Common diseases of goat and sheep by mikeholy


									                                         Common diseases of goat and sheep

Disease / Condition                 Symptom                                            Treatment
Abortions                                                  See details

Acidosis – occurs after       Depressed, hangs its         Stop access to food. Drench goat with something alkaline such as
acci dentally taking in       head, drunken behavior,      bicarbonate of soda. 2-3 ounces will help neutralize acid. Walking
large quantities of           muscle twitching, b loat     goat has some value. Contact veterinary as needed.
concentrate foodstuffs        tends to occur, swelling
                              on left flank, may grind

Blackleg (Clostri di al       Often no symptoms are        May respond to immed iate treat ment with penicillin or other
Myositis) - caused by the     observed; At other           antibiotics in large doses. In swelled head, need to have vet aid in
soil-borne bacterium,         times, high fever, lack of   draining of a ffected area.
Clostri dium chauvei. The     appetite, depression,
disease devel ops rapi dl y   lameness, swelled head,
in affected ani mals and      and swellings that appear
often deaths occur before     in the muscles on various
the owner has noticed any     parts of the body.
sickness in the herd.         Somet imes the leg
                              muscles are involved, or
                              the muscles in the
                              region of the back, h ip,
                              flank, chest or shoulder.
                              In the latter stage of the
                              disease, these swellings
                              spread and become quite
                              mushy, producing a
                              characteristic crackling
                              sound when pressed with
                              the hand.

Bloat – gorging on            Tightly inflated flanks,     Drench with Mineral o il (6-8 fl oz) fo r an adult, (2+ fl oz) fo r kids.
anything unsuitable such      misery, collapse             Walk goat about, massage flanks.
as wet grass pastures or
after rai di ng food bi n                                  "Giving mineral oil is very effective in getting a goat
                                                           that has over eaten grain to speed that grain on it's way.
                                                           Vegetable oil will add to the digestive load, and can
                                                           cause more harm than good. Mineral oil is not
                                                           digestible, and I have used it with no problems at all.
                                                           Feed that is overeaten ferments, causes gas, and
                                                           acidosis to occur, which can lead to death. The object is
                                                           to speed it out of there without adding to the digestive
                                                           load." by Coni Ross
                                                                        Suggestion from visitor to web site.

                                                             Mix some baking soda in with the goat's feed they
                                                             really enjoy it and it takes away bloat.

                                                                                   Second Suggestion

                                                                     15cc Pepto-Bismol
                                                                     5cc Penicillin orally
                                                                     5cc SQ Penicillin
                                                                     5-7cc CD antitoxin SQ

                                                             Then give another shot of CD ANTITOXIN and Pepto later
                                                             that day as well to make sure all is okay...12-24 hours later
                                                             make sure you give the goat a probiotic to put the live
                                                             bacteria back into the rumen...You will need to repopulate
                                                             the gut once you clean it out

Bottle Jaw - Caused by          Lower face and jaw will      Your worming medicine may not be effective or you may not have
ani mal being infected          dramat ically swell          wormed recently. The animal needs to be wormed with a strong
wi th blood-sucking             especially during the        med ication every 11 days for three times. It may also be anemic
worms. Fluids are leaking       evening. Gu ms may not       and need iron and vitamins given. Their system will have difficu lty
fro m b lood vessels and        have the normal co lor       fighting off p roblems so you should use an antibiotic for several
flow to the lower parts of      because of being anemic.     days to help.
the body. As the animal
grazes during the day, the
flu ids build up in the head.
Over night the fluids may
partially drain away fro m
the head.

Caprine Arthritis               Knees becomes enlarges,      Isolate and remove animal fro m herd.
Encephalitis (CAE) –            lameness, weight
Virus. Infectious to            wasting, hard udder.
others.                         Pneumonia, chronic

Caseous                         Abscesses of the lymph       Isolate and remove animal fro m herd. Many breeders will get rid of
Lymphadenitis (CL)              glands. NOT ALL              animals with CL. So me breeders treat and manage animals with
– Infectious. B acteria         abscesses are CL. Your       CL. Abscesses can be lanced, remove discharge, and treated with
enters ani mal through          vet can test the ani mals    iodine for several times. Wear rubber gloves and destroy all
break in skin or mucous         to see if the abscess is     discharge. Spread through the eruption of abscess and discharge
membranes and localizes         CL or not.                   being exposed to other anima ls. Vaccine available at PHL
in lymph node                                                Associates, Inc.

