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					Report of the Sixth Meeting of
   the Working Group on
      Education for All

         UNESCO, Paris
         19-21 July 2005
For further information, please contact:

       Division of International Coordination and Monitoring for EFA
       Education Sector
       7, place de Fontenoy
       75352 Paris 07 SP
       Telephone: +33 (0) 1 45 68 08 80
       Fax: +33 (0) 1 45 68 56 26
       Website :

The draft of this report was shared with all participants in the Fifth meeting of the Working
Group on Education for All.

       Text prepared by Linda King
       Assisted by Elizabeth Fordham
       Printing by UNESCO


       Preface                                                          4

       Key Issues from the Sixth Meeting of the Working Group on EFA    5

I.     Introduction                                                     7
       Opportunities for EFA                                            7
       Increased and More Effective Aid                                 7
       Towards Beijing                                                  8
       Organization of the Meeting and the Report                       8

II.    Literacy for Empowerment                                         9
       A Framework for International Action                             9
       Lessons from National Experience                                 10
       The Way Forward                                                  11

III.   Education for Rural People (ERP)                                 13
       Why is ERP so important?                                         13
       Strategies for ERP                                               14
       Obstacles and Opportunities                                      15

IV.    Scaling up Resource Mobilisation and Aid Effectiveness for EFA   17
       Progress in Resource Mobilisation and Aid Effectiveness          17
       Shortfalls and Solutions                                         18
       Aid Effectiveness in Context                                     19
       Strengthening the Compact                                        20

V.     Moving towards a Joint Action Plan for Achieving EFA by 2015     22
       Coordinating EFA                                                 22
       Addressing Country Needs                                         23
       A Global Compact for Funding                                     23
       Building on Knowledge and Experience                             24
       Comments and Feedback                                            24

VI.    Planning for the Beijing High-Level Group Meeting                26

VII.   Concluding Comments                                              28

VIII. Appendices                                                        29
      Opening Address of the Director-General of UNESCO                 29
      Agenda of the Meeting                                             33
      List of Participants                                              36

IX.    Abbreviations                                                    48

I am pleased to present this Report of the Sixth Meeting of the Education for All (EFA)
Working Group which met from 19 to 21 July 2005 at UNESCO‟s Paris headquarters. This
was my first experience of this EFA mechanism and I am eager, in my role as Assistant
Director-General for Education in UNESCO, to build on its thinking and achievements, as we
move towards a series of key international events in education and development.

This year – 2005 – is particularly crucial for the future of EFA. The G8 leaders, meeting in
Gleneagles, UK in July, made commitments to increase development aid, world leaders
assessed progress towards the Millennium Development Goals in September, Education
Ministers will discuss EFA in a Round Table at the UNESCO General Conference in October,
and the EFA High-Level Group will focus in November on new resources and renewed
efforts for EFA. The Working Group was a key arena for discussing the implications of these
international events, with relation to the six Dakar goals. I would like to highlight several
areas of progress:

      The possibility of a global compact – a set of mutual commitments – was raised,
       where policy reforms and planning efforts in developing countries are matched by
       funding commitments from donor countries; the High-Level Group will take this
       proposal further.
      Greater clarity will be achieved in the roles and responsibilities of the international
       community as we support countries‟ pursuit of their education sector plans; this will
       increasingly crystallise as UNESCO, which was called upon to strengthen its EFA
       coordinating role, develops a Joint Action Plan.
      Groundwork for specific commitments: on support for literacy, on a target date for
       eliminating user fees in primary education, and repositioning the international
       community to meet the gender parity goal, missed in 2005.
      Momentum to channel new resources to education from the promised increases in
       development aid and debt relief.

These issues are of immense significance to our common endeavours in pursuit of EFA – they
will form the core of EFA partners‟ deliberations at the High-Level Group meeting and
beyond. They also underpin UNESCO‟s own efforts to be more effective in international

I am hopeful that, a year from now, we will look back and say that 2005 was the turning point
for EFA. As we face this challenge, I am determined to focus UNESCO‟s energies ever more
strongly so that a quality basic education becomes a reality for everyone in our world,
particularly for those we have thus far failed to reach.

                                                                                    Peter Smith

      Key Issues from the Sixth Meeting of the Working Group on
                           Education for All

■ Literacy in all its forms is essential to the long-term sustainable social, cultural, political
and economic development of all countries.

■ Real progress in reaching the EFA literacy goal will only take place through concerted
action at the country level. Strong national government support is important if literacy
programmes are to go to scale. However, sensitivity to local needs and resources is crucial,
as is awareness of the invaluable role played by civil society in promoting literacy.

■ Literacy programmes should be responsive to learner needs and aspirations, and provide
skills that are directly relevant to their work and life. They also need to reflect the fact that
literacy is a continual process that requires ongoing support and stimulus.

■ International effort should focus on measures that ensure that literacy in both its non-formal
and formal educational contexts: is supported by long term, predictable financing (domestic
and external); has quality assurance and credible certification; forms an integral part of
education sector-wide and multi-sectoral planning.

Education for Rural People (ERP)
■ With around 70% of the world‟s poor and 72% of the population of least developed
countries living in rural areas, ERP is one of the principal challenges for the achievement of
Education for All.

■ To ensure quality and relevance, ERP needs to adapt a flexible approach that balances the
national curriculum with skills that are relevant to local needs and livelihoods. ERP also
demands a holistic approach that recognises the close interdependence of education and other
factors such as food and water supply, health and agriculture.

■ Rural people posses a rich linguistic and cultural diversity and long traditions of educational
practice within their communities. Education initiatives need to build on these traditions to
provide new and innovative solutions to the challenge of EFA.

■ The inequities that jeopardize the achievement of EFA and the MDGs can only be
overcome if ERP is addressed through inter-sectoral and inter-disciplinary programmes that
engage Ministries of Education and Agriculture, civil society, the private sector, international
organisations and the media.

Resource Mobilization and Aid Effectiveness

■ Considerable new pledges for increased aid have been made in 2005, as well as important
progress in securing effective aid delivery and implementation. EFA stakeholders need to
ensure that these new resources are channelled to support basic education in the most efficient

■ The Fast Track Initiative (FTI) has taken the lead in securing aid effectiveness for EFA. It
works as a mechanism for harmonising donor support and aligning aid with country education
strategies. It also provides a forum for policy dialogue between donors and partners. The
question that remains is whether the FTI can evolve beyond the present focus on universal
primary completion to address all EFA goals.

■ Sustainable country-led education strategies are the key to aid effectiveness. Efforts must
be made to strengthen national capacity and, within the framework of the Paris Declaration on
Aid Effectiveness, to increase accountability and transparency at the country level.

Moving towards a Joint Action Plan
■ UNESCO must strengthen its role as lead coordinator of EFA. It needs to create a
„community of commitments‟ where all partners share a common sense of ownership of the
EFA movement and of responsibility to ensure achievement of basic education for all by

■ The global mapping of the roles and responsibilities of major EFA stakeholders, and in
particular UN agencies, should provide the basis for more coordinated and effective action.

■ Support for country education plans should be the immutable principle of EFA. There
needs to be greater consultation at and between the international and country levels in order to
improve responsiveness to local needs and capacity.

■ A global compact for funding is required to ensure that every country seriously committed
to EFA has the resources needed to achieve it. Education is a long-term investment, and to be
effective aid needs to be tied to a ten-year planning cycle.

                                      I. Introduction
The sixth meeting of the Education for All (EFA) Working Group took place this year at a
unique moment of opportunity and challenge for educational development. A third of the way
through the 15-year target period, 2005 is an important time both for assessing the progress
that has been made since Dakar and for establishing an agenda that will ensure the EFA goals
are achieved by 2015. 2005 is also the date that was set for reaching gender parity. This
objective has not been met, and it is essential for the success of EFA to understand why.
Finally, 2005 has seen a number of international events that will have a significant impact on
progress towards the EFA and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Gleneagles G8
Summit and the 2005 World Summit, which will review progress towards the MDGs, promise
to set the framework for development over the next decade. The challenge that faced the 6th
EFA Working Group was how to build on these opportunities and place education at the
centre of the world‟s commitment to sustainable human development.

Opportunities for EFA
It was in this spirit that the Director-General of UNESCO, Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, opened
the 6th Working Group. After welcoming participants, he focused attention on recent events
in development and their significance for EFA. The Director-General underlined the
importance given to EFA in the Commission for Africa Report; EFA, the Report commented,
is „one of the most exciting pledges that the international community has ever made‟. He also
cited the G8 communiqué, which gave strong support to EFA in Africa and to the EFA-Fast
Track Initiative (FTI). However, Mr Matsuura, signalled as a cause for serious concern the
lack of any clear reference to education in the Draft Outcome Document for the 2005 World
Summit, and he called on EFA partners to advocate an amendment recognising the central
contribution of education to human development.
        Mr Matsuura went on to address the agenda of this year‟s Working Group. He
explained the importance of focusing on adult literacy and education for rural people.
Although these are both pivotal elements of the EFA framework, they have not always
attracted the attention they deserve. Mr Matsuura emphasised the timely nature of the session
on resource mobilisation. He praised the recent pronouncements by G8 leaders for debt relief
and the doubling of aid to Africa, but called for a clear definition of the form and terms that
these commitments will take, and in particular for a clarification of the quantity of aid that
will be allocated to basic education. The Director-General also drew attention to the
importance of enhancing coordination amongst EFA stakeholders, in order to ensure the most
effective use of these increased resources. He argued that the overarching purpose of the 6th
Working Group should be to identify the main obstacles to achieving EFA and to propose
workable solutions as to how to overcome them. Citing Kofi Annan, Mr Matsuura affirmed:
„The year 2005 is crucial in our work to achieve the goals. Instead of setting targets, this time
world leaders must decide how to achieve them‟.

Increased and More Effective Aid
The Keynote Address by Mr Richard Manning, Chairman of the Development Assistance
Committee, OECD, provided the Working Group with a summary of major recent changes in
the volume and delivery of aid. Mr Manning addressed first the rising volume of aid flows.
After the sharp drop that followed the end of the Cold War, aid flows gradually stabilised in
the mid 1990s before beginning to rise at the start of the new millennium. Mr Manning noted
that this upward turn was driven by international events such as the Monterrey Conference for
Financing Development. He argued that given recent announcements by the G8 and other
major donors, the rise in aid flows looked set to continue, and that by 2010 aid should reach

pre-1990 proportions of around 0.36% of Gross National Income. Mr Manning pointed out
that there remained questions as to how the many different aid pledges would relate in
practice. However he stated that the period from 2002 to 2010 was likely to see the most
rapid rise in real terms of Official Development Assistance (ODA) since the 1960s.
        Progress in aid delivery has likewise been significant. Mr Manning spoke in particular
of the impact that the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness would have on improving
methods of aid implementation. The Declaration was orchestrated by OECD-DAC and
signed in March 2005 by 56 partner countries and over 60 bilateral and multilateral donors. It
is based on five principles: country ownership of development strategies; donor alignment
with country plans; the harmonization of donor actions; managing for results; and mutual
accountability among donors and partners in the use of development resources. These
principles form the basis of a set of targeted indicators that will enable donors and partners to
drive through and monitor progress in aid effectiveness.
        Mr Manning concluded by addressing the significance of the Paris Declaration for
EFA. He underlined first and foremost the need for a national commitment to EFA, and for
the development of sustainable country plans upon and around which the actions of donors
and other EFA stakeholders could be aligned and harmonized.

Towards Beijing
Mr Peter Smith, Assistant Director-General for Education at UNESCO, closed the
opening session with an appeal for the Working Group to reflect throughout its deliberations
on the agenda of the High-Level Group in Beijing. He emphasized the importance of
providing a dynamic vision for the future of EFA, and developing Mr Matsuura‟s suggestion
he called for a High-Level agenda that both identified the existing obstacles to EFA and
provided the means to move beyond them. Mr Smith provided an outline of what he saw as
the most critical issues for the future of EFA. These included: the need to clarify the roles and
responsibilities of the main UN agencies; the importance of developing a global compact for
funding based on a ten year planning cycle; the crucial role of global mapping in developing
country-level strategies; and above all the primacy of the country plan for achieving EFA by

Organization of the Meeting and the Report
The meeting of the 6th Working Group took place at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris from 19-
21 July. Chaired by Mr Peter Smith, the meeting drew over 60 representatives from
developing countries, bilateral donors, multilateral agencies, civil society, and the private
sector. The Working Group held four main sessions, each of which began with a series of
presentations and was followed by an open debate. This report presents the proceedings in
accordance with the order of the agenda, which is appended. It summarizes the principle
themes of each session and outlines the key areas of discussion. The report concludes with
the Working Group‟s suggestions for the Agenda of the High-Level Group Meeting in
Beijing. The Director-General‟s address and a list of participants are included as appendices.

                            II. Literacy for Empowerment

       ■ Literacy is the ‘DNA of development’; it is the key to the long-term
       sustainable human development of all countries.

       ■ Real progress in reaching the EFA literacy goal will only take place through
       concerted action at the country level.

       ■ Literacy is a variable concept and should be understood as a process rather
       than as a finite skill.

       ■ The key to the promotion of literacy is flexibility, linkages to other life and
       vocational skills, as well as sensitivity to linguistic and cultural contexts – in
       sum: a multi-faceted approach that reflects the complexity of the issue.

There are more than 800 million adult illiterates in the world and over 100 million children
who do not have access to schooling. The opening session of the Working Group addressed
the urgent need for a concerted national and international response to this situation. All six
panellists of the session affirmed the importance of literacy both as a fundamental human
right, and as the basis – the „DNA‟ as one speaker put it – of social, economic and political
development. Panellists also expressed concern that despite the prominence given to literacy
in international development frameworks, such as EFA and the United Nations Literacy
Decade (UNLD), more decisive action was still needed at both the national and international
levels to tackle illiteracy, especially among out-of-school youth and adults. The moderator of
the session, Desmond Bermingham of the UK Department for International Development,
requested participants to identify the obstacles that stood in the way of effective interventions
to provide quality literacy learning opportunities, and to formulate a strategy that would
enable the development community to act together so that countries actually provide the
millions of children and adults without access to quality basic education with the literacy that
is their right.

