Spain's Powerful Empire

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					Spain’s Powerful Empire
    1555 Charles V unwillingly agreed to Peace of Augsburg
          o Allowed German prince to choose religion of their territory
    1556 Charles retired and left his land to family
          o Ferdinand
                   Brother
                   Austria and Holy Roman Empire
          o Philip II
                   Son
                   Spain, Spanish Netherlands, American Colonies

Philip II’s Empire
     Empire included Portugal, Africa, India, East Indies
     Empire provided him with incredible wealth
     1600 American mines supplied Spain with 339,000 pounds of gold
     1550 and 1650- 16,000 tons of silver were unloaded from Spanish ships
     King of Spain claimed between ¼ and 1/5 of every ship load of treasure as his
        royal share
     Wealth allowed Spain to have a standing Army of 50,000
Defender of Catholicism
     Philip took over Europe was experiencing religious wars caused by Reformation
     Religious conflict was not new to Spain >Reconquista was complete 64 years
     1571 Pope wanted all Catholic princes to go up against power of Ottoman Empire
     Philip responded with 250 Spanish and Venetian ships and defeated the Ottoman
     1588 Philip launched Spanish Armada in order to punish Protestant England but
             o Defeat set back Spain but its wealth gave appearance of strength
     Philip’s Palace
             o Name Escorial
             o Massive walls and huge gates=power
             o Monastery=Faith
Golden Age of Spanish Art
     Spanish great wealth allowed Monarchs and nobles to become patrons of art
     16th and 17th works of 2 great painters show both faith and pride of Spain
             o El Greco “The Greek”
                     Puzzled people
                     Brilliant clashing colors
                     Distorted human figure
                     Expressed emotion symbolically
                     Showed deep Catholic faith of Spain
                           Ex: Saints & Martyrs
             o Diego Velazquez
                     Showed pride of Spain’s monarch
                     Painted 50 years after El Greco
                    Court Painter to Philip IV of Spain
                    Known for portraits of royal family and scenes of court life
                    Used rich color
                         Ex: Juan de Pareja
Don Quixote
    Publication of Don Quixote de La Mancha was often called the birth of a
       Modern European novel
    Written by Miguel de Cervantes about a poor Spanish nobleman going crazy after
       reading too many books about heroic figures
           o 2 Beliefs
                   It was believed Cervantes was mocking Chivalry
                   Some believe it as a romantic
Problems Weaken the Spanish Empire
    Inflation and Taxes
           o 2 Causes of Inflation
                   Spain’s population had been growing > increase in food demand>
                     merchants prices increase
                   Silver bullion flooded the market its value dropped (it took
                     increase amounts of silver to buys things)
           o Other Causes
                   Expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain
                          1500 lost many valuable artisan and business people
                   Spain’s nobles did not have to pay taxes
                   Lower classes have to burden taxes prevent them getting to start
                     own business
                   Spain never developed a middle class
Making Spain’s Enemies Rich
    Guilds dominated business in Spain
           o Old fashioned methods used
           o Cloth and goods cost more $ in Spain> went elsewhere
           o Spaniards bought goods from other countries
           o Spain’s wealth went to other countries who were enemies
    To finance wars Spain kings borrowed money from German and Italian bankers
           o Shiploads of silver sent abroad to pay debts
    Spain went bankrupt 3 times

The Dutch Revolt
    Philip increase taxes in Netherlands
          o 1566 Protestant mobs swept through Catholic Churches
    Philip sent army to punish them and 1,500 Protestant and suspected rebels killed
      in one day
    William of Orange (Netherlands) wanted to free Netherlands from Spain but
      motives were political not religious
    At first William lost battle after Battle
    1574 William opened the flood gates in the city of Leiden which was besieged by
      the Spanish and flooded them out
       1579 Seven Northern Province of Netherlands largely protestant united and
        declared independence from Spain (aka: United Provinces of Netherlands)
     10 Southern Provinces (Today – Belgium) were Catholic and under Spanish
The Independent Dutch Prosper
     United Provinces of Netherlands
            o Religious tolerance practices
            o Not a kingdom but a republic
            o Each province had elected governor > power depended on support of
                merchants and land holders
Dutch Trading Empire
     Stability of government allowed for concentration of economic growth
     Had the largest fleet of ships in world
     Gradually Dutch replace Italians and Germans as Bankers of Europe because
        trade routes in the Atlantic are more important than Mediterranean
Dutch Art
     1600 Netherlands had best banks and best artists
            o Rembrandt van Rijn
                     Wealthy middle class merchants
                     Group portraits
                     Showed individual by capturing distinct facial expressions and
                     Sharp contrast of light and shadow
                     Famous at the time
            o Jan Vermeer
                     Domestic indoor setting
                             Ex:Woman pouring milk
                     Famous later
Absolutism in Europe
The Theory of Absolutism
     Kings and Queens who believed that all power within their state’s boundaries
        rested in their hands
     Goal was to control every aspect of society
     Believed in “Divine Right”-idea that God created monarch and monarchs acted as
        God’s representative on earth
     Absolute monarch answered only to God
Growing Power of Europe’s Monarchs
     Reason for Increase of Power of Monarchs and Centralized authority
            o Decrease in Feudalism
            o Increase in # of cities
            o Increase in nationalism
            o Increase in middle class (backed monarchs because promised peaceful
                supportive climate for business)
     Monarchs used money from colonist to pay for ambitions
     Church authority decreased which led to increase power in the monarch
Crises lead to Absolutism
   Constant religious and territorial conflicts
       o Increase in government to build armies and Increase taxes > led to
          widespread unrest and revolt
       o Monarch respond by increasing its own power
       o Regulated everything
                Religious worship
                Social gatherings
                Increased court size to seem more powerful
       o Goal was to free themselves from limitations imposed by nobility and
          representative bodies such as Parliament

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