
                   •    Load – weight, shape, centre of gravity, lifting points, control lines.
                   •    Location – position, obstructions and the environment.
                   •    Personnel – their knowledge, training, experience and personal protective
                        equipment.




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Pre-use Check by the User

       24.    Employees must be trained and supplied with the appropriate instructions to enable
              them to ensure that the lifting equipment is safe to use. Daily or more frequent
              inspections may be required. Equipment users must be able to ascertain that the item
              has been thoroughly examined and is likely to be safe to use. Therefore the lifting
              equipment must be accompanied by evidence of the examination. The evidence will
              show:

               •    The name and address of the duty holder.
               •    Address of the premises where the equipment was examined.
               •    Equipment identity markings.
               •    Date of last thorough examination.
               •    Due date for the next thorough examination.
               •    The safe working load of the equipment (for each configuration).


Storage

       25.    Lifting equipment and accessories must be stored in conditions that do not lead to
              damage and deterioration. A suitable storage place may be needed near to the place of
              use. The store may need to be secure to prevent unauthorised use of the lifting
              equipment. The PUWER regulations would require the storage place to be dry,
              chemical free, out of direct sunlight and free of rodents. The equipment manufacturer
              will be able to give further information. Lifting equipment ought to be inspected after
              use to ensure that defective items are not returned to the store.

Responsibilities

       26.    Service managers are to ensure that their departments have the necessary procedures
              in place to comply with these regulations.

       27.    Line managers and supervisors are required to ensure that all lifting equipment is used
              correctly and that such equipment is thoroughly examined, inspected, maintained and
              preserved to ensure it is safe for use.

       28.    Employees are required to visually inspect equipment prior to use in order to ascertain
              its serviceability and to treat all lifting equipment with care. Defects must be reported
              immediately.

References
              Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
              Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
              Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
              Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1991
              Safe Use of Lifting Equipment - Approved Code of Practice and Guidance (L113)
              Health & Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002


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                                                                                          February 2006
Superseded

              A total of seventeen Regulations are revoked by these regulations.   Those most
              relevant to the council are:

              The Lifting Plant and Equipment (Records of Test and Examination etc) Regulations
              1992
              The relevant section of the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations
              1996
              The Construction (Lifting Operations) Regulations 1961
              The Offices Shops and Railway Premises (Hoists and Lifts) Regulations 1968
              The relevant section of the Factories Act 1961
              The Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing Act 1960
              The Docks Regulations 1988




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120
      February 2006
                                                                                                 Appendix 3.12A

Information to be contained in a report of a thorough examination. (An Extract from the LOLER
Regulations).

In accordance with Regulation 10(1) the following information is to be included:
    1. The name and address of the employer for whom the thorough examination was made.
    2. The address of the premises at which the thorough examination was made.
    3. Particulars sufficient to identify the equipment including where known its date of manufacture.
    4. The date of the last thorough examination.
    5. The safe working load of the lifting equipment or (where its safe working load depends on the
        configuration of the lifting equipment) its safe working load for the last configuration in which it was
        fully examined.
    6. In relation to the first thorough examination of lifting equipment after installation or after assembly

            a) that it is such thorough examination;
            b) (if such be the case) that it has been installed correctly and would be safe to operate.

    7. In relation to a thorough examination of lifting equipment other than a thorough examination to which
       paragraph 6 relates –

            a) whether it is a thorough examination –
                    (i)       within an interval of 6 months under regulation 9 (3) (a ) (i);
                    (ii)      within an interval of 12 months under regulation 9 (3) (a) (ii);
                    (iii)     in accordance with an examination scheme under regulation 9 (3) (a)(iii); or
                    (iv)      after the occurrence of exceptional circumstances under regulation 9 (3) (a )
                              (iv);

            b) (if such be the case) that the lifting equipment would be safe to operate.

    8. In relation to every thorough examination of lifting equipment –

            a) identification of any part found to have a defect which is or could have a defect which is or
               could become a danger to persons, and a description of the defect;
            b) particulars of any repair, renewal or alteration required to remedy a defect found to be a
               danger to persons;
            c) in the case of a defect which is not yet but could become a danger to persons –

                      (i)        the time by which it could become such a danger;
                      (ii)       particulars of any repair, renewal or alteration required to remedy it;

            d) the latest date by which the next thorough examination must be carried out;
            e) where the thorough examination included testing, the particulars of any test;
            f) the date of the thorough examination.

    9. The name and address and qualifications of the person making the report; that he is self-employed or,
       if employed, the name and address of his employer.

   10. The name and address of a person signing or authenticating the report on behalf of its author.

   11. The date of the report.




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122
      February 2006
                                                                                                                                                 Appendix 3.12B

No:        Item &             Item Identity No:    Type of Examination      Normal         Date of     Examiner’s            Report No:        Comments          Date of Next
        Accessories                                                       Periodicity    Examinatio       Name                                                   Examination
1.     Lifting beam      Wddc/1LB                 Thorough examination   6 months       2 May 1999    A N Other         Wddc/ ANO /123    New                   2 November
                                                                                                                                                                1999
       - Hook            1LB/a                                  ‘’       ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       - Chain           1LB/b                    ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       - Pulley          1LB/c                    ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’

2.     Wood Turner       Wddc/1wt                 ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       Lifting eye       1wt/a                    Strain test            Annual         5 May 1999    J H Jones –       STL / JHJ / 127   Refurbished by        5 May 2000
                                                                                                      Strain Test Ltd                     Manf.
       Lifting eye       1wt/b                    Strain test            ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’

3.     Trolley jack      Wddc/tj                  Thorough examination   Monthly        5 May 1999    J Smith – Motor   MEE / JS / 236                          5 June 1999
                                                                                                      Equip Eng.

4.     Engine hoist      Wddc/eh                  Thorough examination   6 Months       2 June 1999   T Goodenough      Wddc /TG/ 759     Periodicity reduced   2 Sept 2000
                                                                                                                                          due to condition
       - Hook            Eh/a                     ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       - Chain           Eh/b                     ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       - Beam            Eh/c                     ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       - Beam pin 1      Eh/d                     ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       - Beam pin 2      Eh/e                     ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’

5.     Lorry Tail lift   Reg: B312 THJ            Thorough examination   Annual         5 July 1999   C Linton –        WFL / CL / 323                          5 July 2000
                                                                                                      Wessex Ford
                                                                                                      Ltd
       - As fitted       ‘’                       ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’

6.     Safety harness    Wddc/sh                  Thorough examination   Monthly        6 July 1999   E Hilary –        SRL / EH / 79                           6 July 2000
                                                                                                      Safety Ropes
                                                                                                      Ltd
       - Harness         Sh/a                     ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’
       - Rope            Sh/b                     ‘’                     ‘’             ‘’            ‘’                ‘’                ‘’                    ‘’

                                                                              123
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                                                                                                               Appendix 3.12.1C
No:    Item &          Item          Type of      Normal         Date of     Examiner’s Name   Report No:   Comments     Date of Next
      Accessories   Identity No:   Examination   Periodicity   Examination                                               Examination




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3.13 Travelling Officers and Lone Workers

Summary

       1.       A considerable number of council officers meet with the public alone and at remote
                locations. These meetings often take place in an uncontrolled environment such as
                private dwellings, public buildings, open spaces and other sites where there is a risk
                of harassment from an irate client or harm from unspecified site hazards. This guide
                is intended to assist with the risk assessment process, ensuring that the hazards are
                identified and appropriate measures are in place to reduce and control the risks.

Procedures

       2.       Service managers are expected to provide a safe system of work for their staff that
                travel on duty. Each division will need to provide a support and reporting mechanism
                to check that all travelling officers are safe whilst at work. Travelling officers and
                their colleagues are expected to fully participate in the reporting system. There is no
                intention of providing an automated alarm system, due to the poor mobile phone
                coverage within the West Dorset area.

       3.       Meetings should be planned to occur at the council’s offices unless there are over
                riding reasons to meet our clients at their premises or other sites. A divisional/team
                risk assessment must cover the general hazards encountered by travelling officers,
                such as those shown below and at Appendix A. This should be supplemented by a
                brief assessment of the risk for each visit, including the items shown at Appendix B
                and C. The risk assessments should consider:

                 •   The purpose and intended outcome of the visits
                 •   Whether travelling is essential
                 •   Road safety
                 •   Travel arrangements
                 •   Buddy working arrangements
                 •   Use of mobile phone answering and messaging systems
                 •   General site hazards
                 •   Personal protection equipment
                 •   Location of nearest first aid provision
                 •   End of the day telephone report
                 •   Use of IT equipment
                 •   Management contact/support (particularly for staff working from home)
                 •   New staff (mentoring)




February 2006                                     125
       4.       Each location will require brief but decisive consideration of any additional hazards
                not already covered, such as:

                 •    Fire, first aid and emergency procedures
                 •    Personal protective equipment
                 •    Specific site hazards
                            − Access
                            − Vehicles and machinery
                            − Working at height
                            − Slips and trips
                            − Noise
                            − Chemicals
                            − Lighting and visibility

Self responsibility

       5.       Travelling officers are expected to be alert to their surroundings and be aware of the
                hazards they are encountering. They must take reasonable care for their own safety.
                If unsure of the appropriate precautions, staff should withdraw and seek advice from
                their manager.


Potential for confrontation

       6.       Staff engaged in meetings with a known potential for confrontation (planning
                enforcement, benefits/fraud) must be supervised to ensure their safety – this will
                involve implementation of positive control measures. The supervision can be local or
                distant, depending on the level of risk. One supervisor can oversee several travelling
                staff at more than one location. For potentially difficult meetings the risk assessment
                should consider:

                 •    The name, address and telephone number of the client (note all three)
                 •    The potential for abuse or violence
                 •    Is the customer a known ‘difficult client’?
                 •    The acceptability of an unaccompanied visit
                 •    Who is the (distant) supervisor of the visiting officer
                 •    Buddy working arrangements
                 •    End of visit report (to whom)
                 •    Back up available from whom


Friendly meetings

       7.       Travelling to meet colleagues does not expose staff to the same level of risk as staff
                meeting the public. It would be sufficient to ensure that the travel arrangements are
                safe, telephone contact is maintained (preferably by mobile phone) and an end of day
                report is completed.


February 2006                                     126
Out of hours meetings

       8.       Staff that work outside normal office hours must have someone to report to,
                irrespective of their working patterns. For pure travel risks eg travelling to a training
                course, it is reasonable for the welfare cover to be automatically delegated to the
                family, friend or partner of the employee. In this case the partner should be provided
                with contact details of the relevant manager.

Buddy working

       9.       Often it will be possible for two (or more) staff, within the same team, to act as a
                ‘buddy’ for each other. Each will know the travel details and intended location of
                their colleague and periodic contact will be maintained by mobile phone. This mutual
                cover is a very effective method of applying the right amount of welfare supervision
                without resorting to draconian controls. Employees within the same team,
                particularly those that are subject to the same risks, can easily understand the mutual
                benefits of maintaining contact with their travelling colleagues.

Whereabouts boards

       10.      For some divisions the use of a whereabouts board or whereabouts log is an accepted
                part of the reporting system. A nominated person will check these records regularly,
                several times per day. Buddy working should be noted on the whereabouts board.

Missing staff

       11.      All travelling staff are expected to follow a prescribed reporting system suitable for
                their intended task. This will avoid the embarrassment of being reported as missing.
                Mobile phone coverage must be considered before this method of contact is relied
                upon. Follow up action will involve a concerted effort, by the manager and
                colleagues of the travelling officer, to re-establish contact with the employee. The
                following is an appropriate order of telephone calls:

                 •    The missing officer
                 •    Clients with an appointment for a visit
                 •    Colleagues
                 •    Manager
                 •    Personnel department and/or health and safety officer for agreement to ring the
                      family of the missing officer
                 •    Police – the police can be contacted at any time during this process
                 •    It may be necessary to visit the home of the missing officer and to ask the
                      neighbours for assistance. Several actions may be instigated at the same time.




February 2006                                     127
Incoming calls

       12.      The missing officer may be attempting to ring the office. It may be appropriate to
                keep that officer’s phone free so that the travelling officer can ring their own number
                to re-establish contact. The use of voicemail will require the phone to be picked up
                before the call is missed. A dedicated line for staff emergency incoming calls could
                be created corporately.

When to take action

       13.      It is difficult to give a precise timetable for action that will suit all circumstances and
                be usable by all divisions. As a general rule, any member of staff missing for
                between 30 - 60 minutes should expect to receive a welfare call and rapid escalation
                of the search. For example the Fraud team use the following criteria:

                   •   After 30 minutes – try to establish contact
                   •   After 45 minutes – ring the officer’s home
                   •   At one hour – inform managers
                   •   At one hour 15 minutes – contact the police
                   •   As soon as practicable inform the health and safety officer

Responsibilities

       14.      Service managers should ensure an appropriate support and reporting system is
                provided and used by staff, following a suitable assessment of risk.

       15.      Travelling officers are expected to remain in contact with their manager and
                colleagues and to use the reporting system provided for their team. All employees
                should remain alert to their surroundings and be aware of the hazards they may
                encounter.

       16.      Colleagues of travelling officers are expected to participate in the support system and
                to assist in the efforts to re-establish contact with missing colleagues – raising the
                alarm as necessary.

Further guidance

       17.      Associated guidance can be found in our health and safety policy chapter on road
                safety (3.16) - this includes some points on personal safety. Appendix D to this
                chapter contains additional guidance for staff.




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Generic risk table for travelling officers
                                                                                                                                       Appendix A
Team……………………                        Assessor …………………..…          Date…………………..         Review date…………………

Item                                                             Risk reduction measures     Further action required / by whom   Action complete
                                                                 applied                                                         Name and date
1. Is travel essential? Is travel approved?

  a. State the purpose and intended outcome of visit(s)
  b. Show why the meeting cannot take place at council offices
  c. Travel arrangements

2. Road safety (chapter 3.16)

  a.   Vehicle factors
  b.   Driver factors
  c.   Mobile phone answering /messaging systems

3. Support

  a.   Buddy working arrangements
          - Periodic checks
          - End of day report
  b.   Management contact/support (for remote staff)
  c.   New staff mentoring

4. General hazards

  a.   Personal protection equipment
  b.   First aid provision
  c.   Welfare facilities

5. Computer equipment
  a. DSE assessment




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Site risk assessment for travelling officers

                                                                                                              Appendix B
Team………………… Assessor………………………. Site…………………… Date……………… Review date ………………


Items to consider at each site (tick or delete)               Risk reduction measures required   Action complete -
                                                                                                 Name and date
1. Fire, first aid and emergency procedures
    a. Fire brief received /..or
    b. Notices visible
    c. Assembly point visible
    d. Fire alarm
2. Personal protective equipment
    a. Safety boots
    b. Hard hat
    c. Fluorescent jacket
    d. Foul weather
    e. Ear protection / goggles /gloves
    f. Lifejacket
3. Site specific hazards
    a. Access
    b. Working at height (scaffold/ladders)
    c. Vehicles and machinery
    d. Slips, trips and trenches
    e. Noise
    f. Chemicals
    g. Lighting and visibility
4. Future visits required (yes/no)
    a. State the business case for further visits
    b. Additional safety measures required for next visit
5. Other factors




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                                                                                                                       Appendix C
Team……………………………                                              Assessor……………………….   Date………………….



Item                                                              Details            Further action required /   Action complete
                                                                                     by whom                     Name & date
1. Name, address and telephone number of the client


2. Potential for abuse or violence
    a. Are they a ‘difficult client’
    b. Is the meeting likely to lead to anger
    c. Is an unaccompanied visit acceptable

3. Is travel essential?
     a. State the business case for further visits
     b. Additional safety measures required for next visit

4. Support
    a. Who is the (distant) supervisor
    b. Buddy working arrangements
    c. Back available from whom
    d. End of visit report to whom

5. Future visits required (yes/no)
    a. State the business case for further visits
    b. Additional safety measures required for next visit

6. Other factors




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132   February 2006
                                                                                            Appendix D

Violence, Threats and Abuse

       1.       Many council employees are required to liaise closely with customers who,
                occasionally and for a variety of reasons, may show abusive or aggressive
                tendencies. The council takes its duty, regarding the safety of its people, very
                seriously. There are a wide variety of measures, which should be implemented by
                both managers and staff, to reduce the opportunity and potential for harm. It is
                important that all employees feel that they are fully supported when faced with
                circumstances that are difficult and generally unacceptable to them. Managers and
                staff must realise that the safety of themselves and their colleagues will be greatly
                affected by their direct involvement in these safety measures.

Reasons Why Abuse May Occur

       2.       Some people display a particular dislike for persons in authority and this may be
                compounded by actual or perceived differences between the customer and staff eg
                race, class, gender or appearance. These factors may lead to communication
                difficulties. There is also great potential for problems to arise from persons who are
                subject to ‘care in the community’- particularly if the care regime is insufficient for
                the needs of the client or protection of the public. Alcohol and drug abuse will also
                create difficulties.

       3.       The client may have a particular point of view, which is at variance to the official
                interpretation. It is that belief which can lead to frustration and loss of control. It is
                often the case that people will use expletives to express themselves, whilst not
                actually meaning to cause offence. Others will swear in a more direct way with the
                intention of harassing staff. Escalation can occur if the client perceives that their
                argument is failing to achieve the desired outcome.

