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Belle Epoque - Albany 8J

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					La Belle
Epoque
 (1870-1914

“The Beautiful
    Era”
  La Belle Epoque -- Political
• 1870-1914

• Political stability in western and central Europe

• Tension and cooperation between France and
  Germany
   – Congress of Berlin in 1878

• New Alliances, Same Old Differences
  – Workers find similarities that cross national
    boundaries (Socialism)
  – Tensions between working-class socialist parties,
    bourgeois liberal parties, and aristocrats remain
    (liberalism vs. Conservatism)
La Belle Epoque -- Social




Post-Impressionism: sharper,
more defined in some ways
than Impressionism, realistic
themes
Impressionism vs. Post Impressionism




                             “Still Life with a Plate of Cherries” by
                             Paul Cezanne
“On the Terrace” by Renoir
   Characteristics of La Belle Epoch
1. Materialism
    Higher standard of
     living
       Material goods
          and life span
    Development
     “zones”
      •   Inner
      •   Outer
      •   Underdeveloped
   Characteristics of La Belle Epoque
2. Increased European Population:
   “European Family Pattern”:
   Children go to school, not wage
   earners
3. Growth of Cities, Urban Life:
   1:7
4. Migration away from Europe
       1850-1940: 60 million
        left Europe
       Went to: US, Argentina,
        Brazil, Canada,
        Australia/NZ
       Jobs
Glenbow Archives, Calgary, Canada
P-4346C-4
  Characteristics of La Belle Epoque
5. “Second” Industrial Revolution
     Industrialized nations
     Electricity replaces steam
     Internal combustion, diesel engine
     Mass production
6. Free Trade
7. World Markets (gold standard)
8. Advance of Democracy
     Working class gets the vote
     Creation of “welfare state” (advances for
       Socialism)
Characteristics of La Belle Epoch
9.   The Appeal of Socialism
       1880s: popular in Germany and France
       Instability vs. Stability
10. Faith in Science Alone
       Science is core of industry
       “New Wonders” of daily life
       Charles Darwin
         •   Origin of Species [1859]
         •   “survival of the fittest”
    Characteristics of La Belle Epoch
10. Faith in Science Alone
      Medical Discoveries
      “Social Darwinism”
      Eugenics
      Einstein
         “Theory of
          Relativity”
  Characteristics of La Belle Epoque
10. Faith in Science Alone
      “new” sciences [anthropology, archaeology, etc.]
      Psychology vs. Positivism   (humans control their environment)

             Humans are not agents of Free Will
            Ivan Pavlov: conditioned responses
            Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) -- psychoanalysis
                o The Interpretation of Dreams [1900]
                o The role of the unconscious
  Characteristics of La Belle Epoch
11. New Trends in Philosophy
      Agnosticism
      Nihilism
        • Friedrich Nietzsche
               Übermensch  “Super Man”
      Positivism
      Irrationalism: reaction to positivism
      Existentialism
12. Internal Religious Struggles
      modernists vs. fundamentalists
        Nihilism, explained
• There is no objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic
  value to life
• Morality does not naturally exist
• Any belief in morality is contrived; morality is an
  artificial construction made by society to enforce
  certain desirable behaviors.
• For Kirkegaard, nihilism means suppressing an
  individual's uniqueness so that he becomes non-
  existent because there is nothing meaningful in his
  existence
• Nietzsche: When we discover the world does not
  have the value we thought it possessed, we enter a
  period of crisis.
                    Nietzsche
• We must empty ourselves of previous knowledge. It
  is tainted by the perspective/experience/bias of
  others
• Time Context
   – Europe was emerging from a time of order
     (church, monarchy, etc.). Modern science
     replaced “meaning” with “fact” (no room for God).
• Nietzsche didn’t love the idea of God and church.
   – Christianity created “pleasant symbols” to foster a false
     sense of security.
• He also criticized liberalism because it fostered a
  false sense of brotherhood and equality.
• Nihilism does not mean NO ORDER, but instead, a
  RE-ORDERING of meaning.
• The “Uber-Mensch”: Germans could re-create
  themselves.
              Existentialism
• “The Individual Defines Everything”
• Soren Kirkegaard (1813-1855)
• “Father of Modern Philosophy”