Coccidiosis – coccidia          Off food, diarrhea, b lood   You can treat easily with Biosol. Depending on weight. Give
parasites. A disease of         in diarrhea, rapid weight    2-5cc to kids, and 7-10 cc to adults orally once a day for 5-7
young or stressed               loss, dehydration, may       days. Another treatment is with Corid liquid. We mix half
ani mals.                     show straining in            Corid and half water and drench with 1cc per 4 lbs for 5
                              attempts to pass feces,      days. Do not mix more than you will use in 3 days.
                              dehydration and fever

Colic – affect young kids     Kid is restless, cries out   Mild cases the pain quickly passes and returns to normal within
when dietary changes are      and tends to stand either    hours. If not, ½ pint of vegetable oil fo r adults and les s for kids
made. Mi xing milk            with its back arched or      followed by 1 g lass of spirits in 2 glasses of water, repeated hourly
repl acer at wrong            with its hind feet places    until pain stops.
concentration.                well back..

Coppe r Deficiency &

CYSTIC OV ARI ES:             Continues to come into       treat cystic ovaries quite successfully with an injection of HCG
                              heat every 4-5 days. She     (Hu man Chorionic Gonadotropin, an Rx) to correct the hormonal
                              will fail to co me into a    imbalance. That is followed about 9-10 days later by an in jection
                              true, standing heat, and     of Lutalyse
                              she will act ‘bucky’

Diarrhea (see article)

Enterotoxae mia –             Sudden loss of appetite.     The prognosis for recovery is guarded in caprine enterotoxemia,
(overeaters disease)          Depression and a             even with treat ment. Fluid therapy
Clostri dium perfringens      drunken appearance. As       providing mixed electrolyte solution with bicarbonate are indicate
type D bacteria produce       it progresses the animal     in acute cases to counter shock, dehydration an acidosis.
the poisons responsi ble,     becomes unable to stand      Co mmercially available type C and D antito xins should be
when conditi ons in the       and lies on side making      administered. Antibiotic therapy may be helpful in reducing
digesti ve tract depri ve     paddling movements.          bacterial
them of oxygen.               High temperature. Very       proliferation. Oral sulfas have been used successfully
                              watery diarrhea
                                                                     (see personal recommendation for treatment)

Floppy Kid                    Newborn kids seem to do      Remove ki d from source of Milk immedi atel y for 24 to 36
Syndrome -Some                well for a few days after    hours. Dissolve a teaspoon of sodium b icarbonate in a glass of
people believe it is caused   birth then start to show     water. W ith a syringe administer between 20 and 50 cc of the
by too much rich milk         depression and weakness      solution orally. Do it slo wly so the kid has time to swallow. Repeat
and others believe that it    of limbs that progress to    the treatment at 1, 3, 6, 12 hours fro m init ial treat ment. Feed
is associated with e-coli.    flaccid paralysis.           electrolytes as alternative until returned to milk. A lso administer a
                              Drunken appearance. No       wide spectrum ant ibiotic to prevent secondary bacterial infections.
                              signs of diarrhea or         ANOTHER POSSIB LE SOLUTION Treat ment is one-half tsp
                              elevated temperature.        baking soda, mixed with electrolytes and one-half teaspoon Pepto-
                              Possible distension of the   Bismo l.
                              abdomen.                      Repeat in 6-12 hours. Not required to pull fro m mother's milk
                                                           fro m this solution's perspective
                                                           Third Soluti on - If the kid can still walk but is wobbly then give
                                                           2cc long-acting penicillin orally and 500M G thiamin. The Th iamin
                                                           is mixed with the penicillin, and is imperative to recovery This
                                                           should work in 6 hours. If the kid is comatose, give 5CC %50
                                                           dextrose orally and keep warm. Give the pen and thiamin for 3
                                                           days once a day.
Foot & Mouth                  Blisters or vesicles form      Must be controlled fro m occurring. Animals exposed to the disease
                              in any of the following        are destroyed.
Disease - viral               places: lips, tongue, teats,
disease of cloven-            or the coronary band of
hoofed animals.               the hoof. Tend to become
                              lame and possibly
                              salivate excessively.