       4.       It should be remembered that violence is rare and although it could occur at any time,
                there may be warning signs such as great frustration, anger and threats. Previous
                knowledge of the client can be used to instigate measures to protect staff and, for that
                reason, a list of persons who could cause trouble for staff is regularly distributed to
                managers for circulation to staff who may be at risk.

       5.       There are a variety of situations where staff may encounter insults; harassment,
                aggression or violence and these should be considered carefully to ensure that
                employees, who may be affected, are fully informed of the measures for protecting
                themselves whilst at work.




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February 2006
Telephone Abuse

      6.    To reduce the incidence of abuse by telephone, staff should ensure that they know
            the name of the caller. If the caller becomes abusive, it is quite acceptable to give a
            warning of the intention to terminate the call and then to hang-up if the warning does
            not achieve the desired affect. A follow-up letter can be used to explain what was
            unacceptable about the call, whilst at the same time answering the enquiry that
            prompted the contact.

      7.    Repeated abusive calls, or any that have a threatening or sexual nature, are a matter
            for the police and staff will receive full support from the council if faced with these
            situations.

Reception Areas

      8.    Initially, before greeting a visitor who could be potentially difficult, staff are advised
            to position themselves behind the reception desk. Next, make the introductions and
            enquire about the nature of the business. Staff should give themselves enough time
            to see if the visitor is going to have a sudden outburst of emotion, which may have
            been building up for sometime. Using such a procedure gives immediate access to
            the panic alarm (where fitted) and also provides a physical barrier to reduce the
            opportunity for violence.

      9.    After establishing a rapport with the visitor, staff might like to move to a less
            protected position to conduct business. Not all staff will wish to carry out this
            procedure. However it is recommended that those staff that regularly deal with
            complainants use this method.

      10.   Panic alarms are fitted at the following locations:

             •    High West Street - main reception, planning reception and interview room 13
                  and reception meeting room.

             •    Car Park Reception at Technical Services

             •    Glyde Path House - reception.

             •    Manor House - main reception, CAB, Town Clerk and Town Council
                  reception.

      11.   Employees should be shown the alarm points when they commence work, which
            exposes them to risk of violence. Staff who hear the alarm are encouraged to assist
            their colleague in the most appropriate way eg by attending the scene and/or calling
            the police.

      12.   Some staff at the Dorchester offices carry pagers that are activated if the panic
            alarms are activated. These volunteers will assist at the reception points in the event
            of a violent incident.




                                               134                                        February 2006
Meeting at the Client’s Premises

       13.      Meeting a customer on their property is often necessary as part of Council work.
                Each visit should be most carefully planned to ensure that staff are not placed at risk.

       14.      Mobile telephones, pagers and a visit itinerary are all useful in maintaining contact
                between staff, managers and colleagues. Staff should not rely on these items too
                much - none of them will actually prevent or stop violence. Managers ought to know
                the whereabouts of their staff at all times when they are exposed to an acknowledged
                risk of aggression. Whilst particular thought is needed for female employees, it must
                be remembered that men are more likely to be subjected to violence. Managers and
                supervisors of staff, who are beginning or ending their work schedule at home rather
                than their office, must ensure that an appropriate method of communication is set up
                and an ‘end of visit’ safety call is made.

       15.      Consideration must be given to the need for two members of staff to attend premises
                together for mutual support and to deter a potential aggressor. In some situations,
                police attendance ought to be considered. Contact with staff must be made before,
                and immediately after, their visit to potentially difficult clients. If contact cannot be
                made by an agreed time, then urgent and decisive action must be instigated to regain
                contact.

Use of Vehicles

       16.      To ensure that the risk of vehicle breakdown is minimised, it is important to have the
                vehicle serviced regularly. Always park the car in a way that will allow for a quick
                escape. Where possible, park in well lit public areas and check the back seat area to
                ensure no one is hiding in the vehicle. Keep car doors locked when the vehicle is
                stationary. Staff who believe they are being followed, should drive carefully to a
                public place and ask for assistance. Guidance can be found in chapter 3.16 and the
                associated road safety booklet.

Mobile Phones

       17.      Mobile phones help to maintain a link with travelling officers. Due to the geography
                of the West Dorset area the mobile phone service cannot be guaranteed. Public
                payphones can be used as an alternative measure.

Personal Alarms

       18.      Personal alarms are available from the Health & Safety Officer and are issued on
                request to any member of staff who may be at risk whilst at work. The alarms will
                only be effective if they are available for immediate use. Held near an assailant’s ear
                they will distract them for a few moments and allow time for an escape.




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Appearance in Court

      19.    Some officers are obliged to appear in court on behalf of the council. When
             appearing for the prosecution it is advisable to take measures, which will minimise
             the potential for contact by the defendant, including:

             •       Park your car for a quick escape (without the need to reverse out).

             •       Ask the court officials for advice or assistance.

             •       Take a colleague.

             •       Use a pre-booked taxi.


General Measures to Reduce the Risk of Violence

      20.    It recommended that you take time to learn the area in which you work and travel.
             Dress appropriately, particularly with regard to footwear. Always remain alert to the
             possibility of aggression but try to keep a balanced view. Do not carry weapons -
             they could be used against you.

      21.    If meeting members of the public it is important to be courteous and to display a
             confident manner. Meet in the presence of others and do not get too close. Learn to
             understand body language and trust your instincts. Always know how to summon
             help and position yourself near the door. If a situation arises where you feel
             threatened:

                 •   Try to appear confident and relaxed.

                 •   Speak in a calm voice and do not argue or use jargon.

                 •   Avoid using status or an aggressive stance.

                 •   Always keep your distance and do not touch or look down on the aggressor.

                 •   Talk to the aggressor and try to reason with them, whilst looking for a way out.

                 •   Suggest a future appointment for later that day or tomorrow, when you can
                     provide them with additional information. This promise of help may be
                     sufficient to calm them down and give you chance to get help for yourself.

                 •   Offer them the chance to talk to someone else, perhaps immediately on the
                     telephone. Use the opportunity to get help by calling a colleague and saying:
                     “I’m with Mr X at (home address) and need help with a query.”

                 •   Allow them to vent their frustration by banging a table or slamming a door etc.

                 •   Walk away from violence.



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       22.      Normally staff are expected to wear or show their identity badge. In some
                circumstances, to protect employees, it may be necessary to ensure that the
                information shown on the badge is minimised, eg Planning Receptionist or first
                name only. Use of a pseudonym may be appropriate in some circumstances.

       23.      Where identity badges are worn around the neck it is advisable to use a chain that
                will easily break if pulled. One type uses plastic rather than metal beads. These are
                available from the Personnel department.
Hit and Run

       24.      If violence occurs:

                 •    Do not stand and fight.

                 •    Aim for the knee, stomach, elbow or little finger.

                 •    Then escape.

       25.      If an incident occurs in the street, shouting FIRE, rather than shouting help, will
                often instigate a response from people who would otherwise not wish to be involved.
                Where by-standers are present, direct a request for help to a specific individual eg
                “you in the blue jacket, please call the police”

After Receiving Aggression

       26.      Report the event to your manager and talk the situation through with a friend or
                colleague. Use the event constructively to ensure that control measures are
                reviewed. The hierarchy of measures to be taken can include a letter outlining the
                unsatisfactory behaviour and a use of:

                     i. Exclusion from the premises – written and telephone contact only

                     ii. For telephone abuse - written contact only

       Note: These measures should be reviewed if the behaviour of the person improves.

Risk Assessment

       27.      The recognised way of controlling risk is by carrying out a risk assessment. This
                will lead to the identification of preventive measures, which will need to be
                introduced. It is important to check that the measures actually work and review the
                risk assessment periodically.

Additional Measures

       28.      For staff who are at particular risk or who appear to have been singled out for
                harassment there are additional measures, which can be taken to protect them.
                Contact the health and safety officer for advice - ext 2457.

Harassment Policy

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       29.     The council has a detailed anti-harassment at work policy, which explains how to
               deal with harassment that could arise from sources within the workplace. The policy
               document is widely available throughout the council and should be read by all
               members of staff. For more details call Personnel on extension 2445.
Training

       30.     Attendance on suitable courses should be considered as part of the job-training
               requirement. The courses may include:

                 •   Conflict management and personal safety.

                 •   Assertiveness skills - confident people are more likely to remain in control of
                     difficult situations and are less likely to be attacked.

Responsibilities

       31.     Service managers, line managers and supervisors must carefully consider the risk to
               employees within their division and introduce appropriate controls to minimise the
               likelihood and impact of violence, threats and abuse.

       32.     All employees are required to fully co-operate in preventive measures and inform
               their managers and colleagues of problems as they arise.


Further Information

           Additional information and advice on further security measures is available from the
           Health and Safety Officer
           A guidance booklet, containing the essence of this chapter, is available for issue to staff.




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3.14 Asbestos

Summary

       1.       The health risks associated with the inhalation of asbestos dust have been well
                known for many years and asbestos is the greatest single cause of work related
                deaths. National attempts to control exposure have been only partly successful and
                many workers continue to be affected by asbestosis and cancer. The very long
                incubation period for these illnesses and the lack of immediate symptoms means that
                the controls, to safeguard the health of workers, are often not applied.

       2.       Asbestos has commonly been used as an insulation product in the construction
                industry. It is also found in vehicle clutch and brake components and boiler rooms.
                The persons most at risk are builders, plumbers, electricians, telephone and alarm
                installers, demolition workers etc, as well as vehicle maintainers. Many of these
                people could be exposed to asbestos inadvertently, whilst carrying out seemingly
                ordinary tasks.

       3.       Recent legislation prohibits the importation, marketing and use of white asbestos
                (blue and brown asbestos were already banned). Safer alternatives will need to be
                used. This measure will protect future generations from asbestos related disease,
                which currently kills 3000 people per year. The death rate is expected to continue to
                rise for at least 20 years. Currently, the law does not require the removal of
                serviceable asbestos.

       4.       Due to the age of most of the Council’s property, there are only very limited
                quantities of this substance in a few isolated locations. Left undisturbed it is unlikely
                to cause any problems to the health of employees. The procedures stated below are
                for the guidance of managers and staff involved in controlling maintenance,
                contractors and inspecting work in progress.

Procedures

       5.       An employer has a duty to prevent exposure to asbestos, or to reduce exposure, by
                inhalation, to the minimum reasonably practicable and to prevent exposure above the
                control limits. The action required is proportional to the risk and the risk is to be
                considered as very high, until proven otherwise. Prior to the commencement of any
                work that exposes or may expose any employees, contractors or the public to
                asbestos, a risk assessment must be carried out to determine:

                •     If asbestos is present;

                •     The type of asbestos;

                •     The nature and degree of exposure;

                •     The controls required to prevent or reduce exposure as far as reasonably
                      practicable.


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      6.    Until the type of asbestos has been identified, the employer must assume that it is the
            most hazardous blue or brown type rather than the white. The exposure limits will
            therefore be particularly restrictive, as stated in the Control of Asbestos at Work
            Regulations (CAWR) 1987. Where employees are liable to be exposed to levels
            above the control level, they must receive adequate information, instruction and
            training in order to be aware of the risk and how to use appropriate control measures.
            These measures will include the need to set up exclusion areas, issue respiratory
            protection, provision of protective clothing and ensuring cleanliness during and at
            the end of the task. In brief the regulations require:

             •    Provision and cleaning of protective clothing
             •    Cleanliness of premises and plant
             •    Demarcation of designated ‘asbestos areas’
             •    Monitoring of air for concentrations of asbestos
             •    Maintenance of health records and medical surveillance
             •    Provision of washing and changing facilities
             •    Labelling of asbestos and asbestos waste

      7.    Asbestos may only be stored and transported in suitable, sealed and marked
            containers. Waste asbestos should be disposed of in accordance with the Special
            Waste Regulations and all movements are to be tracked by the consignment note
            system via a licensed waste management facility.

Buildings

      8.    No asbestos is to be disturbed by any person unless specifically authorised to do so.
            The Technical Services Division have an Asbestos Register listing the location of
            asbestos in property owned and occupied by employees of the council. The asbestos
            is also marked with a warning sign. The register is to be inspected before carrying
            out any major or minor alterations or improvements. Contractors are to be shown the
            register and are to refer to it before commencing work.

      9.    Any work involving removal of asbestos requires a written plan of work. The HSE
            must be informed at least 28 days prior to commencing the work. Where necessary
            the Technical Services Division will organise removal of asbestos by licensed
            contractors.

     10.    Some staff are expected to work at property not owned by the council eg Building
            Control and Care and Repair. Prior to visiting the property it will be necessary to
            liaise closely with the owner or person controlling the property. Specifically there is
            a need to see their asbestos register or survey results to ascertain whether asbestos is
            present or not. For private houses extreme caution is to be exercised due to the fact
            that the occupier may be unaware of the presence of asbestos.




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      11.       Where contractors are working on behalf of the council it is essential that the
                necessary steps are taken to ensure that they are not exposed to an asbestos hazard
                whilst at work. This requirement is extended to work on property owned, but not
                occupied, by the Council and property occupied, but not owned, by the council.
                There would be a dual responsibility in these cases and close liaison with the other
                parties is essential in order to establish an asbestos register and a safe system of
                work. This responsibility would reside with Technical Services, if the property were
                provided via them. Where another department has acquired a property, the
                responsibility will rest with that department.

       12.      Certain buildings will have a health and safety file and information on asbestos may
                be found in that file.

Motor vehicles

       13.      Motor vehicles serviced by West Dorset Services will continue to be serviced in
                accordance with the current practice of not using asbestos products. Vehicles first
                used after 1 January 1973 are not permitted to use asbestos in clutch and brake
                replacement parts. New vehicles are not permitted to contain asbestos parts.

Licences

       14.      The Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations prohibit work with asbestos insulation or
                coating without an HSE licence.

Responsibilities

       15.      Service Managers, managers and supervisors who are authorising work, are to refer
                to the relevant asbestos register and ensure that staff and contractors DO NOT
                carryout work that may expose them to an asbestos hazard.

       16.      The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations require the client to
                provide the planning supervisor with all relevant health and safety information about
                a project. This would include any existing asbestos survey reports.

       17.      The Technical Services Division will need to play a lead role in the Council’s control
                procedures and will maintain up to date Asbestos Registers, for appropriate
                properties, which are easily accessible to staff and contractors.

References

       A legal summary may be found at Appendix 3.14A

       Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1988,1994 & 1999
       The Asbestos (Prohibitions) Regulations 1992 & 1999
       The Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations (CAWR) 1987
       Road Vehicles (Brake Linings Safety) Regulations 1999
       Special Waste Regulations 1996
       Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994

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Other Applicable Regulations

      Asbestos Products (Safety) Regulations 1985 - products containing asbestos are to be
      marked with the appropriate symbol.


For Labelling and Transport of Asbestos

      Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road Regulations 1996
      Carriage of Dangerous Goods Classification, Packaging and Labelling and Use of
      Transportable Pressure Receptacles 1996


Additional Information

      A wide variety of booklets are available from the Health and Safety Officer.




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                                                                                              Appendix 3.14A


Current Legal Situation

The use of asbestos is controlled by four sets of regulations:

1. The Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983

Work with asbestos coatings, lagging and insulation board is to be carried out by contractors who are
licensed by the Health and Safety Executive.

Guidance is given in:

    •   A guide to Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983 (L11) – ISBN 0 7176 2435 8
    •   Work with Asbestos Insulation, Asbestos Coating and Asbestos Insulating Board – Approved Code
        of Practice (3rd edition) (L28) ISBN 0 7176 1674 6
    •   Controlled Asbestos Stripping Techniques for Work Requiring a Licence (HSG 189/1)
    •   ISBN 0 7176 1665 5
    •   Selection of Suitable Respiratory Protective Equipment (INDG 288)

2. The Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 1987 (Amended 1992 & 1998) with The Personal
Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992

These state the practices that must be followed for all work with asbestos including licensed work.
Employers must prevent exposure to asbestos or, where this is not reasonably practicable, reduce exposure to
a level that is as low as possible. The regulations also require:

    •   Provision and cleaning of protective clothing
    •   Cleanliness of premises and plant
    •   Demarcation of designated ‘asbestos areas’
    •   Monitoring of air for concentrations of asbestos
    •   Maintenance of health records and medical surveillance
    •   Provision of washing and changing facilities
    •   Labelling of asbestos and asbestos waste

Guidance is given in:

    •   The Control of Asbestos at Work – Approved Code of Practice (3rd edition) (L27)
    •   ISBN 0 7176 1673 8
    •   Working with Asbestos Cement (HSG189/2) ISBN 0 7176 1667 3
    •   Working with Asbestos in Buildings (INDG 289)


3. The Asbestos (Prohibitions) Regulations 1985, 1988, 1992 and 1999

These regulations prohibit importation, supply and use of blue, brown and white asbestos.


4. The Road Vehicles (Brake Linings Safety) Regulations 1999

These regulations prohibit the supply and fitting of vehicle brake linings that contain asbestos.