• Knowledge does not mean all truth is known
• Existence before “essence” (essence = who we are)
– There is no God . . . . Therefore,
– "Without God, all is permitted."
– The loss of God means the loss of all meaning and
  value, making all actions meaningless
– No right vs. wrong
– This makes the world not just pointless, but
  frightening
  “The Individual
Defines Everything”
Existence,
  but no
 Essence
The loss of all meaning and value, makes life meaningless
   The
 Scream
 by Edvard
Munch, 1893
  Existentialism, explained
• Every existentialist develops his own terminology
  because he finds everyday language inadequate
• An existentialist must rebel against a day-to-day
  view of the world because he finds no meaning in
  it.
• Human nature is determined by the course of life,
  not by human nature. We are free to reconstruct
  our lives.

 “We regarded any situation as raw material for our
   joint efforts and not as a factor conditioning them:
          we imagined ourselves to be wholly
       independent agents. ... We had no external
     limitations, no overriding authority, no imposed
  pattern of existence, We created our own links with
    the world, and freedom was the very essence of
        our existence.” -- Simone de Beauvoir, 1963
Characteristics of La Belle Epoch

        13. Anti-Semitism
              Dreyfus Affair
              Zionism”
        14. Women’s Movement


        15. “New” Imperialism
        16. Militarism  glorification of war
    France
During La Belle Epoque
The Third French
    Republic:

 The Paris
 Commune
   Third French Republic Declared
 September, 1870: France defeated at
  Battle of Sedan.

 New government Continued the fight against the
  Germans who laid siege to Paris.
    To defend Paris, a National Guard was raised
     numbering over 350,000.

 France surrendered in February, 1871 after
  40,000 Parisians died.
          The Third French Republic
 Prussian troops “conquer” Paris in March 1781

 New government:
     Moves to Versailles – Paris is dangerous
     Conservative/Royalist
     Accepted a humiliating peace with Prussia

 Paris in revolt
      Violence
      Gov sends in troops                         who
        sympathize with                           the
        Communards
      Paris rules itself
 Paris Commune     Paris in Revolt
  elects own gov.
  March 1871

 Rejected a
  Gov. that made
  peace with
  Germany

 Socialist
  government

 Controlled
  Paris for 2
  months
          Civil War


Troops from            Communards
 Versailles



 The Commune was finally
  suppressed by government troops
  during the last week of May 1871
  (“Bloody Week”)
  “Paris the Beautiful”
  “Paris the beautiful is Paris the
 ghastly, Paris the battered, Paris the
  burning, Paris the blood-spattered
                 now.

And this in the 19th century and Europe
   professes civilization, and France
 boasts of culture, and Frenchmen are
 braining one another with the end of
  muskets, and Paris is burning.” – an
              English visitor
Paris in Revolt
Paris City Hall Destroyed
      Attempted Communard Reforms

*   Allowed trade unions, workers cooperatives to take
    over factories not in use and start them up again.
*   Set up unemployment exchanges
*   Provided basic elementary education for all
    * strongly against church-controlled schools.
*   Girls schools.
*   Day nurseries near factories for working mothers.




        Too little time to accomplish much
     Communist Revolution?
                         Paris Commune
                          inspired later
                       revolutionaries like
                         Lenin in Russia.