A Framework for International Action
There was strong agreement amongst participants in this session on the need for a flexible yet
sustained institutional approach to literacy provision. Participants upheld Ms Ann Therese
Ndong Jatta of UNESCO‟s definition of literacy as a broad range of continually evolving
competencies and practices. Participants also agreed that the sites of literacy learning were
diffused throughout society and that learning could begin at any age. This understanding of
literacy had implications for the policy suggestions made by panellists, especially with regard
to the role of international organizations. These suggestions may be summarised as:
► Coordination. International organizations have a key role to play in the coordination of
literacy provision. As Ms Karen Mundy of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
explained in her presentation, one of the central reasons why literacy is so often neglected as a
development goal is that it lacks clear institutional focus. Whilst there exists a large number
of local civil society initiatives focused on promoting literacy, there is little coordinated action
between them at national level, and this works against long-term, large-scale planning.
International organizations, therefore, could assist countries to better coordinate these
initiatives and to build their own platform for policy dialogue between civil society and

national governments. Progress has already been made in this direction. One of the main
purposes of the UNESCO Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE) is to assist the
countries most in need to forge alliances between the multiple stakeholders in literacy
► Advocacy. Greater awareness is needed of the importance of literacy to all forms of
development. As Ms Ndong Jatta pointed out, maps of illiteracy usually overlap with maps of
poverty and exclusion. The majority of illiterates are women and live in rural areas.
Although illiteracy is not solely a developing country problem, the highest rates of illiteracy
are to be found in the least developed countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West
Asia. The extent to which literacy can act as a powerful lever for these populations and
countries to break free from poverty has been well illustrated in research on development, but
is still insufficiently recognized in the fora of national and international development finance
and planning. Mr Mamadou Ndoye, Executive Secretary of the Association for the
Development of Education in Africa (ADEA), pointed in particular to the need for greater
advocacy in Africa. Mr Ndoye argued that African governments would be willing invest
more in literacy programmes if the practical value of literacy to social and economic
development was better demonstrated.
► Monitoring and evaluation. The quality monitoring of literacy needs and practices
provides the basis not only for effective coordination and advocacy, but also for sound policy
formation and effective institutional capacity-building. In this regard, Mr David Archer of the
Global Campaign for Education and Action Aid International gave a detailed account of their
work in formulating international benchmarks for adult literacy. These benchmarks were
based on information provided by 67 quality adult literacy programmes across 35 countries
and were designed with the aim of helping governments and other organizations committed to
developing literacy plans. Mr Archer underlined that these „benchmarks‟ should not limit
planning, nor obscure the highly contextual nature of literacy skills. Their aim was to
promote exchange between partners in literacy and to provide a general framework for policy

Lessons from National Experience
Ms Kumud Bansal, Secretary for Elementary Education and Literacy in India, and Mr Ramon
de la Peña, President of the Consejo Nacional de Educación para la Vida y el Trabajo in
Mexico, both spoke of their national literacy programmes. India and Mexico are two
countries that have achieved large-scale co-ordinated action to promote literacy. As a result,
over the last two decades India has seen the rate of illiteracy drop from 60% to 40%, and last
year alone Mexico brought 2.7 million young people and adults – 10% of all those without
literacy skills – into some form of basic education. On the basis of their experience, Ms
Basnal and Mr de la Peña identified several lessons that could provide the foundation for
future actions to overcome the literacy deficit:
         National leadership. State leadership in India and presidential commitment in
Mexico have been crucial to progress in tackling illiteracy. Such commitment has been
central in the mobilisation of funds and political will, and in the orchestration of the inter-
ministerial co-operation indispensable to effective planning. Formal government commitment
to literacy has also been the key to instituting programmes of scale and to targeting those
groups with the highest levels of illiteracy. In this respect, India‟s National Literacy Mission
(NLM) has identified certain „thrust areas‟ for populations most in need, particularly women
(above all rural women) and Scheduled Tribes and Castes. The Mexican government has
developed specific programmes aimed at reaching indigenous peoples.

         Local participation. NGOs have considerable expertise in the field of adult literacy
provision, and the participation of local communities and voluntary groups can serve both to
enrich national literacy programmes and mobilise latent resources within civil society.
Indeed, India‟s NLM, with its highly effective focus on context-specific learning, is largely
based on the regional Total Literacy Campaign launched in the Ernakulum district of the
southern state of Kerala. Whilst the State acts to ensure the level, quality and certification of
learning in India, the planning and implementation of literacy programmes remains
decentralised, enabling a sharper response to learner needs and encouraging greater
community engagement.
         Learner needs. The success of literacy programmes in India and Mexico has in large
part stemmed from their responsiveness to learner needs, aspirations and resources. Both
countries have shown great flexibility in their education provision. This means, first and
foremost, flexibility with regard to the language of instruction, and both panellists noted the
value of multilingual approaches that respond to learner choice. This also means open
enrolment, knowledge-based certification,
distance learning, and a broad, modular
curriculum that includes not just reading       Neo-literate self-help groups in India
and writing but also skills directly relevant   In India new literates, primarily women,
to the learner‟s work and life. Both            have formed self-help groups. These
countries have worked hard to link literacy groups have created a positive
to economic development, with the               environment for sustaining literacy, and
inclusion of micro-finance in basic literacy for providing materials, such as school
training in India, and the creation of work     uniforms and meals, that support the
place schemes in Mexico.                        education of others.
         A literate environment. This, Ms
Bansal and Mr de la Peña agreed, was            Community Plazas in Mexico
essential to support and sustain literacy.      Community plazas bring together
The creation of a literate environment was      traditional and technologically advanced
understood to entail the production and         methods of education to promote life
availability of books and other learning        long learning. Though particularly
materials. Some panellists pointed in           focused on youth and adults, the
particular to the use of ICTs in reaching       community-run plazas provide different
rural populations. The importance of            literacy based activities for all ages and
promoting popular awareness of the              levels. 2,500 plazas have been
benefits of literacy was also underlined.       established in Mexico and the US.
Voluntary self-help groups and
community learning centres were
highlighted as key elements in the furtherance of literate environments.

The Way Forward
Within the discussion that followed, there was widespread agreement that progress in
promoting literacy would only take place through concerted action at the national level. The
debate focused on national planning, raising the following points:
►„Adult illiterates are the legacy of our failure to provide quality basic education‟. This
comment by Cream Wright of UNICEF was underlined by several members of the Working
Group. It is essential to remember that perhaps as many as 60% of children passing through
school are still failing to acquire basic literacy skills. The achievement of quality primary
education for all is therefore the fundamental step towards combating illiteracy.

► Progress in literacy requires a holistic approach. The significant impact that literacy has
on economic growth, child health, nutrition and other key development issues needs to be
reflected in the coordination between different ministries. Experience teaches that the most
effective literacy policies are those that link literacy to other aspects of development, such as
poverty-reduction, income-generation, agriculture and childcare. For this interministerial and
multi-sectoral approach to be effective, cooperation is required at the top levels of
government, as is bilateral assistance and the continued support of international organisations.
► The financial commitments made by countries to literacy programmes should be supported
by long-term, predictable funding. International organizations can play an important role in
mobilising funds, and harmonizing donor support around national literacy strategies.
► The scale of illiteracy calls for a global advocacy campaign that, within existing
frameworks such as the UNLD, places youth and adult literacy at the centre of the
international development agenda and creates the momentum necessary for reaching all EFA
goals by 2015.
► Literacy is the basic building block for the achievement of the EFA goals. It enables the
learning capacities of both children and adults to be translated into something more than the
ability to read and write. Through literacy people gain access to knowledge in its written
► The right to education of all people at all ages can only be exercised once literacy has been
achieved. Literacy, furthermore, is linked to a range of other development issues and as such
is crucial to the attainment of the MDGs.

                      III. Education for Rural People (ERP)

       ■ ERP is one of the principal challenges for the achievement of the EFA
       objectives and the Millennium Development Goals.

       ■ ERP should respond to local social and economic needs whilst at the same
       time providing quality education to all.

       ■ Rural communities already possess rich and diverse traditions of educating
       their young. Education initiatives should build on these to provide new and
       innovative solutions to the challenge of EFA.

       ■ Inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary alliances between Ministries of Education,
       Agriculture, Finance and Labour, civil society, international organisations, the
       media and the private sector are the key to overcoming the inequities that
       jeopardize the achievement of EFA and the MDGs.

The „hidden constituency‟ of development – this is how one panellist described rural people.
With around 72% of the population of least developed countries living in rural areas, the task
of providing EFA is primarily that of providing education for rural people. Yet despite this
central importance, rural people are all too often excluded from development agendas. The
moderator, Mr Mamadou Ndoye, Executive Secretary of ADEA, invited the panellists in this
session to focus on ways of including these marginalized populations, and of addressing the
disparities that exist between urban and rural areas. In the process, both he and the Chair,
Assistant Director-General for Education Mr Peter Smith, urged the Working Group to think
of how the relative disadvantages of today could be transformed into potential advantages for
the future. The time has now past for thinking in remedial terms of how rural people can
„catch-up‟ with the developed world.

Why is ERP so important?
As Ms Lavinia Gasperini of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated, a few basic
facts serve to underline the importance of ERP. Around 70% of the world‟s poor live in rural
areas. These people are the most likely to suffer from disease, malnutrition and low life
expectancy. Gender inequalities are most marked in rural areas, and with the number of
illiterates upward of 1 billion and the percentage of children in primary education on average
less than 50%, rural areas are also the furthest away from achieving EFA. Unless there is
concerted action to address rural needs, and in particular the educational needs of rural
people, then the world will fail to meet the MDGs.
         To date such action has been lacking. There is, as Mr Gudmund Hernes of the
International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) pointed out, a „structural blindness‟ on
the part of the international community as to the importance of ERP. Narrowly focused on
the urban industrial and service sectors, prevailing western models of development have
simply overlooked the needs of the majority of the developing world‟s population. However,
as Mr Hernes pointed out, there is no area where action could have such a leveraging effect on
development. Investment in education in Asia and India over the last three decades has seen a
significant rise in agricultural productivity which in turn has led to improvements in overall
welfare. An equivalent investment remains to be made in Sub-Saharan Africa.

        Still, despite the insufficiency of action in rural areas, awareness of the significance of
ERP has been rising. The launching in 2002 of the ERP Flagship Initiative led by the FAO in
cooperation with UNESCO, marks an important advance, in particular through its efforts to
strengthen collaboration between the agriculture and education sectors. As all panellists in
this session agreed, progress in ERP demands a multi-sectoral approach, engaging actors at
every level in all areas of development.

Strategies for ERP
Five of the panellists focused on local experiences of ERP, addressing initiatives in the
People‟s Republic of China (Dr Zhou Nan-Zhao of the International Research and Training
Centre for Rural Education, (INRULED)), South Africa (Mr Mmeli Macanda of the Nelson
Mandela Foundation), Colombia (Ms Rosario Salazar of the Federación Nacional de
Cafeteros de Colombia (FNCC)), Bangladesh (Ms Shaheen Akter Chowdhury of Nari
Maitree) and Kosovo (Mr Andrea Valentini of the FAO). Mr Tom Vandenbosch also pointed
to the lessons that he had drawn from work with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in
Nairobi, Kenya. A strong consensus emerged across these presentations as to the basic
principles that should guide ERP and the type of strategies needed to support them, in
► Relevance. All participants underlined the importance of a relevant educational
curriculum that responded to the specific social, cultural and economic needs of rural people.
Education should equip rural learners with skills relevant to their local environment and draw
on the knowledge and experience at their disposal. It should do so, moreover, not only with
the important functional aims of creating a healthier, more productive and more egalitarian
society, but also with the purpose of developing a spirit of initiative and opening up new
► Partnership. While the role of government is essential in education, panellists noted that
given the magnitude of the ERP endeavour it was necessary to engage as many partners as
possible. This was especially the case in areas where non-state actors, whether NGOs or
private organizations, had developed effective practices. As representatives from Nari
Maitree in Bangladesh, the Nelson Mandela Foundation in South Africa and the FNCC in
Colombia all demonstrated, civil society often stands in a strong position to innovate new
models that can later be adapted by education authorities.
► Local resources. Several speakers highlighted the benefits of drawing on local resources.
This meant not only using these resources as vehicles for
education, but also, as Mr Mmeli Macanda pointed out, the          „Faced with a shortage of
need to recognise their substantive value, and the ways in         resources, imagination and
which local languages, cultures, histories and practices can       creativity can transform
be harnessed to provide new forms of education. Rural              constraints into potential by
communities, too often regarded in deficit terms as places         promoting new and better
that „have not‟, carry their own unique educational                ways of thinking and
potential.                                                         acting‟.
► School-community links. Strengthening the                        Mamadou Ndoye, ADEA
relationship between communities and schools is crucial to
raising awareness of the importance of education and of
increasing participation, especially of girls. Securing community engagement in education is
also the best means of establishing the most relevant curricula and effective ways of learning,
and thus of ensuring that rural communities themselves become the engineers of their own
development. Community Learning Centres, such as those set up in Bangladesh, have already
acted as a powerful stimulus to education, creating through their participatory and practical

approach a strong will to learn that provides the basis for greater social, political and financial
support to education.
► Flexibility. Dominated by agriculture, and often including large migrant and nomadic
populations, rural areas are particularly difficult to reach through formal educational methods.
For ERP to succeed it requires a flexible approach, a readiness to adapt educational methods
to local constraints – in terms of multi-grade classes, for example, and flexible timetables –
and the creation of new and innovative methods of learning. The use of ICT has been
especially important here, with radio, television and internet providing „virtual schooling‟ to
populations lacking access to formal education.
► A holistic approach. The centrality of education to, and its close dependence upon, such
factors as food and water supply, health, and agriculture demands effective coordination
across sectors and agencies. Panellists placed specific emphasis on the need for different
actors to work together to create an environment conducive to learning. This involves dealing
with such major obstacles to education as child labour, poor health and malnutrition. In this
regard many underlined the importance of collaboration at the international level. The World
Food Programme (WFP) „Food for Education‟ strategy and the „Focusing Resources on
Effective School Health‟ (FRESH) partnership of health and education experts have been
major forces for improvement in child enrolment, learning capacity and nutrition.
► Planning and monitoring. The monitoring and evaluation of educational programmes
targeting rural people is indispensable to securing more effective planning and policymaking.
It provides the basis for the harmonisation of different partner initiatives and the identification
of areas of urgent need. Although monitoring processes still remain underdeveloped, with a
tendency to focus on only one local sector, such initiatives as those carried out by INRULED
in China offer a good example of how research could proceed in the future, providing
comparative studies of regions across the world from a multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional
perspective. Ms Gasperini noted that a book providing guidelines for monitoring ERP was
currently being prepared by the FAO and the IIEP.