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144   February 2006
3.15 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)

   Summary

       1.       The health risks associated with the ingestion, inhalation or contact with hazardous
                chemicals are well known and yet, nationally, many workers continue to be affected
                by exposure to chemicals. The lack of immediate symptoms, and long incubation
                period for some of the associated illnesses, means that the controls to safeguard the
                health of workers are often not applied. The original Control of Substances
                Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) were implemented in 1988. Since then
                several changes to the regulations have occurred, the most recent in 1999. The
                format of this chapter closely follows the guidance published in HSE books and
                leaflets. Additional information is available via the intranet links within the
                document. Appendix A can be reproduced as a guidance leaflet for staff.

       2.       An employer has a duty to prevent harmful exposure to substances hazardous to
                health and the mechanism for control is decided by completing a risk assessment.
                The action required is proportional to the risk and the risk is to be considered as very
                high, until proven otherwise. Prior to the commencement of any work that exposes
                or may expose any employees, contractors, or the public to chemicals, a risk
                assessment must be carried out to determine:

                 •    If hazardous substances are present, or will be created;
                 •    The type of substance;
                 •    The nature and degree of exposure;
                 •    The controls required to prevent or reduce exposure, so far as reasonably
                      practicable.

Responsibilities

       3.       Service Managers, managers and supervisors who are authorising work, are to refer
                to the relevant Safety Date Sheet and nominate a competent person to complete a risk
                assessment.

Why COSHH matters

       4.       Using chemicals or other hazardous substances at work can put people’s health at
                risk. So the law requires employers to control exposure to hazardous substances to
                prevent ill health. COSHH is a useful tool of good management, which sets seven
                basic steps that employers, and sometimes employees, must take. These are set out
                in this chapter in a simple step-by-step approach, which will help you to assess risks,
                implement any measures needed to control exposure and establish good working
                practices. Failure to adequately control hazardous substances might cause illness.
                Effects from hazardous substances range from mild eye irritation to chronic lung
                disease or, occasionally, death. There are positive benefits from carefully following
                the requirements of COSHH, such as:




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                •   Improved productivity as a result of using more effective controls (eg less
                    waste);
                •   Improved employee morale;
                •   Better employee understanding and compliance with health and safety
                    requirements;
                •   Environmental protection.


Hazardous substances

       5.     Hazardous substances include:

                •   Substances used directly in work activities (eg adhesives, paints, cleaning
                    agents, poisons);
                •   Substances generated during work activities (eg fumes from soldering and
                    welding);
                •   Naturally occurring substances (eg grain dust).

Where are hazardous substances found?

       6.     Most work environments contain hazardous substances eg: factories, shops, mines,
              farms and offices. Our staff may experience these environments when carrying out
              statutory duties or delivering services to the public.

Examples of the effects of hazardous substances include:

                •   Skin irritation, including allergies or dermatitis, as a result of skin contact;
                •   Asthma as a result of developing allergy to substances used at work;
                •   Losing consciousness as a result of being overcome by toxic fumes;
                •   Cancer, which may appear long after the exposure to the chemical that caused
                    it;
                •   Infection from bacteria and other micro-organisms (biological agents).


What COSHH requires
To comply with COSHH you need to follow these seven steps:

Step 1 - Assess the risks to health arising from hazardous substances used in, or created by, your
workplace activities ie carry out a risk assessment;

Step 2 - Decide what precautions are needed. You must not carry out work which could expose
staff to hazardous substances without first considering the risks and the necessary precautions, and
what else you need to do to comply with COSHH;

Step 3 - Prevent or adequately control exposure. You must prevent employees being exposed to
hazardous substances. Where preventing exposure is not reasonably practicable, then you must
adequately control it. The advice in this chapter, and in other official guidance, will help you to
make correct assessments and to put the appropriate controls into place:



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Step 4 - Ensure that control measures are used and maintained properly and that safety
procedures are followed;

Step 5 - Monitor the exposure of employees to hazardous substances, if necessary;

Step 6 - Carry out appropriate health surveillance where your assessment has shown this is
necessary or where COSHH sets specific requirements;

Step 7 - Ensure employees are properly informed, trained and supervised.


What is a substance hazardous to health under COSHH?

       7.       Under COSHH there are a range of substances regarded as hazardous to health.
                These are:

       i. Substances or mixtures of substances classified as dangerous to health under the
       Chemicals (Hazard, Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 1994 (as
       amended) (CHIP). Their warning label can identify these and the supplier must provide a
       Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for them. Many commonly used dangerous substances are listed
       in the HSE publication Approved Supply List: Information approved for the classification
       and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for supply, as part of the CHIP
       package. Suppliers must decide if preparations and substances that are not in the Approved
       Supply List are also dangerous, and, if so, label them accordingly;

       ii. Substances with Occupational exposure limits, these are listed in the HSE publication
       Occupational exposure limits (EH40);

       iii. Biological agents (bacteria and other micro-organisms), if they are directly
       connected with the work or if exposure is incidental, such as with farming, sewage
       treatment, healthcare or environmental enforcement;

       iv. Any kind of dust in a concentration specified in COSHH;

       v. Any other substance which has comparable hazards to people’s health, but which for
       technical reasons may not be specifically covered by CHIP eg some pesticides, medicines,
       cosmetics or substances produced in chemical processes.


What is not a substance hazardous to health under COSHH?

       8.       COSHH applies to virtually all substances hazardous to health except:

                 •   A few substances that may have their own regulations eg asbestos and lead.
                 •   Some substances that are hazardous only because they are: radioactive; simple
                     asphyxiants; at high pressure; at extreme temperatures; or have explosive or
                     flammable properties, (other regulations apply to these risks).
                 •   Biological agents are also excluded if they are not directly connected with the
                     work and they are outside the employer’s control, such as catching a cold from
                     a workmate.

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February 2006
       9.     For the vast majority of commercial chemicals, the presence (or not) of a warning
              label will indicate whether COSHH is relevant. For example, there is no warning
              label on ordinary household washing-up liquid, so if it’s used at work you do not
              have to worry about COSHH; but there is a warning label on bleach, and so COSHH
              does apply to its use in the workplace.

     10.      In many cases it is perfectly acceptable to carry out a risk assessment using local
              knowledge of the workplace, the work processes and the manufacturers’ information.
              This should lead to the correct safety controls. In more complicated cases or where
              the risks are high it will be necessary to obtain more detailed knowledge, particularly
              with regard to the safe systems of work.


Procedures - Practical Steps for a Good Risk Assessment

       11.    The person nominated by the Service Manager must:

Step 1 - Assess the risks

       12.    Your first step is to decide whether there is a problem with the substance(s) used in
              your workplace. A risk assessment is an essential part of the decision process. You
              must:

                •   Identify the hazardous substances present in the workplace;
                •   Consider the risks these substances create to people’s health.

Identify the hazardous substances present in your workplace

       13.    Look at the list of five groups of substances above and remember to think about
              substances that have been supplied, as well as substances which might be produced
              by your work activity, eg fumes, vapours, aerosols, final products and waste
              materials. Other sources of information, which will help you identify hazardous
              substances, are:
               • Trade associations;
               • Other employers in the same business;
               • HSE guidance, such as Occupational exposure limits EH40
               • HSE publication Categorisation of biological agents according to hazard and
                    categories of containment;
               • HSE publication Approved Supply List.




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Consider the risks these substances present to people’s health

       14.      Assessing the risk involves making a judgement on how likely it is that a hazardous
                substance will affect someone’s health. You need to ask yourself:

                 •   How much of the substance is in use and how could people be exposed to it?
                     For supplied substances HSE has developed a generic risk assessment guide to
                     help. It uses information on hazard, amount used, and simple definitions of
                     dustiness for solids or volatility for liquids. The guide is called COSHH
                     essentials: easy steps to control chemicals. The guide also helps you with Step
                     2 and Step 3 - deciding what action you need to take to control risks and
                     controlling exposure.
                 •   Who could be exposed to the substance and how often? You must remember to
                     include all groups of people who could come into contact with the substance, ie
                     contractors, visitors and members of the public, as well as employees. Don’t
                     forget those involved in cleaning and maintenance tasks – high exposures can
                     occur during this type of work.
                 •   Is there a possibility of substances being absorbed through the skin or
                     swallowed (eg as a result of a substance getting into the mouth from
                     contaminated hands, during eating or smoking)?
                 •   Are there risks when staff work at other locations or with other companies.
                     See the HSE guidance Working alone in safety for solitary workers away from
                     their home base.

Who should do the assessment?

       15.      Except in very simple cases, whoever carries out the assessment will need to:

                 •   Have access to, and understand, the COSHH Regulations and relevant
                     Approved Codes of Practice;
                 •   Be able to get all the necessary information and have the knowledge and
                     experience to make correct decisions about the risks and the actions needed.

       16.      The manager, supervisor and operatives, collectively, are likely to have considerable
                knowledge of what really happens in the workplace. They all have valuable
                contributions to make. Employees must be informed of the results of the assessment.

Step 2 - Decide what precautions are needed

       17.      If you identify significant risks, decide on the action you need to take to remove or
                reduce them to acceptable levels. To help you decide whether risks are significant,
                you should compare any controls you already use with:

                 •   Advice from COSHH essentials: easy steps to control chemicals. This guide is
                     for supplied substances. It takes you though a simple risk assessment and
                     identifies what is needed to control exposure. For a number of common
                     industrial operations it provides detailed advice on control measures. If the
                     controls you have in place are the same or more stringent than those
                     recommended by the guide, then you are likely to be taking the right type of
                     action. An extract from the guide is included at Appendix B and the HSE
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February 2006
                   provide a dedicated web site at: www.coshh-essentials.org.uk. To use this site
                   you must first obtain the Safety Data Sheet.
              •    The results of monitoring workers’ exposure with occupational exposure limits
                   (OELs) published in Occupational exposure limits. See Step 3 for information
                   on adequate control and for information about OELs;
              •    Good work practices and standards used by, or recommended for, your
                   industry sector, eg trade associations, Health and Safety Commission industry
                   advisory committees. Also check the manufacturer’s advice (Safety Data
                   Sheet) on storage, use and disposal.

      Remember to:
            • Check that the control systems work, and are effective;

              •    Consider whether the substance could be absorbed through the skin. Where this
                   could occur, a biological monitoring programme may help you to assess the
                   risks. The HSE publication Biological monitoring in the workplace: a guide to
                   its practical application to chemical exposure sets out when biological
                   monitoring is useful and the procedures for setting up an effective programme.

What further action should be taken?

      18.    If you decide that there is no risk to health or the risk is trivial, the risk assessment is
             complete and you do not need to do anything else at this stage. But if you decide
             there are significant risks you must take action to protect staff (and others’) health.
             The rest of the steps in this chapter will help you. Even if you judge there are no
             risks using your present controls, you should check through the remaining steps to
             ensure you are fully complying with COSHH. This will also help you ensure your
             controls stay effective.

Recording and reviewing the assessment

      19.    View your risk assessment as a management tool. You need to retain a record of the
             main findings of the assessment, either in writing or on computer, unless they are so
             simple that they can be easily recalled and the conclusions explained at any time.
             You need to record enough information to explain the decisions you have taken
             about whether risks are significant and the need for any control measures. Also
             record the actions the staff and others need to take to ensure hazardous substances
             are adequately controlled. The assessment should be a ‘living’ document, which you
             revisit if circumstances change. It should definitely be reviewed:

              •    At not less than five-yearly intervals;
              •    Whenever there is reason to think it is no longer valid;
              •    Where there has been a significant change in the work.




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       20.      The assessment should state when the next review is planned. Records are mainly
                for your benefit and form part of your system to protect health, but others may want
                to see them, eg safety representatives, safety committees, health and safety inspectors
                – they will also need to be available for an audit.

       21.      West Dorset Services have produced a COSHH register on the intranet (future link).



Step 3 - Prevent or adequately control exposure

       22.      The COSHH Regulations require you to prevent exposure to substances hazardous to
                health, if it is reasonably practicable to do so. You might:

                 •   Change the process or activity so that the hazardous substance isn’t needed or
                     generated;
                 •   Replace it with a safer alternative;
                 •   Use it in a safer form, eg pellets instead of powder (this is the case with rat
                     poison).

       23.      The HSE guidance booklet, 7- steps to successful substitution of hazardous
                substances, advises on how to replace hazardous substances with safer alternatives
                eg change the process or activity, replace the substance with a safer substance, or use
                it in a safer form.

       24.      If prevention is not reasonably practicable, you must adequately control exposure.
                You can do this using one or more of these measures:

                 •   Totally enclose the process;
                 •   Partially enclose it and use extraction equipment (local exhaust ventilation);
                 •   Provide general ventilation;
                 •   Use systems of work and handling procedures which minimize the chances of
                     hazardous materials spilling, leaking or otherwise escaping;
                 •   Reduce the number of employees exposed, or the duration of their exposure,
                     but only after considering, and where possible using, the above measures.

       25.      If you cannot adequately control exposure by any of the above measures, you should
                provide personal protective equipment (PPE), eg face masks, respirators, protective
                clothing, as a means of control. But please note, the Regulations only permit the use
                of PPE to achieve adequate control if other means of control cannot be used alone.

       Note: For a carcinogen (a substance which may cause cancer) special requirements apply.
       These are set out in the Carcinogens ACOP.




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February 2006
Adequate control

      26.    Under COSHH, adequate control means reducing exposure to a level that most
             workers could be exposed to, day after day at work, without adverse effects on their
             health. For a number of commonly used hazardous substances the Health and Safety
             Commission has assigned an occupational exposure limit (OEL) to help define
             adequate control. There are two types of OEL, occupational exposure standards
             (OESs) and maximum exposure limits (MELs). A list of current OELs can be found
             in Occupational Exposure Limits EH40.

Occupational exposure standards

      27.    An OES is set at a level that is not likely to damage the health of workers exposed to
             it, by inhalation, day after day (based on current scientific knowledge). For
             substances with an OES, you should reduce exposure to comply with that OES.
             However, under COSHH you will still be considered to have adequate control if the
             OES is exceeded, provided you identify why it has been exceeded and take
             appropriate steps to reduce exposure as soon as is reasonably practicable.

Maximum exposure limits.

      28.    MELs are set for substances which may cause the most serious health effects such as
             cancer and occupational asthma, and for which it is not possible to set an OES. For
             substances with MELs you are required to reduce exposure so far as is reasonably
             practicable and, in any case, below the MEL.


Skin absorption

      29.    Some substances can damage the skin itself while others can readily penetrate it,
             become absorbed into the body and cause harm. So you must consider the need to
             protect skin in deciding on control measures. The guide COSHH essentials: easy
             steps to control chemicals, contains useful advice on skin protection.

Step 4 - Ensure that control measures are used and maintained

Using the controls

      30.    COSHH regulations and general health and safety rules require employees to make
             proper use of safety and control measures and to report defects. Managers and
             supervisors must take all reasonable steps to ensure that they do so. This is why staff
             must receive suitable training, information and appropriate supervision (see Step 7
             for a more detailed explanation).




                                               152                                       February 2006
Maintain controls

       31.      COSHH places specific duties on you to ensure that controls are kept in efficient
                working order and good repair. Engineering controls and respiratory protective
                equipment have to be examined and, where appropriate, tested at suitable intervals.
                COSHH sets specific intervals between examinations for local exhaust ventilation
                equipment, and you must retain records of examinations and tests carried out (or a
                summary of them), for at least five years.

Step 5 - Monitor exposure

       32.      Under COSHH, you have to measure the concentration of hazardous substances in
                the air breathed in by workers where your assessment concludes that:

                 •   There could be serious risks to health if control measures failed or deteriorated;
                 •   Exposure limits might be exceeded;
                 •   Control measures might not be working properly.

       33.      Air monitoring must also be carried out when employees are exposed to certain
                substances and processes specified in Schedule 5 to the COSHH Regulations. Where
                it is appropriate to carry out personal air monitoring, the air to be sampled is the
                space around the worker’s face from where the breath is taken, ie the breathing zone.
                You should keep a record of any exposure monitoring you carry out for at least five
                years. Information on monitoring can be found in the HSE guidance Monitoring
                strategies for toxic substances.

Step 6 - Carry out appropriate health surveillance

       34.      COSHH requires you to carry out health surveillance in the following circumstances:

                 •   Where an employee is working in one of the processes listed in Schedule 6 of
                     COSHH, eg Manufacture of certain compounds of benzene, and is likely to
                     receive significant exposure to the substance listed in the Schedule 6;
                 •   Where employees are exposed to a substance linked to a particular disease or
                     adverse health effect and there is a reasonable likelihood under the conditions
                     of the work of that disease or effect occurring and it is possible to detect the
                     disease or health effect.

       35.      Health surveillance might involve examination by a doctor or trained nurse. In some
                cases trained supervisors could, for example, check employees’ skin for dermatitis,
                or ask questions about breathing difficulties where work involves substances known
                to cause asthma (see the questionnaire in the HSE publication Preventing asthma at
                work. How to control respiratory sensitisers).