Worker’s Revolution

“Dictatorship of the
    Proletariat”
Communard Casualties

                  * 25,000
                   Communards
                   killed

                  * 35,000 were
                   arrested
The Third Republic:

Government
 Structure
Declaring
 the 3rd
 French
Republic
      Overview of the 3rd Republic
 Politically unstable
    50 different govs. In the first TEN years!
    Rivalry between monarchists and republicans.
    Scandals:
         The Boulanger Affair.
         The Panama Canal Scandal
         The Dreyfus Affair


 Numerous factions -- all governments were coalitions
 Lasted until WWII
                The Constitution
*   The President:
      Head of state: little political power.
         Can dissolve the Chamber of Deputies with the
          support of the Senate



* The Senate:
    Elected in the counties
    Every 9 years
    Conservative
    “Chamber of Agriculture” – supports rural reform
                The Constitution

*   The Chamber of Deputies:
      Chosen every four years.
      600 members elected by universal male suffrage.
      Many groups:
         Socialists: many were Marxists.
         Moderate Republicans: middle class.
         Radicals: anti-clerical, anti church
         Monarchists: Catholics, Bonapartists, etc.
The Third Republic:


  Scandals
The Boulanger Affair
* “Bonapartism without a
  Bonaparte”

* 1886-89


* Rallied troops for revenge
  against Germany
         The Boulanger Affair
* Very popular with
  the troops

* Army dominated by
  monarchists. He was
  a Republican.

* Support grows for
  him to overthrow
  “Republic”
    The Boulanger Affair:
          The End
 Summoned to trial
 Fled to Belgium
 Committed suicide on the grave of his
  mistress
 Boulanger’s fall increased public
  confidence in the Republic
 Election of 1889 is a clear vote of support
  for Republicans
 The Panama Canal
Scandal 1881-1889
  Gov. Officials took
   bribes from the
   company to withhold
   news from the public
   that it was in serious
   economic debt

  Over 1 billion francs,
   lost

  22,000 lives lost
          The Panama Canal Scandal
* Most accused went unpunished
* Example of Anti-Semitism:
    Two German Jews were also involved  they received
      the most negative press coverage
* Results:
     Scandal changed public opinion: the Republic was corrupt
     Climate of anti-Semitism that would increase in time
100 Years Later . . .
                The Dreyfus Affair
*   France: Worst anti-Semitism in Europe until Nazi
    Germany

*   1894: a list of French military documents were found in
    the waste basket of the German Embassy in Paris.

*   French counter-intelligence suspected Captain Alfred
    Dreyfus
     * Alsatian Jewish family
     * One of the few Jews on
       the General Staff.
               The Dreyfus Affair
* Dreyfus was convicted of treason, sent to Devil’s Island
  (French Guiana)
* The real culprit was found (French), whose handwriting
  was the same as that on the documents.
      The government tried him, found him not guilty in
       two days.
* A famous author, Emile Zola, published an open letter
  called J’Accuse!
      Accused the army of a mistrial
       and cover-up.
      The govt. prosecuted him for
       libel
      Found guilty, sentenced to a
       year in prison.
Charged wit
  Treason:
“You are
  unworthy
  of your
  uniform.
  In the
  name of
  the French
  people, we
  degrade
  you.”
               The Dreyfus Affair

          Anti-Dreyfusards                Dreyfusards




*   Public opinion was divided, reflected the divisions in Fr.
    society.

* The Dreyfusards were anti-clericals, intellectuals,
  free masons, and socialists.
* For Anti-Dreyfusards, the honor of the army was
  more important than Dreyfus’ guilt or innocence.
     Were army supporters, monarchists, and
      Catholics.
Words of Emile Zola
       • “I have but one passion –
         that of light.

       • Let them dare to bring
         me before the court of
         appeals and let an inquiry
         be made in broad
         daylight.

       • I wait.”
Dreyfus, the Traitor!
             A reputation ruined
              The Dreyfus Affair

*   New trial in 1899



*   Results:
       Found guilty again, BUT with extenuating
        circumstances.
       Was given a presidential pardon.
       Exonerated in 1906
       Served honorably in World War I.
       Died in 1935
   The Third
French Republic:


 Religion
              Anti-Semitism
• Eugenics and Social Darwinism
   – Helps Europeans justify their anti-Semitic actions
   – Jewish people are a sub-group of Semitic peoples,
     entirely different from Aryan people

• Racial, not religious discrimination
   – genetic characteristics: greed, simony, aversion to
     hard work, clannishness, lack of social refinement,
     and lack of patriotism

• Anti-Semitism linked to nationalism
   – Jews a separate and often "alien" nation within a
     nation
   – Anti-Semitism in Russia = Pogroms
   – Anti-Semitism in Germany = Legislation in 1892
       The Zionist Movement

                 *   Austrian Jew

                 *   Motivated by the Dreyfus trial to
                     write the book, Der Judenstaat in
                     1896.

