Case Studies childrens polytas

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Case Studies childrens polytas Powered By Docstoc
					                                  Case Studies
Assessment task # 3.1
James has just arrived at the Centre. His eye appears to be stuck closed and there is a
discharge present at the corner of his eye. James is scratching at his eye. James’ mother
comments that she forgot to wash his face and it is just sleep from last night.

   What could be wrong with James’ eye?
    James could have conjunctivitis. Or he could have an eye infection.

   What should you do next?
    You should isolate James from the other children (as much as possible) wear gloves
    and give his eye a wash to remove the discharge so you can have a closer look at
    what may be infecting his skin incase it isn’t conjunctivitis. Always make sure you
    dispose of gloves after using them.

   Who, if anyone, should you inform?
    You should let the other staff/ carers know so they are aware and the local
    community or the health authorities.

   Can James stay at the service/centre or should he be sent home?
    If James eye is not getting any better he should be sent home and taken to the dr. If
    his eye is showing slight improvement he can stay at the centre but away from the
    other children as he may spread it to them. Staff and carers need to keep an eye on
    his progress throughout the day to make sure he is getting better.

   Whose decision is this to make?
    It is the health authorities decision whether he stays or not.

Assessment Task # 3.2
A parent has just telephoned the service/centre to tell the Director that her daughter,
Mary, has a confirmed case of hand foot and mouth disease. The parent informs the
Director that Mary would have been contagious when she was at the Centre yesterday.

   What will happen now?
    When a child has been diagnosed with hand, foot and mouth disease they will need
    to stay home until the blisters have fully dried up and disappeared so the other
    children don’t get sick also. The disease usually takes seven to fourteen days to clear
    Hand foot and mouth disease is a virus; it usually strikes children between the ages
    of two and six, although babies can get it also. The disease is contagious and often
    transferred between coughing and sneezing, although, it can spread through faeces
    also which is why hygiene is very important. Even though it looks serious it in fact
    isn’t. The child is most contagious before the symptoms actually appear. The child
    will start to develop symptoms three to five days after being in contact with the virus.
    The incubation period is three to six days. The disease often spreads easier where a
    lot of children are together e.g. child centres. Once a child has developed the disease
    he or she most likely won’t get it again.

   What will the staff do with this information?
    The centre is recommended to have a policy and/or procedures on infectious
    diseases which include immunisation, exclusion and notifications along with the
    requirements and recommendations to the health authorities. The centre always
    needs to keep records of cases of infectious diseases which outline the exclusion or
    notification to health authorities.
Assessment Task # 3.3
A parent has donated a bag full of toys to the service/centre. The Director has asked you
to sort through the toys and decide what could be kept.

   How will you make this decision?
    Carers must choose toys carefully and remain vigilant in their supervision of children
    at play, as children often use toys and equipment in ways that are not intended and
    are sometimes hard to anticipate. Services should have a procedure for withdrawing
    toys and equipment immediately when they are broken, defective or in need of repair.

   What toys must be discarded?
    Carers must ensure that toys and equipment are safe for children. Carers must be
    especially careful about the play materials and equipment used by infants and
    toddlers. Infants and toddlers are totally dependent on carers to provide toys that
    are age-appropriate and safe. Toys must be thoroughly examined to ensure that
    there are no loose parts small enough to cause choking or parts that can become
    easily dislodged, by sucking or biting, such as button ‘eyes’ on soft toys. Some
    particularly dangerous objects include:
         Balloons- inflated balloons may be bitten causing balloon fragments to lodge
            in the child’s throat; fragments of a balloon can also be inhaled if children
            suck on them.
         Beads- sewn on ‘eyes’ on soft toys can be swallowed.
         Dress-up jewellery that small items can be bitten off and swallowed.
         Small pieces from commercial games such as dice, tokens, counters.