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February 2006
      36.    If any health surveillance is carried out, records must be kept (a ‘health record’) for
             at least 40 years. For further information you can refer to the HSE guidance note
             Health surveillance under COSHH: guidance for employers. Biological monitoring
             can also have a role in health surveillance. You can find further information on
             setting up a biological monitoring programme in the HSE publication Biological
             monitoring in the workplace: a guide to its practical application to chemical
             exposure.

Step 7 - Ensure that employees are properly informed, trained and supervised

      37.    COSHH requires employees to be provided with suitable information, instruction
             and training about:

              •   The nature of the substances they work with or are exposed to and the risks
                  created by exposure to those substances;
              •   The precautions they should take.

      38.    You should give them sufficient information and instructions on:

              •   Control measures, their purpose and how to use them;
              •   How to use personal protective equipment and clothing provided;
              •   Results of any exposure monitoring and health surveillance (without giving
                  people’s names);
              •   Emergency procedures eg for first aid, spillage.

      39.    This last step is vital. You must ensure that all staff understand the risks from the
             hazardous substances they could be exposed to. Your control measures won’t be
             fully effective if employees do not know how to use them properly, or the
             importance of reporting faults. Employees must have easy access to manufactures’
             safety data sheets. Appendix A of this chapter is a leaflet that can be copied and
             given to employees to help them identify hazardous chemicals


References

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1988,1994 & 1999
Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 1994 & 1999 and the
associated Approved Supply List




                                               154                                       February 2006
These two pages can be copied and given to staff                                           Appendix A

How to find out if chemicals are dangerous ⇒ Read The Label

Chemicals
A chemical is not just something used by scientists in laboratories. Most people use chemicals as part of their job or at
home every day. Cleaning products such as bleach and oven sprays are chemicals. So are paints, inks, glues, and oils.

Most of the chemicals you might use at work are not dangerous if you use them properly and know what to do if
something goes wrong (such as a spillage). But some chemicals need more careful handling than others. Labels can
help you identify the hazardous chemicals and tell you what the dangers are, as well as how to avoid them.

What can a label tell me? A label can tell you quite a lot. Let’s take a look at a typical label (below) you might find on
a chemical used in the workplace: in this case a fictional cleaning fluid.


         UNCLE MURRAY’S PATENT CLEANSER

         Contains Trichloroetheylene


                                        Possible risk of irreversible effects
                                        Do not breathe vapour
                                        Wear suitable protective clothing
                                        and gloves

                       1 litre
                  Harmful

         Mixed by
                   Burge, Richardson and Brown Formulations Ltd,
                      Mahony Tower, Royal Allen Road, Ford Industrial Estate,
                                   London, United Kingdom
                                     Tel. 0000-1111-2222

HAZARD SYMBOL                            INDICATION OF DANGER                         WARNINGS AND SAFETY
These are always orange and              This gives the meaning of the                      ADVICE
black.                                   symbol (if there is one). In some           The label also contains a brief list
They alert you to the main               cases there may not be a symbol.            of warnings and safety advice. The
dangers posed by the chemical.                                                       law requires suppliers of chemicals
Other symbols you might expect                                                       to tell you what hazards a chemical
to see are illustrated overleaf.                                                     might pose and how to use it
They are probably familiar to                     Hygiene Measures                   safely. The information is brief -
you. Look for them on all the                                                        but important. If it advises you to
chemicals you use.                            Ensure good ventilation                avoid contact with skin then you
                                            Do not, eat drink or smoke               should do that. The advice is on the
                                         Wash hands with soap and water              label for your safety
                                         Do not use solvent to clean hands




                                                           155
February 2006
                               If you use chemicals at work this leaflet is for you
It explains how to find out more about the chemicals you use just by reading their labels. There’s more information on
labels than you might think.




                Corrosive        Dangerous for          Extremely or
                                     the                   Highly           Explosive
                                 Environment             Flammable




                            Toxic            Harmful or
                                              Irritant                Oxidising
What use is this information?

The information on the label helps managers identify dangerous chemicals and under-take risk assessments under the
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH). By law, suppliers of chemicals are required to
label their products with hazard symbols, warnings and safety advice if a chemical is dangerous, and managers in
workplaces where chemicals are kept or used must ensure that the chemicals are used safely. For more information see
the HSE leaflet COSHH: a brief guide to the Regulations INDG136 (rev1) 1999.

Further safety information

M a n u f a c t u r e r s may also include ‘instructions for use’ either on the label, or on a leaflet supplied with the product.
But sometimes these safety instructions can be quite detailed. It’s all too easy to forget them. And how often do you read
safety instructions? If you have been using a brand of bleach for years you would know what to do if you got some in
your eyes, wouldn’t you? Or would you? (In fact if you did splash some in your eyes you might be in no position to read
the label then).

Most people think that accidents only ever happen to somebody else. Until they happen to you. For your own safety and
the safety of those you work with, each time you use a chemical, pause for a moment and…⇒ READ THE LABEL!

I want to know more.

 If you work with dangerous chemicals and you want or need more information, you should ask about your employer’s
risk assessment and its conclusions about the risks in your workplace and what precautions should be taken. Or, if you
need to know more about a particular dangerous chemical, you could ask for a safety data sheet. Someone in your
company should receive a safety data sheet for each of the dangerous chemicals the company uses. Safety data sheets
provide more technical and detailed information about the chemical and more information about how to use it safely and
how to deal with emergencies. Safety data sheets must be available at the place you use the chemical. If you have any
questions about safety precautions for dangerous chemicals, ask your employer first.

Quick Guide to Using Chemicals
    •    Read the label and follow the safety instructions precisely;
    •    Obtain the manufacturer’s safety data sheet and follow the guidance – the telephone; number is on the
         packaging. They will fax or post the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) to you;
    •    Ask your supervisor for the risk assessment and follow the control measures identified;
    •    If in doubt do not use the chemical – ask your supervisor for help.




                                                             156                                                February 2006
                                                                                                               Appendix B

Extract of the COSHH Essentials – Easy Steps to Control Chemicals

Failure to control chemicals can lead to the following:

    •    Increases the burden of ill-health;
    •    Prosecution;
    •    Reduced business performance;
    •    Civil claims for damages.

COSHH requires that a risk assessment is carried out and the Approved Code of Practice suggests the exposure is
prevented by:

    •    Changing the way the work is carried out ie removing the hazardous task;
    •    Modifying the process to cut out hazardous by products or waste; or
    •    Substituting the hazardous chemical with a less hazardous substance.

If exposure cannot be prevented, then it must be adequately controlled. This means reducing exposure to a level that
won’t harm people’s health. The next few pages will help you to check that the right controls are in place and that those
controls work properly.

Factors which affect exposure

There are two main factors that whether the health of those who use chemicals is likely to be affected:

     •   The type of damage the chemical causes and the amount needed to cause it; and
     •   How much of the chemical will get into the air and be breathed in, or come into contact with the skin or eyes.
         This is affected by dustiness or volatility.

Risk Phrases
The CHIP regulations give a series of codes that indicate the hazardous properties of a chemical. They are called risk
phrases or R-phrases and are shown at Table 1. The suppliers must state all the relevant R-phrases on the safety data
sheet. It is useful to group the R-phrases into one of five groups, relating to the seriousness of their effects and the
groupings are shown in Table 2 and Table 3. This will assist in deciding which control measure to use.




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February 2006
Risk Phrases - Indication of particular risks (R- codes)

1     Explosive when dry                                35   Causes severe bums
2     Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or     36   Irritating to the eyes
      other sources of ignition
3     Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction,     37   Irritating to the respiratory system
      fire or other sources of ignition
4     Forms very sensitive explosive metallic           38   Irritating to skin
      compounds
5     Heating may cause an explosion                    39   Danger of very serious irreversible effects
6     Explosive with or without contact with air        40   Possible risk of irreversible effects
7     May cause fire                                    41   Risk of serious damage to eyes
8     Contact with combustible material may cause       42   May cause sensitisation by inhalation
      fire
9     Explosive when mixed with combustible             43   May cause sensitisation by skin contact
      material
10    Flammable                                         44   Risk of explosion if heated under confinement
11    Highly flammable                                  45   May cause cancer
12    Extremely flammable                               46   May cause heritable genetic damage
14    Reacts violently with water                       48   Danger of serious damage to health by
                                                             prolonged exposure
15    Contact with water liberates extremely            49   May cause cancer by inhalation
      flammable gases
16    Explosive when mixed with oxidising               50   Very toxic to aquatic organisms
      substances
17    Spontaneously flammable in air                    51   Toxic to aquatic organisms
18    In use may form flammable/explosive vapour-       52   Harmful to aquatic organisms
      air mixture
19    May form explosive peroxides                      53   May cause long term adverse effects in the
                                                             aquatic environment
20    Harmful by inhalation                             54   Toxic to flora
21    Harmful in contact with skin                      55   Toxic to fauna
22    Harmful if swallowed                              56   Toxic to soil organisms
23    Toxic by inhalation                               57   Toxic to bees
24    Toxic in contact with skin                        58   May cause long term adverse effects in the
                                                             environment
25    Toxic if swallowed                                59   Dangerous for the ozone layer
26    Very toxic by inhalation                          60   May impair fertility
27    Very toxic in contact with skin                   61   May cause harm to the unborn child
28    Very toxic if swallowed                           62   Possible risk of impaired fertility
29    Contact with water liberates toxic gas            63   Possible risk of harm to the unborn child
30    Can become highly flammable in use                64   May cause harm to breastfed babies
31    Contact with acids liberates toxic gas            65   Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed
32    Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas       66   Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or
                                                             cracking
33    Danger of cumulative effects                      67   Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
34    Causes bums

                                            Table 1 – Risk phrases




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Hazard Group A-E (chemicals causing harm when breathed in)

A                     B           C                      D                E
                      R20         R23                    R26              Muta cat 3 R40
R36
                      R20/21      R23/24                 R26/27           R42
R36/38
                      R20/21/22   R23/24/25              R26/27/28        R42/43
R38
                      R20/22      R23/R25                R26/28           R45

                      R21         R24                    R27              R46
And all
substances
                      R21/22      R24/25                 R27/28           R49
that do not have
                      R22         R25                    R28
R-phrases in
                                  R34                    Carc cat 3 R40
groups B-E
                                  R35                    R48/23

                                  R36/37                 R48/23/24

                                  R36/37/38              R48/23/24/25

                                  R37                    R48/23/25

                                  R37/38                 R48/24

                                  R41                    R48/24/25

                                  R43                    R48/25

                                  R48/20                 R60

                                  R48/20/21              R61

                                  R48/20/21/22           R62

                                  R48/20/22              R63

                                  R48/21

                                  R48/21/22
                                  R48/22
    ⇐ ⇐ Least hazardous           More hazardous               ⇒⇒         Special cases
               substances         substances

                                   Table 2 – Hazard groups A-E

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February 2006
Hazard group S (chemicals causing harm in contact with the skin and eyes)

R21                   R27                   R38                       R48/24
R20/21                R27/28                R37/38                    R48/23/24
R20/21/22             R26/27/28             R41                       R48/23/24/25
R21/22                R26/27                R43                       Sk
R24                   R34                   R42/43
R23/24                R35                   R48/21
R23/24/25             R36                   R48/20/21
R24/25                R36/37                R48/20/21/22
                      R36/38                R48/21/22
                      R36/37/38


                                        Table 3 – ‘S’ Hazard groups




                                                160                                  February 2006
Control approaches to reduce exposure

There are four groups of controls that will create a varying degree of protection for personnel

                         1 - General Ventilation
                         A good standard of general      Least reduction
                         ventilation and good              in exposure
                         working practices



                         2 - Engineering
                         Control
                         Such as local exhaust
                         ventilation at the source of
                         the hazard, or a ventilated
                         partial enclosure.

                         3 - Containment
                         The hazard is contained or
                         enclosed. Used for very             Greatest
                         hazardous chemicals or            reduction in
                         where large quantities              exposure
                         would be present in the air.

                         4 - Special
                         Expert advice is                 Obtain expert
                         needed                              advice



General approaches to reduce exposure

Each general approach covers a range of actions that work together to reduce exposure:

    •    Good plant and equipment design;
    •    Regular housekeeping and cleaning;
    •    Regular maintenance, examination and testing of equipment;
    •    Employee training and supervision; and
    •    In some cases, using personal protective equipment.

A typical checklist is included in this section for use when assessing each chemical.




                                                           161
February 2006
Find the control approach

The number in the box represents the control approach described on the previous page.

    Step 2B                                   Step 2C
  Amount used        Low dustiness or    Medium volatility    Medium dustiness     High dustiness or
                        volatility                                                    volatility

                                         Hazard group A
      Small                  1                   1                    1                   1
    Medium                   1                   1                    1                   2

                                         Hazard group B
      Small                  1                   1                    1                   1
    Medium                   1                   2                    2                   2

                                         Hazard group C
      Small                  1                   2                    1                   2
    Medium                   2                   3                    3                   3

                                         Hazard group D
      Small                  2                   3                    2                   3
    Medium                   3                   4                    4                   4

                                         Hazard group E
                     For all hazard group E substances, choose control approach 4




                                                        162                                            February 2006
      There are a considerable number of HSE guidance sheets that explain how to put the approaches into practice.
      The table below includes a list of the Guidance Sheets in the HSE book COSHH Essentials that may be relevant to
      West Dorset District Council. They are also available online at: Control Guidance Sheets

      Control Approach 1         General Ventilation
                                                Solids                      Liquids
       Operation       Title                    Small         Medium        Small        Medium
       General         General ventilation      100           100           100          100
       tasks
       Storage         General Storage            101         101           101          101
       Dust            Removing waste dust                    103
       Extraction      from the extraction unit


       Control approach 2         Engineering Control
                                                Solids                       Liquids
        Operation      Title                    Small          Medium        Small        Medium
        General        Local exhaust            200            200           200          200
        tasks          ventilation
                       Fume cupboard            201                          201
                       Ventilated workbench      203                         203
        Storage        General storage           101           101           101          101
        Dust           Removing waste dust                     204
        Extraction     from the extraction unit
        Transfer       Sack emptying                           208
                       Drum emptying using a                                              213
                       drum pump
        Surface        Spray painting                                        220          221
        Coating
        Dipping        Vapour degreasing bath                                             227

       Control Approach 3        Containment
                                                  Solids                      Liquids
        Operation      Title                      Small       Medium          Small        Medium
        General        Containment                300         300             300          300
        Storage        General storage            101         101             101          101
        Dust           Removing waste from a                  204
        Extraction     dust extraction unit
        Transfer       Transferring liquid by                                              312
                       pump

       Control Approach 4        Special
                                                  Solids                  Liquids
        Operation      Title                      Small       Medium      Small       Medium
        General        General principles         400         400         400         400

       Chemicals causing harm via skin contact
                                                  Solids                  Liquids
        Operation      Title                      Small       Medium      Small       Medium
        General        General advice             S100        S100        S100        S100
                       Selection of personal      S101        S101        S101        S101
                       protective equipment




                                                        163
February 2006
COSHH Essentials
Easy steps to control chemicals - checklist

Step 1 Getting started
Department                                    Your Name                                Date                  .
Substance name                                   Supplied by                                                     Task(s)

 Step 2 Factors that decide your control approach
Step 2A                       Step 2B                         Step 2 C
What is the hazard            How much is used?               How dusty or volatile is the chemical?
group?
    A                         Amount used:
                        .                                      Dustiness of solid        or            Volatility of
    B
                        .                                                 .                                  liquid
    C                         Small                     .
                        .                                                 .                                      .
                                                                                      Low
    D                         Medium                    .
                        .                                                 .          Medium                      .
    E                                                                                 High
                                                                                                                 .
                        .
    S
                        .


Step 3 Find the control approach
                                                                                         Control Guidance Sheet
Control approach needed:
                                                                                                       100
General ventilation                                               .
                                                                                                       200
Engineering                                                       .
                                                                                                       300
Containment                                                       .
                                                                                                       400
Special                                                           .

In addition, for chemicals in group S
                                                                  .                                S100
Protecting skin and eyes                                                                           S101
                                                                  .
Selecting and using personal protective equipment


Step 4 Find the task-specific control guidance sheet(s)

Task-specific control guidance sheet(s) identified: No(s)

Step 5 Implement action and review
5A Assess other chemicals and tasks                               .
5B Plan implementation                                            .
5C Consider safety and environmental hazards                      .
5D Consider other aspects of COSHH
                                                                  .
5E Emergency procedures eg fire/ first aid / spillage
                                                                  .
5F Information/ instruction/ training to workforce
                                                                  .
5G Implement action
                                                                  .   .
5H Review your assessment




                                                            164                                              February 2006
   3.16      Road Safety

     Summary
         1.          Each year approximately 1,000 people are killed on Britain’s roads whilst at work.
                     Thousands more are seriously injured, and many others incur damage to vehicles.
                     These accidents are disruptive to family life and costly to the individual. It is clear
                     that employers can do much to enhance safety and reduce the risks encountered or
                     created by their employees whilst at work on the road. The Government’s target is to
                     reduce national road casualty figures by 40% by the year 2010.1

             2.      Occupational road risk is a major but often neglected issue. In part this is because the
                     Health and Safety at Work Act has not been enforced in this area. There is a very
                     strong ‘business case’ for action to remedy this and to make a potentially significant
                     contribution to meeting UK road safety targets. Local authorities are expected to set
                     exemplary standards and it is vital that road risks are assessed and controlled.

