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AHON Section Lecture Notes

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					Chapter   21 Section 2



            Objectives

            • Find out how the United States quickly prepared
              for entry into World War I.

            • Learn what measures the government took to
              control the wartime economy.

            • Discover how the need to build support for the
              war sometimes clashed with civil liberties.




                          Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            Terms and People

            • mobilize– to prepare for war
            • Jeannette Rankin– Representative of Montana
              and the first woman elected to Congress
            • illiterate– unable to read and write
            • Herbert Hoover– head of the Food
              Administration during World War I
            • Eugene V. Debs– labor leader jailed for
              criticizing the war effort




                          Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



                  What steps did the United States
                  government take to prepare the
                  nation for war?


                  In 1917, the United States had to mobilize for
                  war. It faced enormous challenges.




                    Increasing             Managing        Shaping
                  the size of its          agriculture   public opinion
                       army               and industry    of the war

                             Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            The U.S. took several steps to increase the size of
            its army, only the 16th largest in the world.


                                         U.S. Army


               Selective                   Women         Diversity
                Service
                                        More than          Native
             All men ages                30,000          Americans
             21-30 had to                women           and African
              register for             volunteered       Americans
               the draft.              for service.        served.


                             Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            Women were not drafted, but they served
            the U.S. military in other ways.


              Many served in the                        Others
                U.S. Army and                         performed
               U.S. Navy Nurse                         clerical
                    Corps.                              work.




            They were the first women to hold U.S. military
            rank.

                          Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            Leading women were divided over the war.



                Against the War                           For the War

            The Women’s Peace                         Suffragists such as
            Party spoke out for                       Carrie Chapman Catt
            peace.                                    hoped that women’s
                                                      wartime service
            Jeannette Rankin                          would win them the
            voted against                             vote.
            Wilson’s war
            resolution.


                          Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            The military reflected the increasingly diverse
            makeup of the United States.



                          Mexican           African       Children of
                         Americans         Americans      Immigrants
                           Native           Italian         Filipino
                         Americans         Americans       Americans




            Native Americans were not citizens, but many
            volunteered for service.


                              Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            380,000 African Americans served during the
            war.


            But African American soldiers
            still faced discrimination.




             They were           Most were
              placed in          confined to
              all-black          noncombat
                units.             duties.

                          Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            The military served as an educator for many
            American men.


               One in four                            Recruits learned how
               draftees were                          to fight and how to
               illiterate.                            read.



               Some were not
                                                      The military taught
               used to daily
                                                      them about nutrition
               meals, baths, or
                                                      and hygiene.
               indoor plumbing.


                          Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



   The U.S. also had to reshape its economy.
   Agriculture and industry mobilized for war.

   Herbert Hoover headed the new Food Administration.



                                                     He provided food
                                                     supplies for civilians
                                                     and troops.

                                                     He urged Americans
                                                     to conserve food and
                                                     plant “victory
                                                     gardens.”

                         Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            The war greatly increased demands on
            American industries.

             The government had                         Businesses needed
             to fill huge orders for                     workers to fill the
                   the military.                       spots left by soldiers.




              President Wilson set                      Women and African
             up the War Industries                     Americans took jobs
             Board to oversee war                      that were previously
                  production.                             denied them.


                           Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2




            Americans were
            able to increase
            production and
            meet the new
            demands of the
            wartime
            economy.




                          Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            The government worked to raise support for
            the war.


                    pro-war posters


                patriotic speeches in
                    public places


             appeals by movie stars
              to buy Liberty Bonds
              and Savings Stamps

                             Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



   The government also took stern measures to
   suppress criticism of the war.




   The Espionage                People such as       The American
   Act (1917) and               labor leader         Protective
   the Sedition Act             Eugene Debs          League opened
   (1918) made it               were jailed for      people’s mail,
   illegal to                   speaking out         tapped phones,
   criticize the                against the war      and pried into
   government.                  effort.              medical records.


                         Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            Many German Americans suffered as America
            became gripped by anti-German hysteria.



                 • German Americans were harassed and
                   assaulted.
                 • Some schools stopped teaching German.
                 • People started referring to sauerkraut as
                   “liberty cabbage” and German measles as
                   “liberty measles.”




                            Supporting the War Effort
Chapter   21 Section 2



            Section Review



                QuickTake Quiz                         Know It, Show It Quiz




                           Supporting the War Effort

				
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