                 *   1st Zionist Congress in 1897

                 *   “Father of Modern Zionism”
Theodore Herzl
 [1860-1904]
                 *   Calls for a “Jewish Homeland” – the
                     “Promised Land”
Zion: The Promised Land
                    Herzl
                    negotiated
                    with the
                    British to
                    gain
                    portions of
                    the Middle
                    East
                    controlled
                    by Britain.
                   Catholicism
• Catholic church associated with the monarchy,
  conservatives
   – Most clergy opposed the 3rd Republic


• Liberals: church is threat to progress
   – Church control of education is keeping France
     inferior to Germany

• Church attendance:
   – In general, men at this time were non-practicing
   – Church remained popular with women and in certain
     outlying areas
   – Peasants still supported the Church, but middle
     class, army, gov. officials did NOT
      New Wave of Anti-Catholicism
*   The anti-clerical, republican left took power in the
    National Assembly in 1879.
       remnant of the French Revolution.
       in power until 1914
       No Catholic state minister or head of state during
        this time

* Ferry Laws [1879-1885]:
     Were the first major
      attempt at educational
      reform
                       Ferry Laws
*   Only the State can grant degrees
*   Free education in public primary schools
*   Religious instruction excluded from State curriculum.
*   Unauthorized religious orders [Dominicans and
    Jesuits] were forbidden to teach anywhere
*   Authorized Catholic orders could NOT teach in French
    public schools.
*   State improved training of teachers
*   Led to 1905 law that separated Church and State
    * Church property controlled by state
    * Clergy feel persecuted



    These laws created a deep division between
                Church and State
 The Third French
     Republic:

Foreign Policy
Goals of French Foreign Policy

Regain Alsace and Lorraine

End isolation in international affairs after the
  Franco-Prussian War.

Expand colonial empire and regain some
  prestige lost after the Franco-Prussian
  War.

Over time, France and Britain become allies
  against common enemy: Germany
       French Colonial
           Empire
*   Empire of 3rd Republic was the
    greatest France had ever
    possessed.

*   Ferry Laws
     * 2/3 of the missionary priests
       outside Europe were French

*   1914: France was second largest
    colonial power in the world and
    the largest in Africa.
Colonial Empires
          1889 Paris Exposition
                                     *   World’s Fair in
                                         honor of the
                                         French Revolution
                                         Centennial.

                                     *   Eiffel Tower,
                                         1889, entrance to
                                         fair




If London is the commerce capital,
Paris is the cultural capital.
   La Belle Epoque
• Politically unstable, but . . .

• Arts flourish. Paris center of
  fashion, music, theatre

• Art: Degas, Cezanne, Renoir

• Music: Debussy

• Science: Pasteur, Curie

• Eiffel Tower, Paris Metro

• Politics: France is the only
  REPUBLIC among great European
  nations
Degas
Cezanne
          Impressionism to
             Still Life
Victorian
England
             Queen Victoria
• 1819-1901, granddaughter of King
  George III
• Crowned 1837
  Victorian “Morality and Decency”
• Excessive concern over manners and
  propriety