Obstacles and Opportunities
The discussion that followed picked up on several of these strategies. The issue of relevance
prompted an interesting discussion, with many speakers drawing attention to the danger of
creating a two-tier system. Ann Therese Ndong-Jatta of UNESCO urged that what was
needed was not a separate model for rural people, but a flexible and decentralized approach.
Panellists argued that ensuring access to quality and relevant education in rural areas was
crucial to opening new and wider opportunities for rural people and enabling them to make
informed choices for their future.
        The question of partnership was also debated. On the one hand, participants
underlined the importance of national leadership. Action by civil society is often fragmented
and short-term, and it is the responsibility of the state to create nation-wide sustainable
programmes for targeting inequities. On the other hand, participants recognised that state
action was often lacking, or insufficient, and that in these situations civil society had a crucial
role to play. Special attention was given to the role of private business, with speakers from
India and South Africa sharing examples of how leading IT firms had supplied computers and
internet services to rural schools.
        The Working Group also addressed a number of the major obstacles to ERP, and
above all the difficulty of recruiting and retaining trained teachers in rural areas. The
representative from Nigeria, a country where more than half a million more teachers will be
needed annually to meet the EFA goals, suggested one effective response to this problem.

  She explained how the Nigerian government had rapidly given basic training to unemployed
  graduates and deployed them in rural areas giving them incentives to stay.
          As one panellist summed up, in striving to achieve ERP „we are addressing the biggest
  groups with the biggest problems posing the biggest challenge – but where we can make the
  greatest difference‟.

Examples of Good Practice
■ Colombia. The „Escuela Nueva‟ model of primary education, which combines a core national
component with modules relevant to the local culture and economy, has been successfully
adopted in almost half of rural schools in Colombia.
■ India. Through the „Learning Guarantee Scheme‟ major IT firms have joined together
regionally to provide programmes in local languages, to train teachers and to supply computers to
rural schools.
■ Kosovo. The alliance between education and agriculture forms the basis of Kosovo‟s highly
praised National Strategy on ERP.
■ Morocco. The use of local Berber languages has been crucial in providing more relevant
education in Morocco.
■ Nigeria. The deployment of radios has expanded rural education to reach nomadic
populations, traditionally hard to reach.

                     IV. Scaling up Resource Mobilisation
                         and Aid Effectiveness for EFA

■ The flow of aid to education has increased in recent years, but resource
mobilisation still needs to expand significantly to meet the financing needs of EFA.

■ The Paris Declaration provides a strong framework, with clear indicators and fixed
targets, for maximising the effectiveness of aid.

■ Sustainable country-led education strategies lie at the heart of aid effectiveness.

■ The Fast Track Initiative (FTI) has evolved into an effective mechanism for
harmonizing donor support and aligning it with country education strategies.

Considerable new pledges for increased aid have been made in 2005, as well as important
progress in securing effective aid delivery and implementation. This session addressed the
significance of these changes for the funding and management of EFA. The moderator, Mr
Ronald Siebes, Basic Education Expert from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, focused
attention on the implications that changes in resource mobilisation and aid effectiveness
would have for donor practices, partner country capacity and systems, and the role of the FTI.
The panellists of the session brought diverse and fresh perspectives from the World Bank,
civil society and donor and partner countries to bear on these questions.

Progress in Resource Mobilisation and Aid Effectiveness
The first presentations, by Mr Soe Lin of the World Bank and Ms Nadine Dusepulchre,
Development Advisor at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Belgium, introduced the principal
factors that, over the past five years, had seen marked improvements in resource mobilisation
and effectiveness:
► The MDGs and the Monterrey Declaration have created a powerful global compact for
development, with an active group of donors and partners ready to collaborate with each other
through the use of joint mechanisms. In
education this has acted as a stimulus to
engagement at both the country and donor
levels. Low-income countries are, in
general, spending more on education and
several partners have developed
sustainable education plans. The donor
community is working in closer alignment
with country strategies, and official
development assistance (ODA) looks set
to rise to historical levels by 2010.
► The 2005 G8 Summit in Gleneagles has
further strengthened donor commitments.
G8 leaders have reaffirmed the importance
of education to sustainable development,
supporting the EFA agenda in Africa and
agreeing to work through the FTI.

► The Rome and Paris High Level Forums have provided the framework for improving aid
effectiveness and mutual accountability. The Paris Declaration of March 2005 gives renewed
emphasis to the importance of aligning aid behind country owned strategies. It also provides
a set of indicators with fixed targets for monitoring the effectiveness of implementation.
► The FTI has taken the lead in securing aid effectiveness in the development of basic
education. It has become a forum for dialogue between donors and partners. Its main
strengths include:
    o A strong focus on country-led education plans.
    o Clear indicators based on country performance.
    o A workable framework for policy dialogue at the national level.
    o Resource mobilisation to target areas of greatest need.
A question that remains is whether the FTI can evolve to support the achievement of all EFA
goals across all low-income countries.

Trends in Primary Completion, 1990-2015

Shortfalls and Solutions
Despite this progress major gaps still exist. Several regions are off track to achieve universal
primary completion (UPC) by 2015. The FTI lacks funds even for the countries that are
endorsed, and still only addresses UPC in just 13 of the 58 countries with urgent EFA needs.
As Ms Maria Khan of the Asia South-Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE) argued
in her presentation, the failure to achieve the 2005 gender parity goal reveals shortfalls, not
only in resource mobilisation, but also in planning and costing for the needs of girls‟
education. Ms Khan urged that calculations of the external assistance required to reach the
2015 EFA targets should be updated in light of this failure. The experience of countries, such
as Uganda and Bangladesh, that have made remarkable progress in girls‟ access to schooling
should provide a guide as to the type of costs that need to be addressed in such a revaluation.

They include not just the abolishing of school fees, but also financial incentives to help
compensate poor families for girls‟ labour, as well as measures to ensure quality education
such as reasonable class size, adequate supplies of materials that are gender-sensitive, and
more trained female teachers. Quality EFA will not be achieved by half measures; a clear
idea of the funds needed to meet all EFA goals is a basic
prerequisite for effective action.                                Mothers Matter Most
         In order to meet the cost of EFA, Mr Lin argued          Studies reveal that
that it will be necessary to adopt a broader perspective on       investment in female
resource mobilisation. This means, in the first instance,         adult literacy is the most
working to mobilise awareness of the importance of                effective means of
education to the Millennium Development Project in order          increasing children‟s –
to ensure that EFA is able to draw as much advantage as           especially girls‟ –
possible from rising aid levels. The recognition given to         enrollment and
EFA in the Sachs Report and also that of the Commission           attainment in school.
for Africa, as well as in the G8 Communiqué, is                   Maria Khan, ASPBAE
encouraging. However, the failure of the Draft Outcome
Document for the September World Summit to deal
adequately with the question of education highlights the ongoing need to work to raise the
profile of education within the development community. The fact that many donors do not
fully honour their aid commitments is also cause for concern. As the representative from
Belgium underlined, pressure must be maintained if donor governments are to reach their
targets of giving 0.7% of GDP in ODA. Ms Dusepulchre suggested that the percentage of
ODA given to education should be fixed for at least ten years, in order to ensure that donors
effectively support the type of long-term planning required by country education strategies.
         Broadening the perspective on resource mobilisation also means creating new
partnerships, especially with the private sector. Mr Satyadeep Rajan from the World
Economic Forum argued that an expansion of public private partnerships (PPPs) could not
only increase funding for education, but also provide other forms of aid such as management,
expertise, advocacy and innovative pro-poor solutions. Mr Rajan drew attention to activities
where the private sector was already active, such as in tackling child labour and harnessing
new technologies to educational purposes. However he noted that in contrast to the health
and water sectors, the advantages of PPPs still needed to be fully realized in the field of
education. Greater political support and a clearer articulation of objectives will be needed if
the potential of PPPs is to be successfully mobilised.

Aid Effectiveness in Context
Mr Thierno Djaouné, representative of Aid et Action Guinée, and Mr George Godia,
Education Secretary at the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Kenya, spoke
from the perspectives of aid effectiveness in country. The governments of Guinea and Kenya
have shown strong commitment to EFA, and their country education plans have received FTI
endorsement. Progress in implementing these plans, however, has differed considerably
between the two countries.
        Despite FTI endorsement in 2002, educational development in Guinea has been slow.
Only 43% of children are completing primary education and according to the 2004 FTI
evaluation the state is unable to meet the minimum requirement of ensuring the basic
functioning of schools. The explanation for this failure lies at both the partner and donor
levels. On the one hand, the Guinean state, for a number of social and economic reasons, has
been unable to mobilise the resources needed to meet its share of the FTI compact. Local
capacity, moreover, has been unable to absorb a large proportion of the external aid received.
On the other hand, Mr Djaouné also underlined that there had been a lack of harmonisation in

donor activity at the country level. Guinea depends on foreign aid for over 40% of its
education funding. However, transaction costs are high, and much greater efforts are needed
to align donor support behind national education policies. Furthermore, in a country that
already has a heavy and unsustainable debt burden, aid needs to come in the form of grants,
not loans.
        Kenya has made significant progress towards EFA. Free primary education was
introduced in 2003, and the government has created a sector-wide education programme, the
primary component of which received FTI endorsement at the end of June 2005. The
mobilisation of external funds, through the FTI and other mechanisms, will prove crucial to
Kenya‟s success in achieving EFA. The financing gap for implementing the „Kenya
Education Sector Support Programme‟ has been estimated at, on average, an annual US$
106.3 million. With the Kenyan government already contributing around 29% of its public
sector budget to education, this gap will only be bridged through major increases in foreign
        Although the trajectories followed by Guinea and Kenya are different, they point to
similar lessons with regard to aid effectiveness. National capacity is determinant; but for
countries dependent on external funds for development, improved methods of aid delivery are
also crucial. Both sides of the compact need strengthening if Guinea and Kenya are to reach
EFA targets.

Strengthening the Compact
In opening up the floor to discussion, the moderator, Mr Ronald Siebes, encouraged the
Working Group to focus on ways of ensuring that EFA draw the maximum benefits from the
projected increases in development funding. In the debate that followed, participants
addressed the need to:
► Mobilise the participation of civil society organizations in policy making and in the
implementation and monitoring of aid. In particular, reference was made to the need for
governments to consult more closely with teachers‟ unions so as to better promote quality
► Ensure that country ownership is tied to country responsibility. Action still needs to be
taken at the country level to tackle corruption and to increase accountability and transparency.
► Increase linkages between EFA plans and poverty reduction strategies (PRSs) in order to
ensure that education is a priority in all development planning.
► Strengthen the FTI so that it can act as a truly global partnership for achieving all EFA
goals. In particular:
    o Align donor targets with those of countries.
    o Develop indicators to monitor donor performance.
    o Reduce the time taken to endorse countries and disburse funds.
    o Include representatives from civil society and developing countries in the FTI Steering
► Work to remove macro-economic restraints. Greater fiscal flexibility could be a means of
expanding country funding potential in Africa.
► Reduce the debt burden. Debt cancellation, debt swap, funding through grants rather than
loans: such measures were suggested as means of freeing-up country resources for investment
in education.
► Support capacity building. Although countries require financial resources, support in
building technical and managerial capacity is also required. It was argued that lessons could
be learnt in this respect from the Capacity Development Plans created within the framework
of HIV/AIDS education programmes.

► Increased advocacy in order to capitalise on the new pledges of aid and maintain
momentum in resource mobilisation. Bilateral funds still remain below 1992 levels, and
concerted efforts will be needed to translate the bold commitments made at the G8 Summit
into practical actions.
► Maintain quality standards in education. The true mark of effective investment is a quality
outcome. Donors and the international community need to help countries to create inclusive
education systems that are sustainable and self-renewing. It is through quality education that
partner countries will build human capacity and break through the cycle of dependency.

                    V. Moving Towards a Joint Action Plan

       ■ UNESCO must strengthen its role as chief coordinator of EFA; it needs to
       further develop the vision and expertise that will lead the world to reach the
       EFA targets by 2015.

       ■ The global mapping of the roles and responsibilities of major EFA
       stakeholders will provide the basis for a more coordinated and effective
       approach to achieving the Dakar goals.

       ■ The FTI should form the basis of a global compact for funding that ensures
       that every country seriously committed to EFA has the resources to achieve it.

       ■ The measure of strong coordination is effective support to country education

In his introduction to this session, the moderator, UNESCO Assistant Director-General for
Education Mr Peter Smith, addressed the urgent need for UNESCO and its EFA partners to
work together in a more coordinated and effective way. Responding to the request by
UNESCO‟s Executive Board for a clearer understanding of the roles of EFA stakeholders and
a coherent strategy of how they could work together more efficiently, Mr Smith asked
participants to pool their collective expertise and help UNESCO formulate a joint plan of
action for achieving EFA by 2015. He drew attention to a draft version of this plan, signalling
three elements for particular consideration: the mapping of agency roles with a statement of
first purposes; support for country planning; and a global compact for financing. The five
panellists responded from the perspectives of multilateral agencies, civil society, a bilateral
donor and a partner country.