Foot Rot – Fusiformis         Lameness, mild to              Hoof paring in order to remove the underrun hoof. Apply
nodosus infecti on enters     severe. There is a foul        antiseptic agents in order to remove any infection.
the hoof and causes           smell associated with it.
inflammati on of the          Animals are reluctant to
sensitive laminae.            walk.

Gastro-intestinal             Diarrhea and weight loss,      Drench with dewormer med icine such as Ivomec, Cydectin. Make
roundworms – i nfest          anaemia                        sure the worms are not resistant to your wormer.
stomach and intestines
sucking blood or reducing
the absorption of digested
food materials from the

Goat Polio - see

Indigestion - - failure of    Off of food, slightly dull     Generally recovers within two days. Sodiu m b icarbonate given by
normal rumenal                                               mouth may be of some use if there is a tendency to acid conditio ns
movement. Associated                                         in the ru men. Offer an imal a quart of salt water with 25 g of
wi th high intake of                                         sodium bicarbonate dissolved in it.
concentrate foodstuffs.

Johne’s Disease –             Loss of condition,             None. Slaughter animal as soon as possible to prevent spread to
chronic incurable             occasional scouring,           other animals.
infection of the intestines   becoming more frequent
by Mycobacterium johnei       with bubbles of gas in the
bacterium. Causes a           droppings. Weakness.
thickening of the intestine   Thirst may increase.

Ketosis – Lactating doe       Goes off food. Milk yield      A glucose or treacle drench may be g iven. Co rticosteroid drug and
is unable to obtain l arge    falls. Sweet smell in the      oral propylene glycol.
amounts of energy feed        goat’s breath
and Ketones accumulate
in the blood

Lice – parasite               Intense irritation,            Louse powder will normally control the problem. Insecticides for
                              rubbing, bald patches and      spray or dip repeated.
                              itching, usually during
                              the winter months

Laminitis -                   Lameness and warm              Place on a reduced protein/energy diet such as hay with a very
inflammati on of the skin     feet. Moves with a             reduced or not concentrate ration and soft bed for lying down. Pain
layers around the hoof.                                      relief with a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as
Often caused by               stiff gait, prefers to         Phenylbutazone is essential. Chronis cases need careful foot
consumption of a highly       lay down or stay on            trimming to relieve pain by reducing pressure on the sensitive
concentrated or lush                                         areas.
forage diet. It may also be
                              knees. May also
associated wi th sicknesses   show signs of bloat,
such as pneumonia,            diarrhea and toxemia
mastitis, and metri tis.

Listeriosis - caused by       Depression, decreased          Admin istration of Procaine penicillin every six hours for three to
the bacteria Listeria         appetite, fever, leaning or    five days, then daily for an addit ional seven days.
monocytogenes, found in       stumbling or mov ing in
soil, water, pl ant litter,   one direction only, head
silage and goat's digestive   pulled to flank with rig id
tract. Brought on by          neck, facial paralysis on
feeding silage, sudden        one side, slack jaw, and
changes in kind of feed,      drooling, abortions.
parasitism, dramatic
weather changes and
advanced stages of

Lungworms – worms             Chronic cough                  Drench with dewormer such as Ivomec
inhabi t the air passages
and cause inflammation
(parasite pneumonia)

Mange, Chorioptic –           Itchiness may be noticed
Chorioptes caprae infest      and there may be small
the skin of the lower leg     crusty scabs.

Mange, Demodectic –           Small lu mps are noticed       Response to treatment is generally poor. Discuss with your
Demodex caprae invade         in the skin. They may be       veterinary.
the hair follicles and        like a cyst or bag of fluid.
sebaceous glands of the

Mange, Psoroptic –            May cause head-shaking         Gamma benzene hexachloride and gammexane can be used
Psoroptes caprae which        and scratching.
infests the ears

Mange, Sarcoptic –            Terrible itching, Skin         Infestation can be passed to other goats. Veterinary treat ment is
Saroptes scabei burrow i n    becomes raised, red and        required.
the skin and lay their eggs   hairless round the eyes,
in tunnels                    ears and nose.

