Mailing+list by keralaguest


									Mailing list
A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an
organization to send material to multiple recipients. The term is often extended to include
the people subscribed to such a list, so the group of subscribers is referred to as "the
mailing list", or simply "the list".

An electronic mailing list is a special usage of email that allows for widespread
distribution of information to many Internet users. It is similar to a traditional mailing list
— a list of names and addresses — as might be kept by an organization for sending
publications to its members or customers, but typically refers to four things: a list of
email addresses, the people ("subscribers") receiving mail at those addresses, the
publications (e-mail messages) sent to those addresses, and a reflector, which is a single
e-mail address that, when designated as the recipient of a message, will send a copy of
that message to all of the subscribers.

Types of mailing lists
At least two types of mailing lists can be defined: an announcement list is closer to the
original sense, where a "mailing list" of people was used as a recipient for newsletters,
periodicals or advertising. Traditionally this was done through the postal system, but with
the rise of email, the electronic mailing list became popular. The second type allows
members to post their own items which are broadcast to all of the other mailing list
members. This second category is usually known as a discussion list.

How automated electronic mailing lists work
Electronic mailing lists are usually fully or partially automated through the use of special
mailing list software and a reflector address that are set up on a server capable of
receiving email. Incoming messages sent to the reflector address are processed by the
software, and, depending on their content, are acted upon internally (in the case of
messages containing commands directed at the software itself) or are distributed to all e-
mail addresses subscribed to the mailing list. Depending on the software, additional
addresses may be set up for the purpose of sending commands.

Many electronic mailing list servers have a special email address in which subscribers (or
those that want to be subscribers) can send commands to the server to perform such tasks
as subscribing and unsubscribing, temporarily halting the sending of messages to them, or
changing available preferences. The common format for sending these commands is to
send an email that contains simply the command followed by the name of the electronic
mailing list the command pertains to. Examples: subscribe anylist or subscribe anylist
John Doe. Some list servers also allow people to subscribe, unsubscribe, change
preferences, etc. via a website.
Electronic mailing list servers can be set to forward messages to subscribers of a
particular mailing list either individually as they are received by the list server or in
digest form in which all messages received on a particular day by the list server are
combined into one email that is sent once per day to subscribers. Some mailing lists allow
individual subscribers to decide how they prefer to receive messages from the list server
(individual or digest).

Types of mailing lists
One type of electronic mailing list is an announcement list, which is used primarily as a
one-way conduit of information and can only be "posted to" by selected people. This may
also be referred to by the term newsletter. Newsletter and promotional emailing lists are
employed in various sectors as parts of direct marketing campaigns.

Another type of electronic mailing list is a discussion list, in which any subscriber may
post. On a discussion list, a subscriber uses the mailing list to send messages to all the
other subscribers, who may answer in similar fashion. Thus, actual discussion and
information exchanges can happen. Mailing lists of this type are usually topic-oriented
(for example, politics, scientific discussion, joke contests), and the topic can range from
extremely narrow to "whatever you think could interest us". In this they are similar to
Usenet newsgroups, and share the same aversion to off-topic messages. The term
discussion group encompasses both these types of lists and newsgroups.

On both discussion lists and newsletter lists precautions are taken to avoid spamming.
Discussion lists often require every message to be approved by a moderator before being
sent to the rest of the subscribers, and companies sending out promotional newsletters
work with whitelist mail distributors, which agree to standards and high fines from ISPs
should any of the opt-in subscribers complain. In exchange for their compliance and
agreement to prohibitive fines, the emails sent by whitelisted companies are not blocked
by Spam Filters, which can often reroute these legitimate, non-spam emails.

Some mailing lists are open to anyone who wants to join them, while others require an
approval from the list owner before one can join. Joining a mailing list is called
"subscribing" and leaving a list is called "unsubscribing".

A mailing list archive is a collection of past messages from one or more electronic
mailing lists. Such archives often include searching and indexing functionality. Many
archives are directly associated with the mailing list, but some organizations like Gmane
collect archives from multiple mailing lists hosted at different organizations - thus, one
message sent to one popular mailing list can end up in many different archives. Gmane
had archives of over 9000 mailing lists as of 16 January 2007. Some popular free
software programs for collecting mailing list archives are Hypermail and MHonArc.

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