• Morality is over-emphasized by
  Victoria

• General opposition of greed and
  exploitation
   – Growth of charities
   – Greed symbolizes Industrial Revo.
   – Marx and Engels used England as
     example
 Elements of
Victorian Life:
    Leisure
 Elements of
Victorian Life:
Entertainment
 Elements of
Victorian Life:
Outdoor Living
 Elements of
Victorian Life:
Adventure and
   Bravery
Victorian Architecture: Neo Gothic
          The Female Ideal
• Women are moral beacon in society
• Devotion to husband, family
• Homes are haven from pollution and corruption
• Women are without rights
   – Divorce laws
• Cities foster harsh conditions
   – Prostitution
   – Reform movement
      • Brothels
      • “rehabilitation”
      • literature
           Victoria’s Legacy
• Hindered women’s rights
• Growth of middle class
   – models and adapts upper class values
• Imperialism
• Reforms
• “Grandmother to Europe”
   – Alliances
      • German Kaiser
      • Russian Tsar AND Tsarina
      • Queens of Greece, Norway, Spain, Romania
Victoria’s Legacy
   Quotes by Queen Victoria
• “We are not interested in the possibilities of
  defeat; they do not exist.”

• On Women
   – “The Queen is most anxious to enlist every one who can speak
     or write to join in checking this mad, wicked folly of
     "Woman's Rights” . . . Making females forget every sense
     of womanly feeling and propriety.”

   – But also a contradiction. . . .

   – “When I think of a merry, happy, free young girl -- and look
     at the ailing, aching state a young wife generally is doomed to
     – I cannot deny is the penalty of marriage.”
            Britain: 1850-1870s
* The most prosperous period in British history.
     Unprecedented economic growth.
     Free trade.
     Imperialism brings new markets
        monopolies
     British engineers were building railroads all over the
      world.
     Britain’sforeign holdings nearly doubled.

   * BUT, Britain’s prosperity didn’t do away with
                  political discontent
         The “Victorian Compromise”

*   Dissent grew amongst two political parties

       Tory Party = Conservative
        Led by Benjamin Disraeli

       Whig Party = Liberal
        Led William Gladstone
       Victoria’s Two “Great Men”
                                   Benjamin Disraeli,
                                     Conservative
                                     Prime Minister
                                        Tory
                                        1868
                                        1874-1880

William Gladstone, Liberal Prime
 Minister
    Whig
    1868-1874
    1880-1885
    1886
    1892-1894
 2nd Reform Bill - 1867
Disraeli’s Goals:
     Give the Conservative Party (Tories) control over
      the reform process.
     Labor would be grateful and vote Conservative.

Components of the Bill:
    Extended the vote by 900,000+ (increase of 88%)
    Vote given to male householders and male lodgers
     paying at least £10 for room.
    Eliminated rotten boroughs (fewer than 10,000
     inhabitants)
    Extra representation to larger cities (Liverpool,
     Manchester)
  2nd
Reform
  Bill
 1867
        Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)

*   Jewish

*   Imperialist
      “Greater England”
       foreign policy.

*   Respected by Queen
    Victoria.
           Quotes by Disraeli
• Fear makes us feel our humanity.

• I say that justice is truth in action.

• Man is only great when he acts from passion.

• I repeat... that all power is a trust; that we are
  accountable for its exercise; that from the people and for
  the people all springs, and all must exist.

• If Gladstone fell into the Thames, that would be a
  misfortune; and if anybody pulled him out, that I suppose
  would be a calamity.

• Everyone likes flattery; and when you come to Royalty you
  should lay it on with a trowel.
William Gladstone (1809-1898)
       *   Moralistic,
           “Preachy”

       *   Queen Victoria
           strongly disliked
           him.

       *   “Irish
           Question.”

       *   Supported
           “Little England”
           foreign policy.
        Quotes by Gladstone
• Here is my first principle of foreign policy: good
  government at home.

• It is the duty of government to make it difficult for
  people to do wrong, easy to do right.

• Justice delayed is justice denied.

• Liberalism is trust of the people tempered by prudence.
  Conservatism is distrust of the people tempered by
  fear.

• Nothing that is morally wrong can be politically right.

• Selfishness is the greatest curse of the human race.
Gladstone on Imperialism
“Remember the rights of the savage, as
             we call him.