Responsibility
            3.       Driving is a skill that is often learnt at a young age, when obtaining the freedom to
                     drive is perceived as more important than dealing with its complexities. Drivers have
                     a huge responsibility for the safety of other road users, as well as themselves and their
                     passengers. They should acknowledge this by ensuring that:

                      •   Their vehicle is correctly maintained and roadworthy at all times

                      •   The vehicle is checked daily for essential safety items and weekly for
                          mechanical soundness

                      •   The correct and safe speed is adhered to and being in a hurry does not create an
                          urge to drive too fast for the conditions

                      •   The vehicle is driven in a careful and considerate manner and in accordance with
                          the Highway Code

                      •   Weather conditions and traffic reports are considered prior to starting the
                          journey and a realistic appointment schedule is planned

                      •   All accidents and offences are reported promptly.

     Speed
             4.      Above all it should be remembered that excessive speed is the biggest factor in
                     accident causation. Keeping your distance from the vehicle in front will greatly
                     improve the opportunity to stop or avoid a hazard - a two second gap is the minimum.
                     Look ahead and anticipate what will happen next.
                                                         1
                                                          Tomorrow’s Roads: safer for everyone – DETR report March 2000.




                                                        165
     February 2006
Training

      5.    Periodically the council has participated in Road Safety Week during September. This
            is a useful time to reinforce the road safety message and to build on good practice.
            The Driver Improvement Scheme, run by the Dorset County Council (DCC), ensures
            that those who drive at work have access to professional practical advice. The one-
            hour training session, with a grade six instructor, is open to all our staff that drive. All
            WDS drivers are required to participate in the scheme and a considerable number of
            other staff have voluntarily completed the training session. Minibus and trailer towing
            courses are also available from the DCC.

      6.    Driver skill should be considered during staff appraisal and driver-training needs
            should be dealt with as a priority. Our insurers expect a review of accident records to
            lead to appropriate action and a shortfall in driver competence must be rectified.


Documents

      7.    The documentation required for driving includes:

             •    A valid driver’s licence for the class of vehicle being driven

             •    MOT certificate

             •    Insurance cover for ‘business use’ – this includes all staff that use their own
                  vehicle for any purpose associated with work

             •    Tax disc – displayed in the vehicle

             •    Vehicle Registration Document V5

      8.    Staff who are required to drive and do not have valid documents are to refrain from
            driving and are to inform their manager immediately.

 Vision

      9.    There is a minimum eyesight requirement for driving and eyesight should be checked
            periodically. Drivers who need glasses are obliged to wear them. Tinted glasses
            should not be worn at night or in poor visibility. Damaged windscreens may also
            impair vision and might be illegal. If there is any doubt, a specialist’s view must be
            obtained.




                                               166                                       February 2006
     Mobile phones
     & distraction

            10.      The high traffic density of the modern roads creates a constant hazard of collision and
                     drivers need to concentrate solely on the skill of driving the vehicle. There is little
                     room for error and any distraction will cause a significant increase in the road risk.
                     Use of a mobile telephone is an unnecessary distraction - this includes those that are
                     ‘hands-free’ and text messaging. The council expects its drivers to refrain from using
                     mobile telephones whilst driving – this is a legal requirement. As an employer the
                     council will never expect drivers to make, or take, phone calls whilst driving.

     Medication

            11.      Staff should consult their doctor and pharmacist if they are taking any medication that
                     might affect their ability to drive – this includes herbal remedies. Medicine packaging
                     will also contain good advice.

Alcohol & drugs

            12.      Alcohol and drugs impair driving ability and drivers should be alert to the possibility
                     that any level of intoxication, including the night before a journey, may put them over
                     the legal limit and will affect the safety of all road users.

     Tiredness

            13.      There are many reasons why staff may find that they are short of sleep and sometimes
                     this is unavoidable. Drivers should not continue to drive if they are excessively tired.
                     A short break, a cup of coffee, a 15 minute nap and a walk in the fresh air will give
                     temporary improvement, but if falling asleep is possible, drivers should stop driving
                     until they have had a good night’s sleep.      Heavy meals can add to lethargy and
                     should be avoided before a journey. On a long journey a short break every two hours
                     is recommended. If the coffee and nap method is used it must only occur once in a
                     journey and the nap must not last for more than 20 minutes.2 Drivers should not drive
                     at a time when they would normally be asleep.

     Reduce the risk

            14.      Driving regularly will ensure the skill level is maintained but this needs to be balanced
                     against the fact that frequent drivers have greater exposure to occupational road risk.
                     The best way to reduce the risk of an accident is to make fewer journeys and in the
                     work context this should be the first consideration. Why visit if a letter or telephone
                     call will suffice? Managers should be proactive in minimising journeys and
                     scrutinising mileage claims for unnecessary travelling. In towns, journeys of less than
                     half a mile are best covered on foot. Trains are the best method of long distance travel
                     outside the district. Drivers who have not driven for several months may require a
                     brief session with an instructor to refresh their skills.
                                                              2
                                                               Managing Occupational Road Risk – RoSPA March 2002


                                                        167
     February 2006
Safety
adjustments

      15.       There are a few basic adjustments to a car that take a few seconds and can save your
                life:

                 •    Head restraints should be at eye level and close to the back of the head

                 •    Luggage should be secured in the boot, below the top of the rear seats

                 •    Every occupant must wear a correctly adjusted seatbelt.

Load carrying

      16.       Overloading a vehicle will cause handling problems as well as damage to the
                suspension and clutch. Exceeding the load capacity of a vehicle is also illegal and
                therefore staff should not overload any vehicle in the course of their work. If the
                vehicle is not large enough for the load, report the problem to your manager. WDS are
                available for moving heavy loads. All loads should be correctly secured and be kept
                lower than the level of the back seat. Fastening the rear diagonal seat belts will help to
                prevent rear goods flying forwards in the event of a crash.

Parking

      17.       Poor parking creates a hazard to other road users and must be avoided at all times.
                Parking on the pavement is never acceptable because of the dangers to pedestrians.
                Staff on duty are expected to use the car parks and display their parking permit or
                reclaim the cost if appropriate.

Driving alone

      18.       For staff that travel alone, Appendix A contains a few precautions that will help to
                ensure personal safety.

Winter driving

      19.       Driving in the winter requires greater care and additional preparation to prevent
                incidents. In bad weather, safety is more important than punctuality. More time
                should be allowed for the journey and traffic reports will give a good indication of the
                current situation. See Appendix A for more guidance.

Vehicle choice

      20.       Some vehicles have more safety features than others and guidance, via inspection and
                road test reports, is freely available from motoring organisations and the media.
                Safety features, including optional equipment and crash survivability, should be
                rigorously scrutinised when replacing a fleet or private vehicle. The independent
                European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) applies a star rating to new
                cars. The tests for front and side impact provide a realistic assessment of the


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                ‘crashworthiness’ of individual cars. Risks to pedestrians are also measured. Vehicles
                with four stars are an appropriate minimum standard and managers must carefully
                consider the safety standard or seek advice when purchasing vehicles.

       21.      When purchasing a second-hand vehicle, care must be taken to ensure that it is
                roadworthy. A current MOT certificate does not satisfy this requirement. An
                engineer’s report is required when purchasing a second-hand car using the Council’s
                car loan scheme and these reports are a good investment. The previous history of the
                vehicle should always be established to ensure the vehicle has not previously been
                ‘written off’.

       22.      Specialist vehicles such as forklift trucks have particular safety requirements,
                including roll over protection. Further details can be found in chapter 3.11. Some
                WDS vehicles are fitted with tachographs, although this is not necessarily a statutory
                requirement.

Breakdowns
      23.  If you breakdown, remain calm and stay alert to traffic and personal hazards.
           Appendix A gives some guidance on what to do if you have a breakdown.

Minibus

       24.      Minibus operations create the potential for tragedy on a wider scale and there are
                many regulations to minimise the risks. The rules relate to the design of the minibus
                as well as licensing requirements of the driver. Dorset County Council produce a
                guide to minibus operations and this is a useful first reference.3 The Driver and
                Vehicle Licensing Agency also produce guidance for minibus operations.

Highway Code

       25.      The Highway Code is the official guide for all road users and provides the core
                information that drivers need to know. It is as relevant to mature drivers, as it is to
                learners. The Highway Code should be made available to staff who drive at work.
                Key features are:

                 •   The latest guidance on correct road usage from the Road Safety Directorate and
                     the Driving Standards Agency

                 •   Written an accessible style

                 •   Illustrated

                 •   Information on vehicle maintenance and the law

                 •   First aid information

                                                         3
                                                             Notes on the Use of Minibuses – Dorset County Council


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     Penalties

            26.       Driving offences incur penalty points applied to the driver’s licence. Points remain
                      active for three years. Under the ‘totting up’ procedure, if 12 or more points are
                      accrued within three years the driver is likely to be disqualified from driving for at
                      least six months. For new drivers, if six penalty points are accumulated within the
                      first two years of passing the driving test, they will be disqualified until they pass a
                      second driving test.

            27.       Licences of professional drivers will be inspected annually in order to comply with our
                      insurance policy.


   Disciplinary
   action
          28.   The Council expects all staff who are driving on Council business to drive within the
                law and to show due consideration to other road users. Traffic offences committed
                whilst at work may (if proven) be considered through the usual staff disciplinary
                procedure. Staff must be aware that reckless behaviour on the road, eg using mobile
                phones, may be considered as gross misconduct. Drivers involved in an accident, or
                who commit an offence whilst at work, must inform their Service Manager without
                delay.
 Conclusion

            29.       Your attitude as well as your skill will make you a safer driver. The way you drive,
                      your knowledge, health and competency will all affect the greatest risk to life. Create
                      a margin of safety and think before you act.



Responsibilities

            30.       Service Managers – Should promote road safety by ensuring:

                       •   Driving risk is considered in the risk assessment programme and discussed
                           during appraisal if appropriate

                       •   Staff have appropriate information and training

                       •   Staff understand that they are permitted to allocate sufficient time for travelling
                           – including delays

                       •   Adequate consideration of the safety attributes of new vehicles prior to purchase
                           and aim to achieve a high standard of safety

                       •   Staff are not permitted to drive council vehicles without initial instruction

                       • Mileage claims are checked for unnecessary journeys
          31.      Drivers – Should acknowledge their responsibilities by:


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                  •    Checking the serviceability of their vehicle

                  •    Ensuring they are fit to drive

                  •    Driving carefully

                  •    Informing their manager if their task load is too high and conflict arises with
                       road safety requirements.
Further
information

      32.     There are many sources of road safety information and the Government is running a
              continuous road safety campaign, which will be publicised periodically. Additionally:

                  •    West Dorset Services are members of Brake! This is a road safety organisation
                       that provides members with useful information.

                  •    WDS also provide a Drivers’ Information Pack for their drivers and this
                       handbook is also provided to drivers of fleet vehicles.

                  •    Motoring organisations and RoSPA provide safety information on a wide variety
                       of subjects.

                  •    Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency is a part of the Department for Transport
                       and their website is useful (dvla.gov.uk)

                  •    The Highway Code

                   This chapter will be reproduced as a booklet.




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                                                                                              Appendix A
Occupational Road Risk –
Safety information

          1.        The points contained in this appendix will assist you in having a safe journey and
                    dealing with hazards.


Before the journey

                     •   Ensure the car is regularly serviced

                     •   Join a breakdown organisation

                     •   Plan your route, obtain a current map and inform other about your route and
                         expected arrival time

                     •   Carry a mobile phone and money for a pay phone

                     •   Have a spare key with you – particularly if it is a special key

During the journey

                     •   Keep valuables out of sight (including handbags)

                     •   Keep doors locked in traffic jams. A window should be only partly open

                     •   Do not stop for hitch-hikers – this is not permitted on council business

                     •   Stop for fuel early, rather than risk an empty tank


   Journey’s end
                     •   Put valuables in the boot and lock the car

                     •   Reverse car into the parking space (for a quick getaway)

                     •   Use well lit areas

       Returning
       to the car
                     •   Have the key ready - do not rummage in your handbag etc

                     •   Check the back seat for intruders before entering the vehicle

                     •   Lock the doors and drive away without delay




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Breakdown
             2. If you breakdown, remain calm and stay alert to traffic and personal hazards.

                  •   Pull off the road and use your hazard warning indicators

                  •   Treat offers of help with caution – ask them to phone the breakdown
                      organisation

                  •   Do not accept a lift with a stranger

                  •   Walk to the payphone, noting landmarks, street names etc and wear a high
                      visibility waistcoat

                  •   Phone a friend or colleague as well as your breakdown organisation

Motorway
Breakdown
             3. The speed and volume of traffic makes the motorway particularly hazardous,
                particularly to persons on foot. Many serious accidents are caused when a stationary
                vehicle on the hard shoulder is hit from behind. Your safety can be improved by
                following these points:

                  •   If possible, drive off the motorway at the next exit or drive or coast to the next
                      emergency phone

                  •   If you stop, pull on to the hard shoulder and switch on your hazard lights

                  •   Vacate the car via the left hand doors

                  •   Walk to the nearest emergency phone indicated by the roadside marker posts

                  •   Return to the car and wait on the embankment – ensure the passenger door is
                      unlocked and if a ‘stranger danger’ occurs, re-enter the car, lock the doors and
                      fasten the seat belt

                  •   If using a mobile phone to obtain help, your location can be ascertained by the
                      code number on the marker posts at the side of the motorway

    Toolkit
             4.   The vehicle will be supplied with a basic toolkit including a wheel spanner and jack.
                  All drivers should be familiar with the procedure for changing a wheel. Carry spare
                  bulbs and know how to fit them.




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Road rage
              5.   Most drivers are aware of the needs of other road users and usually drive in a
                   considerate fashion. This attitude is positively encouraged and all staff should
                   approach the task of driving in a professional manner. Accept that other drivers will
                   make unintentional errors and annoying manoeuvres are usually spur of the moment
                   decisions that are not personal – so don’t over react. Anger has no place on the road
                   and if staff feel angry they should pull over and take time to calm down.

              6.   To ensure that you do not annoy other drivers you should:

                    •   Be considerate to other road users

                    •   Show restraint and do not retaliate or compete

                    •   Signal at all junctions and be positive but not pushy

                    •   Acknowledge other drivers, particularly if you have made a mistake

                    •   Concentrate on driving and remember;

                                      Mirrors – Signal – Manoeuvre


              7.    Violence on the road is rare. If you are the victim of rage:

                    •   Lock yourself in the car

                    •   Call for help on your mobile phone

                    •   Use your car horn to attract attention.

 Visibility
              8.   Dipped headlights must be used if the visibility is poor. Front and rear fog lamps are
                   also effective. These must be switched off when visibility improves, to prevent
                   dazzling other road users. Keep lights lenses clean and check bulbs regularly –
                   looking for the reflection in a nearby reflective object is one way of achieving this.




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 Winter driving
               9.     Driving in the winter requires greater care and additional preparation to prevent
                     accidents and incidents. Safety is more important than punctuality and extra time
                     should be allowed for the journey. Consider the following:

                      •   Check the strength of the anti-freeze

                      •   Batteries work much harder in the winter and should be replaced at the first
                          sign of problems

                      •   Tyres need good tread all round (3mm is the recommended, 1.6mm legal
                          minimum)

                      •   Correct tyre pressures will ensure good handling and reduces the likelihood of
                          a puncture. Check the spare tyre pressure regularly

                      •   Ensure the windscreen, windows and lights are clear of dirt and ice before each
                          journey and check wiper blades and windscreen washer fluid

                      •   Warm clothes and sensible shoes are needed in case of an incident

Ice and snow
               10.   Stopping distances can be ten times longer in ice and snow. Very gentle steering
                     and braking manoeuvres are needed to prevent skids. Ensure:

                      •   Dry comfortable shoes – not snow covered boots

                      •   Pull away in second gear, with very gentle clutch release to avoid wheel spin

                      •   Select the next gear early and minimise use of brakes and accelerator

                      •   Use third or fourth gear when going downhill and use momentum to climb a
                          hill

                      •   Keep well back from the car in front

    Floods
               11.    Flooded roads present a variety of hazards and caution is needed:

                      •   Do not drive into water of an unknown depth and never enter fast flowing
                          water – you could be swept away

                      •   Drive slowly and do not create a bow wave

                      •   Slip the clutch and rev the engine to keep water out of the exhaust – otherwise
                          the engine will stall

                      •   Test your brakes immediately after leaving the flood water
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    February 2006
Country roads
                12. Much of the West Dorset Area is rural and the narrow country roads present hidden
                    dangers. Cyclists and horse riders are at risk and pedestrians are poorly protected
                    due to the absence of pavements. Drivers of agricultural equipment may not have a
                    good view to the rear of the vehicle. Farm vehicles are often wide and slow moving
                    and may veer off into a field without warning. They also cause mud on the road.