Coordinating EFA
„How to make the sum of EFA efforts greater than its parts?‟, was the challenge posed by Ms
Ruth Kagia of the World Bank. Both she and the other two representatives from UN agencies
– Mr Cream Wright of UNICEF and Ms Arletty Pinel of UNFPA – supported UNESCO‟s call
for a global mapping of roles and responsibilities in order to strengthen coordination. There
was strong agreement that the effectiveness of international agencies would be enhanced by a
clearer definition of their specific mandates with regard to EFA. It was argued that through
this any overlap between institutions could be minimised, thus promoting a greater sense of
the complementarity between the different agencies. It was argued that mapping could also
serve to highlight areas where agency support was needed and to better focus on urgent
priorities. Moreover, as Ms Pinel pointed out, strengthened coordination at the institutional
level would promote education as a cross-cutting issue in development.
         There was a consensus among all three representatives, as in the Working Group more
generally, that UNESCO was the key agency to lead this process of coordination. UNESCO‟s
specific mandate should be to promote cooperation between EFA partners, and to monitor
their policies and actions. Tracing the history of UNESCO-World Bank relations, Ms Kagia,
in particular, maintained that UNESCO had not always exercised its role as lead policy
advisor in education. She urged UNESCO to strengthen its leadership, and to play a more
proactive, assertive and creative role in the future.

Addressing Country Needs
As Mr Smith stated in his introduction, support of country education plans must be the
immutable principle of EFA. The purpose of global mapping is to improve effectiveness on
the ground at national level. A key question for the Working Group, therefore, was how best
to align interventions behind country needs. Mr Ricardo Henriques, the Vice-Minister for
Education in Brazil, identified what he saw as some of the principal areas for international
►Coordination. A major obstacle to progress in EFA at country level is the lack of clear
policy dialogue between stakeholders. Mr Henriques argued that the international community
has a central role to play in advocating and helping to build a „national education compact‟
that brought together all levels and sectors of government, as well as civil society and the
private sector, in support of a common agenda for basic education.
► Capacity. Many countries lack the capacity to effectively plan and implement education
strategies, be this for reasons of institutional weakness, financial constraints, lack of technical
and managerial skills, or absence of monitoring services and timely data. International
organizations need to help countries develop these capacities in a way that draws on local
resources and encourages innovation.
►Funding. Most countries will require considerable external aid to meet EFA targets.
Whilst national governments must commit to using resources more efficiently and
transparently, the international community needs in turn to meet its aid commitments and to
work more closely with those responsible for country education plans. In turn, member states
need the guarantee that, if they invest both politically and financially in education, external
aid will be made available.
        In his conclusion, Mr Henriques argued that Brazil provided a positive example of
what could be achieved through responsive international action. Brazil is one country where a
national education compact does exist, and Mr Henriques noted that through its field office in
Brasilia, UNESCO had played an invaluable part in building this partnership, raising
awareness of EFA, and coordinating stakeholders around a single education agenda.

A Global Compact for Funding
Mr Gene Sperling, Director of the Centre for Universal Education, focused his presentation on
how to strengthen EFA funding. Arguing that it was important here to address the political
realities faced by donors and partner countries, he introduced three basic guidelines:
    o Certainty. If national governments are willing to invest in education, and commit to a
         programme that may only see returns over a long period, then the international
         community needs to guarantee adequate financial support.
    o Sustainability. Education is a long-term investment that requires sustainable funding.
         Country budgeting and international aid need to focus on a ten-year planning horizon.
    o Accountability. A compact requires mutual accountability based on the effective
         monitoring of not only how aid is delivered but also how it is spent.
         There was widespread agreement that the FTI already provided the basis for such a
compact. However, as in the previous session, panellists noted that other measures would be
required to mobilise the resources needed to achieve EFA. Mr Henriques argued that for a
lower-middle income country such as Brazil – a country that was not eligible for FTI funding
but whose heavy debt burden prevented it from increasing investment in education – debt
swaps, such as used by Spain in Argentina, could be an effective mechanism for directing
finance to EFA. John Grayzel, Education Director at USAID, drew attention to what he

described as the great-untapped potential of resource mobilisation – the private sector. The
financing of EFA, he argued, could learn a lot from countries such as the United States where
the private sector was engaged in education on a broad scale.

Building on Knowledge and Experience
There are other resources that the international community can contribute to the EFA
endeavour. As Mr Grayzel underlined, mobilising knowledge and experience will be crucial
for success. He furthermore urged that in this year of assessment, EFA partners should speak,
not of crises and deficits, but of building on the wealth of past experience so as to work more
effectively in the future.
        Panellists agreed that UNESCO should play a lead role in this field. Through the
GMR and its various Institutes, UNESCO already has a strong knowledge base. It was
argued that UNESCO needed to build on this base more systematically in order to develop
strong, clear messages and priorities to present to partners in EFA. These include:
     o Sharing good practices. The experience of countries that have made significant
         progress in education, such as Brazil, Korea, Singapore and certain states in India, can
         be utilised by policy makers in other countries.
     o Facilitating dialogue. This means creating a forum where all stakeholders in EFA can
         share their expertise and knowledge. This also means bringing in actors – from health,
         agriculture or business – who may not immediately be identified with EFA, but whose
         support is central to its progress. „Education for all is an issue for all‟, Mr Henriques
         underlined, „and it requires joint action‟.
     o Promoting the whole EFA agenda. As Mr Grayzel argued, this involves not only
         emphasising the interdependence of the six goals in the long-term development of
         education, but also understanding how they relate together in specific country
     o Creating „a community of commitments‟, where all partners share a common sense of
         ownership and take responsibility for the EFA movement.

Comments and Feedback
These suggestions gave rise to rich discussion. All speakers endorsed the need for more
concerted action to achieve EFA, and signalled the following as areas that required special
►Enhancing the role of civil society. Civil society should be drawn more closely into
national and international planning and monitoring efforts. Greater awareness is needed of
the important role that the Collective Consultation of Non-Governmental Organizations
(CCNGO) on EFA plays in encouraging dialogue between EFA agencies and NGOs, notably
from the South. The fact that there are now major civil society campaigns promoting
education at the country level is one example of the significant progress made since Dakar.
► Scaling up FTI to meet the whole EFA agenda. Although this idea received strong
endorsement, questions were raised in regard to the required time-scale for enlargement, and
to the indicators that would be used to evaluate and monitor progress towards the other EFA
► Maintaining a country-level focus. International agencies need to consult more regularly
with actors at the country level in order to improve their responsiveness to local needs. In this
respect, UNESCO was urged to strengthen its regional and national offices, and work more
concertedly with such regional initiatives as the Breda EFA Forum, Dakar +5.

► Reinforcing UNESCO’s role as coordinating agency. A strong appeal was made to
UNESCO to assume more firmly the leadership of EFA coordination. It was argued that in
this capacity UNESCO should work more proactively to:
    o Share knowledge and expertise and provide a forum for exchange.
    o Set the standards for EFA, and maintain an emphasis on quality education.
    o Coordinate international action around national policies.
    o Promote the value of education. UNESCO is the custodian of the vision of Dakar; its
        responsibility is to inspire within all EFA partners the commitment needed to
        transform this vision into reality.

          VI. Planning for the Beijing High-Level Group Meeting
An important role of the EFA Working Group is to propose the agenda for the annual High-
Level Group (HLG) Meeting. The latter is mandated by the Dakar Framework for Action to
„serve as a lever for political commitment and technical and financial resource mobilisation‟.
Participants of the Working Group emphasised the particular importance of establishing a
strong and focused agenda for this year‟s Meeting. The 2005 High Level Meeting should
build on the momentum created by the G8 Summit and the World Summit in September, and
ensure that EFA occupies a central place in all international development commitments.
        In the opening session of the Working Group, Assistant Director-General for
Education Mr Peter Smith had introduced three subjects which he suggested should figure
prominently on the Beijing agenda:
     o The country plan: the principle of one plan per country with all programmes for
        development subsumed within it.
     o A global compact for funding tied to a ten year planning cycle in participating
     o Enhanced coordination between EFA stakeholders, informed by the global mapping of
        roles and responsibilities.
These suggestions had stimulated debate throughout the two and a half days of the 6th
Working Group Meeting, and in this final session received strong endorsement. The primacy
of the country plan, and of country ownership of development planning, was upheld by the
Group to be the guiding principle for all aspects of the EFA endeavour, and it was argued that
the HLG should recognise and reaffirm this priority. It was also underlined that a clear
statement of the core-mandates of EFA partners would enhance the effectiveness of actors at
the country level.
        Several speakers noted that a global compact for funding EFA already existed in the
form of the FTI, and that the HLG provided an opportunity to clarify both what the FTI had
achieved, and also how it could be enlarged to address the needs of all countries and to cover
all EFA goals. To this end, it was suggested that the final afternoon of the meeting should be
a Joint FTI-HLG session. As one participant put it, the FTI was more than a mechanism for
mobilising resources; it was also an effective framework for development in basic education
built on the principle of one country, one plan. For high-level leaders of states, agencies, civil
society and the private sector to commit to the FTI at Beijing would be a powerful
commitment to country-led and owned development.
        The discussion also focused on the priority elements of the EFA agenda to be
addressed at Beijing. Suggestions were made that there should be specific sessions both on
literacy and on ERP, and that the gender parity objective should also be a central subject of
discussion. These, it was emphasized, were three key cross-cutting issues both for education
and for development in general. They were also issues of timely importance for the meeting
in the People‟s Republic of China. The launch of the GMR, focused this year on literacy, will
enable the HLG to provide a clear review of the progress made in tackling illiteracy and the
major challenges that remain. ERP directly draws attention to the close relationship between
progress in education and economic growth, as the experience of the People‟s Republic of
China exemplifies. The HLG should raise awareness of the linkages between education and
other areas of development, and also address the major obstacles to progress in rural areas,
notably child labour. The projected failure to meet the 2005 gender parity goal demands that
this also be addressed at the Beijing Meeting. The HLG needs to examine the underlying
causes for this failure, and to propose ways of working together more effectively to achieve
this and other EFA goals.

       Finally, participants argued that the HLG needed to make a determined commitment to
education that would establish EFA as a priority issue at all political levels. The Beijing
meeting needs to mark a turning point in the world‟s progress towards the achievement of
Education for All by 2015. The Working Group made the following suggestions of how this
might be done:
   o A statement of commitment. All HLG participants should prepare a statement
       outlining how they plan to achieve EFA.
   o Follow-up. There should be systematic follow-up to the HLG communiqués,
       monitoring and evaluating what has been achieved and what remains to be done.
   o An overview of achievements. In this year of assessment, the HLG needs both to
       highlight what has been achieved since Dakar, and to focus on how, over the coming
       decade, EFA partners can work together to make Education for All a tangible reality.

                             VII. Concluding comments
The sixth EFA Working Group meeting was framed within a set of challenges to the goal of
achieving Education for All by 2015: a goal that, while seemingly elusive, may still be within
reach if there is concerted action and commitment from all stakeholders. The exchange that
took place during the meeting, while sometimes reflecting disappointment with the pace of
progress, nevertheless served to restate the continuing determination of all actors. The
richness of the debate reflected the diverse constituencies represented in the meeting.
         Much of the discussion revolved around the outcomes of other recent international
events linked to development issues, in particular, the Paris Forum on Aid Effectiveness and
the G8 Summit in Gleneagles. This was important for placing Education for All squarely
within current discourse. The working group also drew inspiration from the presentation of
innovative and practical solutions from countries all over the world to overcoming some of
the obstacles to achieving universal and quality education for all.
         Particular focus was placed on the issue of literacy, and its relation to broader
development goals which many of the participants felt was overdue. Not only is a 50%
increase in adult literacy one of the Dakar goals, but literacy itself is crucial to the
achievement of the other objectives. Literate parents, in other words, tend to support their
children‟s education. Literacy is a continual process and, as part of lifelong learning, forms
the starting point for further educational attainment.
         One of the most neglected areas in the EFA movement has been education for rural
people. As one participant put it, rural areas are often those that “we drive past or fly over”.
Yet these are also areas of enormous diversity and as such demand extra support. They are
faced with particular challenges such as geographical factors of terrain and distance which
make travel to school more difficult. Agricultural seasons may affect the school calendar
while financial resources tend to be scarce. But the message was also one of hope: despite the
constraints, rural populations in many parts of the world are actively participating in the
establishment of new educational models, for example using local languages and drawing on
rich cultural and environmental knowledge, as well as traditional modes of education.
         Debate in the Working Group also focused on how to improve aid effectiveness to
meet the challenge of EFA by 2015. Participants felt that while considerable progress had
been made since Dakar in terms of securing funding commitments from donors, there had also
been some problems along the way. Nevertheless, the climate was now right for increased aid
to ensure the EFA goals. The G8 summit, in particular, had strengthened donor commitments
and the Paris Declaration had formulated a framework for this. In turn, the Fast Track
Initiative provided a context for dialogue between donors and countries themselves. What
emerged as crucial in the debate was the need for strong country plans linked to cross-sectoral
coordination and civil society involvement.
         One concern reiterated throughout the discussion was the need for UNESCO to
assume a stronger, more visible, and more vocal role in EFA coordination. Participants in the
Working Group expressed their support for this, while requesting the various UN agencies to
map out their responsibilities and activities in regard to EFA in a clear and coordinated way.
Complementarity, rather than duplication, would lead to more sharply defined objectives and
more measurable results. With civil society and private sector involvement, the further
development of national plans and increased aid, Education for All should still be achievable
within the next ten years.