 Remember that the happiness of his
humble home, the sanctity of life in the
 hill villages of Afghanistan, among the
winter snows, is as inviolable in the eye
 of Almighty God, as can be your own.”
                Gladstone

Goals: (“Gladstonianism”)
    1. Decrease public spending
    2.Reform
          Do away with privilege: meritocracy
          Protect democracy through education
    3. Promote peace abroad to help reduce
       spending and taxation, and to help
       enhance trade
          Low tariffs
          All political questions are moral
           questions
                        Gladstone
 1868: Army reform: Reduced excessively
    cruel punishments
   1869: Disestablishment Act: Irish
    Catholics did not have to pay taxes to
    support the Anglican Church in Ireland
   1870: Education Act: elementary
    education for Welsh and English
    children between 5-13 years
   1870: Irish Land Act: Absentee
    Protestant landowners can no longer evict
    their Irish Catholic tenants without
    compensation
   1871: University Test Act: Non-Anglicans
    could attend British universities
   Gladstone

 1872: Ballot Act
   secret ballot for
   local and general
   elections

 Liberal “Hero”

 Civil service exams
  introduced for many
  government positions
  (meritocracy, not
  privilege)
           Gladstone
 Domestic Policy
    1884 Reform Bill --
     Extended the franchise
     (vote) to agricultural
     laborers (Added 6,000,000
     to the total number who
     could vote in parliamentary
     elections)

    1885: Redistribution of
     Seats Act -- M.P. seats in
     Commons reflect new
     demographic changes
                        Gladstone
3rd Ministry: 1886
      First introduced Irish Home
        Rule Bill
          Split the Liberal Party.
          Gladstone lost his
            position in a few months

4th Ministry: 1892-1894
      1893: Reintroduced a Home
        Rule Bill.
          Provided for Irish
            Parliament.
          No Irish independence
          Passed by the Commons,
            rejected in the House
            of Lords.
                    Disraeli
 1875: Artisan’s Dwelling Act
 Govt. defines minimum housing standards

 1875: Public Health Act
 modern sewer system in the big cities, sanitary code

 1875: Pure Food and Drug Act
 US models this law in 1906

 1875: Climbing Boys Act
 licenses only given to adult chimney sweeps

 1875: Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act
 allowed peaceful picketing
                       Disraeli
 Domestic Policy
    1876: Education
     Act: Parents MUST
     send elementary
     children to school

    1878: Employers
     and Workmen Act:
     allowed workers to
     sue employers in
     civil courts if they
     broke legal
     contracts.
Home Rule for Ireland




Gladstone debates Home Rule in Commons.
  Background: Irish Independence
• 1829: Catholic Emancipation
   – Catholics can vote, hold
     political office
• Absentee landlords (British) could
  evict tenants at will
• Irish language forbidden in use or
  teaching

• 1845 Potato famine
   – ¾ of Irish farmland used for
     crops sent to England

   – Not a shortage of food

   – 1 million emigrate to US and
     Canada; 1 million dead in 4
     years
        The Potato Famine
“. . . Six famished and ghastly skeletons were
   huddled in a corner on some filthy straw. I
   approached with horror, and found by the low
   moaning they were alive – they were in a
   fever, four children, a woman and what had
   once been a man . . .” – American visitor to
  Ireland

American churches sent aid and organized relief
 efforts.
  What Does “Home Rule” Mean?
• 1870: “Ireland for the Irish”

• Gladstone: “Allow home rule with honour
  today rather than be compelled to give it
  tomorrow with humiliation.”

• 1914: After 3 tries in one year, Home Rule
  is passed by both houses
   – Decades of trouble
   – Parliament is located in Dublin (Catholic
     majority)
   – Protestant minority fears Catholic
     majority and a divided nation
      • Ulster Rebellion
   – Uneasy peace until 1921
             Women’s Rights
• Roots in Chartist Movement (but never adopted by
  Chartists)

• 1857: Women can divorce and sue husband

• 1882: Married women gain the right to own property

• Suffragist societies form in the 1850s
   – Women discuss political issues, setting the
     foundation for proficiency to vote

• The “Suffragette” emerges in the 1870s
   – Radicals who demand right to vote
          Use of Violence
“There is something that governments value
  more than human life. That is the security
  of property, so it is through property that
  we shall strike at the enemy.”