                13. Always consider what might be round the bend and drive at a speed that allows you
                    to stop within the distance that you can see. Wildlife may suddenly appear on the
                    road and may startle a driver causing them to swerve. Overtaking should be carried
                    out with great care. The risks to pedestrians are significant:

                      •   A pedestrian hit by a car travelling at 40mph will probably die

                      •   Struck at 30mph, the normal speed within a built up area, they only have a
                          50:50 chance of surviving, and

                      •   Hit at 20mph they will probably live.

                     A safe journey is the only one worth making!




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3.17 Safety Signs

Summary

        1.   Safety signs, located in all workplaces throughout the European Union, are expected
             to be of a similar design so that they clearly portray the appropriate message regarding
             the nature of the hazard. This will prevent confusion and lead to improved safety for
             employees, visitors and the public. There are standard shapes and colours for signs
             and all health and safety signs must contain a picture, which denotes the hazard.
             Supplementary text may also be used.

        2.   Fire safety signs require particular attention to ensure compliance with the relevant
             fire precautions regulations.

Procedures

        3.   Employers have a duty to control risks in the workplace by appropriate means, which
             are identified by risk assessment. After engineering controls and safe systems of work
             have been introduced, there may be a need to provide a sign to cover any significant
             residual risk.

        4.   Each workplace should be inspected to ensure that all safety signs comply with the
             Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996. Typical signs are
             shown at Appendix 3.9.1. All safety signs must contain a pictogram (symbol) to an
             approved design and colour. Many workplace signs in current use have symbols that
             conform to the European Council Directive and need not be changed eg signs to BS
             5378 or BS 5499. Adding a symbol to an existing sign is permitted. Consideration
             should also be given to illuminating the sign where necessary. More than one type of
             sign may be required if there are several hazards, although clutter should be avoided to
             prevent confusion.

Additional Requirements

        5.   Containers, tanks, vessels and pipelines that contain dangerous substances must be
             marked with suitable signs or labels.

        6.   Obstacles and dangerous locations should be marked using diagonal stripes of yellow
             and black (or red and white). Paint or suitable tape can be used to comply with the
             requirements.

        7.   Safety signs relating to traffic hazards should conform to the Highway Code. Traffic
             routes should be marked with continuous lines of an appropriate colour, preferably
             yellow or white, taking into account the colour of the ground.

        8.   The regulations also detail requirements related to acoustic signals, hand signals and
             fire alarms, which should be referred to before introduction of any of these systems.




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Sign Removal

       9.     It is vital that signs are removed when they are no longer applicable to the workplace.
              This will avoid the situation of staff ignoring important signs, due to the questionable
              validity of others.

Articles and Dangerous Substances

       10.    The regulations do not apply to signs associated with the supply of articles or
              dangerous substances. Signs for such circumstances have different requirements and
              are met by a different set of regulations.

Training

       11.    Training in sign recognition is required to ensure staff are aware of the meaning of
              signs that they may encounter at work. Induction training will deal with the types of
              sign eg prohibition, warning, mandatory and emergency. Task training should include
              an explanation of the actual signs in use and the consequences of failing to heed them.


Responsibilities

       12.    The Technical Services Manager is responsible for ensuring that safety signs, at
              properties that are the responsibility of the Technical Services Division, conform to
              the regulations. This will include the positioning of temporary safety signs, to
              highlight unavoidable hazards, arising from contracts for work issued by the Technical
              Services Division.

       13.    Similarly the Community Enabling Manager will undertake those responsibilities for
              properties where sole responsibility exists within the division eg leisure centres.

       14.    All service managers should ensure that signs at workplaces, for which they have
              responsibility, conform to the regulations. They should ensure that their staff receive
              adequate training in sign recognition and the consequences of their failure to comply
              with specific signs.

       15.    Line managers and supervisors of persons creating temporary unavoidable hazards
              will be responsible for the provision (and removal) of suitable temporary signs, which
              conform to the regulations. They should also ensure correct compliance with safety
              signs by staff, visitors and contractors.

       16.    All employees are expected to comply with safety signs that they may encounter
              during their work. If they do not understand a sign they should seek advice from an
              appropriate person.




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References

                The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996
                Fire Precautions Act 1971 and the Fire Certificate where issued
                Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1997
                HSE Guidance L64
                HSE IND (G) 184L leaflet




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180   February 2006
                                                                                 Appendix 3.17A

Types and Use of Signs

Prohibition signs should be displayed to discourage dangerous behaviour. They are:

      •   Round
      •   A white background
      •   Red edging
      •   Red diagonal line
      •   Have a black pictogram
      •   The red area will be at least 35% of the sign




                                     Prohibition Signs


Warning signs are used to show a hazard or danger. They are:

      •   Triangular
      •   A yellow background
      •   Black edging
      •   Have a black pictogram
      •   The yellow area will be at least 50% of the sign




                                     Warning Signs




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Mandatory signs prescribe the need for specific behaviour. They are:

     • Round
     • A blue background
     • White edging
     • Have a white pictogram
     • The blue area will take up at least 50% of the area of the sign




                                  Mandatory Signs



Emergency signs inform how to achieve a safe condition when an emergency occurs. They include
signs for escape routes and emergency exits. They are:

     •   Square or rectangular
     •   Have a white pictogram
     •   A green background
     •   White edging
     •   The green area will take up at least 50% of the sign area
     •   Supplementary arrow signs are permitted




                                   Emergency Signs




                          Emergency Escape - EU Sign




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       Signs introduced to BS5499 standard are permissible. These show a person running through a
       door rather than towards it. It would be prudent to ensure new buildings are signed to the new
       European standard, which shows a person running towards a door (shown above). It would
       be better not to mix signs of a different standard at one location.

       Fire-fighting signs provide information on the location and identification of fire fighting
       equipment. They are:

            •   Square or rectangular
            •   Have a white pictogram
            •   A red background
            •   White edging
            •   The red part will take up at least 50% of the area
            •   Supplementary arrow signs are permitted.




                               Fire-fighting Signs




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184   February 2006
3.18 Management of Workplace Stress

Summary

        1.    At West Dorset District Council we recognise the importance of identifying and
              reducing the potential causes of workplace stress to ensure the good health of all staff.
              This policy and guidance applies throughout the council. All managers and
              employees are expected to participate in the stress management process with the aim
              of minimising stress related ill-health. The council will provide the necessary
              resources to implement an effective stress control strategy.

        2.    Primarily this policy is concerned with stress arising from the working environment.
              The council recognises that an employee’s personal life may also lead to stress and
              sometimes an approach has to be taken of helping an employee whatever the cause of
              their stress, particularly if this has an impact on their ability to work effectively.

What is stress?

        3.    Stress is experienced when people cannot cope with the pressures and demands
              placed upon them. All work has its pressures and people vary in their capacity to
              cope with different types of pressure. Some levels of pressure, even when high, can
              be motivating and challenging. Pressures that can be responded to effectively are
              likely to lead to job satisfaction. However, pressures at a level where an individual
              cannot cope, or even too little pressure or challenge, can result in stress.

        4.    The Health and Safety Executive define stress as “the adverse reaction people have to
              excessive pressure or other types of demand placed on them”. This makes an
              important distinction between pressure, which can be a positive state if managed
              correctly, and stress, which can be detrimental to health.

Possible sources of stress in the workplace

        5.    For work related stress to be adequately addressed the organisational culture must
              facilitate and promote good communications, social support, trust and respect. It
              follows that stress can arise from poor organisational culture, which can be typified
              by lack of communication and consultation with staff, a blame culture when mistakes
              are made and an expectation of regularly working long hours and taking work home.
              The key indicators are:

                  •   Job demands, typified by either too little or too much to do, excessively tight
                      deadlines, inadequate or excessive training for the job, boring repetitive work
                      and a noisy, dirty, hot or threatening working environment.

                  •   Control over the work, typified by no control over the tasks, the timing, pace of
                      work or skills used.




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              •   Support, training and individual factors, typified by lack of support from
                  managers or colleagues, inadequate or inappropriate training opportunities,
                  reprimanding instead of supporting when things go wrong, poor work-life
                  balance and poor team make up.

              •   Relationships with co-workers, typified by poor working relationships with
                  colleagues and an atmosphere of unacceptable behaviour such as bullying,
                  sexual or racial harassment.

              •   Role within the organisation, typified by role conflict, where there are
                  conflicting job demands or being asked to undertake tasks which are not
                  considered part of their job and role ambiguity, where the person does not have a
                  clear view of their job and expectations of them.

              •   Organisational change, typified by poor communications with staff about
                  proposed change and the reasons for it, lack of consultation, uncertainty about
                  what is going on and the future, possible job losses and lack of support for staff.

      6.     Stress can also arise from the pressures people experience in their home and personal
             lives, eg bereavement, relationship or family problems, and financial difficulties.
             These factors can make people more vulnerable to stress at work or reduce their ability
             to perform effectively.

Procedures

      7.     The council will:

              •   Identify all significant causes of stress in the workplace (stressors) and conduct
                  risk assessments to eliminate stress or control the risks from stress. These risk
                  assessments will be regularly reviewed.

              •   Consult with Trade Union safety representatives on the prevention of workplace
                  stress.

              •   Provide training for all managers and supervisory staff in good management
                  practices.

              •   Provide confidential counselling for staff affected by stress caused by either
                  work or external factors.

              •   Allocate adequate resources to enable managers to implement the council’s
                  agreed stress management strategy.

              •   Where possible, assist staff in resolving stress arising from personal matters.




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Responsibilities

       8.       The HSE expects organisations to carry out suitable and sufficient risk assessments for
                stress, and to take action to tackle any problems identified by those risk assessments.
                The Stress Management Standards are intended to help us to do this and to show that
                we have done so.

       9.       Everyone is expected to share the responsibility for identifying and reducing work
                related stress. Full participation is the key to ensuring that work is a meaningful and
                generally enjoyable challenge. Some responsibilities are specifically allocated to
                managers, although staff involvement is vital for success.

Councillors and Directors

       10.      Elected members, directors and the senior management team are expected to:

                 •   Demonstrate their commitment and support to this policy by ensuring that
                     appropriate stress management practices are implemented.

                 •   Reflect the policy’s aims within their own management practice.

                 •   Ensure that resources are available for suitable stress management controls.

Service Managers and Line Managers

       11.      Managers can minimise stress in their departments by reflecting the policy’s aims
                within their own management practice and apply the following measures:

                 •   Carry out risk assessments, leading to effective control measures.

                 •   Present an open attitude and develop good communication between management
                     and staff, particularly where there are organisational and procedural changes, or
                     when staff have problems or anxieties.

                 •   Provide staff with clear and realistic objectives and ensure that performance is
                     managed effectively and fairly.

                 •   Ensure staff are fully trained to discharge their duties and, where possible, are
                     provided with meaningful developmental opportunities.

                 •   Adopt a flexible approach to work schedules and monitor workloads to ensure
                     that people are not overloaded. This can be achieved by:

                       − Checking working hours and overtime to ensure that staff are not
                         overworking.
                       − Insisting that staff take their full entitlement of holidays.
                       − Adopting flexible working practices


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February 2006
                   •     Attend training in good management practice and health and safety.

                   •     Ensure that bullying and harassment is not tolerated.

                   •     Be vigilant and offer additional support to a member of staff who is
                         experiencing stress outside work e.g. bereavement or separation.

                   •     Conduct return to work discussions with staff returning after a period of
                         sickness. This may lead to a return to work interview as detailed in the
                         absence management policy.

                   •     Provide staff with appropriate training in order that they can recognise and
                         manage their stress and assist in achieving the aims of this policy.

Employees

      12.    All staff are expected to:

               •       Support the council’s stress initiatives and report their sincere concerns to their
                       manager, safety representative or the personnel section.

               •       Recognise that they may be a source of stress to others, accept responsibility and
                       take genuine action to deal with this.

               •       Attend appropriate training so that they are better able to recognise and manage
                       stress.

               •       Seek and accept opportunities for support and also stress relief counselling when
                       recommended.

Personnel Section (including health and safety)

      13.    The personnel section is able to provide specialist support and advice on stress related
             issues. This includes:

               •       Support for individuals who have been off sick with stress related illnesses and
                       advise them and their management on a planned return to work.

               •       Referring to counsellors or specialist agencies if required.

               •       Monitoring and review the effectiveness of measures to reduce stress – including
                       stress auditing.

               •       Guidance to managers and staff on the stress policy.

               •       Information regarding any developments in the field of stress at work.

               •       Assisting in monitoring the effectiveness of measures to address stress by
                       collating sickness absence statistics.

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                                                                                             February 2006
                 •   Advice to managers and individuals on stress awareness training requirements.

Safety Representatives

       14.      The Trade Unions will be consulted on workplace changes that could precipitate stress
                related problems for staff. Safety representatives are encouraged to:

                 •   Help promote and support stress initiatives in the workplace and to encourage
                     full participation by everyone.

                 •   Ensure that employees are aware of the support mechanisms available to them.

                 •   Support the monitoring and review of this policy.

                 •   Engage in the risk assessment, consultation and auditing processes associated
                     with this policy.


Role of the Safety Committee

       15.      The Safety Committee will oversee the application of the policy and other measures to
                reduce stress and promote workplace health and safety. This will be achieved via
                occasional reports to the committee.


How to recognise the signs of stress

       16.      Some common signs of stress are listed below. However, experiencing any of these
                does not necessarily give an indication of stress and advice should be sought from the
                occupational health service when concerns are raised.

                 •   Persistent or recurrent moods – anger, irritability, detachment, worry,
                     depression, guilt and sadness.
                 •   Physical sensations/effects – aches and pains, raised heart rate, increased
                     sweating, dizziness, and blurred vision, skin or sleep disorders.
                 •   Changed behaviours – increased absence levels, difficulty concentrating or
                     remembering things, inability to switch off, loss of creativity, making more
                     errors, double checking everything, eating disorders, increasing use of tobacco,
                     alcohol or drugs.




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February 2006
       17.    Managers should also be aware of the following possible signs:

               •    Increase in overall sickness absence – particularly frequent short-term absences.
               •    Poor work performance – less output, lower quality, poor decision making.
               •    Relationships at work – conflict between colleagues, poor relationships with
                    clients.
               •    Staff attitude and behaviour – loss of motivation or commitment, poor time-
                    keeping, working longer hours but with diminishing effectiveness.


The business case: Tackling stress brings benefits

       18.    Research has shown work-related stress to have adverse effect in terms of:

               •    Employee commitment to work
               •    Staff performance and productivity
               •    Staff turnover and intention to leave
               •    Attendance levels
               •    Staff recruitment and retention
               •    Customer satisfaction
               •    Organisational image and reputation
               •    Potential litigation

       19.    It is also worth thinking about the impact that work-related stress could have on your
              team. For example, losing one colleague for an extended period with a stress-related
              illness can have a dramatic impact on the workload and morale of the rest of the team.
              By taking action to tackle the causes of stress in your workplace, you can prevent or
              reduce the impact of these problems on the whole of the organisation.

Actions

       20.    The following actions should be taken to help alleviate stress in the workplace.


Recruitment and selection

       21.    The full range of responsibilities and demands of the job should be identified and set
              out clearly in the job description.         The emphasis should be on the range and
              responsibilities - if too much detail is given then any apparent deviation may create the
              potential for stress arising from conflict. The candidate’s ability to deal with the
              requirements and potential pressures of the job should be investigated and assessed as
              part of the selection process.




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                                                                                           February 2006
Pre-employment health screening

       22.      No person should be offered an employment start date before a health questionnaire
                has been completed and health clearance given. This will ensure that the candidate is
                matched to the requirements of the job and any support they require to perform
                effectively is identified and provided. When seeking advice, the appointing manager
                (via Personnel) must ensure that the occupational health advisor has sufficient
                information related to the job’s requirements and potential demands, such as the job
                description and risk assessment results.


Induction and promotion

       23.      Planned induction helps to eliminate many concerns that a new job may create for new
                recruits. All new employees must receive corporate and local induction into their
                jobs. Relocation can be an additional temporary source of stress, although relocation
                may actually be a chosen option to reduce stress. As part of the induction programme
                the stress policy should be briefly discussed and employees advised who will provide
                them with support. Details will be included in the induction pack and on the intranet.

Risk assessment

       24.      All existing jobs should be risk assessed for stress and those risk assessments should
                be reviewed regularly, particularly when circumstances change (such as during a
                restructuring exercise). The risk assessment will normally apply to groups of staff and
                an assessment of an individual post will rarely be required. Managers should ensure
                that appropriately trained risk assessors are available within teams and actions are
                taken to deal with any issues raised during the risk assessment process. Risk
                assessment guidance is provided at Appendix A and a team discussion checklist is
                available.

Sickness absence and ill health during employment

       25.      When dealing with concerns related to stress and sickness absence or ill health, the
                council’s capability and absence management policies should be followed.

       26.      The first telephone call from staff on sick leave should initiate positive and supporting
                involvement from the manager. If the manager is unable to deal directly with an
                absent member of staff, Personnel will telephone the employee and discuss an
                appropriate assistance programme. The council’s doctor will contact the employee if
                the absence lasts longer than two weeks and medical advice will be given if
                appropriate.