   What toys could be used? Why?
    Carers need to ensure that children are always carefully supervised, especially when
    children are using toys and equipment for the first time. It is important that carers
    observe how children use equipment and be available to model, demonstrate or
    guide children as appropriate. Carers should record any obvious problems with how
    equipment is used and consider any necessary changes or modifications that may be
    necessary for future use.
    Regular checks should occur to ensure that all toys and equipment are in good
    condition and working order.
    To ensure consistency in the monitoring of toys and equipment for safety purposes,
    services can make a checklist that may include:
         Toys are age-appropriate, and there are no small pieces that could come
           loose, fall off and cause a risk of choking or that could be inserted into ears or
         Furniture and shelving have rounded edges and are stable and sturdy.
         All broken toys are removed.
         Toys should be constructed well. Check for eyes that could pull out.
         Only have non-toxic, washable and non-flammable materials to be used.
         Check for sharp parts, points, rough edges, pinch points and loose parts.
Assessment Task # 3.4
Brody is 2 years old and is going to start at the service/centre in two weeks. Brody is
highly allergic and cannot tolerate any nut products or any food containing eggs. Brody
has an Epipen in case he experiences anaphylactic shock. An Epipen will be stored at
the Centre and must be administered within one minute of any reaction.

   What strategies can be put in place to reduce risks to Brody?
    Tell parents of other children to not allow their child to bring any foods that contain
    nuts and explain why. Or just have a written policy that states no food containing
    traces of nuts are allowed in these premises. Make sure all children wash their hands
    either before or when they arrive at the centre to reduce chances of spreading
    residue of nut traces. Educate children and even families of the other children that
    aren’t aware of the severe effect an allergy can cause a child to make sure every
    child and parents of the other children in the centre have a clear understanding why
    it is important for the child with anaphylaxis to not come in contact with food he/she
    is allergic to as the consequences could result in death.

   What will the staff need to understand and know? How will this information
    be communicated to staff?
    Staff will need to be thoroughly educated on how to recognise the early symptoms of
    anaphylaxis; they will need to be educated on how to use an EpiPen. Staff will need
    to know how to manage anaphylaxis this can be done by simply educating the child
    and other children not to share food and to make sure other children are aware that
    they may not be able to eat certain foods when in care as this could trigger an
    anaphylaxis shock. Regular training needs to be in process to ensure all carers know
    exactly how to respond to an anaphylaxis shock and how to use an EpiPen properly.

   What policies and procedures of your service will help provide safe care to
    First Aid, Have a written policy stating:
    1) Have access to medical information about Brody’s history of anaphylaxis
    2) Educate those responsible for the care of Brody concerning the risk of food allergy
    3) Implement practical strategies to avoid exposure to known triggers, and
    4) Age appropriate education for Brody

    Planning and responding:
     Provide a practical, safe and healthy environment where Brody can participate
       equally without feeling excluded or different from other children.
     Ensure each staff member has adequate training and knowledge of allergy,
       anaphylaxis and emergency procedures.
     Facilitate communication to ensure the safety and wellbeing of Brody.
     Always make sure Brody has his EpiPen with him when arriving at centre and
       especially when going on an excursion.

    Have an anaphylaxis action plan.
Assessment Task # 3.5
Your room leader often leaves you alone in the room with the children. There are more
than twenty preschool aged children in the room.

   Why is this inappropriate?
    It is inappropriate because if something where to go wrong i would not be as
    experienced to handle the situation and there are simply too many children to care
    for and supervise effectively. The staff to child ratio is not being followed as there
    should be no more than 5 children per carer depending on the age of the children.
    There should be one carer to every five children who are aged zero to three and one
    carer to every ten children aged three to five.

   Does this action breach any regulations, service/centre policies or
    procedures – if so which ones?
    Yes it certainly does it breaches the staff to child ratio regulations and procedures

   Who would you talk to about this issue?
    I would report it to the department of education and the manager immediately before
    a child may injure themselves relating to un-supervision as it is impossible to
    supervise twenty odd children all by yourself.

Assessment Task # 3.6
Three year old Sebastian wears nappies and has had a fright on a change table outside
your service. His mother Miran has told you that Sebastian is very afraid of change
tables and screams when required to use one. Miran would rather you use another area
as she hopes to toilet train Sebastian soon and wants to build a more positive
environment around toileting.

How will you change Sebastian’s nappies and still observe hygiene regulations,
OH&S requirements and high quality care requirements?
I would encourage Sebastian to use the nappy change area by praising him and
reassuring him that nothing will happen, that he will be safe in my care. I would tell him
he can bring his favourite toy along with him that he can cuddle or hold while he use the
changing area to give him a more sense of security. If this doesn’t help then i would try
changing him in another area.