                                      VIII. Appendices

          Opening Address of the Director-General of UNESCO

        Distinguished Guests,
        Ladies and Gentlemen,
        I have great pleasure in welcoming you to the sixth meeting of the Working
        Group on EFA. Without more ado, I would like to introduce to you Mr Peter Smith,
the new Assistant Director-General for Education, who will chair this meeting. From what I
have seen of him so far, I am confident that his ability, energy and drive will have a positive
influence on the outcomes of this meeting.
        I am also privileged to acknowledge the presence of Mr Richard Manning, Chair
of the DAC in OECD, who has graciously agreed to be our keynote speaker this morning. We
stand to benefit from his knowledge and experience in seeking to understand the implications
of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the challenges inherent in its
implementation. I am glad that, through his good offices and the initiative of some of our
Permanent Delegations, UNESCO is now formally associated with the follow-up to this
important agreement.
        The Working Group has gradually established a strong identity among EFA
international partners and in Member States, demonstrating its ability to provide direction on
technical matters as well as to help prepare the subsequent meeting of the High-Level Group.
Over the years, the Working Group has instilled a growing spirit of collaboration among EFA
partners, particularly through wider consultations in its preparation and increased
participation. Like the High-Level Group, it has become a hub for other multi-stakeholder
meetings and events relating to EFA. This year, these include meetings of the UN Girls‟
Education Initiative (UNGEI), the FTI Steering Committee and its various groups and
committees, the Coordination Group of the Collective Consultation of NGOs on EFA and the
LIFE Partnership meeting.
        In drawing up the agenda for the meeting, we have been conscious of the need to
build on the momentum generated by the „Global campaign for making poverty
history‟, the promising outcomes of the Gleneagles G8 Summit and the intensive
preparations for the Millennium Review Summit of the Heads of State in September.
        The United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has recently drawn our attention to
the challenge of implementation, saying that: “The year 2005 is crucial in our work to achieve
the goals. Instead of setting targets, this time world leaders must decide how to achieve
them.” In this context, we ought to be particularly concerned about the missing of the 2005
goal on gender parity in schools. Furthermore, we must try to internalize the lessons from this
experience so as to do better in our collective efforts to achieve this goal and the other EFA
goals. An over-arching purpose of our agenda should be to identify obstacles to our success
and propose workable solutions.
        As the agency responsible for coordinating the EFA partnership, it is UNESCO‟s role
to put the spotlight on areas such as literacy and education for rural people which have not yet
attracted the attention they deserve on the part of all EFA stakeholders. Over the last five
years, as indeed happened during the previous decade following the Jomtien conference, adult
literacy has begun once again to slip out of focus. It is both an EFA goal in its own right and a
cross-cutting element of the other goals. This is reflected in the multi-stakeholder panels on
„Literacy for Empowerment‟ (LIFE) and “Education for Rural People”.

        The raison d’être of UNESCO‟s LIFE Initiative is to mobilize and support the
national leadership of 34 countries with 85% of the world‟s 800 million adult illiterates, and
to address the problem in a manner that reflects a clear awareness that, unless there are
significant improvements in their literacy rates in the next decade, global progress in
achieving all the EFA goals will be severely hampered. Literacy is not merely an indicator of
development: it is the very substance of development. Furthermore, there can be no
meaningful democracy and freedom without more and better literacy.
        Let us strive to measure achievements in literacy more accurately and at more frequent
intervals, through new tools such as LAMP (Literacy Assessment and Monitory Programme).
I am looking to the Working Group to find effective ways to implement literacy as an integral
part of our EFA agenda.
        The Working Group‟s agenda provides an opportunity for us to sharpen our focus on
the distinctive educational needs of rural areas that are home to the vast majority of the
world‟s poor and its disadvantaged populations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South
Asia where the EFA challenge is the greatest. Educating rural people is crucial for achieving
EFA, sustainable development, food security and poverty reduction.
        Here I am pleased to acknowledge the useful role of FAO, the lead agency for the ERP
flagship. It is largely through our joint efforts that you see here a panel that brings to the fore
voices from grass-roots organizations from a range of countries from Bangladesh in South
Asia to Colombia in Latin America. Let us listen to these voices carefully and agree on policy
interventions to organize and deliver education to rural areas in a flexible manner that is also
relevant and accessible to indigenous communities in their own languages. Your deliberations
on this topic will be vital to bringing guidance to the High-Level Group in November, which
should be in a position to put collective political will behind initiatives in rural education.
        Ladies and Gentlemen,
        The issue of mobilizing donor funds for development, especially for Africa, was at the
forefront of the debate preceding the recent G8 Summit. The debt relief package for 18
developing countries and the commitments for doubling aid to Africa augur well for the
future. Nevertheless, it will be some time before the exact implications of these pledges and
commitments become clear. Will there be a net addition in ODA following these
pronouncements? Will this be in the form of grants and concessional assistance? How much
of this will be for education, especially basic education? On what terms and conditions and by
when will it be available? The Working Group, as a convocation of some of the world‟s
leading educational experts, should seek to ensure that its debate and clarification of these
issues have an impact – in particular, so that the additional aid flows can be channelled to
countries that have clear policies and plans in place for achieving EFA within broader
frameworks for poverty alleviation.
        The EFA-Fast Track Initiative (FTI) is now recognized as a global framework for
coordinating and targeting UPE-related assistance to developing countries with sound
economic, governance and human capacity policies. However, we should work to improve its
effectiveness to ensure increased, certain and predictable funding for a larger number of
countries in need. This has to be done in light of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.
        At the same time, we should strive to explore new avenues to mobilize resources for
countries that are not covered by the FTI. This includes advocating the incorporation of EFA
as a priority on the agendas of new international initiatives such as the International Finance
Facility and the debt relief package announced recently. It is also important that the EFA
goals other than UPE are not forgotten and they should benefit from additional financial
assistance that becomes available.
        In my letter to the G8 leaders prior to the Gleneagles meeting, I stressed the critical
importance of EFA, noting that the UK Commission for Africa had characterized EFA as

“one of the most exciting pledges that the international community has ever made”. I also
emphasized the need to mobilize increased financial aid for developing countries that have a
sound policy framework and the potential to deliver on their commitments.
         It is heartening to note that, in the Gleneagles Communiqué, the G8 leaders announced
that “they would work to support the EFA agenda in Africa including continuing their support
for the FTI and their efforts to help FTI-endorsed countries to develop sustainable capacity
and identify the resources necessary to pursue their sustainable educational strategies.” This is
most encouraging.
         Let us hope that the positive momentum developed in Gleneagles will carry forward to
the World Summit in New York in September and beyond. However, I must be frank with
you in saying that I was very disappointed by the Draft Outcome Document that was prepared
to guide the UN General Assembly‟s deliberations. While UNESCO‟s concerns about the
Document cover several fields, my letter of 16 June 2005 to Mr Jean Ping, President of the
UN General Assembly, focused exclusively on education, which is of uppermost importance
to UNESCO. In my letter to Mr Ping, I expressed UNESCO‟s great concern that the Draft
Outcome Document accords no special recognition to the crucial role played by education,
particularly basic education, in the development process. I point out that there is neither a
distinct section on education devoted to the two education-related MDGs nor an
acknowledgement of the wider framework within which these two goals are embedded,
namely, the full Dakar agenda of six EFA goals.
         Instead, the Draft Outcome document covers educational matters in a somewhat
selective and underdeveloped way that does scant justice to the high priority given to
education by many developing countries, especially in Africa. Indeed, the chapter on
“Meeting the special needs of Africa” makes no reference whatsoever to the crucial
role of education. Furthermore, the fight against illiteracy finds no mention in the document.
In my view, the Document does not recognize the importance of education
and its contribution to human capacity development.
         I have shared this letter with Secretary-General Kofi Annan and with the delegations
of UNESCO‟s Member States, and UNESCO has advocated on behalf of education‟s role. I
do not know if the Draft Outcome Document will be amended, or amended sufficiently, to
take account of UNESCO‟s views. I would hope that the EFA movement represented here at
the Working Group shares UNESCO‟s perspective and supports it not only in principle but
also in practice and through your own advocacy.
         Ladies and Gentlemen,
         Real progress in countries will depend on the quality of leadership and the depth of
their commitment to improving the lives of their people through sustained investments in
education delivered through more efficient, transparent and accountable systems of
governance and in partnership with civil society. At the international level, there is an urgent
need for an integrated and coordinated approach to support countries in the implementation of
international agreements and national plans. Hence UNESCO‟s attempt to draw up a joint
action plan to clarify the roles, responsibilities and contributions of key EFA partners in
achieving the EFA goals by 2015. We must come together to work shoulder-to-shoulder to
support those countries that have demonstrated promise and potential, but are at risk of not
achieving the goals over the next 10 years due to lack of resources and capacity.
         I appeal to the UN family, the World Bank, and the donors present here to contribute
to this exercise wholeheartedly. I urge representatives of developing countries and civil
society to advise us on how we can work more cohesively as a team in their countries to
achieve our commonly agreed development agenda and EFA goals. The world has already
paid a heavy price for international agencies working separately, and often competitively, in
different countries. It is time for us to move forward purposefully and with greater coherence

to meet the EFA goals. In this spirit, I hope that the Working Group will reach broad
agreement on the shape of a joint action plan.
        I expect that the outcomes of the Working Group will help to prepare for the next
session of the UNESCO General Conference in October, whose over-arching theme will be
EFA. Furthermore, one of the two Ministerial Round Tables to be held during the General
Conference will be dedicated to EFA, taking account of the experience of the past five years
since Dakar. The deliberations and results of the Working Group will also go forward, of
course, to the fifth meeting of the High-Level Group in Beijing in November. I am pleased to
note that the Working Group will discuss and agree on core elements of the High-Level
Group Communiqué in the light of its proposed agenda and the context of the international
debate on development and poverty alleviation.
                        I wish you well in your deliberations.

                                Agenda of the Meeting

The Working Group serves as a mechanism to provide technical guidance to the EFA
movement. It creates and reinforces partnerships, and ensures linkages between inter-agency
flagship programmes in the follow-up to the six Dakar goals. It provides a forum for exchange
and discussion on EFA experiences at the country, regional and international levels. The
Working Group prepares the annual High-Level Group on Education for All.

Expected outcomes

The Working Group will seek to agree on:
► The roles, responsibilities and contributions of key partners to achieve the EFA goals by
   2015 through a joint plan of action.
► The agenda and core elements of the Beijing Communiqué.
► Increased priority for literacy through enhanced political commitment, concerted action
   and greater financial resources.
► Education for Rural People as a key policy intervention for achieving EFA and the MDGs.
► Strategies for mobilising resources for EFA through the FTI and other international
   development initiatives, including the G-8 debt relief package.
► Enhancing aid effectiveness through better alignment with country plans and budgets, the
   harmonisation of donor practice, mutual accountability, and a results-oriented and
   incentive-based approach.

Each session will begin with a lead presentation on the theme, raising important issues and
suggesting ways of addressing them (15 minutes). Respondents from developing and
industrialized countries, non-governmental organization (NGOs) and multilateral agencies
will reflect critically on the presentation (10 minutes) from the perspective of the constituency
they represent. The moderators will facilitate the debate, offer summaries on the principal
areas of consensus or disagreement and orient the debate towards the expected outcomes.

Tuesday 19 July

8:30 – 9:15 am                      Registration
9:30 – 10:30 am                     Welcome to participants and overview of EFA (Koïchiro Matsuura,
                                    Director-General of UNESCO)
                                    Keynote address:
                                    Implementing the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
                                    (Richard Manning, Chairman, Development Assistance Committee, OECD)
                                    Overview of the agenda and expected outcomes of the meeting
                                    (Peter Smith, Assistant Director-General for Education, UNESCO)
10:30 – 11:00 am                    Coffee break
11:00 am – 12:30 pm                 Literacy for Empowerment
                                    Panel presentation led by UNESCO (Ann Therese Ndong Jatta), with India
                                    (Kumud Bansal), Mexico (Ramón de la Peña), Global Campaign for
                                    Education (David Archer), ADEA (Mamadou Ndoye) and Ontario Institute
                                    for Studies in Education (Karen Mundy). Moderator: DFID (Desmond

More than 800 million adults are illiterate and over 100 million children have no access to school. A vast
majority of these people live in sub-Saharan Africa and in E-9 countries. A large number of out-of-school
children will join the ranks of illiterate adults unless appropriate educational opportunities are opened to them.
While the struggle for literacy is directly related to the attainment of EFA Goals 3 and 4, it needs to be stressed
that literacy should be promoted as a means of empowerment, of human development and as a prerequisite for
reaching the MDGs. The panel will highlight challenges and suggest effective ways to assist countries in
accelerating progress toward literacy goals within existing national and international development frameworks,
in particular the United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD), the Decade of Education for Sustainable
Development (DESD) and UNESCO’s Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE). The session will seek to
stimulate greater political will, concerted action and more financial resources for literacy through better inter-
agency coordination and a sharper delineation of agency roles in different countries, especially in sub-Saharan

12:30 – 2:00 pm                     Lunch
2:00 – 3:15 pm                      Discussion on literacy for empowerment
3:15 – 3:30 pm                      Coffee break
3:30 – 5:00 pm                      Education for Rural People (ERP) to achieve EFA and MDGs
                                    Panel presentation led by FAO (Lavinia Gasperini), with IIEP (Gudmund
                                    Hernes), China (Zhou Nan-Zhao), Nelson Mandela Foundation (Mmeli
                                    Macanda), Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia (Rosario Salazar),
                                    Nari Maitree (Shaheen Akter Chowdhury) and World Agroforestry Centre,
                                    ICRAF (Tom Vandenbosch). Moderator: ADEA (Mamadou Ndoye)

There are wide disparities in education between people living in urban and rural areas. In many countries, rural
people are a particularly difficult group to reach through formal education systems. Since around 70 per cent of
the world’s poor live in rural areas, educating rural people is crucial for achieving EFA, sustainable
development, food security and poverty reduction. Adopting an equity and pro-poor approach, inherent in ERP,
is a way of accelerating progress towards EFA. Promoting ERP is also a means to address the Dakar Goal 4 on
life skills, which remains neglected, and to emphasize the strong links between ERP, DESD and MDGs. A
consensus should emerge on the shape that education in rural contexts needs to take and the kind of cooperation
that can best support this. The session – organized in collaboration with the FAO, the lead agency for the ERP
flagship – will seek to identify key policy interventions as well as operational solutions through examples of
successful programmes in different regions.

5:00 – 6:15 pm                      Discussion on Education for Rural People to achieve EFA and MDGs
6:30 – 7:30 pm                      Reception hosted by UNESCO

Wednesday 20 July
8:30 – 9:30 am                      Meeting of the Sherpa Group
10:00 – 11:15 am                    Scaling up Resource Mobilisation and Aid Effectiveness for EFA

                                    Panel presentation led by the World Bank (Soe Lin), with Belgium (Nadine
                                    Dusepulchre), Kenya (George Godia), Guinea (Thierno Aliou Diaouné),
                                    Asian South-Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE) (Maria Khan)
                                    and World Economic Forum (Satyadeep Rajan). Moderator: Netherlands
                                    (Ronald Siebes)

According to the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005, a significant financing gap for EFA remains even if new
pledges for increased aid are fulfilled. There are grounds to anticipate increases in external aid to EFA, given
the specific pledges to basic education that have been made by several donors, the reports of the UN Millennium
Project and the Africa Commission Report. Recognizing that the FTI is a key mechanism for funding universal
primary completion, there is a need for exploring ways to mobilize resources for all six EFA goals. In light of the
commitments made in Dakar and Monterrey, the panel will discuss ways and means to mobilise resources
through the FTI in the context of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. This panel will also address issues
related to the funding of other EFA goals, in particular literacy. Building on the FTI experience, the session will
seek to agree on a common process and criteria for assessing country preparedness for external funding of EFA.