Mastitis - infl ammati on     Misery, udder hot, hard        Antibiotics, and supportive therapy
of the udder, al most         and very tender, appetite
al ways associated wi th      lost, pupils of eyes
germs                         narrowed to slits

Mastitis (gangrene) -         bruised looking udder.                 CD antito xin -7cc SQ
inflammat ion of the udder,   Doe show signs of                      Poly Seru m - 10cc SQ
almost always associated     generalized illness:                  10cc Penicillin SQ & 5cc IM ,
with germs                   depression, fever or loss             Banamine - 1cc/100lbs IM
                             of appetite. Gangrene                 follow with 10cc Pen icillin SQ per day for 5 more days.
                             mastitis should be                    If you have Nuflor, give her 6cc/100lbs SQ first day, and
                             suspect if the udder is                3cc/100 for at least 5 days more
                             cold, swollen with an
                             excessive accumulation
                                                           . I know this
                             of fluid and the milk is
                             watery or bloody.
                                                           seems excessive, but this type of Mastitis is a true emergency.

                                                           You can spray the udder with Scarlet o il as it sloughs, and it will

                                                           clean up all by it's self. I have had does loose half of the udder, and

                                                           never stop eating with this treatment. If you catch it fast enough,

                                                           may actually save the udder.

Mycotoxin - "Myco            Excessive salavation,         Varies according to the source of problem. Remove the
means fungus and             depression, anorexia,         "bad" feed or hay from the animals immediately.
toxin means poison" -        convulsions, arched           Administration of activated charcoal may inhibit
a poisoning of an            back                          additional uptake of toxin from the gut. Mineral oil may
animal from a fungus                                       help.
growth normally in old
hay or feed.

Navel Ill – dirty            Young kid with swollen,       Antibiotic in jections. Area around the navel should be cleaned with
environments infecting       painful navel which may       antiseptic iodine, crusty scabs removed by soaking and any pockets
the navel cord after birth   look red                      of pus drained.

Pinkeye – infection of       A watery eye with excess      Flush eyes with 1 cc of penicillin o r Oxytetracycline for several
the eye s pread by agents    tears spilling over on to     days. Isolate animal fro m others to keep it fro m spreading.
such as flies, dust and      the skin. May be
long grass                   reddening and cornea
                             becomes cloudy. Animal
                             sensitive to the light.

Pneumonia – infection        Refuses food, stands          Antibacterial drugs such as Oxytetracycline. May require
of the lung                  around hanging head           veterinary-only drugs if severe.
                             down, sounds congested,
                             elevated temperature, and
                             coughs and breathes
                             rapidly or with difficulty.

Polioencephalomalcia         Excitability, "stargazing",   Thiamine is the only effective therapy, and treat ment can result in
(Goat Polio) - a             muscle rig idity,             improvement in as little as two hours, if the disease is caught early
Thi amine (Vitamin B 1)      uncoordinated staggering      enough. Dosage is related to body weight:
deficiency. From               and/or weaving,
improper feeding,              drunkenness, circling,       Use 500mg/ ml Th iamin. Start with a gram (1,000 mg) IM the first
particul arly feeding too      diarrhea, muscle t remor,    dose, then at least 500mg per day for as long as it takes for
much grai n and too little     head against wall, and       complete recovery. Give 10cc Penicillin orally, and 10cc SQ at
roughage.                      apparent blindness. A        first treatment. Po lio can be caused by plant thiaminase, or bacteria
                               rapid, involuntary,          that either inhibit production of thiamin in the goat's gut, or
                               oscillatory motion of the    consume the thiamin. Since we don't know what the origin is, It is
                               eyeball. As it progresses,   preferred to sterilize the gut, and start over. So, the oral penicillin
                               convulsions and high         will kill the bacteria if that is the cause. On the morn ing of day 2,
                               fever may occur, and if      calf pac the goat, and give 500mg Thiamin orally, and 500mg SQ.
                               untreated, the animal        Do not repeat any of the penicillin. If the goat will eat, feed her. If
                               generally dies within 24-    she can't eat, tube her or drench her with 100cc of Rev ive, 100cc
                               72 hours.                    of water several times a day until she can eat.