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February 2006
Training and development for the post

      27.    Employees may experience stress if they are not adequately trained for their job,
             especially when moving into a new or changed role. Training needs analysis must
             feature in all case where re-structuring of individual jobs or sections within a
             directorate takes place. Identifying and meeting training needs should not be seen as a
             one-off annual exercise but as a continual process, although annual appraisal and mid
             year review are useful opportunities for emphasising training requirements.

      28.    Specifically, the council will aim to ensure that managers and staff are aware of the
             risks of stress and the measures that can be taken to identify and manage it.

      29.    In all management and supervision training and other appropriate skills training
             courses the stress policy should be raised as part of the manager’s ongoing
             responsibilities. Managers and supervisors should also discuss and address their own
             stress management approach.




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                                                                                       February 2006
Supportive counselling

       30.      Employee assistance programmes such as counselling and occupational health advice
                will be provided as appropriate.

       Action                          When                     Comment                      Date & Name
       Employee telephones the         At the start of the      Report to include nature
       manager to report sickness      first day of absence     and expected duration of
       absence                         and on the 4th day       sickness absence

       Manager informs                 Same day                 Use the sickness report
       Personnel department                                     form or email

       Manager returns the call to     No later than the 4th    Call could be made by
       employee and offers             day                      Personnel department
       support

       Manager or Personnel            After two weeks          Initial telephone
       contacts employee and           absence                  consultation with the
       refers them to our doctor                                council’s doctor

       Council’s doctor                After two weeks          Assess, support and advise
       telephones the absentee         absence

       Confidential counselling        When required            The offer must be recorded
       offered by Personnel or
       manager

       Review by council’s             Four weeks absence       Reviews continue until
       doctor                                                   satisfactory conclusion

       Return to work programme        For longer absences      With medical guidance if
       agreed by employee,                                      appropriate
       manager and Personnel

       ‘Welcome back’                  First day back at        To consider the need for a
       discussion instigated by        work                     planned meeting/interview
       manager/supervisor                                       and any immediate issues

       Return to work interview        Before the first         Discuss any ongoing
       with manager or Personnel       weekend break            problems and consider
                                                                appropriate changes at
                                                                work
       Review by manager               As agreed with           Reviews continue until
                                       employee                 satisfactory conclusion



                                     Table 1 – Record of stress support



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February 2006
Supporting staff at work

        31.     Many staff will continue to work whilst feeling stressed or will feel quite anxious
                when they return to work. This is perfectly normal behaviour and staff should be fully
                supported if possible. Staff may discuss their concerns with their manager and they
                may also display some of the signs of stress, listed at paragraph 17. Assisting staff to
                achieve a reasonable workload, whilst they are feeling less effective, is beneficial to
                them and strengthens team working. There are a few simple measures that could help
                the situation.


 Event                                 Supporting Action                                Date & Name
 Employee acknowledges that,           Initial chat to offer the opportunity to discuss
 although they are feeling stressed,   what assistance they might require. Welcome
 they intend to continue working       the opportunity to resolve problems.
 or intend to return to work.

 Discuss the problems and              Use the risk assessment form as a guide and
 separate the work / personal          consider completing the form with them.
 issues.                               Agree a plan of action.

 If high workload is a significant     Identify outstanding tasks and agree suitable
 factor.                               actions such as:
                                          −    Re-allocation of tasks (temporary)
                                          −    Additional hours (apply with caution)
                                          −    Review job description

 If interruptions are a problem        Try to achieve a quiet period each day by:
                                         - Providing a quiet office
                                         - Divert telephone calls to other staff
                                         - Selective home working (with goals)

 If lack of task knowledge is a        Offer additional training (including on the job
 problem                               training)

 Where anxiety is not resolved         Offer confidential counselling via Personnel


References

Management Standards for Tackling Work Related Stress - HSE
Addressing Stress at Work – Employers Organisation




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                                                                                               February 2006
                                                                                                 Appendix A

Risk Assessment Guidance

1. The factors that place employees at risk from work related stress should be assessed in the same
way as physical or biological hazards within the workplace. The risk should then be avoided or,
where this is not possible, reduced to as low as reasonably practicable. The risk assessment will be
complemented periodically by a corporate stress audit.

2. Service managers should ensure that risk assessments are carried out using the normal ‘five steps
to risk assessment’ shown in our health and safety policy in chapters 3.2 and 3.3. The following
factors should be considered:

Step 1 – Identify the hazard (is there a stress problem?)

3. Qualitative information - can be gathered by informal discussion, regular team meetings and team
briefings, appraisal, working groups, leaving interviews and return to work interviews following a
sickness absence. A team discussion checklist is available.

4. Quantitative information - can be obtained from sickness records, performance measurement and
stress auditing.

5. The auditable stress management standards look at six key work issues that, if properly managed,
can help to reduce work-related stress. Each of the six standards provides simple statements about
good management practice. The HSE does not expect every employer to meet all the standards at
their first attempt. The standards are goals that employers should be working towards through an
ongoing process of risk assessment and continuous improvement.

Step 2 – Identify who might be harmed and how (groups, and individuals if appropriate)

6. No-one should be considered immune from the effects of stress and no job is totally stress free. If
the pressure exceeds the ability of a person to cope, then they will be stressed to some degree. Most
people have periods of vulnerability at certain times in their lives eg crisis in their private life, during
organisational change or when returning to work after a period of absence. The effect of stress can
lead to mental and/or physical illness.

7. There is now convincing evidence that prolonged periods of stress, including work-related stress,
have an adverse effect on health. Research provides strong links between stress and the following
health issues:

       •        Physical effects such as heart disease, back pain, headaches, stomach disorders or
                various minor illnesses; and

       •        Psychological effects such as anxiety and depression.




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February 2006
8. Stress can also lead to other behaviours that are harmful to health, such as skipping meals,
drinking too much caffeine or alcohol, or smoking. Tackling the causes of stress before they lead to
ill health can prevent this from happening.

9. Exposure to the six areas covered by the stress management standards can affect staff in different
ways. For example, some employees may feel anxious about the amount of work they have to do, or
the reaction if they admit they cannot cope. Finding out how the factors are affecting employees
requires a partnership approach, based on openness, honesty and trust, which explores what the main
effects of work are on staff and what areas should be targeted first.

Step 3 – Evaluate the risk

10. At this stage in the risk assessment process each of the six potential risk factors should be
evaluated by determining:

       •       If there are preventive measures in place to control the risk
       •       Whether this is enough to control the risk to an acceptable level
       •       If the risks are still too high, what more can be done to reduce the risk to an acceptable
               level

11. The six risk factors: demands, control, support, relationships, role and change, were previously
summarised at paragraph five of this chapter. These factors form the basis of the risk assessment. A
risk assessment form is attached.


Step 4 – Record the findings

12. The significant findings of the risk assessment must be recorded and the assessment should be
signed and dated. The assessment must be shared with the staff affected and staff must actively
participate in the assessment process. The team discussion checklist can also be used as a useful
record.

Step 5 – Review

13. A review should be carried out (and recorded) periodically and when significant changes occur
eg restructure, change in working patterns or workload, recruitment, ill-health associated with stress,
or if staff are perceived to be unhappy. An initial review at six months can be extended if indicators
show an improvement in the potential for work related stress.




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                                                                                            February 2006
Stress Risk Assessment

A is quality standard: Poor = 3 Acceptable = 2 Good = 1         B is the number of staff negatively affected: 25% =1, 50% = 2, 75% = 3
(For an individuals’ risk assessment record the risk as Low, Medium or High)

Stressor                         A x B = Risk   Quality Standard                  Action required                                   Target Date
                          Poor                  Good
Demands
Too much /too little work                       Resources are adequate
 Lack of breaks.                                Breaks are reasonable.
 No flexible working.                           Flexible working.
 Excessive overtime.                            Overtime not required.
Lack of task variety.                           Reasonable changes in activity.
No training needs analysis.                     Training needs assessed.
Unhappy with physical                           Comfortable environment.
environment.
Poor personal control of heat,                  Adequate individual control of
light, ventilation, noise.                      heat, light, ventilation noise.

Control
Too much/too little                             Decision are often delegated
supervision                                     by agreement
Too much /too little skill.                     Skill level assessed.
Tight deadlines.                                Urgent tasks are infrequent.
Pace of work.                                   Pace is reasonable.
Unreasonable targets.                           Targets are achievable.

Support
Poor support from manager                       Good team support
or colleagues
Blame or reprimand rather                       Mistakes are used
than guidance.                                  constructively.
Poor work / life balance.                       Family life is respected.


A is quality standard: Poor = 3 Acceptable = 2 Good = 1        B is the number of staff negatively affected: 25% =1, 50% = 2, 75% = 3
                                                                            197
April 2005
(For an individuals’ risk assessment record the risk as Low, Medium or High)

Stressor                            A x B = Risk   Quality Standard                     Action required                    Target Date
                             Poor                  Good
Relationships
Poor working relationships                         Comfortable feel
An ‘atmosphere.’                                   Management plans ahead,
Unacceptable behaviour eg                          listens and responds to staff
bullying or harassment.                            concerns.
Disrespect for staff values                        Colleagues are amenable.
and professional ethics.                           Respect.
Role
Role conflict                                      Role is well understood
Conflicting job demand.                            Conflicting tasks are rare.
Job description conflicts.                         JD is thorough but flexible.
Information overload.                              Information level is good.
Change
Change creates conflict and                        Change is accepted as a
uncertainty                                        normal activity
Consultation (meaningful).
Communication (why                                 Participation is achieved.
change).                                           Inclusive.

Additional information
from:
Meetings and discussions
Sickness records
Auditing


Completed by………………………………..Date………….……………………                                                         Review date………………………




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                                                                                                                                   February 2006
                                                                                           Appendix B

        Auditing the stress management standards
        at West Dorset District Council
        A key part of the stress assessment process is to carry out a stress audit and adopt suitable
        solutions to the workplace stressors. Each of the six management standards need to be
        achieved.

        Staff questionnaire

        The audit is carried out using the ‘indicator tool’ provided by the HSE. This is a confidential
        staff questionnaire shown at Appendix C. The returned data is analysed using a spreadsheet.
        The results are collated within the six management standards. The ‘support’ standard is split
        between managers’ support and peer support. Every team will be included in the audit.


        Demands

        Includes issues like workload, work patterns, and the work environment. The standard is that:

             •    Employees indicate that they are able to cope with the demands of their jobs; and
             •    Systems are in place locally to respond to any individual concerns.

        What should be happening - states to be achieved:

        The council provides employees with adequate and achievable demands in relation to the
        agreed hours of work;

             •    People’s skills and abilities are matched to the job demands;
             •    Jobs are designed to be within the capabilities of employees; and
             •    Employees’ concerns about their work environment are addressed.

        Control

        How much say the person has in the way they do their work. The standard is that:

             •    Employees indicate that they are able to have a say about the way they do their
                  work;
             •    Systems are in place locally to respond to any individual concerns.

        What should be happening - states to be achieved:

             •    Where possible, employees have control over their pace of work;
             •    Employees are encouraged to use their skills and initiative to do their work;
             •    Where possible, employees are encouraged to develop new skills to help them
                  undertake new and challenging pieces of work;
             •    The organisation encourages employees to develop their skills;
             •    Employees have a say over when breaks can be taken; and

                                                  199
April 2005
     •    Employees are consulted over their work patterns.

Support

Includes the encouragement and resources provided by the council, line management and
colleagues. The standard is that:

     •    Employees indicate that they receive adequate information and support from their
          colleagues and superiors; and
     •    Systems are in place locally to respond to any individual concerns.

What should be happening - states to be achieved:

     •    The council has policies and procedures to support employees adequately;
     •    Systems are in place to enable and encourage managers to support their staff;
     •    Systems are in place to enable and encourage employees to support their
          colleagues;
     •    Employees know what support is available and how and when to access it;
     •    Employees know how to access the required resources to do their job; and
     •    Employees receive regular and constructive feedback.

Relationships

Includes promoting positive working to avoid conflict and dealing with unacceptable
behaviour. The standard is that:

     •    Employees indicate that they are not subjected to unacceptable behaviours, e.g.
          bullying at work; and
     •    Systems are in place locally to respond to any individual concerns.

What should be happening - states to be achieved:

     •    The council promotes positive behaviours at work to avoid conflict and ensure
          fairness;
     •    Employees share information relevant to their work;
     •    The council has agreed policies and procedures to prevent or resolve unacceptable
          behaviour;
     •    Systems are in place to enable and encourage managers to deal with unacceptable
          behaviour; and
     •    Systems are in place to enable and encourage employees to report unacceptable
          behaviour.




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                                                                                 February 2006
       Role

       Whether people understand their role within the organisation and whether the council ensures
       that the person does not have conflicting roles. The standard is that:

                •   Employees indicate that they understand their role and responsibilities; and
                •   Systems are in place locally to respond to any individual concerns.

       What should be happening - states to be achieved:

                •   The council ensures that, as far as possible, the different requirements it places
                    upon employees are compatible;
                •   The council provides information to enable employees to understand their role and
                    responsibilities;
                •   The council ensures that, as far as possible, the requirements it places upon
                    employees are clear; and
                •   Systems are in place to enable employees to raise concerns about any uncertainties
                    or conflicts they have in their role and responsibilities.

       Change

       How organisational change (large or small) is managed and communicated in the
       organisation. The standard is that:


                •   Employees indicate that the organisation engages them frequently when undergoing
                    an organisational change; and
                •   Systems are in place locally to respond to any individual concerns.

       What should be happening / states to be achieved:

                •   The council provides employees with timely information to enable them to
                    understand the reasons for proposed changes;
                •   The council ensures adequate employee consultation on changes and provides
                    opportunities for employees to influence proposals;
                •   Employees are aware of the probable impact of any changes to their jobs.
                •   If necessary, employees are given training to support any changes in their jobs;
                •   Employees are aware of timetables for changes;
                •   Employees have access to relevant support during changes.




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February 2006
             202
April 2005
                                                                                                    Appendix C
                     HSE Indicator Tool for Work Related Stress – for full audit use only


                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
1    I am clear what is expected of me at work               1          2            3        4         5
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
2    I can decide when to take a break from the              1          2            3        4         5
     task
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
3    Different groups at work demand things from             5          4            3        2         1
     me that are hard to combine
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
4    I know how to go about getting my job done              1          2            3        4         5
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
5    I am subject to personal harassment in the              5          4            3        2         1
     form of unkind words or behaviour
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
6    I have unachievable deadlines                           5          4            3        2         1

                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
7    If work gets difficult, my colleagues will              1          2            3        4         5
     help me
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
8    I am given supportive feedback on the                   1          2            3        4         5
     work I do
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
9    I have to work very intensively                         5          4            3        2         1
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
10   I have a say in my own work speed                       1          2            3        4         5
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
11   I am clear what my duties and responsibilities          1          2            3        4         5
     are
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
12   I have to neglect some tasks because I have             5          4            3        2         1
     too much to do
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
13   I am clear about the goals and objectives for           1          2            3        4         5
     my team
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
14   There is friction or anger between colleagues           5          4            3        2         1
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
15   I have a choice in deciding how I do my work            1          2            3        4         5
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
16   I am able to take sufficient breaks                     1          2            3        4         5
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
17   I understand how my work fits into the overall          1          2            3        4         5
     aims of the council
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
18   I am pressured to work long hours                       5          4            3        2         1
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
19   I have a choice in deciding what I do at work           1          2            3        4         5
                                                           Never    Seldom      Sometimes   Often    Always
20   I have to work very fast                                5          4            3        2         1



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February 2006
                                                          Never   Seldom     Sometimes   Often     Always
21   I am subject to bullying at work                       5        4           3         2          1
                                                          Never   Seldom     Sometimes   Often     Always
22   I have unrealistic time pressures                      5        4           3         2          1
                                                          Never   Seldom     Sometimes   Often     Always
23   I can rely on my line manager/supervisor to            1        2           3         4          5
     help me out with a work problem
24   I get help and support I need from               Strongly                                    Strongly
     colleagues                                       disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5
                                                      Strongly                                    Strongly
25   I have some say over the way I work              disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

26   I have sufficient opportunities to question      Strongly                                    Strongly
     managers about change at work                    disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

27   I receive the respect at work I deserve from     Strongly                                    Strongly
     my colleagues                                    disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

28   Staff are always consulted about change at       Strongly                                    Strongly
     work                                             disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

29   I can talk to my line manager/supervisor         Strongly                                    Strongly
     about something that has upset or annoyed        disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
     me about work                                          1        2           3         4          5

30   My working time can be flexible                  Strongly                                    Strongly
                                                      disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

31   My colleagues are willing to listen to my        Strongly                                    Strongly
     work related problems                            disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

32   When changes are made at work, I am              Strongly                                    Strongly
     clear how they will work out in practice         disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

33   I am supported through emotionally               Strongly                                    Strongly
     demanding work                                   disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

34   Relationships at work are strained               Strongly                                    Strongly
                                                      disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            5        4           3         2          1

35   My line manager/supervisor encourages            Strongly                                    Strongly
     me at work                                       disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            1        2           3         4          5

36   Spare                                            Strongly                                    Strongly
                                                      disagree    Disagree    Neutral    Agree     agree
                                                            a        b           c         d          e

                               Thank you for completing the questionnaire.