11:15 – 11:30 am                    Coffee break
11:30 am – 12:45 pm                 Discussion on resource mobilization and aid effectiveness
12:45 – 2:00 pm                     Lunch
2:00 – 3:30 pm                      Moving towards a Joint Action Plan for achieving EFA by 2015
                                    Panel led and moderated by UNESCO (Peter Smith), with World Bank (Ruth
                                    Kagia), UNICEF (Cream Wright), UNFPA (Arletty Pinel), USAID (John
                                    Grayzel), Brazil (Ricardo Henriques) and Center for Universal Education
                                    (Gene Sperling).

As a follow up to the meeting of the task force on global mapping of EFA partners’ roles (UNESCO, 24-25
January 2005) and the 171st session of UNESCO’s Executive Board, the Working Group will seek to facilitate a
sharper delineation of the respective roles, responsibilities and contributions of each partner in reaching EFA
goals and education-related MDGs by 2015. Discussions should lead to proposals for developing synergies and
collaborative approaches among partners at international, regional and country level and for updating the EFA
mapping process. This exercise, which should prove useful to all partners in working together to achieve EFA,
will help UNESCO to exercise a more proactive and assertive role as lead coordinator for EFA.

3:30 – 3.45 pm                      Coffee break
3.45 – 5:15 pm                      Discussion on Moving towards a Joint Action plan for achieving EFA

Thursday 21 July

9:30 – 11:00 am                     Presentation by Moderators on outcomes of each session: Discussion and
                                    agreement on the way forward
11:00 – 11:15 am                    Coffee break
11:15 am – 12:45 pm                 Planning for the Beijing High-Level Group Meeting
                                    Introduction by UNESCO (Abhimanyu Singh) followed by discussion.

The Government of China will host the fifth meeting of the High-Level Group on EFA (Beijing, 28-30 November
2005). This will be preceded by technical meetings of UNGEI, and followed by meetings of the FTI Partners
Group and a technical meeting of FTI donors. The Beijing meeting will review progress in EFA with reference to
the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006 on the theme of literacy. It will also focus on ERP in the context of the
MDGs. The outcomes of the Millennium Review Summit and the Ministerial Round Table on EFA during
UNESCO’s General Conference will feed into the deliberations of the High-Level Group. The High-Level Group
will serve as a platform to identify EFA challenges that can benefit from a scaling up of international and
national actions. The session will seek to promote agreement on the core elements of the Beijing High-Level
Group Communiqué so that it can serve as a common agenda for the EFA partnership.

12:45 – 1 pm                        Concluding remarks (Peter Smith, UNESCO)

                                        List of participants

1. Countries                                         Fax: +202 588 3350
Mr Ricardo Henriques                                 Gambia
Secretary of Continuous Education, Literacy and      Mr Momodou Sanneh
Diversity                                            Director of Basic and Secondary Education and
Ministério da Educaçao, Esplanada dos Ministérios,   National EFA Co-ordinator
Bloco “L” – 7° Andar                                 Department of State for Education Willy Thorpe
CEP: 70.047-Brasilia DF, Brazil                      Building, Banjul
Tel: +55 61 2104 8432                                The Gambia
Fax: +55 61 2104 9229                                Tel: +220 439 72 90
Email:                   Fax: +220 439 72 90 / 422 41 80
Accompanied by :
Ms Claudia Baena Soares                              Guinea
Deputy Head of the International Affairs Unit of     Mr Thierno Aliou Diaouné
the Minister‟s Cabinet                               Responsable de programme
Ministry of Education of Brazil                      Représentant Aide et Action Guinée
Tel: +55 61 2104 9527                                BP 4613 Conakry - Guinée
Fax: +55 61 2104 9229                                Tel: +224 13 35 10 36 / 00 224 25 00 45
Email:                      Email:

China                                                India
Mr Yue Du                                            Ms Kumud Bansal
Deputy Secretary-General Chinese National            Secretary, Department of Elementary Education
Commission for UNESCO                                and Literacy
National Commission of the People‟s Republic of      Ministry of Human Resource Development,
China                                                Government of India,
37, Damucang Hutong Xidan                            “C” Wing, Shastri Bhawan,
100816 Beijing                                       New Delhi 110 001, India
Tel: +86 10 6609 6445                                Tel: +91 11 2 338 2587
Fax: +86 10 6601 7912                                Fax: +91 11 2 338 7859
Email:                                Email: or

Accompanied by:                                      Accompanied by:
Ms Jianhong Dong                                     Ms Bhaswati Mukherjee
Division Director Chinese NatCom                     Ambassador and Permanent Delegate
Tel: +86 10 6609 6249                                Permanent Delegation of India to UNESCO
Fax: +86 10 6601 1792                                1, rue Miollis 75015 PARIS
Email:                                Tel: +33 1 45 68 29 88
                                                     Fax: +33 1 47 34 51 88
Dr Zhou Nan-zhao                                     Email:
International Research and Training, Centre for      Mr Satish Loomba,
Rural Education                                      Director, National Literacy Mission
Email: or                         Adult Education, Ministry of HRD, Government of                                   India
                                                     Tel: +91 11 2338 3214
Egypt                                                Fax: +91 11 2338 2397
Dr Mustapha Abdel Samee Mohamed Mursi                E-mail:
National Centre for Education, Research and          Islamic Republic of Iran
Development                                          Mr Javad Yazdani Segharloo
Ministry of Education                                Director of EFA Bureau
12 Wakeed St. From El Alfy, 14 floor Cairo, Egypt    Ministry of Education
Tel: +202 592 5923                                   No 62, Eastern Sarv Ave., Saadat Abad Blvd.
                                                     PO Box 19395/6137, Tehran 19817

Iran                                                Head of Unit for Socio-Economic Studies at the
Tel: +98 21 88 408 99                               Division of Strategy,
Fax: +98 21 82 282 980                              Statistics and Planning
Email: or          Bab Rouah, Rabat, Maroc
                                                    Tel: +212 37 68 72 65
Accompanied by:                                     Fax: +212 37 68 72 21
Mr Mansour Ahmadnejad                               E-mail:
Senior Expert, EFA International Cooperation
Ministry of Education                               Nigeria
No 62, Eastern Sarv Str., Saadat Farhang Sq,        Mrs Miriam Yanwaji Katagum
PO Box 19395/6137, Tehran 19817, Iran               Secretary General of the National Unit
Tel: +98 21 237 7422 / +98 912 211 6316             Federal Ministry of Education, Annexe, Central
Fax: +98 21 209 28 07                               Area
E-mail:                           Abuja, Nigeria
                                                    Tel: +234 803 7869258
Kenya                                               Email:
Mr George I. Godia
Education Secretary                                 Accompanied by:
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology       Mrs Bridget Obiageh Momah
P.O. Box 30040, 00100 Nairobi - Kenya               Assistant Director EFA Unit
Tel: + 254 20 34 18 52                              Federal Ministry of Education, Annexe, Central
Fax: +254 20 34 18 75                               Area
Email: or                          Abuja, Nigeria                                   Tel: +234 8042 114792
Mr Ramón De La Peña                                 Dr Rosalind Arit Ukpung
President, Consejo Nacional de Education Para La    Assistant Director Planning
Vida Y El Trabajo                                   Federal Ministry of Education
Instituto Nacional de Educación para los Adultos    Abuja, Nigeria
Francisco Marquez No. 160 5o. Piso. Col. Condesa,   Tel: +234 80 333 70 798
México 06140 DF, México                             E-mail:
Tel: +52 41 27 20                                   Dr Ahmed Adebisi Oyinlola
Fax: +52 41 29 66                                   Executive Secretary Mass Literacy, Representative
E-mail:                       of the CSACEFA
                                                    Federal Ministry of Education
Accompanied by:                                     Abuja, Nigeria
H. E. Mr Pablo Latapi                               Tel: +234 9 2344031
Ambassador,                                         E-mail:
Permanent delegate of Mexico to UNESCO
                                                    Mr Chimdi Obioma Ejiogu
Ms. Gloria Muñoz                                    Special Assistant to the Minister
Officer in charge of Education                      Federal Ministry of Education
Permanent delegation of Mexico to UNESCO            Abuja, Nigeria
E-mail:                       Tel: +234 9413 7780 or +234 95 232716 or +234 8
                                                    033 138 966
Morocco                                             Fax: +234 95 23 7839
Mr Mohamed Khaled Choulli
Ministère de l‟Education nationale                  Mr Bolawie Joel Ajibuah
Académie Régionale d‟Education et de Formation      F.C Member, CSACEFA
Tadla-Azilal                                        CSACEFA
Rue Abdel Krim Al Khattabi, Beni Mellal             523 Loma Mansa Str:
Rabat – Maroc                                       Abuja, Nigeria
Tel: +212 65 171 100                                Tel: +234 9 2900526
Fax: +212 23 48 9651                                E-mail:
E-mail :
Accompanied by:                                     Mr Abdulaziz Bin Habtoor
Mr Mohamed El Hamdi                                 Vice-Minister of Education

Ministry of Education of Yemen                       Chargé de mission DCT/HEF
Tel: +96 71 27 4549                                  Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Fax: +94 71 27 4540                                  20, rue Monsieur, 75007 Paris
                                                     Tel: +33 1 53 69 31 24
Accompanied by:                                      Email:
Ms Insaf Abdu Qassem
EFA National Co-ordinator                            Accompanied by:
Ministry of Education of Yemen, P.O. Box 11965,      Ms Marion Ginolin
Sana‟a, - Yemen                                      Chargé de mission
Tel: +96 71 494027                                   Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Fax: +96 71 494027 / 40 39 18                        20, rue Monsieur, 75007 Paris
Email: or                       Tel: +33 1 53 69 01 89 or             E-mail:

                                                     Mr Jacques Malpel
2. Bilateral Donor Agencies                          Chargé de mission
                                                     Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Belgium                                              20, rue Monsieur, 75007 Paris
Ms Nadine Dusepulchre                                Tel: +33 1 53 69 35 43
Conseiller adjoint                                   Fax: +33 1 53 69 87 32
Direction générale de la Coopération au              E-mail:
Service appui à la politique de l‟éducation,         Mr Jean-Bosco Bouyer
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rue des Petits Carmes   Ministry of Foreign Affairs
15, 1000 Brussels – Belgium                          20, rue Monsieur, 75007 Paris
Tel: +32 2 519 0523
Email:            Germany
                                                     Ms. Temby Caprio
Accompanied by:                                      Sector Advisor, GTZ
Mr Philippe Gerard                                   C/o BMZ, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 40, 53113 Bonn,
Attaché                                              Germany
Direction générale de la coopération au              Tel: +49 228 535 3129
développement                                        Fax: +49 228 535 4129
Email:               Email:

Mr Kris Panneels                                     Accompanied by:
Conseiller Général                                   Ms. Claudia Pragua
Direction générale de la coopération au              Desk Officer, BMZ
développement                                        Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 40
Email:                 53113 Bonn, Germany
                                                     Tel: + 49 1888 535 3609
Canada                                               Fax: + 49 1888 535 3755
Mr Scott Walter                                      Email:
Principal Advisor, Education, Policy Branch
Canadian International Development Agency            Ireland
(CIDA)                                               Ms Maire Matthews
200 Promenade du Portage, Hull, Quebec K1 A0G4       Senior Development Specialist – Education
Gatineau                                             Development Cooperation Ireland/Dept. of Foreign
Tel: +1 819 997 0892                                 Affairs
Email:                  Bishops Square, Redmonds Hill Dublin 2, Ireland
                                                     Tel: +353 1 408 2923
Accompanied by:                                      Fax: +353 1 408 28 84
Ms Maysa Jalbout                                     Email:
Senior Education Advisor
Canadian International Development Agency            Japan
Tel: +1 819 994 3774                                 H.E. Mr Teiichi Sato
Email:                 Ambassador and Permanent Delegate of Japan to
                                                     Permanent Delegation of Japan to UNESCO
France                                               148, rue de l'universite 75007 Paris, France
Mr Jean-Claude Mantes

Tel: +33 1 53 59 27 00                                10-5, Ichigaya Honmura-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo,
Fax: +33 1 53 59 27 27                                162-8433
Email: or                      Tel: +81 3 3269 3851                                  Fax: +81 3 3269 6992
Accompanied by:
Mr Yuzuru Imasato                                     Ms Akiko Takahashi
Minister-Counsellor                                   Associate Expert
Permanent Delegation of Japan to UNESCO               Group 1 (Basic Education), Basic Education Team
148, rue de l'universite 75007 Paris, France.         II, JICA
Tel: +33 1 53 59 27 00                                Shinjuku Maynds Tower Bldg., 2-1-1, Yoyogi,
Fax: +33 1 53 59 27 27
                                                      Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8558, Japan
Email: or
                                                      Tel: +81 3 5352 5345
                                                      Fax: +81 3 5352 5111
Ms Taeko Okitsu                                       Email:
Chief, Education Unit,
Aid Planning Division, Economic Cooperation
                                                      Mr Ronald Siebes
Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
                                                      Basic Education Expert
Tel: +81 3 5501 8363                                  Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Haguen
Fax: +81 3 5501 8362                                  Netherlands
Email:                        Tel: +31 70 348 4301
Mr Kenichiro Kanemitsu
Senior Specialist for Development Assistance,         Norway
Office for International Cooperation,                 Mr Oystein Lyngroth
International Affairs Division, Minister's            Advisor
Secretariat,                                          Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and   Tel: +47 22 24 38 28
Technology                                            Fax: +47 22 24 37 90
2-5-1, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959,        Email:
Tel: +81 3 6734 2606                                  Ms Hildegunn Olsen
Fax: +81 3 6734 3669                                  Advisor
Email:                              Norad, P.O. Box 8034 Dep, NO-0030 Oslo,
Ms Yuko Kamoshita                                     Tel: +47 22 24 20 44
Unit Chief                                            Fax: +47 22 24 20 31
Office for International Cooperation,                 E-mail:
International Affairs Division, Minister's
Secretariat,                                          Sweden
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and   Ms Ewa Werner-Dahlin
Technology                                            Head of Education Division,
2-5-1, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959         Department for Democracy and Social
Tel: +81 3 6734 2606                                  Development – Sida
Fax: +81 3 6734 3669                                  Sida, Swedish International Development Agency,
Email:                            105 25 Stockholm
                                                      Tel: +46 8 698 52 49
Ms Mariko Kobayashi                                   Email:
First Secretary
Permanent Delegation of Japan to UNESCO               Accompanied by:
148, rue de l'université 75007 Paris, France.         Mr Anders Frankenberg
Tel: +33 1 53 59 27 00                                Program Officer
Fax: +33 1 53 59 27 27                                Sida, department for Democracy and Social
Email: or                      Development, Education Division                                  Sida, SE-105 25 Stockholm, Sweden
                                                      Tel: +46 8 698 56 23
Mr Toshio Murata                                      Fax: +46 8 698 56 47
Senior Advisor (Education)                            Email:
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

