Avian Anatomy - PowerPoint

					Avian Anatomy:
Musculoskeletal


   P. T. Redig
Objectives
 Provide details of clinically important
  anatomical aspects of avian skeleton
 Provide details of anatomical contraints
  imposed by flight on the avian skeleton
Origins and Evolutionary
Radiation
   Theropod Dinosaurs --
    85-160 million years
    ago
   Presently, over 9,500
    species of birds
    compared to about
    4,000 mammals
Array of Avian Anatomical
Diversity


       See 35 mm slides - 11
Retained Dinosauran Features
   Egg-laying
   Feathers as modified
    scales (new evidence
    indicates Velociraptors
    may have had
    feathers)
   Air Sacs
Concessions to Flight and
Aerodynamics
   Center of Gravity Shift
   Reduction in weight of
    head -- no teeth*
   Increase mobility of head
    and neck*
   Increased mobility of
    mouth parts -
    craniokinesis*
   Scleral Oscicles*
   Pneumatization*
   Trussing*
Fusion of Axial Skeletal
Elements*
Additional Aspects
   Scapula*
   Coracoid and Furcula
   Triosseal Canal*
    (foramen triosseum)
   Uncinate process*
Skeletal Structure of Modern Bird

   Note keel for
    attachment of flight
    muscles
   Note position of
    femurs
Unique Muscle Configurations
   Pectoralis Major
   Supracoracoideus
   Wing Mechanics**
Forelimb Anatomy
   Humeral features
   Antebrachium
   Metacarpus
    –   Alula*
    –   Major and Minor
        Metacarpal
   Flight Feather
    Attachment*
Propatagial Tendon
Musculature of Pectoral Limb:
Humerus
   Biceps
   Triceps
   Deltoid
   Radial Nerve
Musculature of the Pectoral
Limb: Antebrachium
   Extensor carpi radialis
   Common digital
    extensor
   Extensor metacarpi
    ulnaris
   Supinator
Osteology of the Pelvic Limb:
Femur
   Femur
   Synsacrum*
   Acetabulum (gliding
    joint)
Osteology of the Pelvic Limb:
Tibiotarsus
   Stifle Joint
   Hock Joint
   Fibula
   Cnemial Crest
Osteology of the Pelvic Limb:
Tarsometatarsus and Digits
   Embryonic fusion of
    bones to form
    tarsometatarsus
   Digital Formula
    –   Numbering
    –   Hallux
    –   Elements: one more
        than the number of the
        digit
Musculature of Pelvic Limb:Hip
and Femur
   Quadriceps equiv.
    –   Iliotibialis cranialis
    –   Iliotibialis lateralis
   Iliofibularis
   Femerotibialus
    externus
   Surgical Approach to
    femur
Myology of Pelvic Limb:
Tibiotarsal Region (medial)




Gastrocnemius - 3 heads
Fibularis longus
Tibialis cranialis
Long digital extensor
Ophthalomological Anatomy


       Afternoon Seminar

				
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posted:6/26/2011
language:English
pages:20