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THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (PowerPoint)

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									 THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS




KENNEDY
                         KHRUSHCHEV


          FIDEL CASTRO
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

 • Causes
 • Events
 • Consequences
     THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
                            OVERVIEW
• Latin America especially Central America was considered by the USA to
be its own ‘backyard’. The USA was by far the strongest country in the
Americas and it had great influence over political and economic policies in all
the countries in the region. It used this influence to keep Communism out of
‘their backyard’. Any revolutionary movements in Latin America were usually
quickly suppressed by the USA.
• In 1959 a Revolution in Cuba brought Fidel Castro to power. Whether
Castro was a Communist at this time, we do not know. However, the USA
decided he was acting like a Communist and backed an unsuccessful attempt
to overthrow him. This pushed Castro towards becoming an ally of
Khrushchev the Soviet Leader.
•The Soviet Union supplied economic aid and military support to Cuba and in
1962 decided to station Nuclear Weapons in Cuba. When the USA found
out, the Cold War looked as if it was about to turn HOT!!
• As Soviet ships carrying Nuclear Weapons steamed towards Cuba, America
decided to surround the island with its Navy.
• The World waited in fear of a full scale Nuclear War, but they breathed a
sigh of relief when the Soviets backed down.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS IMAGES
  THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
Long Term Causes              CAUSES
•In 1898, Cuba gained independence from Spain, and thereafter, it
was controlled by the USA, who invested in its economy (mainly sugar
and tobacco).

•FDR granted its independence in 1934, and in 1952, Batista came to
power. He was right wing, and so acceptable to the USA, but he was
idle, inefficient and cruel. Profits dropped and the US people with
business interests complained.

•From 1957, the US supported the rise of a young Cuban lawyer, Fidel
Castro (born, 1927), who led a band of 300 fighters called the 26th
of July Movement. They helped him gain power in January 1959.

•He began to nationalise industry, collectivise farms and censor the
press. The USA realised too late that they had sponsored a Marxist
with their investments and profits on Cuba at risk.

•American aid to Cuba ended in January 1961. Cuban capitalists fled
to the USA.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS IMAGES




  Fulgencio Batista
                      Fidel Castro and
                         Khrushchev
   THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
                          THE BAY OF PIGS
•The more pressure the Americans put on Cuba, the more Castro turned to the
Soviet Union.
• In 1960 JF Kennedy became President of the USA. He inherited the CIA
Plan to overthrow Castro. In his election campaign he even attacked his
opponents for allowing Communism in America’s backyard.
• The CIA began to train anti-Castro Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba.
They believed an invasion would lead to a general uprising against Castro’s
Government.
• The invasion force, trained in Guatemala and numbering about 1,500 landed in
the Bay of Pigs in April 1961.
• However, no uprising took place and embarrassingly for America the invaders
were quickly rounded up by Castro’s troops.
• This was a great propaganda victory for Castro and he accused the US of
trying to overthrow the rightful Government by illegal means.
• The main result of the failed invasion was Castro’s even closer links to the
USSR and ultimately led to the Cuban Missile Crisis 1962.
 THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
                     A TIMELINE OF EVENTS
 MAY 1962     The Soviet leader Khrushchev announced he was supplying arms to Cuba
              Despite USA’s intelligence Department believing that USSR would not send
SEPT 1962     Nuclear weapons, Kennedy warned the USSR he would use any means
              necessary to prevent this from happening.

14 OCT 1962 An American U-2 spy plane flew over Cuba and took photos of nuclear missile
            sites that were being built by the USSR.
            More spy planes confirmed that Cuba had nuclear missile sites ready to launch
15 OCT 1962 weapons in c. 7 days. They also reported that 20 Soviet ships were heading
            to Cuba with missiles.
20 OCT 1962 Kennedy decides to Blockade Cuba

22 OCT 1962 Kennedy announces the blockade and calls on the Soviet Union to withdraw
            weapons

23 OCT 1962 Kennedy receives a letter from Khruschev saying Soviet ships will ignore the
            Blockade. He does not admit the presence of nuclear weapons.
            Kennedy receives a letter from Khruschev saying all weapons are purely
26 OCT 1962 defensive but if USA lifts the blockade he would be willing to discuss the
            situation.
             Khrushchev revises his proposals and demands the US withdraw their
 27 OCT 1962 missiles from Turkey. Kennedy refuses. An American spy plane is shot down
             over Cuba killing the pilot. Kennedy demands USSR removal or face attack.
 28 OCT 1962 Khrushchev replies that the USSR will dismantle the weapons and return
             them to the USSR.
  THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
              WAS KENNEDY RIGHT TO BLOCKADE CUBA?
                   WHAT CHOICES DID HE HAVE?



                                          INVASION?

DO NOTHING?


                           KENNEDY’S
                            OPTIONS


                                                    DIPLOMATIC
                                                    PRESSURES?
  SURGICAL AIR
    ATTACK?
                             BLOCKADE?
  THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
CONSEQUENCES OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

• The crisis ended when Khrushchev agreed to remove the nuclear missiles
from Cuba in return for a promise from the USA that she would not invade
Cuba.
• There was also a secret deal that American missiles based in Turkey would
be removed.
• The shock of the real threat of nuclear war seemed to ‘thaw’ their
relationship.
• Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to set up a telephone ‘Hot Line’ between the
Whitehouse and the Kremlin.
• In July 1963 a treaty was signed banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere.
• Both leaders claimed to have gained from the crisis but as Khrushchev
seemed to have been the one to back down his reputation suffered.
• In 1964 he was deposed and replaced by Brezhnev.
• Some less powerful states had only been able to stand back and watch the
crisis. Some (e.g. France and China) decided they needed their own nuclear
weapons in order to have any independence.
 THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
              CONSEQUENCES:

How close the superpowers came to nuclear war
only became apparent a quarter of a century later
when American and Soviet documents became
declassified. It was revealed that Khrushchev had
also placed Luna missiles with nuclear warheads in
Cuba that had a range of 25 miles. If American
forces had invaded, the Soviet commander in Cuba
had the authority to use these missiles against the
American invaders. If they had, the USA would
almost certainly have retaliated and sent missiles
to Moscow. That could have meant the end of the
World!
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

								
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