Burned churches, vandalized neighborhood
  shops, homes of MPs were bombed, golf
  courses destroyed

Only WWI stopped the violence.
 Women’s Social and
   Political Union
    [W.S.P.U.]
• Used public gatherings,
  marches

• Hunger strikes
                Emmeline Pankhurst
*   Formed WSPU with daughter

*   Supported by husband and children

*   1917: She and her
    daughter formed the
    Women’s Party in 1917:
       Equal pay for equal work
       Equal marriage, divorce
        laws
       Equality of rights,
        opportunities in public service
       A national system of maternity
        benefits
Propaganda against Women’s Suffrage
Advertising
the Cause
          Cat and Mouse Act
• British gov. afraid to use violent tactics against
  educated women

• During hunger strikes, force feeding was not used.

• When they were at their weakest, they were
  released.
   – If they died out of prison, this was of no
     embarrassment to the government.
   – Most were so weak that they could take no part in
     protests

• When they regained their strength, they were re-
  arrested for trivial reasons and the whole process
  started again.
          “Educated Women?”
• The first martyr: 1913
      • The Derby incident
      • Harmed the cause.


   – Men asked: if this is
     what an educated
     woman does, what
     might a lesser
     educated woman do?

   – How can they
     possibly be given the
     right to vote?
“Women of
 the Past,
Women of
    the
  Future”
Representation of the
  People Act (1918)

         *   Women over 30 got the
             right to vote

         *   All men gained suffrage.
                Property qualifications
                 were completely
                 eliminated!

         * Reform Act of 1928
             Women over 21 years of
              age gained the right to
              vote
   Victorian
    England

Foreign Policy
        The Foreign Policy Debate


         “Big England” Policy       “Little England” Policy




                                * Gladstone
* Disraeli
                                * Liberal Party
* Conservative Party
                                * England must invest in
* England must be the             her own people at
  greatest colonial power         home
* Spend money on                * Try negotiations,
  supporting the empire           rather than costly
                                  military solutions
   Victorian
   England:

Foreign Policy
   Issues
    "C is for Colonies
     Rightly we boast,
That of all the great nations
Great Britain has the most.“
 –- British children’s book, 1880s
    Suez Canal

*    1869:
     Disraeli
     pushed for
     the
     completion of
     the Suez
     Canal.

*    Vital in
     getting goods
     from India to
     England
Constructed 1858 by France (loss of 120, 000 Egyptian
slaves). Jointly owned by France and Egypt.

British see France as a threat in the area. Incite revolt.

1875: Britain buys Egypt’s share of canal.
           “Scramble for Africa”
*   Gladstone opposed the
    “Mad Scramble.”

*   Most British envisioned
    control from the “Cape to
    Cairo”

*   European nations meet in
    Berlin (1880s) to discuss
    Africa

*   Sets off period of formal
    Imperialism
          Boer Wars (1880-1902)
* British vs. Dutch settlers (Boers = “farmers”)
* Britain gained Cape Colony in 1815
* Boers fled Brit. rule, migrated north, set up
  independent republics
* Gold and diamonds in Boer lands led to conflict with
  Britain

* Boer War -- British won
  (just barely) – 1899-1902

• 1910: Cape colony and former
  Boer republics = Union of
  South Africa
   – Apartheid (until 1993)
Boer War
           British
             persecution
             of Boers,
             suppression
             of Boer
             culture
           Boer women and
             children in a
             concentration
             camp
     Anglo-Japanese Alliance
• 1902 (renewed 1905, 1911, ended 1921)

• Ally in East Asia to contain Russia and protect British
  commercial interests in China

• Coaling stations and repair facilities in the west
  Pacific

• Promise to support each other in the event of war
   – Russo-Japanese War (1904–05)
      • Creates tension between England and Russia
   – Japan entered World War I on the British side
The “children”
 are China
 and Korea
The Ottoman Empire
             “The Sick Man”
• Strategic location leads to foreign invasion
   – Suez Canal (1869): Britain expects to control region
   – Russo-Turkish War 1877