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3.19     New and Expectant Mothers

Summary

       1.       New or expectant mothers, and their babies, need to be protected from potentially
                harmful workplace hazards. The controls, to safeguard both mother and baby, should
                be introduced following a risk assessment to identify any processes, working
                conditions, or physical, biological or chemical agents that may create the potential for
                harm. The working conditions or hours of work may need to be changed; or it may be
                necessary to offer alternative work; or (exceptionally) suspend the employee from
                work if the risk cannot be avoided by any other means. Pregnancy is not an illness –
                but some employees may need help with associated problems experienced in the
                workplace.

Procedures

Stage One

       2.       The fact that a woman of child-bearing age is employed must be taken into account
                when carrying out general risk assessments. This will ensure a seamless application
                of safety measures throughout the child-bearing years of staff and prevent anxiety
                creeping into what should be a happy event. See Figure 1 - Stage 1.

Stage Two

       3.       If an employee states that she is pregnant, or gave birth within the last six months, or
                is breastfeeding, the manager should ensure a risk assessment is carried out with the
                full involvement of the employee. See Figure 1 – Stage 2. The employer may ask for
                a medical certificate to confirm pregnancy. This should not delay the introduction of
                appropriate protective measures by the service manager. An employee who is three
                months pregnant and has related problems, will need more consideration than an
                employee who is six months pregnant with no problems.

       4.       The risk assessment should consider problems arising from:

                 •    Movements and postures
                 •    Manual handling – minimise especially the first 3-4 months
                 •    Shocks, vibration and movement
                 •    Noise – this may add to tiredness
                 •    Radiation – computers are not a radiation hazard
                 •    Harmful substances – full COSHH assessment required
                 •    Temperature – comfort must be maintained
                 •    Working conditions – the workplace environment
                 •    Working hours – night work, shift work or long hours

       5.       For computer users, it will be necessary to review the relevant parts of the DSE
                assessment. For all staff, any initial risk assessment will need to be reviewed.



February 2006                                   205
       6.       The best way to achieve a satisfactory outcome is to sit down with the employee and
                work through the risk assessment procedure, see Appendix A. Ask if they have any
                medical history that needs to be taken into account – privacy may occasionally
                require the involvement of the council’s doctor. Ask if there are any problems or
                worries. Resolve the issues and agree a regular review, at least monthly or more often
                if problems arise.

       7.       If the employer asks for a medical certificate and it is not provided within a
                reasonable time, the special measures can be discontinued.

       8.       The manager should resolve any problems regarding maternity cover in a way that
                does not increase the pressures experienced by the expectant mother.

       9.       Women of child-bearing age must be made aware of any general risk assessment that
                identifies potential problems for new and expectant mothers. This should ensure
                early declarations of pregnancy and application of suitable control measures. The risk
                must be a genuine concern before action is required – any doubt should be resolved
                by seeking advice.

       10.      The individual affected by the Stage 2 risk assessment must be included in the
                assessment process.


Responsibilities

       11.      Service managers and line managers should ensure that a risk assessment is carried
                out when they become aware of a staff pregnancy. Supervisors may become aware of
                a pregnancy and should alert their manager.

       12.      Staff should inform the council (in writing) if they become a new or expectant
                mother. Keep their manager informed of any work related problems. Enjoy the
                experience.

References

        HSE Booklet HSG 122 – New and expectant mothers at work
        Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1999
        Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992




February 2006                                   206
Stage one – Initial risk assessment
                                                                                          Inform workers of the
                                                                                           risk and the need to
                                                                                             notify you of the
                            Are there any                                                  pregnancy or if they
          NO               hazards present?                                                are breastfeeding or
                                                                                          have given birth in the
                                                       Assess risks, reduce or              last six months, as
   Inform employees                      YES            remove if possible                   early as possible.
     of the outcome




Stage two – On notification of pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding
                    Carryout a specific risk assessment based on initial assessment



                                                                Can the
       NO                                      YES                                      YES             Remove
                           Has a risk                            risk be
                                                                                                          risk
                             been                              removed?
                          identified?
      Monitor
        and
      review                                                      NO



                                                                             Action 1
                   Adjust working              YES                   Can the mother’s working
                   conditions/hours                            conditions/hours of work be adjusted?
                  on the same terms


                                                                       NO


                      Action 3
                                                                      Action 2
                 Suspend her from
                                                                 Can she be given
                 work on paid leave             NO                                                        YES
                                                                      suitable
                   for as long as
                                                                 alternative work?
                necessary to protect
                   her health and
                safety, or that of her
                        child
                                                                                                     Give suitable
                                                                                                 alternative work on
                                                                                                   same terms and
       All of the above actions should be monitored and                                               conditions
                  reviewed on a regular basis.


                                          Figure 1 – What you must do




February 2006                                           207
February 2006   208
     New or expectant mother risk assessment for (name)____________________________________

Look for the hazards                                Requirement                                            Evaluate the risks. Are           Priority =            Completed
                                                                                                           existing precautions adequate     Severity (1-3) x      Signature
                                                                                                           or should more be done?           Likelihood (1-3)      Date
                                                                                                                                             (Low, Medium, High)
1. Movements and postures                     a.           Minimise pace and intensity of physical work.
Prevent musculoskeletal injury by encouraging b.           Resolve postural problems
postural changes. Provide comfortable seating c.           Provide rest breaks
and encourage a mix of
standing/walking/sitting.

2. Manual handling                                  a. Avoid hazardous manual handling operations
Prevent musculoskeletal injury by reducing          b. The first 3-4 months are a particular concern
requirement to lift, push, pull etc.

3. Shocks and vibration                             a. Avoid physical shock and vibration eg frequent
Excessive movement and low frequency                driving on unmade roads or tracks.
vibration are hazardous.

4. Noise                                            a. Reduce workplace noise to comfortable levels
High noise levels for prolonged periods cause
increased tiredness

Signed                                          Initial date                          Signed                                 Reviewed date                         Date discussed

Signed                                          Reviewed date                         Signed                                 Reviewed date

Signed                                          Reviewed date                         Signed                                 Reviewed date                         Pages

Signed                                          Reviewed date                         Signed                                 Reviewed date                         File




     February 2006                                                                             209
Look for the hazards                          Requirement                                             Evaluate the risks. Are         Priority =            Completed
                                                                                                      existing precautions adequate   Severity (1-3) x      Signature
                                                                                                      or should more be done?         Likelihood (1-3)      Date
                                                                                                                                      (Low, Medium, High)
5. Facilities                                 a. A quiet restroom (non smoking)                       a. First aid room at Stratton
                                              b. Immediate access to toilet facilities                House
                                              c. Breastfeeding facilities, including a private room
                                              (not a toilet) with sterilising facilities and secure
                                              refrigerator.

6. Working hours                              a. If necessary, change working hours and rest breaks
                                              to reduce tiredness.
                                              b. Shift work may need to be adjusted if early
                                              morning sickness is experienced.

7. Temperature                                a. Avoid extremes of temperature and provide
                                              unrestricted access to drinking water.
8. Harmful substances                         a. Prevent exposure to chemicals with risk phrases
A full COSHH assessment is required if        R40 R45 R46 R49 R61 R63 R64 R68
exposure may occur. See chapter 3.15
                                              b. Prevent increased potential for exposure to:
With regard to infectious or contagious       hepatitis B, HIV, chickenpox, typhoid, TB,
diseases the employee at work must not be     Chlamydia, cytomegalovirus, Rubella, toxoplasma, et
exposed to a level of risk higher than that   al.
expected outside the workplace.
                                              c. Prevent exposure to chemicals absorbed through
                                              the skin eg pesticides

                                              d. Prevent exposure to high levels of carbon monoxide

                                              e. Prevent exposure to lead and mercury.




     February 2006                                                                       210
Look for the hazards                             Requirement                                               Evaluate the risks. Are         Priority =            Completed
                                                                                                           existing precautions adequate   Severity (1-3) x      Signature
                                                                                                           or should more be done?         Likelihood (1-3)      Date
                                                                                                                                           (Low, Medium, High)
9. Work related stress                           a. Minimise ill-health arising from workplace
Susceptibility to workplace stressors may        stressors
increase                                         b. Include the possibility of postnatal effects

10. Computers (display screen equipment)         a. Review the DSE assessment
                                                 b. Reassure that there is no risk of radiation from the
                                                 computer.
                                                 c. Introduce task variety
11. Lone working                                 a. Provide a means of raising the alarm if medical
                                                 attention is urgently require.

12. Working at height                            a. Avoid

13. Travelling                                   See the previous items
Increases risk of fatigue, vibrations, stress,
static posture, discomfort and accidents
14. Violence                                     a. Reduce the risk of exposure to violent clients.


15. Work equipment and personal protective       a. Ensure items can be correctly used by the member
equipment                                        of staff and remains suitable throughout pregnancy
                                                 and after childbirth

16. Nutrition                                    a. Provide frequent opportunities for additional meal
                                                 breaks

17. Hazards associated with radiation,           Not normally a hazard at West Dorset District Council
diving, mining




     February 2006                                                                           211
February 2006   212
3.20 Working at Height

Summary

       1.     Working at height creates a significant and unacceptable additional risk to the worker
              engaged in a poorly planned task. The result is that falls from height are the single
              biggest cause of workplace deaths nationally, other than accidents arising on the road.
              The sudden and irreversible consequences of a fall from height can only be prevented
              by ensuring that each task associated with working at height is carefully planned
              before deciding if the method of gaining access is appropriate. The overriding
              principle is to do all that is practicable to prevent anyone falling. Strict adherence to
              the principles and practices within the Work at Height Regulations 2005, and its
              Schedules, is the only acceptable solution. The hierarchy of controls to be applied
              are:

                  •    Avoid the work at height where possible;
                  •    If work at height cannot be avoided, use equipment to prevent falls, and
                  •    Where the risk of a fall cannot be eliminated, use equipment or other
                       measures to minimise the distance and consequences of a fall.

Planning and procedures

       2.     Work is ‘at height’ if a person could be injured by falling. This may include work at
              ground level or in a trench. Council employees often have control over work to be
              carried out at height and they have a duty to check that every reasonable measure is
              taken to ensure safety. The principle is that they ‘must do all that is reasonably
              practicable to prevent anyone falling.’

       3.     Before authorising any work at height it is necessary to ensure that the work is
              properly planned and supervised, the workforce is competent and the risks have been
              properly assessed and controlled. The equipment used must be maintained and
              inspected and any possibility of falling from height, including through a fragile roof
              must be prevented. Where the risk of a fall cannot be prevented, the consequences of
              the fall must be mitigated to a safe level. The planning checks are:

                  •  No work is done at height if it is reasonable practicable to do it at ground
                     level
                  • All work at height is properly planned, organised, supervised and risks
                     assessed
                  • Staff involved at all stages are trained and competent
                  • A plan is made for emergencies and rescue
                  • The place of working at height is safe and the fall distance is minimised
                  • The most suitable equipment is used and it is properly inspected and
                     maintained
                  • The risks from fragile surfaces and falling objects are properly controlled
                  • Weather conditions are actively considered – postpone the work if safety is
                     compromised.
Identification and amalgamation of work at height


                                                 213
        4.      All work at height should be considered for amalgamation into one cohesive group of
                tasks so that access equipment can be procured and used efficiently and effectively.
                The decision to delay a task until a suitable planned opportunity eg refurbishment,
                should be actively considered. Tasks such as window cleaning, replacing light bulbs
                and hanging festive or promotional decorations are not exempt from these constraints.

        5.      Requests for work passed to the Technical Services should state whether the task
                requires working at a height eg particularly is a ladder or stepladder required and/or
                whether the work is above the level normally accessible by the use of a kick stool.

Choice of access equipment

        6.      Ladders should not be used for working at height until it can be shown that: all other
                access methods are unsuitable; use of a ladder is safe; and it is the best method of
                access in that location. Scaffold, tower scaffold, cherry picker and permanent
                structures should be considered.

MEWP – cherry pickers etc

        7.      Mobile elevating work platforms (MEWP) are a quick and convenient method of
                temporary access for tasks where it is not intended to provide scaffold or tower
                scaffolds.

Scaffold providers

        8.      To prevent scaffold workers falling from height during the erection and dismantling
                of scaffold, scaffold providers, used by the council, should conform to the guidance
                provided by the National Access & Scaffolding Confederation eg SG4.05 or similar.
                Scaffold providers used by the council should be approved using the council’s
                contractor selection process or similar procedure.
Site visits
        9.      Staff who climb working platforms, scaffold etc, must be fully aware of the inspection
                requirements. They must ask to see the entry in the inspection register F91, prior to
                using the scaffold.

List of Schedules

        10.     The regulations have several useful Schedules (appendices). Staff working at height
                must be fully aware of the content of the relevant schedules. These include:

                2. Existing places of work and means of access or egress at height
                3. Collective fall protection (guard rails, toe boards and barriers)
                4. Working platforms
                5. Collective fall arrest equipment (nets, airbags etc)
                6. Personal fall arrest (restraint harnesses and ropes)
                7. Ladders and step ladders
                8. Inspection reports for working platforms
Inspection of items in Schedules 2-6

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       11.    All equipment and each workplace must be the subject of a suitable maintenance and
              inspection regime. Typically this will include a visual or more rigorous inspection
              (and appropriate testing) by a competent person:

                   •    After assembly and installation
                   •    Before use (and after use)
                   •    At other suitable periods to ensure safety

       12.    Any platforms used for construction must be inspected in place before use and within
              seven days. A competent person must prepare a report (as per Schedule 7) within that
              shift period and the written report must be made within 24 hours and kept until three
              months after the work is completed.

       13.    Equipment transferred between workplaces or businesses must be accompanied by
              appropriate clear certification of the last inspection.

Ladders and stepladders – see figures at Appendix A

       14.    Ladders should be chosen for the particular task and are only intended for light
              infrequent work, of a short duration. Class 1 or BS/EN 131 (Class 2) ladders and
              stepladders are intended for trade use. The ladder register, currently held by
              Technical Services, will hold details of inspection procedures as well as records of
              inspection and maintenance of each ladder and stepladder.

       15.    The ladder should be at least one metre higher than the highest rung used. The user
              must be able to reach the task without stretching or leaning out and be able to
              maintain three-point contact ie one hand and two feet. The ladder must be secured.
              Improvised stability devices should not be used.

       16.    Stepladders should be high enough to leave the top three steps unused unless an
              additional handrail is provided to facilitate use of the top step. The user should not
              work ‘side on’ to the work activity.

Fragile surfaces

       17.    No one should be permitted to work on or near fragile surfaces. If adjacent access is
              essential, suitable platforms, coverings, guardrails etc must be installed to minimise
              the risk. Any residual risk must be effectively controlled eg by reducing the distance
              and effects of a fall. Approaches to fragile surfaces must be clearly identified with
              prominent fixed warning signs.

Falling objects

       18.    Falling objects present a risk of serious injury and the risk of injury must be
              prevented. Nothing must be thrown or tipped from height. Items and equipment used
              at height must be properly stored and secured at all times to prevent the risk of them
              falling.




                                                215
Training

       19.      Everyone involved in the work must be trained and competent. This includes
                involvement in organising, planning, supervision, and the supply, maintenance and
                use of equipment. If the risk of falling is not eliminated, staff must be trained to
                avoid falls and how to minimise injury if they did fall.

Tool Box talks

       20.      Site supervisors will find the following HSE booklet useful during team talks -
                Indg403 - A toolbox talk on leaning ladder and stepladder safety.

Medical factors

       21.      Staff working at height and ladder users must report any medical problems that would
                affect safety. These may include:

                     •          Recurring dizziness
                     •          Epilepsy
                     •          Psychiatric conditions (inc fear of heights)
                     •          Heart or lung conditions
                     •          Significant impaired joint function
                     •          Use of medication that recommends you do not operate machinery
                     •          Alcohol and drug abuse

Responsibilities

       22.      Service managers are expected to provide a safe system of work for their staff and to
                ensure that this policy and associated guidance are implemented within their division.
                Each division will need to participate in this safety system to ensure tasks are
                correctly planned.

       23.      Staff must report any hazard, use equipment properly, and follow training,
                information and instruction. If a potentially unsafe situation arises, stop work and
                seek further instructions. Supervisors must enforce this policy.
References

       Work at Height Regulations 2005 (SI 2005 No 735)
       Temporary Work at Height Directive (2001/45/EC)
       Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 r13 (1)-(4)
       Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996
       BS 2037 and BS EN 131 are for metal ladders. BS 1129 is for timber ladders
       BS 8437 Selection, use and maintenance of fall protection systems
       The HSE guidance:

                Indg402 - Safe use of ladders and stepladders – an employers’ guide.
                Indg405 - Top tips for ladder and stepladder safety, a pocket card for workers
                Indg403 - A toolbox talk on leaning ladder and stepladder safety.


February 2006                                   216
                                                                                                        Appendix A




      Do not lean out or take one foot off the ladder      Correct – body within the stiles




      Do not use steps ‘side on’ to the task                        Correct – the steps face the task




Extracts from HSE guidance INDG402
– Safe use of ladders and stepladders




                                                         Correct – not stood on the top three steps




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February 2006   218