Ms Malin Elisson                                 Fax: +1 202 216 3229
Program Officer                                  Email:
Sida, department for Democracy and Social
Development, Education Division                  Accompanied by:
Sida, SE-105 25 Stockholm, Sweden                Mr Gregory Loos
Tel: +46 8 698 50 00                             Education Program Specialist
Fax: +46 8 698 56 47                             USAID
Email:                     Tel: +1 202 712 4175
                                                 Fax: +1 202 216 3229
Mr Gun-Britt Andersson                           Email:
Ambassador, Permanent Delegate
Permanent Delegation of Sweden to UNESCO         H. E. Ms Louise Oliver
UNESCO House, 1 rue Miollis 75015 Paris          Ambassador
Tel: +33 45 68 34 50                             US Permanent Delegation to UNESCO,
Fax: +33 1 47 34 10 03                           American Embassy – Paris
Email:   2, avenue Gabriel 75009 Paris

Mr Anders Falk                                   Mr Andrew Koss
Deputy Permanent Delegate                        Deputy Chief of Mission
Permanent Delegation of Sweden to UNESCO
Tel: +33 1 45 68 34 51                           Ms Gail Randall
Fax: +33 1 47 94 10 03                           Education Attache
Email:                    American Embassy in Paris
                                                 Tel: +33 1 45 24 74 53
Ms Margaretha Johnsson                           E-mail:
3rd Secretary
Permanent Delegation of Sweden to UNESCO         Mr Nilse Ryman
Tel: +33 1 45 68 34 50                           Political Assistant
Fax: +33 1 47 94 10 03
Email:            3. Multilateral Agencies
United Kingdom                                   FAO
Mr Desmond Bermingham                            Ms Lavinia Gasperini
Head of Education Profession                     Senior Education Officer
Department for International Development,        FAO/SDRE, C 6-10
DFID 1, Palace Street, London SW1E 5NE, United   Via Delle Terme Di Caracalla, 00100 Roma, Italy,
Kingdom                                          Tel: +39 06 57 60 44
Tel: +44 20 7023 17 49                           Fax: +39 06 57 05 31/52
Email:                  Email:
Accompanied by:                                  Accompanied by
Mr Yusuf Sayed                                   Mr Andrea Valentini
Team Leader Education and Skills Team            FAO/SDRE, C 6-22
DFID                                             Via Delle Terme Di Caracalla, 00100 Roma, Italy,
Tel: +44 20 7023 0190                            Tel: +39 06 570 53615
Fax: +44 20 7023 04 28                           Fax: +39 06 570 531/52
e-mail:                      Email:
Mr Richard Arden                                 ILO/IPEC
Senior Education Advisor                         Ms Ayse Sule Caglar
DFID                                             Programme Officer
Tel: +44 20 7023 0692; Fax: +44 20 7023 0428     4 route des Morillons
E-mail:                      1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland
                                                 Tel. +41 22 799 8746
United States of America                         Fax. +41 22 799 8771
Mr John Grayzel                                  Email:
Director, Office of Education, EGAT Bureau
USAID 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Rm 3-9-       Accompanied by:
37 Washington DC 20523                           Mr Geir Myrstad
Tel: +1 202 712 0732                             Head of Programme Support

4 route des Morillons                              UNICEF Middle East and North Africa Regional
1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland                        Office (MENARO)
Tel: +41 227 998 094
Fax: +41 227 998 771                               Ms Dina Craissatti
Email:                             Senior Education Advisor
                                                   UNICEF New York
OECD/DAC                                           Tel: +1 212 326 7602
Mr Richard Manning,                                Email:
Development Assistance Committee,                  Ms. Staneala Beckley
(OECD/DAC)                                         Regional Education Advisor
2, rue Andre Pascal F-75775                        UNICEF West & Central Africa Regional Office
Paris Cedex 16, France                             (WCARO)
                                                   Immeuble Maïmouna 2, Ngor, Dakar – Sénégal
OECD                                               Tel: +1 221 869 5841
Mr Bernard Hugonnier                               Fax: +1 221 869 2970
Deputy Director of the Directorate for Education   E-mail :
2, rue Andre Pascal F-75775 Paris Cedex 16,
France                                             Mr Vigdis Cristofoli
Tel: +33 1 45 24 18 20                             UNGEI Focal Point
Fax: +33 1 44 30 61 71                             UNICEF WCARO
                                                   Ms. Susan Durston
Dr Abrar Hasan                                     Regional Advisor
Head, Education and Training Policy Division       UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia (ROSA)
Directorate for Education                          Leknath Marg, Kathmandu, Nepal
OECD                                               Tel: +977 1 44 71 082
Tel: +33 1 45 24 92 21                             E-mail:
Fax: +33 1 44 30 62 20
E-mail :                  Ms Aster Haregot
                                                   UNICEF Focal Point
UNFPA                                              UNICEF, East & Southern Africa Regional Office
Dr Arletty Pinel                                   (ESARO)
Chief of the Reproductive, Health Branch,
Technical Support Division                         Ms Sabah Knani
UNFPA HQs                                          UNGEI Senior Advisor
220 East 42 Street, New York, NY 10017, U.S.A.     UNICEF HQs, New York
Tel: +1 212 297 5204
Fax: +1 212 297 4915                               Ms Chiharu Kondo
E-mail:                            UNGEI Focal Point, Senior Programme Officer
                                                   UNICEF East Asia & the Pacific, Regional Office
UNICEF                                             (EAPRO)
Mr Cream Wright                                    19 Phra Atit Road Bangkok, 10200
Chief, Education Section                           Thailand
3, United nations Plaza, NY 10017, USA             Tel: +66 2 356 9418
Tel: +1 212 824 6619                               Fax: +66 2 280 3563
Fax: +1 212 326 7129                               E-mail:
Accompanied by:                                    Ms Ute Meir
Ms Ellen van Kalmthout                             Senior Programme Advisor
Programme Officer                                  World Food Program
UNICEF HQs, New York                               Via C.G. Viola, 68-70,
                                                   Parco dei Medici, 00148
Mr Cliff Meyers                                    Rome, Italy
Regional Education Advisor                         Phone: +39 06 65 13 28 75
UNICEF (EAPRO)                                     Fax: +39 06 65 13 28 54
Mr Malak Zaalouk
Regional Education Advisor

World Bank                                         Email:
Ms Ruth Kagia
Director, Education Sector                         African Development Bank (AfDB)
The World Bank, 1818 H Str., N.W.,                 Dr Boukary Savadogo
Washington D.C. 20433, U.S.A.                      Chief Education Specialist
Tel: +1 202 473 3314                               ADB – North, East & South Region
Fax: +1 202 522 3233                               B.P. 323 – 1002 Tunis Belvedere, Tunisie
Email:                        Tel: +216 71 103 163
                                                   Fax: +216 71 33 2575
Accompanied by:                                    Email:
Ms Mercy Tembon
Senior Education Specialist                        European Commission
Tel: +1 202 473 5524                               Ms Marja Karjalainen
Email:                       Senior Administrator
                                                   Unit for Social and Human Development
Mr Soe Lin                                         European Commission
Advisor, Operations Policy and Country Services,   DG Development, B-12, office 5/87
Harmonization Unit                                 1049 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: +1 202 458 8101                               Tel. +32 22 996 380
Email:                          E-mail:

Ms Rosemary Bellew                                 African Union
Lead Education Specialist,                         Ms Botlhale Tema
Head of FTI Secretariat                            Africa Union
Tel: +1 202 473 4836                               Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Email:                       Tel: +251 1 517 523

4. Regional Organisations                          5. Civil Society: NGOs,
                                                   Foundations, Private sector and
Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural       Others
Organization (ISESCO)
Dr Seydou Cissé                                    Africa Network Campaign for EFA
Spécialiste de Programmes à la Direction de        (ANCEFA)
l‟Education ISESCO                                 Mr Gorgui Sow
Avenue Attine, Hay Riad                            Regional Coordinator
B.P. 2275, CP 10104 Rabat, Maroc                   African Network Campaign on Education for All
Tel. +212 37 77 2433 / 71 52 90                    (ANCEFA)
Fax + 212 37 77 7459 / 77 20 58                    BP 3007 Dakar Yoff, Senegal
Email: or                        Tel: +221 824 22 44                            Fax: +221 824 13 63
                                                   Mobile: +221 684 20 42
Organisation arabe pour l’Education, la            Email: or or
Culture et les Sciences (ALECSO)         
Ms Saïda Charfeddine                               Website:
Permanent Observer at UNESCO
UNESCO House                                       Accompanied by:
1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris - Bur (MS1 45)          Mr Obondoh Andiwo
Tel: +33 1 45 68 27 20                             ANCEFA Capacity Building Coordinator for East
Fax: +33 1 40 56 92 72                             and Southern Africa
Email:                     P.O. Box 6609 00800 Nertlands, Nairobi, Kenya
                                                   Tel: +254 020 4450169
Association for the Development of                 Fax: +254 020 4450170
Education in Africa (ADEA)                         E-mail:
Mr Mamadou Ndoye
Executive Secretary                                Asian South-Pacific Bureau of Adult
7-9 rue Eugène-Delacroix                           Education (ASPBAE)
75116 Paris, France                                Ms Maria Lourdes Almazan-Khan
Tel: +33 1 45 03 77 57                             Secretary General
Fax: +33 1 45 03 39 65

Asian / South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education   PO Box 21394, 00505 Ngong Road, Nairobi,
(ASPBAE)                                          Kenya
ASPBAE Secretariat c/o MAAPL                      Tel: +254 20 573131/ 573351/ 573359
9th Floor, Eucharistic Congress Building No. 3    Fax: +254 20 574150
5, Convenent Street, Colaba                       Email: or
Mumbai 400 039, India
Tel: +91 22 2287 1597                             Global Campaign for Education
Fax: +91 22 2283 2217                             Mr David Archer
Email:                            Global Campaign for Education
Website:                    P.O.Box 18 Kalk Bay, South Africa
                                                  Tel: +27 21 788 67 83
Arab Network for Illiteracy & Adult               Fax: +27 21 788 5901
Education                                         Email:
Ms Seham Negm
Secretary-General                                 Office International de l’Enseignement
Arab Network for Illiteracy and Adult Education   Catholique (OIEC)
90 D Ahmad Orabi Str., Giza                       Ms Janine Ndiaye
Egypt                                             Representative to UNESCO
Tel: +20 12 78 67 62                              Office International de l‟Enseignement Catholique
Fax: +20 27 31 10 07 / 32 68 482                  (OIEC)
Mobile: +20 20 12 78 67 621                       62, rue de Damrémy, 75013 Paris – France
Email:            Tel: + 33 1 45 82 62 52
Consejo de Educación de Adultos de
América Latina (CEAAL)                            Academy for Educational Development
Mr Francisco Cabrera                              (AED)
Coordinador regional                              Mr Stephen F. Moseley
Consejo de Educación de Adultos de América        President and Chief Executive Officer
Latina (CEAAL)                                    Academy for Educational Development (AED)
c/o Proyecto de Desarrollo Santiago (PRODESSA)    AED, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington
Km. 15 Calzada Roosevelt, Zona 7, Mixco           DC 20009-5721
Apartado Postal 13 "B"                            Tel: +1 202 884-8400 / 884 8102
Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala                    Fax: +1 202 884 8430
Tel: +502 243 54 795 / 243 21 842                 Email:
Fax: +502 24353913
Email: or                Canadian Global Campaign for Education                    Alliance
Website:                            Ms Karen Mundy
                                                  Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in
Education International                           Global Governance and Comparative Education,
Ms Monique Fouilhoux                              Ontario Institute for Studies in Education,
Coordinator, Education and Employment Unit        Univerity of Toronto,
Education International                           252 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario,
5, Bd du Roi Albert II, 1210 Brussels, Belgium    CANADA M5S 1V6
Tel: +32 2224 06 11                               Email:
Fax: +32 2224 06 06
Email:                Basic Education Coalition
                                                  Ms Carolyn Bartholomew
Accompanied by:                                   Executive Director
Mr Wouter Van der Shcaaf                          Basic Education Coalition
Coordinator, Education International              1825 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 600,
E-mail:             Washington, DC 20009, U.S.A.
                                                  Tel: +1 202 884 8530
Forum for African Women Educationalists           Fax: +1 202 884 8765
(FAWE)                                            Email:
Ms Marema Dioum
Programme Officer                                 World Economic Forum (WEF)
Forum for African Women Educationalists           Mr Satyadeep Rajan
(FAWE)                                            Senior Project Manager,
                                                  Global Education Initiative