• After Crimean War, unable to pay back loans to
  European countries
   – Developing Economy: “Outer Zone”

• Cultural Gap: not European

• Rising Nationalism
   – Greek, Serbian independence
   – Young Turks
Keeping the “Sick Man of Europe” in Good Health
Young Turk
Revolution -- 1908
       India: The British Raj (1858)

                                 • Before 1858: Princely
                                   states “ruled” by B.E.I.C.
                                 • After 1858: power
                                   transferred to Britain




The new “Empress of India” receiving the
“Jewel in the Crown” of her Empire, 1858
           Indian Discontent
• Greed, disregard for local customs

• Sepoy Rebellion 1857
   – Land reverts to crown
   – Mutiny by Indian troops against British officers

• Post 1857: Equal treatment promised
   – Religious, cultural centers shut down
   – Famine (weather and export of food crops)
   – Destruction of native industries
   – Taxes to pay for increased British influence
“Defeat of the Indian Mutiny” 1857
 Britain Is
Everywhere
 The Sun
Never Sets
  on the
  British
  Empire
          The British Empire
• In the words of one writer in 1905
   – 1 continent
   – 100 peninsulas
   – 1000 lakes
   – 2,000 rivers
   – 10,000 island
   – 1/6 of the world’s land in Victoria’s reign
   – ¼ of the world in Edward VII’s reign
      • “2 acres gained every time the clock ticks since
        1800”
England’s Economic Decline
       (1870s-1914)
 Germany, U. S. became England’s chief economic rivals.

 Germany, U. S. overtake Britain in iron and steel production

 England’s share of world trade fell
    23% in 1876 to 15% in 1913

 British science and technological education lagged behind
  Germany

 England slow to modernize aging industrial infrastructure

 England clings to free trade -- everyone else has tariffs
                    Fabianism
 1884: Founded to introduce socialism to GB
 Intellectual movement
 advance socialism through
  the political system,
  not revolution.
 Laid the foundations for
  Labour Party

 Famous Fabian Society
  members:
     George Bernard Shaw
     H. G. Wells
     Emmeline Pankhurst
     John Maynard Keynes
                   Fabianism
• Named after Fabian, a Roman general who used
  constant harassment instead of vicious battles

• After 1920: Linked to Leninism
   – Differences: Fabianism believes in blending into
     the existing social structure. Leninism believes in
     destroying it.
          The British Labour Party
* Founded in 1900
* The growth of labor
  unions gave voice to
  socialism in Britain

     Formed political coalition with the
      Liberal Party

     1920s: Labour replaced Liberals as
      one of the two major British political
      parties
The Beginnings of the “Welfare State”

Labour’s Political Agenda:
       Gradual socialization of key industries and utilities
       Workman’s Compensation Act
       State employment bureaus
       Minimum wage
       Aid to dependent children, the elderly
       Old age pension to all over 70
       National Insurance Act
       Everyone agrees this is good but there is a BIG
        QUESTION:


             How to pay for all of this?
    The “People’s Budget”
*   Liberals dominated government
    from 1906 to 1924

*   Liberal David Lloyd George,
    presented a “People’s Budget” in
    1911:
       Radical Plan: Increase income
        taxes for those in the higher
        brackets
       Also, raise the inheritance tax

*   The House of Lords rejected this
    budget
          The Parliament Act of 1911
*   Political crisis
       Why? Lords had traditionally approved
        all revenue bills passed by the Commons in
        the past
       Solution: By threatening to create
        more Liberal peers,
        King George V forced the
        House of Lords to pass
        this bill
*   Known as 4th Reform Bill

*   Provisions:
       Lords could not defeat a bill passed three times by Commons
       Lords can’t hold up revenue bills for more than one month
       Members of Commons would be paid a salary
Today’s Labour Party

      • Voter base originally in
        industrial areas

      • “No rights without
        responsibilties”

      • Since 9/11,
        Conservatives
        gaining strength

				
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