Pregnancy Toxemia -            Lethargy and losses of       Give doe propylene glycol t wice a day. We give 60cc drench in am
a metabolic disease of         appetite over one to two     and pm. We also create a mixture of sodium b icarbonate with
does in late pregnancy.        weeks, generally in very     water and give 30cc drench am and pm. Help get the doe up and
Most of the nutriti on is      late pregnancy. Limping      moving around during the day and offering food.
going to the ki ds. Similar    or swelling of feet.
to Ketosis. Ketosis is after   Laying around not            Another Solution Give her 3 Tbs Calf Pac mixed with
birthing.                      wanting to get up. Sweet-    100cc Revive and 100cc water. Give the doe 200cc of
                               smelling (ketotic) breath.
                                                            Revive every 2 hours, with Calf Pac in it. Also, once you get
                               Ketosis strips can be used   the doe awake, always give alfalfa, and corn with the sweet
                               to identify if the doe is    feed. Give her at least 6-8 oz. Magic at night to hold them.

Ringworms – Fungal             Grey-white crusty            Fungicidal p reparations applied as a liquid d ressing. Any of the
condi tion                     appearance on small          following daily for five days and then weekly:
                               areas of skin. Skin is
                               usually thickened and the            0.5% Lime sulphur
                               hairs thin or absent.                1:10 bleach
                               Generally no itching or
                                                                    1:300 Captan
                               evidence of irritat ion.             1% Betadine
                               En largement of affected
                               areas occurs.

(Sore Mouth) –                 Pimp les about the nose,     Difficult. Dress with antibiotic spray or oint ment. Isolate in fected
                               mouth, eyes, anus and        animals. There is a Ovine Ecthy ma Vaccine against sore mouth
Contagious Pustular            hoofs. Turning to watery     infection to all animals. Vaccine to infected animals may reduce
Dermatitis (ORF) -             blisters, then to sticky     the time to recover. We do not recommend vaccinating. We let
Highl y infectious viral       and encrusted scabs.         the soremouth run its course of 3 weeks and doctor severe cases.
disease to ani mals and        Swelling of mouth and        We use medication with Cephapirin Ben zathine in it. Two brands
humans. ORF is the name        gums. Will run a course      are Cefa-Dri and To morrow. CHX-Guard LA gel antibacterial
for this in humans.            of around three weeks.       agent adheres to the gums of infected animals.
                               Animals can die if they
                               are unable to eat or nurse
                               because of the sore

Tapeworms – inhabit            Examination of the           An anthelmintic such as albendazole can be used. Oral niclosamide
the small intestine            goat’s droppings. Young      is highly effect ive.
                               goats will pass tapeworm
                               segments in their feces
                               during the summer

Tetanus - Infecti on of     A general increase in        Goats can be treated with antibiotics such as penicillin and
open wounds by the          muscle stiffness is seen,    antisera, but response is poor. The site of bacterial proliferation
bacterium Cl ostri dium     causing an unsteady gait.    should be searched for and whenever possible, the wound or
tetani results in tetanus   Eyelid begins to extend      infection site should be opened to the air, debrided, flushed with
(lockjaw)                   over the eye and animal      hydrogen peroxide and infiltrated with penicillin. The area be
                            looks "anxious". The         infiltrated with tetanus antitoxin before the wound cleaning process
                            symptoms get                 is begun to reduce the chance that more pre-existing to xin will b
                            progressively worse and      absorbed during tissue manipulations.
                            convulsions may occur.
                            The goat dies because it
                            is unable to breathe.

Urinary Calculi             Restlessness, straining to   Most treatment must be done by veterinarians. Often requiring the
                            urinate, pawing the          removal of the t ip of the penis. Look at the details in the art icle on
(Urolithiasis)- A           ground, recurrent looking    Urinary Calcu li
hard mass of mineral        at its own abdomen,
salts in the urinary        vocal signs of pain
tract caused by a
dietary mineral
imbalance, usually in

White Muscle Disease        Stiffness, weakness and      Admin istration of seleniu m, together with vitamin E.
- deficiency of             tremb ling. Back legs
                            become stiff and unable      Link to a map showing counties Seleniu m levels
Vitamin E and               to use. Can result in
Selenium                    death

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