World Economic Forum (WEF), 91-93 route de la      Email: or
CH-1223 Cologny/Geneva, Switzerland                Website:
Tel: +41 22 8691201
Fax: +41 22 786 2744                               Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de
Email: or              Colombia                                    Ms Rosario Salazar de Camacho
                                                   Co-ordinator for Rural Education
University of Hong Kong                            Coordinadora Acciones Educativas
Mr Mark Bray                                       Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia,
President, World Council of Comparative            Oficina Central
Education Societies (WCCES)                        Calle 73 No. 8 –13, Piso 10, Torre B, Bogotá D.C.,
Faculty of Education,                              Colombia
The University of Hong Kong                        Tel: +91 3 13 66 56 / +91 3 13 66 00 ext 656
Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China                    Fax: +91 2 17 10 21 / +91 2 35 15 18
Tel: +852 2859 2414                                Email:
Fax: +852 2517 0075
Email:                                6. Observers
Nelson Mandela Foundation                          Save the Children, UK
Mr. Mmeli Macanda                                  Ms Janice Dolan
Senior Development Coordinator                     Education Advisor
Unit for Rural Schooling and Development           Save the Children UK
Nelson Mandela Foundation                          1 St. John‟s Lane, Farrington, London EC1M 4AR,
16 Vanda Crescent, Clubview King William‟s         United Kingdom
Town, South Africa                                 Tel: +44 20 7012 6785
Tel: +27 43 704 7231                               Fax: +44 20 7012 6963
Fax: +27 43 704 7240                               Email:
Email: or or or     ADEA Working Group on Non Formal                           Education
                                                   Ms Amina Osman
Nari Maitree                                       Coordinator
Ms Shaheen Akter Chowdhury                         Working Group on Non Formal Education
Executive Director Nari Maitree                    (WGNFE) of the Association for the Development
393/B, Malibag Chowdhurypara, Khilgaon, Dhaka-     of Education in Africa (ADEA)
1219, Bangladesh                                   C/o Commonwealth Secretariat
Fax: +8802 721 74 86                               Marlborough House, Pall Mall,
Email:                              London SW1Y 5HX, United Kingdom
                                                   Tel: +44 207 747 6553
Center for Universal Education at the              Email: or
Council On Foreign Relations             
Mr Gene Sperling
Director, Center for Universal Education           Functional Illiteracy Research and
1779 Massachussetts Avenue N.W.                    Education Inc.
Washington DC 20036, United States of America      Ms Fenna Bacchus
Tel: +1 202 518 3401                               President CEO
Fax: +1 202 986 2984                               544 Walnut Street, Altamonte Springs,
Email:                           FL 32714, U.S.A.
                                                   Tel: +407 774 6542 or +407 484 0292
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)                  Fax: +407 774 6542
Mr Tom Vandenbosch                                 E-mail:
Coordinator Farmers of the Future, World
Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)                        University of Georgetown
United Nations Avenue, Gigiri                      Dr Phyllis Magrab
PO Box 30677-00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya             Director
Tel: + 254 20 722 4000 / +254 20 722 4228 or via   Global Education Consortium of U.S. Colleges and
USA +1 650 833 6645                                Universities
Fax: +254 20 722 4023 or via USA +1 650 833        Georgetown University Box 571485
6646                                               Washington DC 20057-1485, U.S.A.

Tel: +1 202 687 8837                               Mr Georges Haddad
Fax: +1 202 687 8899                               DIR/ED/HED
                                                   Ms Mary Joy Pigozzi
UNLD Resource Persons                              DIR/ED/PEQ
Mr R Govinda
National Institute of Educational Planning and     Mr Wataru Iwamoto
Administration                                     DIR/ED/STV
17-b Sri Aurobinbo Marg,
New Delhi 110016, India                            Mr Abhimanyu Singh
Email:                          DIR/ED/EFA

Carleton University, School of Canadian            Mr Nicholas Burnett
Studies                                            DIR/GMR
Mr James E Page
Adjunct Research Professor                         Regional Bureaux & Field Offices
Carleton University, School of Canadian Studies    UNESCO Bangkok
468 Picadilly Avenue, Ottawa,                      Mr Sheldon Shaeffer
Ontario K1Y OH6, Canada                            Director of Office
Tel: +1 613 722 87 44                              Box 967, Prakanong P.O. Bangkok, Thailand
Email:                         Tel: +66 2 391 8474
                                                   Fax: +66 2 391 0866
Barbara Bush Foundation for Family                 E-mail:
Ms Benita Somerfield                               UNESCO Dakar
Executive Director                                 Mrs Lalla Aicha Ben Barka
1201 15th Street, NW Suite 420, Washington DC      Director of Office
20005, USA                                         12 Ave. L.S Senghor, Dakar - Senegal
Tel: +1 917 860 2480                               Tel: +221 8492328
Fax: +1 212 288 9636                               Email:
                                                   Mr. Luc Rukingawa
Ministry of Education, Bahrain                     Spécialiste principal DHE, Chef de l‟Unité DHE,
Mr Abdelwahid Abdalla Yousif                       Dakar
Educational Advisor to the Minister of Education   UNESCO Breda
Ministry of Education, Bahrain                     Tel: +221 849 23 23
PO Box 43 Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain               E-mail:
Tel: +973 17 68 72 87
Fax: +973 17 68 01 61                              Mr Teeluk Bhuwanee
Email:                 Programme Specialist
                                                   UNESCO Breda
                                                   Mr. Paul Coustère
Mr Koïchiro Matsuura                               Coordonnateur Pôle de Dakar
Director-General                                   Immeuble Horizon – Dakar, SENEGAL
                                                   Tel: +221 849 01 31
Mr Peter Smith                                     Fax: +221 849 01 34
ADG/ED                                             E-mail:

                                                   UNESCO Santiago
ED Directors                                       Ms Ana Luiza Machado
Mr Qian Tang                                       Director
DADG/ED                                            Regional Bureau of Education
                                                   Enrique Delpiano, 2058, Santiago de Chile
Ms Ann Therese Ndong Jatta                         Tel: +562 47 24 616
DIR/ED/BAS                                         Fax: +562 65 51 047
Mr Mir Asghar Husain

UNESCO Beirut                                 Education Sector
Mr Ramzi Salame                               Ms Abby Riddell
Director of Office a.i.                       Senior Programme Specialist
Bir Hassan, Cité sportive Avenue, Beirut -    ED/EPS/NED
Lebanon                                       Tel: +33 1 45 68 13 40
Ms Nour Dajani Shehabi
Programme Specialist / Lit                    Ms Leslie Limage
EFA Regional Focal Point                      Programme Specialist
Cité Sportive, Beirut – Lebanon               ED/BAS
Tel: +96 11 85 00 13                          Tel: +33 1 45 68 09 52
Fax: +96 11 82 48 54                          E-mail:
E-mail :
                                              UNESCO Other Sectors
UNESCO Brasilia                               ODG
Mr. Marcelo Souto                             Mr Mark Richmond
Assistant to Director of Office               Senior Executive Officer
UNESCO Office in Brasilia                     ODG/RED
Tel: +55 61 2106 3513
E-mail:              BSP
                                              Mr Jean-Yves Le Saux
UNESCO Institutes                             Senior Programme Planning Officer
IBE                                           E-mail:
Mr Massimo Amadio
Programme Specialist                          BSP
15, rue des Morillons, Geneva                 Mr Ferran Lloveras
Switzerland                                   Associate Expert
Tel: +41 22 917 78 19                         BSP/PMR
Fax: +41 22 917 78 01
Email:                8. Rapporteurs
Mr Gudmund Hernes                             Ms Linda King, ED/PEQ/PHR, Chief Rapporteur
DIR IIEP                                      assisted by:
                                              Ms Elizabeth Fordham, Consultant
UNESCO-CEPES                                  Ms Margarete Sachs-Israel, ED/BAS/LIT
Mr. Jan Sadlak                                Ms Faryal Khan, ED/BAS
Director,                                     Ms Lily Neyestani, ED/EPS/NED
UNESCO-European Centre for Higher Education   Ms Abby Riddell, ED/EPS/NED
39 Stirbei Voda, Bucharest, Romania           Ms Astrid Gillet, ED/EO/CTP
E-mail:                   Ms Mami Umayahara, ED/EO/CTP

Mr Rupert Maclean                             9. Permanent Delegations to UNESCO
                                              Permanent Delegation of Benin to Unesco
UIE                                           Ms Françoise Medegan
Mr Adama Ouane                                Premier conseiller
DIR UIE                                       UNESCO House 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris
                                              Tel: +33 1 45 68 30 85
UIS                                           Fax: +33 1 43 06 15 55
Ms Alison Kennedy                             E-mail:
Senior Programme Coordinator
E-mail:              Permanent Delegation of Canada to UNESCO
                                              Ms Florence Bernard
Mr Saïd Belkachla                             Chargée de Programme
Programme Specialist EFA/MDG                  UNESCO House 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris
Tel: +1 514 343 7692                          Tel: +33 1 45 68 35 13
Fax: +1 514 343 6872                          E-mail:
E-mail:            Mr Claude Baillargeon

Conseiller spécial                                Mr Toujan Bermamet
Mission du Canada                                 E-mail:
114 ave. Mozart 75016 Paris – France
Tel & Fax: +33 1 45 24 66 98                      Permanent Delegation of Kuwait to UNESCO
E-mail :   Dr Alshatti Muhammad
                                                  UNESCO House 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris
Permanent delegation of Cameroon to UNESCO        E-mail:
Mr Charles Assamba Ongodo
UNESCO House 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris           Permanent Delegation of Morocco to UNESCO
Tel: +33 6 24 08 89 44                            Ms Souad El Idrissi
Fax: +33 1 45 68 30 34                            Conseiller
E-mail :                     1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris
                                                  Tel: +33 1 45 68 31 33
Permanent Delegation of Congo to UNESCO           E-mail:
Mr. François Nguie
Premier conseiller                                Permanent Delegation of Portugal to UNESCO
Maison de l‟UNESCO 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris     Ms Teresa Salado
Tel: +33 1 45 68 32 61                            Attachée
Fax: +33 1 47 83 38 22                            UNESCO House 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris
E-mail :                      Tel: +33 1 45 68 30 55
Permanent Delegation of Egypt to UNESCO
Ms Halima El Sayed                                Permanent Delegation of Togo to UNESCO Mr Mr
Attaché                                           Kokou Kpayedo
Maison de l‟UNESCO 1, rue Miollis 75015 Paris     Premier conseiller
Tel: +33 1 45 68 33 09 / 05                       8 rue Alfred Roll 75017 Paris
                                                  Tel: +33 1 43 80 12 13
Delegation of European Commission at              Fax: +33 1 43 80 06 05
OECD/UNESCO                                       E-mail:
Mr Franco Conzato
Counsellor                                        Permanent Delegation of the United Kingdom to
12, ave. d‟Eylan 75016 Paris                      UNESCO
E-mail:                 H. E. Mr. Timothy Craddock
Permanent Delegation of Iceland to UNESCO         1, rue Miollis, 75015 Paris
Mr. Bjarni Bjornsson                              Tel: +33 1 45 68 27 84
8, ave. Kléber 75116 Paris - France

Permanent Delegation of the Islamic Republic of
Iran to UNESCO
Mr. Mohammad Reza Kashani
Education Expert
UNESCO House, 1 rue Miollis 75015 Paris
Tel: +33 1 45 68 30 91
Fax: +33 1 45 68 32 99

Permanent Delegation of Hungary to UNESCO
Mr Gabor Soos
Second Secretary
UNESCO House 1, rue Miollis Paris, France
Tel: +33 1 45 68 29 84

Deputy Permanent Delegation of Jordan to

                          IX.    Abbreviations

    AIDS     Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
   ADEA      Association for the Development of Education for All
 ASPBAE      Asia South-Pacific Bureau of Adult Education
 CCNGO       Collective Consultation of Non-Governmental Organizations
    DAC      Development Assistance Committee
   DESD      Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
    DFID     Department for International Development (UK)
   FNCC      Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia (Colombia)
      E-9    Nine high population countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt,
             India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan
    EFA      Education for All
    ERP      Education for Rural People
    FAO      Food and Agricultural Organization
  FRESH      Focusing Resources on Effective School Health
     FTI     Fast Track Initiative
      G8     Group of eight of the world‟s leading industrialized nations: Canada,
             France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom,
             United States
     GMR     Global Monitoring Report
      HIV    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
     HLG     High Level Group
   ICRAF     International Centre for Research in Agroforestry
      IIEP   International Institute for Educational Planning
      ILO    International Labour Organization
INRULED      International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education (China)
    LAMP     Literacy Assessment and Monitory Programme
     LIFE    Literacy Initiative for Empowerment
     MDG     Millennium Development Goal
     NGO     Non-Governmental Organization
     NLM     National Literacy Mission (India)
     ODA     Official Development Assistance
    OECD     Organization for Economic Cooperation and Decelopment
     PPPs    Public Private Partnerships
 UNESCO      United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  UNFPA      United Nations Population Fund
  UNICEF     United Nations Children‟s Fund
   UNGEI     United Nations Girls‟ Education Initiative
    UNLD     United Nations Literacy Decade
     UPC     Universal Primary Completion
   USAID     United States Agency for International Development
     WFP     World Food Programme

The sixth meeting of the EFA Working Group was held at UNESCO in Paris on 19-21 July
2005. It brought together the major stakeholders in Education for All: governments, bilateral
and multilateral agencies, civil society and the private sector.

The EFA Working Group serves as a mechanism to provide technical guidance to the EFA
movement. It also provides a forum for the discussion of EFA experiences at the country,
regional and international levels with the aim of defining priorities and strategies for
collective action.

The Working Group took place this year at a unique moment of opportunity and challenge for
educational development. A third of the way through the 15-year target period, 2005 is an
important time both for assessing the progress that has been made since the World Education
Forum held in Dakar, Senegal in 2000, and for stepping up efforts towards achieving the EFA
goals by 2015. This year also sees a number of important international events – the
Gleneagles G8 Summit, the 2005 World Summit, the Ministerial Round Table at the
UNESCO General Conference and High-Level Group meeting on EFA. These events will
have a significant impact on development and also give a high profile to educational

Within this context, the Working Group‟s participants drew on their collective experience and
expertise to address the following specific issues for EFA:

► Adult literacy
► Education for rural people
► Resource mobilization
► Aid effectiveness
► Coordination between EFA partners

The debates of the meeting were rich and positive and served to strengthen the spirit of
mutual understanding and partnership between EFA stakeholders. UNESCO‟s role as the
lead coordinator of EFA was firmly endorsed, and participants appealed to UNESCO to
continue its work in collaboration with its partners in promoting the goals of Education for All
– as the Commission for Africa stated, „one of the most exciting pledges that the international
community has ever made‟.