How does the method support Sebastian’s emotional development?
It shows Sebastian by showing reassurance he will grow to understanding that accidents
are just that an accident and likely hood of it happening again is rare.

How does the method meet the needs of the parent?
It shows the parent that as a child centre we are trying to help Sebastian understand
that change tables are not a scary place, but because Sebastian is three he is also
heading into the age group of being toilet trained so it probably isn’t a big issue as he
could start to learn how to use the toilet instead to minimise him being distressed all the
time when it comes to nappy changing.
Assessment Task # 3.7
The children are about to play outdoors and you notice that there is a nail protruding
from the wooden floor of the children’s cubby house.

Describe the steps you would take upon noticing the nail.
  What would you do?
   I would report the nail immediately as this is OH&S issue. I would make sure no
   children or other staff go anywhere near this area and let everyone know that this is
   a hazard and to warn other people to stay away from this area until the nail is
  Who would you inform?
   I would report it to the manager and/or supervisor and make sure that it gets dealt
   with before the children play in the cubby house.

Assessment Task # 3. 8
Kay works in the babies’ room at the centre. Mitchell is a new child in the room, starting
his first week this week. Mitchell is 9 months old and an only child. Mitchell’s mother
Julie informs the staff that Mitchell is used to being cuddled and nursed all day by his
father or grandma. Mitchell is at the Centre from 9.00am till 1.00pm every day and
screams whenever Kay puts him down. Kay gets a brief break if she rocks him to sleep
in his pram. Mitchell will then sleep for 30 mins. You observe Kay looking very tired and

   How can you support Kay?
    I would support Kay by helping with the work around the centre. I would help out
    more with the other children to take the pressure of Kay more. I would ask Kay if she
    needs help with any other tasks around the centre that also needs to be done.

   What advice would you give Kay to reduce her stress and fatigue?
    I would tell kay that she needs to take some deep breathes to calm her down. I
    would try have a conversation with her to distract her from feeling frustrated and
    tired. I would let her know that i am here for support if she needs someone to talk to
    and help her out.

   What records could be documented to share this information with other staff
    and Mitchell’s family?
    You could document observations to let Mitchells family know exactly what his
    behaviour is like in the centre. Kay would need to document that Mitchell only had
    30mins sleep. Sharing this information is a crucial aspect of communication between
    families and carers. Each service will develop a range of appropriate formal and
    informal strategies for sharing information with parents. Some information will be
    shared daily. Other information will be shared weekly, monthly or when required. All
    strategies for shairng information must be easily accessed by families and in a form
    that is easy to understand.
Assessment Task # 3. 9
At 5.00pm the chairs in the preschool room are cleaned and stacked against the wall so
the floors can be swept and washed and the tables cleaned thoroughly. There are only a
small group of children left at this time so they play on the mat with one staff member
while the other cleans the table area. On Friday, four year old Jack knocked over a stack
of chairs and injured his leg.

   What forms need to be completed about Jack’s accident? And by whom?
    You need to fill in an accident/incident report immediately stating the time, date and
    who witness the accident. This needs to be completed by the supervisor and the

   Who needs to be informed?
    The manager, supervisor, the first aid officer and Jacks parents need to be informed
    about the accident. Depending on the state of the injury he may need to be taken to

   What OH&S issues are involved here?
    The chairs may not have been stacked securely which made it easy for Jack to knock
    the chairs over. Or the chairs may have been stacked to high.

   What actions could you take?
    The chairs could have been stacked when no children where there. Or simply in a
    more secure place further in on the desk so no children could reach the chairs and
    with no more than two chairs stacked onto each other

Assessment Task 3.10
A group of preschool children are playing in the sandpit under the shade of a tree. You
notice a number of bees buzzing around the low branches of the tree. You are aware
that Sanjit is allergic to bees. Sanjit is playing in the sand pit.

   What will you do?
    I would say to the children to cum play over hear and explain to them that their a
    some bees up in that tree and it would be a better idea if they all come over here for
   How do your actions meet the emergency policy and procedures of your
    By being trained what to do



    Book Title: The big picture
    Author: Karen Kearns